QuickSearch:   Number of matching entries: 0.

Search Settings

    AuthorTitleYearJournal/ProceedingsReftypeDOI/URL
    vanDellen, M.R. & Hoyle, R.H. Possible selves as behavioral standards in self-regulation {2008} SELF AND IDENTITY
    Vol. {7}({3}), pp. {295-304} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We investigated a potential mechanism by which possible selves affect behavior by considering them in the context of control-process models of self-regulation. After a hoped-for or feared self in the health domain was made salient, participants were provided with opportunities to behave in ways that would address any unwanted discrepancy between the salient possible self and the current self. In order to ensure that behavior was in the service of self-regulation, we compromised the self-regulatory capacity of some participants and, after the opportunity to behaviorally regulate, assessed negative affect. We expected evidence of behavioral self-regulation only for participants with adequate self-regulatory capacity and heightened negative affect in participants who did not behaviorally self-regulate. The results generally supported our hypotheses when a feared self in the health domain was made salient. We attribute the failure to find effects for a salient hoped-for self to the general lack of discrepancy between hoped-for and current selves in the health domain for university students. These findings extend past research on the role of possible selves in self-regulation by conceptualizing possible selves as a component in control-process models of behavioral self-regulation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{2008,
      author = {vanDellen, Michelle R. and Hoyle, Rick H.},
      title = {Possible selves as behavioral standards in self-regulation},
      journal = {SELF AND IDENTITY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {295-304},
      doi = {{10.1080/15298860701641108}}
    }
    
    Ackerman, J.M., Goldstein, N.J., Shapiro, J.R. & Bargh, J.A. You Wear Me Out: The Vicarious Depletion of Self-Control {2009} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {20}({3}), pp. {326-332} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Acts of self-control may deplete an individual's self-regulatory resources. But what are the consequences of perceiving other people's use of self-control? Mentally simulating the actions of others has been found to elicit psychological effects consistent with the actual performance of those actions. Here, we consider how simulating versus merely perceiving the use of willpower can affect self-control abilities. In Study 1, participants who simulated the perspective of a person exercising self-control exhibited less restraint over spending on consumer products than did other participants. In Study 2, participants who took the perspective of a person using self-control exerted less willpower on an unrelated lexical generation task than did participants who took the perspective of a person who did not use self-control. Conversely, participants who merely read about another person's self-control exerted more willpower than did those who read about actions not requiring self-control. These findings suggest that the actions of other people may either deplete or boost one's own self-control, depending on whether one mentally simulates those actions or merely perceives them.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ackerman2009,
      author = {Ackerman, Joshua M. and Goldstein, Noah J. and Shapiro, Jenessa R. and Bargh, John A.},
      title = {You Wear Me Out: The Vicarious Depletion of Self-Control},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {20},
      number = {3},
      pages = {326-332},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02290.x}}
    }
    
    Alberts, H.J.E.M., Martijn, C., Greb, J., Merckelbach, H. & de Vries, N.K. Carrying on or giving in: The role of automatic processes in overcoming ego depletion {2007} BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {46}({Part 2}), pp. {383-399} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Research has shown that repeated exercise of self-control leads to impaired performance on subsequent self-control tasks, a phenomenon labelled ego depletion. The current research investigates the influence of automatic processes on self-control performance. Study I shows that activation of persistence leads to stable self-control performance and may help to overcome effects of ego depletion. Initially depleted participants kept their physical self-control performances constant when primed with persistence. If such a prime was absent, self-control performance of depleted participants decreased indicating ego depletion. Using a different manipulation, these findings were replicated in Study 2.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alberts2007,
      author = {Alberts, Hugo J. E. M. and Martijn, Carolien and Greb, Judith and Merckelbach, Harald and de Vries, Nanne K.},
      title = {Carrying on or giving in: The role of automatic processes in overcoming ego depletion},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {46},
      number = {Part 2},
      pages = {383-399},
      doi = {{10.1348/014466606X130111}}
    }
    
    Alberts, H.J.E.M., Martijn, C., Nievelstein, F., Jansen, A. & De Vries, N.K. Distracting the self: Shifting attention prevents ego depletion {2008} SELF AND IDENTITY
    Vol. {7}({3}), pp. {322-334} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The present research tested predictions of the strength model of self-control and delay of gratification by examining the affects of initial self-control attempts and also attention on performance. Participants completed a series of two identical physical self-control tasks, namely holding lip a weight, under varying conditions. The results showed that performance decrements can be overcome by attentional strategies. When participants distracted themselves by performing a calculation task during the second self-control measurement, they (lid not show a decline in performance. In contrast, participants who did not distract themselves and those who instead focused oil their muscles while holding up the weight, performed significantly worse on the second measurement. Interestingly, the distraction task reduced regulatory performance when it was performed before the second measurement.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alberts2008,
      author = {Alberts, Hugo J. E. M. and Martijn, Carolien and Nievelstein, Fleurie and Jansen, Anita and De Vries, Nanne K.},
      title = {Distracting the self: Shifting attention prevents ego depletion},
      journal = {SELF AND IDENTITY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {322-334},
      doi = {{10.1080/15298860801987583}}
    }
    
    Baden, D., Warwick-Evans, L. & Lakomy, J. AmI nearly there? The effect of anticipated running distance on perceived exertion and attentional focus {2004} JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {26}({2}), pp. {215-231} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two studies tested the hypothesis that teleoanticipatory mechanisms regulate the perception of exertion (RPE) in the context of expected exercise duration by the adjustment of attentional focus. Study 1 involved 22 runners who participated in a short (8-mile) run and a long (10-mile) run on separate days. Pace did not differ between conditions (M = 6.3 mph). Runners reported on their attentional focus (proportion of associative to dissociative thoughts) and RPE at regular intervals. Study 2 involved 40 participants who ran twice on a treadmill at the same speed and gradient: once when they expected to run for 10 min (short condition) and once when they expected to run for 20 min (long condition). In both studies, RPE was lower throughout the long condition. In Study I there were more dissociative thoughts in the long condition. Study 2 showed the same trend, although the results were nonsignificant. In both studies RPE was inversely correlated with dissociative thoughts, supporting the hypothesis that runners pace themselves cognitively by manipulating their attentional focus.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baden2004,
      author = {Baden, DA and Warwick-Evans, L and Lakomy, J},
      title = {AmI nearly there? The effect of anticipated running distance on perceived exertion and attentional focus},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {26},
      number = {2},
      pages = {215-231}
    }
    
    Bair, A.N. & Steele, J.R. Examining the consequences of exposure to racism for the executive functioning of Black students {2010} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {46}({1}), pp. {127-132} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Recent research has demonstrated that interracial interactions, reminders of stigmatized identities, and exposure to ambiguous racism can deplete the self-control resources of minority group members In the. current study we examined whether hearing blatant racism expressed in an interracial context would deplete the self-control of Black participants and whether this depletion would be moderated by participants' level of racial centrality. After listening to a Black or a White confederate express either support for racial profiling (racist condition) or increased campus parking fees (neutral condition), Black participants completed a Stroop color-naming task to assess self-control depletion. Participants experienced self-control depletion following interracial encounters, regardless of whether the views expressed were racist. As expected, however, racial centrality moderated the depletion effect when racism was involved, with participants higher in centrality showing greater depletion following an encounter with racism from a White partner. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bair2010,
      author = {Bair, Allison N. and Steele, Jennifer R.},
      title = {Examining the consequences of exposure to racism for the executive functioning of Black students},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {46},
      number = {1},
      pages = {127-132},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jesp.2009.08.016}}
    }
    
    Balliet, D. & Joireman, J. Ego depletion reduces proselfs' concern with the well-being of others {2010} GROUP PROCESSES & INTERGROUP RELATIONS
    Vol. {13}({2, Sp. Iss. SI}), pp. {227-239} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Previous research suggests that people predisposed toward a more cooperative orientation are stronger at self-control and, accordingly, are better able to ward off the adverse impact of ego depletion on self-regulation (Seeley & Gardner, 2003). Building on this research, we tested the hypothesis that ego depletion would lead to a reduction in concern with the well-being of others among proselfs, but not among prosocials. Study 1 supported the basic proposition that prosocials are higher than proselfs in trait self-control. In Study 2, participants originally classified as prosocials versus proselfs based on mathematical games engaged in an ego depletion task or a control task and later completed a similar measure of prosocial versus proself values. Supporting the primary hypothesis, ego depletion reduced proselfs concern with the well-being of others at time 2, but had no impact among prosocials. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Balliet2010,
      author = {Balliet, Daniel and Joireman, Jeff},
      title = {Ego depletion reduces proselfs' concern with the well-being of others},
      journal = {GROUP PROCESSES & INTERGROUP RELATIONS},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {13},
      number = {2, Sp. Iss. SI},
      pages = {227-239},
      doi = {{10.1177/1368430209353634}}
    }
    
    Barber, L.K., Munz, D.C., Bagsby, P.G. & Powell, E.D. Sleep Consistency and Sufficiency: Are Both Necessary for Less Psychological Strain? {2010} STRESS AND HEALTH
    Vol. {26}({3}), pp. {186-193} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Using the integrated self-regulatory strength approach to the benefits of sleep over time, we proposed that early-week sleep sufficiency (average sleep duration) and early-week sleep consistency (variation in sleep duration) interact to predict the greatest buffer against late-week psychological strain. Results supported the hypothesized interaction, even when controlling for factors relating to circadian rhythm disruptions and sleep quality. Specifically, the benefits of sufficient sleep are best obtained through consistent sleep resource replenishment, and consistent sleep practices require a sufficient amount of sleep to mitigate the experience of strain. This study provided preliminary evidence that sleep as a technique for resource replenishment alone may not be enough to reduce psychological strain. Continued exploration of the potential resource-enhancement aspect of consistent sleep may be a fruitful avenue of stress management research. Much like other routine activities that have shown to increase self-regulatory strength, consistent sleep may serve as an effective strain intervention, thereby preventing negative acute and chronic health effects. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barber2010,
      author = {Barber, Larissa K. and Munz, David C. and Bagsby, Patricia G. and Powell, Eric D.},
      title = {Sleep Consistency and Sufficiency: Are Both Necessary for Less Psychological Strain?},
      journal = {STRESS AND HEALTH},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {26},
      number = {3},
      pages = {186-193},
      doi = {{10.1002/smi.1292}}
    }
    
    BATTEGAY, R. THE TACTILE-SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP AS THE EARLIEST PHASE OF CHILD-DEVELOPMENT {1992} ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PSYCHOSOMATISCHE MEDIZIN UND PSYCHOANALYSE
    Vol. {38}({2}), pp. {115-128} 
    article  
    Abstract: Whereas Sigmund Freud considered the orality to be the beginning of the child development, in the last two decades the tactile-symbiotic mother-child-relationship came into the center of scientific attention. The symbiotic-narcissistic basal relationship of early childhood is reactivated in each later object relation. On this basis all active ego performances are built up, as e.g. the projective identification (archaic form), the identification, the transference (in psychotherapy), the regression etc. as well as the delimination from the object. The next level of the object relation is that of the free decision for or against an object. People with narcissistic personality disorders (narcissistic neuroses), having a constitent ego, and borderline personality disorders which occur in individuals with a fragmentation-prone ego, have suffered in their early childhood under deficiency experiences or the experiences of overprotection or of an attention under conditions. The more the individuals were disturbed also in their ego functions, the more an incapacity of the infant has to be supposed to experience or to admit the attention really presented to it. In major depressions the narcissistic emptiness or depletion seems to be at least partially the consequence of a genetic predisposition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BATTEGAY1992,
      author = {BATTEGAY, R},
      title = {THE TACTILE-SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP AS THE EARLIEST PHASE OF CHILD-DEVELOPMENT},
      journal = {ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PSYCHOSOMATISCHE MEDIZIN UND PSYCHOANALYSE},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {38},
      number = {2},
      pages = {115-128}
    }
    
    Baumeister, R. Ego depletion and self-regulation failure: A resource model of self-control {2003} ALCOHOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
    Vol. {27}({2}), pp. {281-284} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Effective self-regulation is an important key to successful functioning in many spheres, and failed self-regulation may be centrally conducive to substance abuse and addiction. The program of research summarized here indicates that self-regulation operates as a limited resource, akin to strength or energy, especially insofar as it becomes depleted after use-leaving the depleted self subsequently vulnerable to impulsive and undercontrolled behaviors (including increased consumption of alcohol). The self's resources, which are also used for decision-making and active responding, can be replenished by rest and positive emotions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baumeister2003,
      author = {Baumeister, RF},
      title = {Ego depletion and self-regulation failure: A resource model of self-control},
      journal = {ALCOHOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {27},
      number = {2},
      pages = {281-284},
      doi = {{10.1097/01.ALC.0000060879.61384.A4}}
    }
    
    Baumeister, R., Bratslavsky, E., Muraven, M. & Tice, D. Ego depletion: Is the active self a limited resource? {1998} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {74}({5}), pp. {1252-1265} 
    article  
    Abstract: Choice, active response, self-regulation, and other volition may all draw on a common inner resource. In Experiment I, people who forced themselves to eat radishes instead of tempting chocolates subsequently quit faster on unsolvable puzzles than people who had not had to exert self-control over eating. In Experiment 2, making a meaningful personal choice to perform attitude-relevant behavior caused a similar decrement in persistence. In Experiment 3, suppressing emotion led to a subsequent drop in performance of solvable anagrams. In Experiment 4, an initial task requiring high self-regulation made people more passive (i.e., more prone to favor the passive-response option). These results suggest that the self's capacity for active volition is limited and that a range of seemingly different, unrelated acts share a common resource.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baumeister1998,
      author = {Baumeister, RF and Bratslavsky, E and Muraven, M and Tice, DM},
      title = {Ego depletion: Is the active self a limited resource?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {74},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1252-1265}
    }
    
    Baumeister, R., Muraven, M. & Tice, D. Ego depletion: A resource model of volition, self-regulation, and controlled processing {2000} SOCIAL COGNITION
    Vol. {18}({2}), pp. {130-150} 
    article  
    Abstract: Making choices, responding actively instead of passively, restraining impulses, and other acts of self-control and volition all draw on a common resource that is limited and renewable, akin to strength or energy. After an act of choice or self-control, the sell's resources have been expended, producing the condition of ego depletion. In this state, the self is less able to function effectively, such as by regulating itself or exerting volition. Effects of ego depletion appear to reflect an effort to conserve remaining resources rather than full exhaustion, although in principle full exhaustion is possible. This versatile but limited resource is crucial to the self's optimal functioning, and the pervasive need to conserve it may result in the commonly heavy reliance on habit, routine, and automatic processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baumeister2000,
      author = {Baumeister, RF and Muraven, M and Tice, DM},
      title = {Ego depletion: A resource model of volition, self-regulation, and controlled processing},
      journal = {SOCIAL COGNITION},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {18},
      number = {2},
      pages = {130-150}
    }
    
    Baumeister, R.F. Free Will in Scientific Psychology {2008} PERSPECTIVES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {3}({1}), pp. {14-19} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Some actions are freer than others, and the difference is palpably important in terms of inner process, subjective perception, and social consequences. Psychology can study the difference between freer and less free actions without making dubious metaphysical commitments. Human evolution seems to have created a relatively new, more complex form of action control that corresponds to popular notions of free will. It is marked by self-control and rational choice, both of which are highly adaptive, especially for functioning within culture. The processes that create these forms of free will may be biologically costly and therefore are only used occasionally, so that people are likely to remain only incompletely self-disciplined, virtuous, and rational.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baumeister2008a,
      author = {Baumeister, Roy F.},
      title = {Free Will in Scientific Psychology},
      journal = {PERSPECTIVES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {14-19},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1745-6916.2008.00057.x}}
    }
    
    Baumeister, R.F. & Alquist, J.L. Is There a Downside to Good Self-control? {2009} SELF AND IDENTITY
    Vol. {8}({2-3}), pp. {115-130} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Most discussions of self-control have focused on its benefits rather than its costs. The most important cost appears to be the depletion of limited self-control resources. Acts of self-control both consume and require self-control resources, and, until these resources can be replenished, people's ability to perform many adaptive behaviors is compromised. These impairments affect not only self-control but also intelligent thought, effective decision making, and initiative. The limited resource itself presents further potential costs, insofar as the person must manage the limited resource (e.g., conserving for future demands), and managing the resource itself is presumably another demand for self-regulation and hence a drain on the limited resource. Trait self-control, in contrast, appears to have few or no downsides.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baumeister2009,
      author = {Baumeister, Roy F. and Alquist, Jessica L.},
      title = {Is There a Downside to Good Self-control?},
      journal = {SELF AND IDENTITY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {115-130},
      doi = {{10.1080/15298860802501474}}
    }
    
    Baumeister, R.F., Gailliot, M., DeWall, C.N. & Oaten, M. Self-regulation and personality: How interventions increase regulatory success, and how depletion moderates the effects of traits on behavior {2006} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {74}({6}), pp. {1773-1801} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Self-regulation is a highly adaptive, distinctively human trait that enables people to override and alter their responses, including changing themselves so as to live up to social and other standards. Recent evidence indicates that self-regulation often consumes a limited resource, akin to energy or strength, thereby creating a temporary state of ego depletion. This article summarizes recent evidence indicating that regular exercises in self-regulation can produce broad improvements in self-regulation (like strengthening a muscle), making people less vulnerable to ego depletion. Furthermore, it shows that ego depletion moderates the effects of many traits on behavior, particularly such that wide differences in socially disapproved motivations produce greater differences in behavior when ego depletion weakens the customary inner restraints.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baumeister2006,
      author = {Baumeister, Roy F. and Gailliot, Matthew and DeWall, C. Nathan and Oaten, Megan},
      title = {Self-regulation and personality: How interventions increase regulatory success, and how depletion moderates the effects of traits on behavior},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {74},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1773-1801},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1467-6494.2006.00428.x}}
    }
    
    Baumeister, R.F., Sparks, E.A., Stillman, T.F. & Vohs, K.D. Free will in consumer behavior: Self-control, ego depletion, and choice {2008} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {18}({1}), pp. {4-13} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Consumer behavior offers a useful window on human nature, through which many distinctively human patterns of cognition and behavior can be observed. Consumer behavior should therefore be of central interest to a broad range of psychologists. These patterns include much of what is commonly understood as free will. Our approach to understanding free will sidesteps metaphysical and theological debates. Belief in free will is pervasive in human social life and contributes to its benefits. Evolution endowed humans with a new form of action control, which is what people understand by free will. Its complexity and flexibility are suited to the distinctively human forms of social life in culture, with its abstract rules, expanded time span, diverse interdependent roles, and other sources of opportunities and constraints. Self-control, planful action, and rational choice are vital forms of free will in this sense. The capacity for self-control and intelligent decision making involves a common, limited resource that uses the body's basic energy supply. When this resource is depleted, self-control fails and decision making is impaired. (c) 2007 Society for Consumer Psychology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baumeister2008,
      author = {Baumeister, Roy F. and Sparks, Erin A. and Stillman, Tyler F. and Vohs, Kathleen D.},
      title = {Free will in consumer behavior: Self-control, ego depletion, and choice},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {18},
      number = {1},
      pages = {4-13},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jcps.2007.10.002}}
    }
    
    Baumeister, R.F., Vohs, K.D. & Tice, D.M. The strength model of self-control {2007} CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {16}({6}), pp. {351-355} 
    article  
    Abstract: Self-control is a central function of the self and an important key to success in life. The exertion of self-control appears to depend on a limited resource. Just as a muscle gets tired from exertion, acts of self-control cause short-term impairments (ego depletion) in subsequent self-control, even on unrelated tasks. Research has supported the strength model in the domains of eating, drinking, spending, sexuality, intelligent thought, making choices, and interpersonal behavior. Motivational or framing factors can temporarily block the deleterious effects of being in a state of ego depletion. Blood glucose is an important component of the energy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baumeister2007,
      author = {Baumeister, Roy F. and Vohs, Kathleen D. and Tice, Dianne M.},
      title = {The strength model of self-control},
      journal = {CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {16},
      number = {6},
      pages = {351-355}
    }
    
    Bayer, U.C., Gollwitzer, P.M. & Achtziger, A. Staying on track: Planned goal striving is protected from disruptive internal states {2010} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {46}({3}), pp. {505-514} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Past implementation intention research focused on shielding goal striving from disruptive internal states (e.g., being anxious) by forming if-then plans that link these very states to instrumental coping responses. In the present line of research, we investigated whether planning out goal striving by means of if-then plans specifying opportunities to initiate goal-directed responses also protects goal striving from the negative impact of disruptive internal states. Indeed, in the face of disruptive internal states, participants who had been asked to form implementation intentions that targeted opportunities for initiating goal-directed responses outperformed participants with a mere goal intention to do well on a focal task goal. Actually, implementation intention participants performed as well as control participants who were not burdened by disruptive internal states such as being in a certain mood (Study I), ego-depleted (Study 2), or self-definitionally incomplete (Study 3). Results are discussed by pointing to the importance of hypo-egoic self-regulation. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bayer2010,
      author = {Bayer, Ute C. and Gollwitzer, Peter M. and Achtziger, Anja},
      title = {Staying on track: Planned goal striving is protected from disruptive internal states},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {46},
      number = {3},
      pages = {505-514},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jesp.2010.01.002}}
    }
    
    Beal, D., Weiss, H., Barros, E. & MacDermid, S. An episodic process model of affective influences on performance {2005} JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {90}({6}), pp. {1054-1068} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In this article, the authors present a model linking immediate affective experiences to within-person performance. First, the authors define a time structure for performance (the performance episode) that is commensurate with the dynamic nature of affect. Next, the authors examine the core cognitive and regulatory processes that determine performance for I person during any particular episode. Third, the authors describe how various emotions and moods influence the intermediary performance processes, thereby affecting performance. In the final section of the article, the authors discuss limitations, future research directions, and practical implications for their episodic process model of affect and performance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Beal2005,
      author = {Beal, DJ and Weiss, HM and Barros, E and MacDermid, SM},
      title = {An episodic process model of affective influences on performance},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {90},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1054-1068},
      doi = {{10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1054}}
    }
    
    Beilock, S.L., Rydell, R.J. & McConnell, A.R. Stereotype threat and working memory: Mechanisms, alleviation, and spillover {2007} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL
    Vol. {136}({2}), pp. {256-276} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Stereotype threat (ST) occurs when the awareness of a negative stereotype about a social group in a particular domain produces suboptimal performance by members of that group. Although ST has been repeatedly demonstrated, far less is known about how its effects are realized. Using mathematical problem solving as a test bed, the authors demonstrate in 5 experiments that ST harms math problems that rely heavily on working memory resources-especially phonological aspects of this system. Moreover, by capitalizing on an understanding of the cognitive mechanisms by which ST exerts its impact, the authors show (a) how ST can be alleviated (e.g., by heavily practicing once-susceptible math problems such that they are retrieved directly from long-term memory rather than computed via a working-memory-intensive algorithm) and (b) when it will spill over onto subsequent tasks unrelated to the stereotype in question but dependent on the same cognitive resources that stereotype threat also uses. The current work extends the knowledge of the causal mechanisms of stereotype threat and demonstrates how its effects can be attenuated and propagated.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Beilock2007,
      author = {Beilock, Sian L. and Rydell, Robert J. and McConnell, Allen R.},
      title = {Stereotype threat and working memory: Mechanisms, alleviation, and spillover},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {136},
      number = {2},
      pages = {256-276},
      doi = {{10.1037/0096-3445.136.2.256}}
    }
    
    Bertrams, A. & Dickhaeuser, O. High-school students' need for cognition, self-control capacity, and school achievement: Testing a mediation hypothesis {2009} LEARNING AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
    Vol. {19}({1}), pp. {135-138} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In the present article, we examine the hypothesis that high-school students' motivation to engage in cognitive endeavors (i.e., their need for cognition; NFC) is positively related to their dispositional self-control capacity. Furthermore, we test the prediction that the relation between NFC and school achievement is mediated by self-control capacity. A questionnaire study with grade ten high-school students (N=604) revealed the expected relations between NFC, self-control capacity, and school achievement. Sobel tests showed that self-control capacity mediated the relation between NFC and school grades as well as grade retention. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bertrams2009,
      author = {Bertrams, Alex and Dickhaeuser, Oliver},
      title = {High-school students' need for cognition, self-control capacity, and school achievement: Testing a mediation hypothesis},
      journal = {LEARNING AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {19},
      number = {1},
      pages = {135-138},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.lindif.2008.06.005}}
    }
    
    Bland, E.D. An appraisal of psychological & religious perspectives of self-control {2008} JOURNAL OF RELIGION & HEALTH
    Vol. {47}({1}), pp. {4-16} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The boundary between psychology and religion is at its murkiest around topics of interest to both forms of discourse. An attempt to clarify some of the boundary issues specifically present in discussions of self-control or self-regulation, this paper begins by examining self-control in healthy psychological functioning. Research on feedback loops, information processing and ego depletion have highlighted key psychological mechanisms involved in self-control. Next this paper explores common themes in religious perspectives regarding the virtue of self-control and self-restraint. A clear preoccupation of major religious traditions is the management of human passion and desire. In conclusion, three boundary concerns relevant to both psychology and religion are discussed: the meaning of virtue, differences in defining the self in self-control, and relational concerns important to understanding self-control.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bland2008,
      author = {Bland, Earl D.},
      title = {An appraisal of psychological & religious perspectives of self-control},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF RELIGION & HEALTH},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {47},
      number = {1},
      pages = {4-16},
      note = {114th Annual Convention of the American-Psychological-Association, New Orleans, LA, AUG 10-13, 2006},
      doi = {{10.1007/s10943-007-9135-0}}
    }
    
    Bolman, C., Mudde, A., Van, S.M. & Lechner, L. Self-regulation, ego-depletion and habit related to misperception of physical activity behaviour {2008} PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH
    Vol. {23}({Suppl. 1}), pp. {68-69} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bolman2008,
      author = {Bolman, C. and Mudde, A. and Van, Stralen M. and Lechner, L.},
      title = {Self-regulation, ego-depletion and habit related to misperception of physical activity behaviour},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {23},
      number = {Suppl. 1},
      pages = {68-69}
    }
    
    Bruyneel, S., Dewitte, S., Vohs, K. & Warlop, L. Repeated choosing increases susceptibility to affective product features {2006} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MARKETING
    Vol. {23}({2}), pp. {215-225} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The present research demonstrates that repeated active choice-making increases consumers' susceptibility to salient affective product features. We show that affective features influence product choice more after a series of active product choices than after a series of compliances with purchase instructions. The combined results of three experiments suggest that repeated choice depletes self-control resource strength, in that repeated choosing renders consumers vulnerable to the temptation of emotionally laden product features. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bruyneel2006,
      author = {Bruyneel, S and Dewitte, S and Vohs, KD and Warlop, L},
      title = {Repeated choosing increases susceptibility to affective product features},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN MARKETING},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {23},
      number = {2},
      pages = {215-225},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.ijresmar.2005.12.002}}
    }
    
    Bruyneel, S.D., Dewitte, S., Franses, P.H. & Dekimpe, M.G. I Felt Low and My Purse Feels Light: Depleting Mood Regulation Attempts Affect Risk Decision Making {2009} JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL DECISION MAKING
    Vol. {22}({2}), pp. {153-170} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We propose that negative affect can induce people to engage in risky decisions. We test two alternative hypotheses as to how this effect may emerge. The mood repair hypothesis states that risky choices in risk decision making serve as a means to repair one's negative affect. The depletion hypothesis, in contrast, states that risky choices in risk decision making are the mere consequence of a state of depletion resulting from engagement in active mood regulation attempts. The results of a first laboratory study establish a link between risky choices in risk decision making and negative affect. Subsequent experiments provide evidence that depletion due to active mood regulation attempts, rather than mood repair, is the underlying process for this link. (C) Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bruyneel2009,
      author = {Bruyneel, Sabrina D. and Dewitte, Siegfried and Franses, Philip Hans and Dekimpe, Marnik G.},
      title = {I Felt Low and My Purse Feels Light: Depleting Mood Regulation Attempts Affect Risk Decision Making},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL DECISION MAKING},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {22},
      number = {2},
      pages = {153-170},
      doi = {{10.1002/bdm.619}}
    }
    
    Burkley, E. The role of self-control in resistance to persuasion {2008} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {34}({3}), pp. {419-431} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Four studies investigated a self-control theory of resistance to persuasion. This theory asserts that resistance to persuasion requires and consumes self-control resources. Study 1 showed that resistance to a persuasive message reduced the ability to engage in a subsequent self-control task. Studies 2 and 3 showed that self-control depletion leads to increased persuasion. Study 4 showed that self-control depletion increased persuasion, particularly under effortful resistance (i.e., strong arguments). Together, these findings suggest that self-control plays a vital role in the process of resistance to persuasion. People must have self-control resources to fend off persuasive appeals; without them, they become susceptible to influence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Burkley2008,
      author = {Burkley, Edward},
      title = {The role of self-control in resistance to persuasion},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {34},
      number = {3},
      pages = {419-431},
      doi = {{10.1177/0146167207310458}}
    }
    
    de Calvo, M.P.C. & Reich, D.A. Spontaneous correction in the Behavioral confirmation process: The role of naturally-occurring variations in self-regulatory resources {2007} BASIC AND APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {29}({4}), pp. {351-364} 
    article  
    Abstract: Perceivers' tendencies to correct for expectancy-related biases can be affected by experimental manipulations of goals and cognitive resources. In the current research, we examined the role of naturally-occurring, environmentally-produced variations in self-regulatory resources, represented by the time of semester in which college students participated. A pilot study established the association between time of semester and self-regulatory resources. Using a simulated job interview paradigm, interviewers were induced with extreme expectancies regarding their applicants. The effects of expectancy valence depended on time of semester. Interviewers with depleted self-regulatory resources (i.e., late-semester participants) asked expectancy-biased questions, elicited expectancy-confirming behavior from applicants, and formed expectancy-consistent impressions, while their less-depleted, early-semester counterparts did not. The findings suggest that interviewers engaged in spontaneous behavioral and perceptual correction for the biasing influence of extreme expectancies, but only when sufficient self-regulatory resources were available. The discussion focuses on theoretical implications for models of bias correction and applied significance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Calvo2007,
      author = {de Calvo, Mario P. Casa and Reich, Darcy A.},
      title = {Spontaneous correction in the Behavioral confirmation process: The role of naturally-occurring variations in self-regulatory resources},
      journal = {BASIC AND APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {29},
      number = {4},
      pages = {351-364}
    }
    
    Ciarocco, N., Sommer, K. & Baumeister, R. Ostracism and ego depletion: The strains of silence {2001} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {27}({9}), pp. {1156-1163} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two studies examined whether ostracizing someone depletes psychological resources in the ostracizer In Study 1, people who followed instructions to avoid conversation with a confederate for 3 minutes later showed decrements in persistence on unsolvable problems, In Study 2, ostracizers showed subsequent impairments in physical stamina on a handgrip task. Although ostracism affected mood too, mood did not appear to mediate the main findings. Past work has shown that ostracism has negative consequences for the victim, but the Present results indicate that ostracism has a harmful impact on the ostracizer too.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ciarocco2001,
      author = {Ciarocco, NJ and Sommer, KL and Baumeister, RF},
      title = {Ostracism and ego depletion: The strains of silence},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {27},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1156-1163}
    }
    
    Clarkson, J.J., Hirt, E.R., Jia, L. & Alexander, M.B. When Perception Is More Than Reality: The Effects of Perceived Versus Actual Resource Depletion on Self-Regulatory Behavior {2010} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {98}({1}), pp. {29-46} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Considerable research demonstrates that the depletion of self-regulatory resources impairs performance on subsequent tasks that demand these resources. The Current research sought to assess the impact of perceived resource depletion on subsequent task performance at both high and low levels of actual depletion. The authors manipulated perceived resource depletion by having participants 1st complete a depleting or nondepleting task before being presented with feedback that did or did not provide a situational attribution for their internal state. Participants then persisted at a problem-solving task (Experiments 1-2), completed an attention-regulation task (Experiment 3), or responded to a persuasive message (Experiment 4). The findings consistently demonstrated that individuals who perceived themselves as less (vs. more) depleted, whether high or low in actual depletion, were more successful at subsequent self-regulation. Thus, perceived regulatory depletion can impact subsequent task performance-and this impact can be independent of one's actual state of depletion.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Clarkson2010,
      author = {Clarkson, Joshua J. and Hirt, Edward R. and Jia, Lile and Alexander, Marla B.},
      title = {When Perception Is More Than Reality: The Effects of Perceived Versus Actual Resource Depletion on Self-Regulatory Behavior},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {98},
      number = {1},
      pages = {29-46},
      doi = {{10.1037/a0017539}}
    }
    
    Cohen, D.A. Neurophysiological pathways to obesity: Below awareness and beyond individual control {2008} DIABETES
    Vol. {57}({7}), pp. {1768-1773} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: A global obesity epidemic is occurring simultaneously with ongoing increases in the availability and salience of food in the environment. Obesity is increasing across all socioeconomic groups and educational levels and occurs even among individuals with the highest levels of education and expertise in nutrition and related fields. Given these circumstances, it is plausible that excessive food consumption occurs in ways that defy personal insight or are below individual awareness. The current food environment stimulates automatic reflexive responses that enhance the desire to eat and increase caloric intake, making it exceedingly difficult for individuals to resist, especially because they may not be aware of these influences. This article identifies 10 neurophysiological pathways that can lead people to make food choices subconsciously or, in some cases, automatically. These pathways include reflexive and uncontrollable neurohormonal responses to food images, cues, and smells; mirror neurons that cause people to imitate the eating behavior of others without awareness, and limited cognitive capacity to make informed decisions about food. Given that people have limited ability to shape the food environment individually and no ability to control automatic responses to food-related cues that are unconsciously perceived, it is incumbent upon society as a whole to regulate the food environment, including the number and types of food-related cues portion sizes, food availability, and food advertising.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cohen2008,
      author = {Cohen, Deborah A.},
      title = {Neurophysiological pathways to obesity: Below awareness and beyond individual control},
      journal = {DIABETES},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {57},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1768-1773},
      doi = {{10.2337/db08-0163}}
    }
    
    Converse, P.D. & DeShon, R.P. A Tale of Two Tasks: Reversing the Self-Regulatory Resource Depletion Effect {2009} JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {94}({5}), pp. {1318-1324} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This research examined the self-regulatory depletion model (e.g., M. Muraven & R. F. Baumeister, 2000). Although numerous studies support this model's prediction of decrements in self-regulation across tasks, the majority of this research has relied on a single paradigm in which two tasks are performed in succession. Other work related to learned industriousness (R. Eisenberger, 1992) and adaptation-level theory (H. Helson, 1964) indicates that self-regulatory behavior may remain stable or even improve as a result of prior self-regulatory activities in situations involving additional tasks. Three studies examined these differing perspectives with 2- and 3-task designs. Results indicated that, relative to low initial self-regulatory exertion, high exertion can lead to poorer or better subsequent self-regulation. These findings are consistent with an adaptation view of self-regulation, suggesting that the depletion effect may be only part of the picture of self-regulatory behavior over time.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Converse2009,
      author = {Converse, Patrick D. and DeShon, Richard P.},
      title = {A Tale of Two Tasks: Reversing the Self-Regulatory Resource Depletion Effect},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {94},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1318-1324},
      note = {22nd Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Industrial-and -Organizational-Psychology, New York, NY, APR 27-29, 2007},
      doi = {{10.1037/a0014604}}
    }
    
    Dalton, A.N., Chartrand, T.L. & Finkel, E.J. The Schema-Driven Chameleon: How Mimicry Affects Executive and Self-Regulatory Resources {2010} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {98}({4}), pp. {605-617} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The authors propose that behavioral mimicry is guided by schemas that enable efficient social coordination. If mimicry is schema driven, then the operation of these schemas should be disrupted if partners behave in counternormative ways, such as mimicking people they generally would not or vice versa, rendering social interaction inefficient and demanding more executive and self-regulatory resources. To test this hypothesis, Experiments 1-3 used a resource-depletion paradigm in which participants performed a resource-demanding task after interacting with a confederate who mimicked them or did not mimic them. Experiment 1 demonstrated impaired task performance among participants who were not mimicked by a peer. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated this effect and also demonstrated a significant reversal in social contexts where mimicry is counternormative, suggesting that inefficiency emerges from schema inconsistency, not from the absence of mimicry per se. Experiment 4 used a divided attention paradigm and found that resources are taxed throughout schema-inconsistent interactions. These findings suggest that much-needed resources are preserved when the amount of mimicry displayed by interacting individuals adheres to norms, whereas resources are depleted when mimicry norms are violated.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dalton2010,
      author = {Dalton, Amy N. and Chartrand, Tanya L. and Finkel, Eli J.},
      title = {The Schema-Driven Chameleon: How Mimicry Affects Executive and Self-Regulatory Resources},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {98},
      number = {4},
      pages = {605-617},
      doi = {{10.1037/a0017629}}
    }
    
    De Langhe, B., Sweldens, S., Van Osselaer, S. & Tuk, M. The Emotional Information Processing System is Risk Averse: Ego-depletion and Investment Behavior {2009}
    Vol. {36}ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL XXXVI, pp. {604-605} 
    inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{DeLanghe2009,
      author = {De Langhe, Bart and Sweldens, Steven and Van Osselaer, Stijn and Tuk, Mirjam},
      title = {The Emotional Information Processing System is Risk Averse: Ego-depletion and Investment Behavior},
      booktitle = {ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL XXXVI},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {36},
      pages = {604-605},
      note = {36th Annual Conference of the Association-for-Consumer-Research, San Francisco, CA, OCT 23-26, 2008}
    }
    
    De Ridder, D., Kuijer, R. & Ouwehand, C. Does confrontation with potential goal failure promote self-regulation? Examining the role of distress in the pursuit of weight goals {2007} PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH
    Vol. {22}({6}), pp. {677-698} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: How do people maintain goal pursuit when confronted with the risk of failure? In two studies (n = 62 and n = 49), we investigated whether a threat of failure manipulation, either or not involving the self, would affect self-regulation in women who were concerned about their weight. We expected that potential goal failure would result in greater distress and influence strategies for goal pursuit and self-control. Study 1, involving normal weight women, found that self-relevant goal threat resulted in greater distress but that distress did not affect self-regulation. Study 2, involving both normal weight and overweight women, found similar results. However, women who were exposed to objective goal threat and at the same time received feedback that the self was not involved spent more time on planning strategies for goal pursuit and demonstrated higher self-control. It is concluded that information emphasizing both opportunities for goal achievement and the necessity to act is sufficient for engaging in self-regulation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DeRidder2007,
      author = {De Ridder, Denise and Kuijer, Roeline and Ouwehand, Carolijn},
      title = {Does confrontation with potential goal failure promote self-regulation? Examining the role of distress in the pursuit of weight goals},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {22},
      number = {6},
      pages = {677-698},
      doi = {{10.1080/14768320601020238}}
    }
    
    DeWall, C.N., Baumeister, R.F., Gailliot, M.T. & Maner, J.K. Depletion Makes the Heart Grow Less Helpful: Helping as a Function of Self-Regulatory Energy and Genetic Relatedness {2008} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {34}({12}), pp. {1653-1662} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Often people are faced with conflict between prosocial motivations for helping and selfish impulses that favor not helping. Three studies tested the hypothesis that self-regulation is useful for managing such motivational conflicts. In each study, depleted self-regulatory energy reduced willingness to help others. Participants who broke a habit, relative to participants who followed a habit, later reported reduced willingness to help in hypothetical scenarios (e. g., donating food or money; Studies 1 and 3). Controlling attention while watching a video, relative to watching it normally, reduced volunteering efforts to help a victim of a recent tragedy but drinking a glucose drink undid this effect (Study 2). Depleted energy reduced helping toward strangers but it did not reduce helping toward family members (Study 3). Helping requires self-regulatory energy to manage conflict between selfish and prosocial motivations-a metabolically expensive process-and thus depleted energy reduces helping and increased energy (glucose) increases helping.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DeWall2008,
      author = {DeWall, C. Nathan and Baumeister, Roy F. and Gailliot, Matthew T. and Maner, Jon K.},
      title = {Depletion Makes the Heart Grow Less Helpful: Helping as a Function of Self-Regulatory Energy and Genetic Relatedness},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {34},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1653-1662},
      doi = {{10.1177/0146167208323981}}
    }
    
    DeWall, C.N., Baumeister, R.F., Stillman, T.F. & Gailliot, M.T. Violence restrained: Effects of self-regulation and its depletion on aggression {2007} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {43}({1}), pp. {62-76} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Aggressive impulses arise from many factors, but they are usually held in check by social norms for self-control. Thus, the proximal cause of aggression is often failure of self-restraint. In five studies, depleted capacity for self-regulation (caused by prior, even irrelevant acts of self-regulation) increased aggressive responding, especially after an insulting provocation. When participants were insulted and their self-regulatory strength was depleted (i.e., after completing previous tasks that required self-regulation), participants were more likely to aggress. When the urge to aggress was relatively weaker (i.e., when participants were not insulted), self-regulatory depletion did not increase aggressive behavior. This effect was moderated by trait self-control: Participants low in trait self-control were particularly likely to express intentions of behaving aggressively in response to provocation, whereas participants high in trait self-control did not express intentions of responding aggressively. Laboratory, autobiographical memory, and hypothetical responses confirmed the pattern. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DeWall2007,
      author = {DeWall, C. Nathan and Baumeister, Roy F. and Stillman, Tyler F. and Gailliot, Matthew T.},
      title = {Violence restrained: Effects of self-regulation and its depletion on aggression},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {43},
      number = {1},
      pages = {62-76},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jesp.2005.12.005}}
    }
    
    DeWall, C.N., Baumeister, R.F. & Vohs, K.D. Satiated With Belongingness? Effects of Acceptance, Rejection, and Task Framing on Self-Regulatory Performance {2008} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {95}({6}), pp. {1367-1382} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Seven experiments showed that the effects of social acceptance and social exclusion on self-regulatory performance depend on the prospect of future acceptance. Excluded participants showed decrements in self-regulation, but these decrements were eliminated if the self-regulation task was ostensibly a diagnostic indicator of the ability to get along with others. No such improvement was found when the task was presented as diagnostic of good health. Accepted participants, in contrast, performed relatively poorly when the task was framed as a diagnostic indicator of interpersonally attractive traits. Furthermore, poor performance among accepted participants was not due to self-handicapping or overconfidence. Offering accepted participants a cash incentive for self-regulating eliminated the self-regulation deficits. These findings provide evidence that the need to belong fits standard motivational patterns: Thwarting the drive intensifies it, whereas satiating it leads to temporary reduction in drive. Accepted people are normally good at self-regulation but are unwilling to exert the effort to self-regulate if self-regulation means gaining the social acceptance they have already obtained.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DeWall2008a,
      author = {DeWall, C. Nathan and Baumeister, Roy F. and Vohs, Kathleen D.},
      title = {Satiated With Belongingness? Effects of Acceptance, Rejection, and Task Framing on Self-Regulatory Performance},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {95},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1367-1382},
      doi = {{10.1037/a0012632}}
    }
    
    Dewitte, S., Bruyneel, S. & Geyskens, K. Self-Regulating Enhances Self-Regulation in Subsequent Consumer Decisions Involving Similar Response Conflicts {2009} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH
    Vol. {36}({3}), pp. {394-405} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Ego depletion, the observation that self-regulation reduces subsequent self-regulation, is a remarkably robust phenomenon, and the generalization to the consumer domain appears undisputable. Contrary to most other self-regulatory situations, however, consecutive self-regulatory decisions in consumer settings tend to be similar in the control processes that they recruit. Three experiments demonstrate the pivotal role of similarity. When two consecutive self-regulatory situations require similar control processes (e.g., restraining food intake), initial engagement in self-regulation enhances subsequent self-regulation. Our data thus challenge the self-regulatory strength model of (consumer) self-regulatory decision making but are consistent with cognitive control theory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dewitte2009,
      author = {Dewitte, Siegfried and Bruyneel, Sabrina and Geyskens, Kelly},
      title = {Self-Regulating Enhances Self-Regulation in Subsequent Consumer Decisions Involving Similar Response Conflicts},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {36},
      number = {3},
      pages = {394-405},
      doi = {{10.1086/598615}}
    }
    
    Dorris, D.C. Supporting the self-regulatory resource: does conscious self-regulation incidentally prime nonconscious support processes? {2009} COGNITIVE PROCESSING
    Vol. {10}({4}), pp. {283-291} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Ego-depletion (depletion of self-regulatory strength) can impair conscious efforts at self-regulation. Research into nonconscious self-regulation has demonstrated that preconscious automaticity and implementation intentions can automatically carry out regulatory tasks during times of ego-depletion. However, preconscious automaticity can only emerge during well-practiced tasks while implementation intentions can only support tasks that have been explicitly planned. Thus, when it comes to supporting the conscious self-regulation of nonroutine and unplanned behaviour during times of ego-depletion these processes should be ineffective. However, it is argued here that because the conscious self-regulation of nonroutine and unplanned behaviour can incidentally prime the underlying mental representations those primed representations can be postconsciously re-activated to support that behaviour during times of ego-depletion. Postconscious self-regulation might, therefore, support a type of self-regulatory behaviour that has, thus far, not been associated with any form of support.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dorris2009,
      author = {Dorris, Derek C.},
      title = {Supporting the self-regulatory resource: does conscious self-regulation incidentally prime nonconscious support processes?},
      journal = {COGNITIVE PROCESSING},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {283-291},
      doi = {{10.1007/s10339-009-0259-x}}
    }
    
    Dorris, D.C. Self-regulation and the hypothesis of experience-based selection: Investigating indirect conscious control {2009} CONSCIOUSNESS AND COGNITION
    Vol. {18}({3}), pp. {740-753} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The assumption that the contents of our conscious visual experience directly control our fine-tuned, real-time motor activity has been challenged by neurological and psychophysical evidence that suggest the two processes work semi-independently of each other. Clark [Clark, A. (2001). Visual experience and motor action: Are the bonds too tight? The Philosophical Review, 110, 495-519; Clark, A. (2002). Is seeing all it seems? Action, reason and the grand illusion. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 9, 181-202; Clark, A. (2006). Vision as dance? Three challenges for sensori-motor contingency theory. PSYCHE, 12 (1). Available from http://www.psyche.cs.monash.edu.au] argues that such evidence implies a more indirect relationship between conscious visual experience and motor-control where the function of visual consciousness is not to control action but to select what actions are to be controlled. in this paper, I argue that this type of dynamic also exists at the wider level of self-regulation where conscious intent appears to indirectly control the enactment of the intended behaviour. I argue that by drawing parallels between Clark's proposed dynamic and self-regulation, the former is not only bolstered by a previously unrecognised source of support but our understanding of the latter can help to further elucidate Clark's proposed mechanism of indirect conscious control. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dorris2009a,
      author = {Dorris, Derek C.},
      title = {Self-regulation and the hypothesis of experience-based selection: Investigating indirect conscious control},
      journal = {CONSCIOUSNESS AND COGNITION},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {18},
      number = {3},
      pages = {740-753},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.concog.2009.03.005}}
    }
    
    Dubouloz, F., Deloche, O., Wanke, V., Cameron, E. & De Virgillo, C. The TOR and EGO protein complexes orchestrate microautophagy in yeast {2005} MOLECULAR CELL
    Vol. {19}({1}), pp. {15-26} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The rapamycin-sensitive TOR signaling pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae positively controls cell growth in response to nutrient availability. Accordingly, TOR depletion or rapamycin treatment causes regulated entry of cells into a quiescent growth phase. Although this process has been elucidated in considerable detail, the transition from quiescence back to proliferation is poorly understood. Here, we describe the identification of a conserved member of the RagA subfamily of Ras-related GTPases, Gtr2, which acts in a vacuolar membrane-associated protein complex together with Ego1 and Ego3 to ensure proper exit from rapamycin-induced growth arrest. We demonstrate that the EGO complex, in conjunction with TOR, positively regulates microautophagy, thus counterbalancing the massive rapamycin-induced, macroautophagy-mediated membrane influx toward the vacuolar membrane. Moreover, large-scale genetic analyses of the EGO complex confirm the existence of a growth control mechanism originating at the vacuolar membrane and pinpoint the amino acid glutamine as a key metabolite in TOR signaling.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dubouloz2005,
      author = {Dubouloz, F and Deloche, O and Wanke, V and Cameron, E and De Virgillo, C},
      title = {The TOR and EGO protein complexes orchestrate microautophagy in yeast},
      journal = {MOLECULAR CELL},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {19},
      number = {1},
      pages = {15-26},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.molcel.2005.02.020}}
    }
    
    Eftekhari, A., Zoellner, L.A. & Vigil, S.A. Patterns of emotion regulation and psychopathology {2009} ANXIETY STRESS AND COPING
    Vol. {22}({5}), pp. {571-586} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Emotion regulatory strategies such as higher expressive suppression and lower cognitive reappraisal may be associated with increased psychopathology (Gross & John, 2003). Yet, it is unclear whether these strategies represent distinct cognitive styles associated with psychopathology, such that there are individuals who are predominantly ``suppressors'' or ``reappraisers.'' Using cluster analysis, we examined whether women with and without exposure to potentially traumatic events evidence distinct patterns of emotion regulation frequency, capacity, suppression, and cognitive reappraisal. Four patterns emerged: high regulators; high reappraisers/low suppressors; moderate reappraisers/ low suppressors; and low regulators. Individuals who reported infrequently and ineffectively regulating their emotions (low regulators) also reported higher depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In contrast, individuals who reported frequently and effectively using reappraisal and low levels of suppression (high reappraisers/low suppressors) reported the lowest levels of these symptoms, suggesting that this specific combination of emotion regulation may be most adaptive. Our findings highlight that the capacity to regulate emotions and the ability to flexibly apply different strategies based on the context and timing may be associated with reduced psychopathology and more adaptive functioning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eftekhari2009,
      author = {Eftekhari, Afsoon and Zoellner, Lori A. and Vigil, Shree A.},
      title = {Patterns of emotion regulation and psychopathology},
      journal = {ANXIETY STRESS AND COPING},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {22},
      number = {5},
      pages = {571-586},
      doi = {{10.1080/10615800802179860}}
    }
    
    Ein-Gar, D. & Steinhart, Y. The Sprinter Effect: When Involvement and Self-Control Fail to Overcome Ego-Depletion {2009}
    Vol. {36}ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL XXXVI, pp. {771} 
    inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Ein-Gar2009,
      author = {Ein-Gar, Danit and Steinhart, Yael},
      title = {The Sprinter Effect: When Involvement and Self-Control Fail to Overcome Ego-Depletion},
      booktitle = {ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL XXXVI},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {36},
      pages = {771},
      note = {36th Annual Conference of the Association-for-Consumer-Research, San Francisco, CA, OCT 23-26, 2008}
    }
    
    Fennell, L.A. Willpower and Legal Policy {2009} ANNUAL REVIEW OF LAW AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {5}, pp. {91-113} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: People often act in ways that are inconsistent with their own stated desires. What, if anything, can or should legal Policy do about this disjunction? In recent years, legal and social science scholarship has increasingly examined self-control and related concepts. In this review, I discuss the policy implications of this work. T begin by defining willpower, disaggregating it from other, related problems, and considering the terms of the intraself conflict it implies. Drawing on ideas that are well recognized in the literature, I divide the costs of willpower lapses and their prevention into the failure costs of bad decisions, die exercise costs associated with exerting willpower effort, and the erosion costs that individuals and society as a whole might incur over time if willpower is not regularly exercised. After surveying a variety of possible policy responses to self-control problems, I offer some suggestions for future research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fennell2009,
      author = {Fennell, Lee Anne},
      title = {Willpower and Legal Policy},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF LAW AND SOCIAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {5},
      pages = {91-113},
      doi = {{10.1146/annurev.lawsocsci.093008.131535}}
    }
    
    Fennis, B.M. & Janssen, L. Mindlessness Revisited: Sequential Request Techniques Foster Compliance by Draining Self-control Resources {2010} CURRENT PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {29}({3}), pp. {235-246} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The present research extends previous findings suggesting that sequential request techniques, such as the Foot-in-the-Door (FITD) or Door-in-the-Face (DITF) technique, are primarily effective under conditions conducive of mindlessness. We forward that this mindlessness may be the product of the influence technique itself. More specifically, based on the notion of self-control as a limited resource, we hypothesize that actively responding to the initial request-phase of a FITD-compliance gaining procedure drains the target of his/her self-regulatory resources, thus creating the mindlessness so often observed in social influence settings. This resource depletion opens the door for compliance with the target request. The results were in line with these expectations. More specifically, we observed that active responding to an initial request of a FITD technique reduced the availability of self-regulatory resources. This state of resource depletion mediated the effect of the technique on behavioral compliance. In addition, the results of this study ruled out the alternate explanation that the effects were attributable to mood or a general tendency for acquiescence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fennis2010,
      author = {Fennis, Bob M. and Janssen, Loes},
      title = {Mindlessness Revisited: Sequential Request Techniques Foster Compliance by Draining Self-control Resources},
      journal = {CURRENT PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {29},
      number = {3},
      pages = {235-246},
      doi = {{10.1007/s12144-010-9082-x}}
    }
    
    Fennis, B.M., Janssen, L. & Vohs, K.D. Acts of Benevolence: A Limited-Resource Account of Compliance with Charitable Requests {2009} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH
    Vol. {35}({6}), pp. {906-924} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Across six field and lab experiments, we found that impaired self-control fosters compliance with charitable requests. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that self-regulatory resource depletion was induced when participants yielded to the initial requests of a foot-in-the-door script aimed at procuring volunteer behavior. Experiment 3 demonstrated that self-regulatory resource depletion mediated the effects of yielding to the initial requests of a foot-in-the-door technique on compliance with a charitable target request. Experiments 4-6 demonstrated that weak temporary and chronic self-control ability fostered compliance through reliance on compliance-promoting heuristics (i.e., reciprocity, liking, and consistency).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fennis2009,
      author = {Fennis, Bob M. and Janssen, Loes and Vohs, Kathleen D.},
      title = {Acts of Benevolence: A Limited-Resource Account of Compliance with Charitable Requests},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {35},
      number = {6},
      pages = {906-924},
      doi = {{10.1086/593291}}
    }
    
    Finkel, E.J., Dalton, A.N., Campbell, W.K., Brunell, A.B., Scarbeck, S.J. & Chartrand, T.L. High-maintenance interaction: Inefficient social coordination impairs self-regulation {2006} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {91}({3}), pp. {456-475} 
    article  
    Abstract: Tasks requiring interpersonal coordination permeate all spheres of life. Although social coordination is sometimes efficient and effortless (low maintenance), at other times it is inefficient and effortful (high maintenance). Across 5 studies, participants experienced either a high- or a low-maintenance interaction with a confederate before engaging in an individual-level task requiring self-regulation. Self-regulation was operationalized with measures of (a) preferences for a challenging task with high reward potential over an easy task with low reward potential (Study 1) and (b) task performance (anagram performance in Study 1, Graduate Record Exam performance in Studies 2 and 3, physical stamina in Study 4, and fine motor control in Study 5). Results uniformly supported the hypothesis that experiencing high-maintenance interaction impairs one's self-regulatory success on subsequent, unrelated tasks. These effects were not mediated through participants' conscious processes and emerged even with a nonconscious manipulation of high-maintenance interaction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Finkel2006,
      author = {Finkel, Eli J. and Dalton, Amy N. and Campbell, W. Keith and Brunell, Amy B. and Scarbeck, Sarah J. and Chartrand, Tanya L.},
      title = {High-maintenance interaction: Inefficient social coordination impairs self-regulation},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {91},
      number = {3},
      pages = {456-475}
    }
    
    Finkel, E.J., DeWall, C.N., Slotter, E.B., Oaten, M. & Foshee, V.A. Self-Regulatory Failure and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration {2009} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {97}({3}), pp. {483-499} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Five studies tested the hypothesis that self-regulatory failure is an important predictor of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Study 1 participants were far more likely to experience a violent impulse during conflictual interaction with their romantic partner than they were to enact a violent behavior, suggesting that self-regulatory processes help individuals refrain from perpetrating IPV when they experience a violent impulse. Study 2 participants high in dispositional self-control were less likely to perpetrate IPV, in both cross-sectional and residualized-lagged analyses, than were participants low in dispositional self-control. Study 3 participants verbalized more IPV-related cognitions if they responded immediately to partner provocations than if they responded after a 10-s delay. Study 4 participants whose self-regulatory resources were experimentally depleted were more violent in response to partner provocation (but not when unprovoked) than were nondepleted participants. Finally, Study 5 participants whose self-regulatory resources were experimentally bolstered via it 2-week training regimen exhibited less violent inclinations than did participants whose self-regulatory resources had not been bolstered. These findings hint at the power of incorporating self-regulation dynamics into predictive models of IPV perpetration.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Finkel2009,
      author = {Finkel, Eli J. and DeWall, C. Nathan and Slotter, Erica B. and Oaten, Megan and Foshee, Vangie A.},
      title = {Self-Regulatory Failure and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {97},
      number = {3},
      pages = {483-499},
      doi = {{10.1037/a0015433}}
    }
    
    Fischer, P., Greitemeyer, T. & Frey, D. Self-regulation and selective exposure: The impact of depleted self-regulation resources on confirmatory information processing {2008} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {94}({3}), pp. {382-395} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In the present research, the authors investigated the impact of self-regulation resources on confirmatory information processing, that is, the tendency of individuals to systematically prefer standpoint-consistent information to standpoint-inconsistent information in information evaluation and search. In 4 studies with political and economic decision-making scenarios, it was consistently found that individuals with depleted self-regulation resources exhibited a stronger tendency for confirmatory information processing than did individuals with nondepleted self-regulation resources. Alternative explanations based on processes of ego threat, cognitive load, and mood were ruled out. Mediational analyses suggested that individuals with depleted self-regulation resources experienced increased levels of commitment to their own standpoint, which resulted in increased confirmatory information processing. In sum, the impact of ego depletion on confirmatory information search seems to be more motivational than cognitive in nature.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fischer2008,
      author = {Fischer, Peter and Greitemeyer, Tobias and Frey, Dieter},
      title = {Self-regulation and selective exposure: The impact of depleted self-regulation resources on confirmatory information processing},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {94},
      number = {3},
      pages = {382-395},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-3514.94.3.382}}
    }
    
    Fischer, P., Greitemeyer, T. & Frey, D. Ego depletion and positive illusions: Does the construction of positivity require regulatory resources? {2007} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {33}({9}), pp. {1306-1321} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Individuals frequently exhibit positive illusions about their own abilities, their possibilities to control their environment, and future expectations. The authors propose that positive illusions require resources of self-control, which is considered to be a limited resource similar to energy or strength. Five studies revealed that people with depleted self-regulatory resources indeed exhibited a less-optimistic sense of their own abilities (Study 1), a lower sense of subjective control (Study 2), and less-optimistic expectations about their future (Study 3). Two further studies shed light on the underlying psychological process: Ego-depleted (compared to nondepleted) individuals generated/retrieved less positive self-relevant attributes (Studies 4 and 5) and reported a lower sense of general self-efficacy (Study 5), which both partially mediated the impact of ego depletion on positive self-views (Study 5).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fischer2007,
      author = {Fischer, Peter and Greitemeyer, Tobias and Frey, Dieter},
      title = {Ego depletion and positive illusions: Does the construction of positivity require regulatory resources?},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {33},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1306-1321},
      doi = {{10.1177/0146167207303025}}
    }
    
    Fishbach, A., Zhang, Y. & Myrseth, K. ``Asymmetric Effects of Counteractive Control'' {2008}
    Vol. {35}ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL 35, pp. {219-220} 
    inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Fishbach2008,
      author = {Fishbach, Ayelet and Zhang, Ying and Myrseth, Kristian},
      title = {``Asymmetric Effects of Counteractive Control''},
      booktitle = {ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL 35},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {35},
      pages = {219-220},
      note = {35th Annual Conference of the Association-for-Consumer-Research, Memphis, TN, OCT 25-28, 2007}
    }
    
    Follenfant, A. & Ric, F. Behavioral rebound following stereotype suppression {2010} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {40}({5}), pp. {774-782} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Attempts to suppress stereotypes have often been found to result in an increased accessibility of these stereotypes. According to thought suppression literature together with research on prime-to-behavior effects, we hypothesized that suppression of stereotype can lead people to subsequently behave in accordance with its content and that these effects are stronger after suppression (rebound) than after a classical priming condition (i.e., no-suppression condition). Experiment 1 showed that suppression of the stereotype of sportsmen (associated with poor math performance) but not of Italian men (not related to math performance) led participants to subsequently perform worse on a calculus task in comparison to non-suppressors. These effects were replicated in a second experiment with another stereotype (elderly) and another behavior that does not require self regulation (walking speed): Suppressors walked slower than non-suppressors. These findings are considered in the context of mental control and social stereotyping. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Follenfant2010,
      author = {Follenfant, Alice and Ric, Francois},
      title = {Behavioral rebound following stereotype suppression},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {40},
      number = {5},
      pages = {774-782},
      doi = {{10.1002/ejsp.649}}
    }
    
    Freeman, N. & Muraven, M. Don't interrupt me! Task interruption depletes the self's limited resources {2010} MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
    Vol. {34}({3}), pp. {230-241} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: It is a common occurrence in daily life to be interrupted prior to completing a task. Such interruptions may have deleterious effects for limited self-resources, especially if they occur just prior to task completion. This hypothesis was tested in three experiments. In the first two, participants initially engaged in a card sorting task, and then subsequently performed a self-control task. In Experiment 3, participants first engaged in a word search task and then worked on an executive function task. In all instances, participants who were interrupted just prior to attaining their goal of completing the initial task, but not those who were stopped earlier in the task or who were allowed to finish, showed evidence of impairment on the subsequent measures. The findings suggest that the desire to pursue a goal increases as goal attainment draws nearer, and that the amount of self-control needed to stop working on a task is modified by situational variables such as goal distance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Freeman2010,
      author = {Freeman, Nicholas and Muraven, Mark},
      title = {Don't interrupt me! Task interruption depletes the self's limited resources},
      journal = {MOTIVATION AND EMOTION},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {34},
      number = {3},
      pages = {230-241},
      doi = {{10.1007/s11031-010-9169-6}}
    }
    
    Friedman, S., Rodriguez, P., Olivera, M., Bozzini, C., Norese, F., Gamba, C. & Boyer, P. Nutritional dwarfing: a longitudinal analysis of anthropometric and metabolic parameters in rats {1998} MEDICINA-BUENOS AIRES
    Vol. {58}({3}), pp. {282-286} 
    article  
    Abstract: Nutritional dwarfing (ND) is the result of nonorganic causes reflective of a voluntary or unintentional reduction in food intake, inappropriate eating behavior, dissatisfaction with body weight or unhealthy approaches toward weight control. Patients with ND have reached an equilibrium between their genetic growth potential and their nutritional intake. This study was undertaken to compare on a growing rat model the metabolic alterations in terms of substrate utilization (SU), oxygen consumption (VO2) and growth rate velocity. Twenty male weanling Wistar rats were randomized to 3 groups: control (C), experimental 4 (E4) and 8 (E8). C was fed ``ad libitum'' with a stock diet, E4 and E8 were underfed by 80% of the requirements during four or eight weeks, respectivately. During the depletion phase the following measurements were performed: la) body weight (Wt), 1b) length, 1c) Weight for Length ratio z-score, 2) Body composition (BC) by EM-SCAN Tobec Model 3 000, Springfield. USA, 3) VO2 by indirect calorimetry, EGO-OXYMAX. Results: 1) wt for length was -0.70 +/- 0.43 for E4 (t = 4 weeks) and 1.44 +/- 0.32 for E8 (t = 8 weeks), 2) % of fat mass was within the normal range, 3) VO2 was not significantly different between groups. Chronic suboptimal nutrition (80 decreased growth velocity which was the sole manifestation of nutritional inadequacy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Friedman1998,
      author = {Friedman, SM and Rodriguez, PN and Olivera, MI and Bozzini, C and Norese, F and Gamba, CA and Boyer, PM},
      title = {Nutritional dwarfing: a longitudinal analysis of anthropometric and metabolic parameters in rats},
      journal = {MEDICINA-BUENOS AIRES},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {58},
      number = {3},
      pages = {282-286}
    }
    
    Friese, M., Hofmann, W. & Waenke, M. When impulses take over: Moderated predictive validity of explicit and implicit attitude measures in predicting food choice and consumption behaviour {2008} BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {47}({Part 3}), pp. {397-419} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Recent theories in social psychology suggest that explicitly measured attitudes are particularly valuable for the prediction of deliberate, controlled behaviour. In contrast, implicitly measured attitudes are assumed to be more important for the prediction of less controlled, more impulsive behaviour. Yet, conclusive evidence for the differential predictive validity of both measures is scarce. We hypothesized that limitations of different control resources would lead to functionally equivalent effects. In Study 1, cognitive capacity moderated the predictive validity of both explicit and implicit attitude measures in a choice task. Self-regulatory resources led to similar patterns for eating (Study 2) and drinking behaviour (Study 3). In addition to the predictive validity of implicit and explicit attitude measures, in Study 3 we more closely investigated the relative contributions of explicitly measured attitudes and general restraint standards as two distinct, but complementing constructs that are dependent on control resources.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Friese2008,
      author = {Friese, Malte and Hofmann, Wilhelm and Waenke, Michaela},
      title = {When impulses take over: Moderated predictive validity of explicit and implicit attitude measures in predicting food choice and consumption behaviour},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {47},
      number = {Part 3},
      pages = {397-419},
      doi = {{10.1348/014466607X241540}}
    }
    
    Gailhot, M.T., Schmeichel, B.J. & Maner, J.K. Differentiating the effects of self-control and self-esteem on reactions to mortality salience {2007} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {43}({6}), pp. {894-901} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Whereas many previous studies suggest that self-esteem may buffer against the psychological threat of death, recent research has begun to suggest that self-control also may serve as a buffer. Two studies examined the possibility that dispositional self-control uniquely predicts responses to mortality salience, above and beyond self-esteem. In Study 1, an initial exercise in emotion regulation increased subsequent accessibility of death thoughts. In Study 2, mortality salience increased worldview defense. Both of these effects were moderated by dispositional self-control, such that the effects occurred among participants with low but not high self-control. More importantly, these moderating effects were observed over and above the moderating effects of self-esteem. Findings suggest that self-control may serve as an important and unique buffer against thoughts of death. (C) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gailhot2007,
      author = {Gailhot, Matthew T. and Schmeichel, Brandon J. and Maner, Jon K.},
      title = {Differentiating the effects of self-control and self-esteem on reactions to mortality salience},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {43},
      number = {6},
      pages = {894-901},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jesp.2006.10.011}}
    }
    
    Gailliot, M.T. & Baumeister, R.F. Self-regulation and sexual restraint: Dispositionally and temporarily poor self-regulatory abilities contribute to failures at restraining sexual behavior {2007} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {33}({2}), pp. {173-186} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Nonsexual deficiencies in self-control may contribute to inappropriate or objectionable sexual behaviors, as shown by survey questionnaires, autobiographical narratives, and experimental manipulations. People with low overall trait self-control and/or whose self-control strength bad been depleted by recent, nonsexual acts were less likely than other people to stifle inappropriate sexual thoughts and to resist the temptation to engage in sexual activities with someone other than their primary relationship partner. They also engaged in more extensive sexual activity in the laboratory with their dating partner and they reported more undercontrolled or impulsive sexual behavior generally. Furthermore, there was some evidence that the effects of diminished self-control were strongest among those with the strongest sexual desires (men and sexually unrestricted individuals) and among couples with less sexual experience.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gailliot2007b,
      author = {Gailliot, Matthew T. and Baumeister, Roy F.},
      title = {Self-regulation and sexual restraint: Dispositionally and temporarily poor self-regulatory abilities contribute to failures at restraining sexual behavior},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {33},
      number = {2},
      pages = {173-186},
      doi = {{10.1177/0146167206293472}}
    }
    
    Gailliot, M.T., Baumeister, R.F., DeWall, C.N., Maner, J.K., Plant, E.A., Tice, D.M., Brewer, L.E. & Schmeichel, B.J. Self-control relies on glucose as a limited energy source: Willpower is more than a metaphor {2007} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {92}({2}), pp. {325-336} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The present work suggests that self-control relies on glucose as a limited energy source. Laboratory tests of self-control (i.e., the Stroop task, thought suppression, emotion regulation, attention control) and of social behaviors (i.e., helping behavior, coping with thoughts of death, stifling prejudice during an interracial interaction) showed that (a) acts of self-control reduced blood glucose levels, (b) low levels of blood glucose after an initial self-control task predicted poor performance on a subsequent self-control task, and (c) initial acts of self-control impaired performance on subsequent self-control tasks, but consuming a glucose drink eliminated these impairments. Self-control requires a certain amount of glucose to operate unimpaired. A single act of self-control causes glucose to drop below optimal levels, thereby impairing subsequent attempts at self-control.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gailliot2007,
      author = {Gailliot, Matthew T. and Baumeister, Roy F. and DeWall, C. Nathan and Maner, Jon K. and Plant, E. Ashby and Tice, Dianne M. and Brewer, Lauren E. and Schmeichel, Brandon J.},
      title = {Self-control relies on glucose as a limited energy source: Willpower is more than a metaphor},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {92},
      number = {2},
      pages = {325-336},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-3514.92.2.325}}
    }
    
    Gailliot, M.T., Hildebrandt, B., Eckel, L.A. & Baumeister, R.F. A Theory of Limited Metabolic Energy and Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms: Increased Metabolic Demands During the Luteal Phase Divert Metabolic Resources From and Impair Self-Control {2010} REVIEW OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {14}({3}), pp. {269-282} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Numerous studies suggest that premenstrual syndrome (PMS) may be linked to impaired self-control since many of the symptoms of PMS are indicative of impaired self-control Evidence links PMS to increased difficulty controlling emotions, attention, and fine motor movements, increased intake of alcohol, drugs, nicotine, caffeine, and food, impaired work performance. and increased stress, aggression, criminal behavior. interpersonal conflicts, and passivity Empirical research demonstrates that self-control Is metabolically expensive and, as such, can be impaired when metabolic energy (i e, glucose) is low or processed ineffectively The expression of PMS is tightly linked to the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. a time in which considerable metabolic energy is allocated to the ovaries This increased ovarian metabolic demand could, therefore. divert energy away from. and thereby impair. other processes during this phase of the menstrual cycle Here. we propose a novel theory in which PMS symptoms are partly attributable to the diversion of metabolic energy to the ovaries and away from processes that benefit self-control
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gailliot2010,
      author = {Gailliot, Matthew T. and Hildebrandt, Britny and Eckel, Lisa A. and Baumeister, Roy F.},
      title = {A Theory of Limited Metabolic Energy and Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms: Increased Metabolic Demands During the Luteal Phase Divert Metabolic Resources From and Impair Self-Control},
      journal = {REVIEW OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {14},
      number = {3},
      pages = {269-282},
      doi = {{10.1037/a0018525}}
    }
    
    Gailliot, M.T., Plant, E.A., Butz, D.A. & Baumeister, R.F. Increasing self-regulatory strength can reduce the depleting effect of suppressing stereotypes {2007} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {33}({2}), pp. {281-294} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Three longitudinal studies and one correlational study tested the hypothesis that increasing self-regulatory strength by regular self-regulatory exercise would reduce the intrapsycbic costs of suppressing stereotypes. Participants tried to resist using stereotypes while describing or talking to a stimulus person. Participants whose habitual motivation to suppress stereotypes was low exhibited impaired Stroop and anagram performance after the suppression task, presumably because of self-regulatory depletion (i.e., a reduction of self-regulatory strength following prior use). Two weeks of self-regulation exercises (such as using one's nondominant hand or refraining from cursing) eliminated this effect. These findings indicate that self-regulatory exercise can improve resistance to self-regulatory depletion and, consequently, people can suppress stereotypes without suffering subsequent decrements in task performance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gailliot2007a,
      author = {Gailliot, Matthew T. and Plant, E. Ashby and Butz, David A. and Baumeister, Roy F.},
      title = {Increasing self-regulatory strength can reduce the depleting effect of suppressing stereotypes},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {33},
      number = {2},
      pages = {281-294},
      doi = {{10.1177/0146167206296101}}
    }
    
    Gailliot, M.T., Schmeichel, B.J. & Baumeister, R.F. Self-regulatory processes defend against the threat of death: Effects of self-control depletion and trait self-control on thoughts and fears of dying {2006} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {91}({1}), pp. {49-62} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Nine studies (N = 979) demonstrated that managing the threat of death requires self-regulation. Both trait and state self-control ability moderated the degree to which people experienced death-related thought and anxiety. Participants high (vs. low) in self-control generated fewer death-related thoughts after being primed with death, reported less death anxiety, were less likely to perceive death-related themes in ambiguous scenes, and reacted with less worldview defense when mortality was made salient. Further, coping with thoughts of death led to self-regulatory fatigue. After writing about death versus a control topic, participants performed worse on several measures of self-regulation that were irrelevant to death. These results suggest that self-regulation is a key intrapsychic mechanism for alleviating troublesome thoughts and feelings about mortality.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gailliot2006,
      author = {Gailliot, Matthew T. and Schmeichel, Brandon J. and Baumeister, Roy F.},
      title = {Self-regulatory processes defend against the threat of death: Effects of self-control depletion and trait self-control on thoughts and fears of dying},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {91},
      number = {1},
      pages = {49-62},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-3514.91.1.49}}
    }
    
    Gallo, I.S. & Gollwitzer, P.M. Implementation intentions: A look back at fifteen years of progress {2007} PSICOTHEMA
    Vol. {19}({1}), pp. {37-42} 
    article  
    Abstract: Implementation intentions are if-then plans that spell out when, where, and how a set goal has to be put into action: ``If situation x is encountered, then I will perform behavior y!'', thereby linking a critical situation with a goal-directed behavior. Over the last fifteen years, implementation intentions, as compared to simple goal intentions (''I intend to reach z!''), have demonstrated their effectiveness as self-regulation strategies in promoting desired behaviors or when unpleasant actions have to be carried out. By forming implementation intentions, the control of unwanted influences (e.g., temptations, bad habits, adverse self-states) on an ongoing goal pursuit can also be facilitated. Furthermore, implementation intentions have been shown to ease goal-directed actions in critical populations such as patients with a frontal brain lesion, schizophrenic patients, and opiate addicts in withdrawal, for whom the initiation problems of the goaldirected action are more accentuated.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gallo2007,
      author = {Gallo, Inge Schweiger and Gollwitzer, Peter M.},
      title = {Implementation intentions: A look back at fifteen years of progress},
      journal = {PSICOTHEMA},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {19},
      number = {1},
      pages = {37-42}
    }
    
    Geeraert, N. & Yzerbyt, V.Y. How fatiguing is dispositional suppression? Disentangling the effects of procedural rebound and ego-depletion {2007} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {37}({2}), pp. {216-230} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Recent work has shown that correcting a dispositional inference may lead social observers to overemphasize the role of dispositional factors in subsequent judgments. This effect has been explained as a procedural rebound following a phase of dispositional suppression. We conducted two experiments to test an alternative explanation in terms of ego-depletion. In Experiment 1, we compared the effects of ego-depletion and dispositional rebound by relying on the attitude attribution paradigm and the cookie paradigm. In Experiment 2, we turned to a difficult math task in order to induce fatigue. We were able to replicate the dispositional rebound and the ego-depletion effects but none of the experiments supported an ego-depletion explanation of post-suppression dispositional rebound. Copyright (c) 2066 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Geeraert2007,
      author = {Geeraert, Nicolas and Yzerbyt, Vincent Y.},
      title = {How fatiguing is dispositional suppression? Disentangling the effects of procedural rebound and ego-depletion},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {37},
      number = {2},
      pages = {216-230},
      doi = {{10.1002/ejsp.349}}
    }
    
    Geeraert, N. & Yzerbyt, V.Y. Cultural differences in the correction of social inferences: Does the dispositional rebound occur in an interdependent culture? {2007} BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {46}({Part 2}), pp. {423-435} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Although social observers have been found to rely heavily on dispositions in their causal analysis, it has been proposed that culture strongly affects this tendency. Recent research has shown that suppressing dispositional inferences during social judgment can lead to a dispositional rebound, that is relying more on dispositional information in subsequent judgments. In the present research, we investigated whether culture also affects this rebound tendency. First, Thai and Belgian participants took part in a typical attitude attribution paradigm. Next, dispositional rebound was assessed by having participants describe a series of pictures. The dispositional rebound occurred for both Belgian and Thai participants when confronted with a forced target, but disappeared for Thai participants when the situational constraints of the target were made salient. The findings are discussed in light of the current cultural models of attribution theory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Geeraert2007a,
      author = {Geeraert, Nicolas and Yzerbyt, Vincent Y.},
      title = {Cultural differences in the correction of social inferences: Does the dispositional rebound occur in an interdependent culture?},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {46},
      number = {Part 2},
      pages = {423-435},
      doi = {{10.1348/014466606X162062}}
    }
    
    Geyskens, K., Bruyneel, S. & Dewitte, S. ``Getting Into It. Exerting Self-Control Enhances Self-Control Performance on Similar Tasks'' {2007}
    Vol. {34}ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH VOL XXXIV, pp. {25-26} 
    inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Geyskens2007,
      author = {Geyskens, Kelly and Bruyneel, Sabrina and Dewitte, Siegfried},
      title = {``Getting Into It. Exerting Self-Control Enhances Self-Control Performance on Similar Tasks''},
      booktitle = {ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH VOL XXXIV},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {34},
      pages = {25-26},
      note = {34th Annual Conference of the Association-for-Consumer-Research, Orlando, FL, SEP 28-OCT 01, 2006}
    }
    
    Gordijn, E., Hindriks, I., Koomen, W., Dijksterhuis, A. & Van Knippenberg, A. Consequences of stereotype suppression and internal suppression motivation: A self-regulation approach {2004} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {30}({2}), pp. {212-224} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The present research studied the effects of suppression of stereotypes on subsequent stereotyping. Moreover, the moderating influence of motivation to suppress stereotypes was examined. The first three experiments showed that suppression of stereotypes leads to the experience of engaging in self-control (Study 1), to depleted regulatory resources as indicated by worse performance on an unrelated subsequent task that involves self-regulation (Study 2), and to hyperaccessibility of the suppressed thoughts (Study 3). However, these effects were moderated by internal suppression motivation: Increased self-control, depleted regulatory resources, and hyperaccessibility of suppressed thoughts only occur for people with low internal suppression motivation. Furthermore, in line with the argument that depletion of regulatory resources after suppression also should result in increased stereotyping in general, it was found that suppression of a specific stereotype leads to an increased use of stereotypes in general, but only for people with low internal suppression motivation (Study 4).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gordijn2004,
      author = {Gordijn, EH and Hindriks, I and Koomen, W and Dijksterhuis, A and Van Knippenberg, A},
      title = {Consequences of stereotype suppression and internal suppression motivation: A self-regulation approach},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {30},
      number = {2},
      pages = {212-224},
      doi = {{10.1177/0146167203259935}}
    }
    
    Govorun, O. & Payne, B. Ego-depletion and prejudice: Separating automatic and controlled components {2006} SOCIAL COGNITION
    Vol. {24}({2}), pp. {111-136} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study investigated the effect of ego-depletion on the automatic and controlled components of stereotype-based responses. Participants engaged in a depleting task for either a short or a long period of time. They then performed a weapon identification task, which served as a measure of race stereotyping. Analyses guided by the L.L. Jacoby's 0 991) process dissociation procedure indicated that ego-depletion reduced the controlled component of responses, but did not affect the automatic component. Further, ego-depletion increased stereotypical responses only among those participants who showed strong automatic stereotype activation. The discussion focuses on methodologically and theoretically integrating notions of self-control and cognitive control.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Govorun2006,
      author = {Govorun, O and Payne, BK},
      title = {Ego-depletion and prejudice: Separating automatic and controlled components},
      journal = {SOCIAL COGNITION},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {24},
      number = {2},
      pages = {111-136}
    }
    
    Gramsch, E., Gullikson, E., Moses, W. & Avila, R. Operating characteristics of avalanche photodiodes for PET systems {1997} 1996 IEEE NUCLEAR SCIENCE SYMPOSIUM - CONFERENCE RECORD, VOLS 1-3, pp. {768-772}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: Results from recently developed avalanche photodiodes of the beveled edge type for use in low-light level applications such as PET systems are presented, Starting from a neutron transmutation doped (NTD) Si wafer, an avalanche photodiode with an active area of 100 mm(2) was produced by deep Ga diffusion, followed by boron and phosphor diffusion. The gain and dark current are dependent on external voltage, and gains up to 400 are obtained at 1950 V without much excess noise, breakdown occurs at 1990 V. The detector exhibits low noise and fast response, necessary for use in PET systems. The energy resolution from a Co-57 gamma-ray source was measured to be 942 eV at 6.5 keV, which corresponds to 111 r.m.s. noise electrons at the input. We measured the energy resolution of the detector coupled a 3 x 3 x 3 mm(3) BGO scintillator from a Na-22 gamma ray source. The energy resolution at the 511 keV line was 12.5 which is comparable to photomultiplier tubes coupled to a scintillator of the same size. Calculation of the electric field and width of the depletion region was done to estimate the thickness of the undepleted front region and to optimize the quantum efficiency for detection of EGO light.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Gramsch1997,
      author = {Gramsch, E and Gullikson, EM and Moses, WW and Avila, R},
      title = {Operating characteristics of avalanche photodiodes for PET systems},
      booktitle = {1996 IEEE NUCLEAR SCIENCE SYMPOSIUM - CONFERENCE RECORD, VOLS 1-3},
      year = {1997},
      pages = {768-772},
      note = {1996 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, ANAHEIM, CA, NOV 02-09, 1996}
    }
    
    de Groot, M. & Dellaert, B.G.C. Choosing Between Service Sequences: The Joint Effect of Ego Depletion and Mood on Consumers' Decision Strategy {2007}
    Vol. {34}ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH VOL XXXIV, pp. {354-355} 
    inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Groot2007,
      author = {de Groot, Miriam and Dellaert, Benedict G. C.},
      title = {Choosing Between Service Sequences: The Joint Effect of Ego Depletion and Mood on Consumers' Decision Strategy},
      booktitle = {ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH VOL XXXIV},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {34},
      pages = {354-355},
      note = {34th Annual Conference of the Association-for-Consumer-Research, Orlando, FL, SEP 28-OCT 01, 2006}
    }
    
    Hackenberg, A.J. Mathematical Caring Relations in Action {2010} JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
    Vol. {41}({3}), pp. {236-273} 
    article  
    Abstract: In a small-scale, 8-month teaching experiment, the author aimed to establish and maintain mathematical caring relations (MCRs) (Hackenberg, 2005c) with 4 6th-grade students. From a teacher's perspective, establishing MCRs involves holding the work of orchestrating mathematical learning for students together with an orientation to monitor and respond to energetic fluctuations that may accompany student teacher interactions. From a student's perspective, participating in an MCR involves some openness to the teacher's interventions in the student's mathematical activity and some willingness to pursue questions of interest. In this article, the author elucidates the nature of establishing MCRs with 2 of the 4 students in the study and examines what is mathematical about these caring relations. Analysis revealed that student teacher interaction can be viewed as a linked chain of perturbations; in student teacher interaction aimed toward the establishment of MCRs, the linked chain tends toward perturbations that are bearable (Tzur, 1995) for both students and teachers.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hackenberg2010,
      author = {Hackenberg, Amy J.},
      title = {Mathematical Caring Relations in Action},
      journal = {JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {41},
      number = {3},
      pages = {236-273}
    }
    
    Haemmig, R. Stigma, Ethics, and the Right for Opioid Substitution {2010} SUCHTTHERAPIE
    Vol. {11}({3}), pp. {116-120} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Drug addicts are stigmatised and consecutively discriminated. This has a negative impact on their health. Societal stereotypes still hinder that society recognises addiction as a disease, despite the fact it is classified in ICD-10 and DSM IV-TR. One of the reasons is that addiction as a bio-psycho-social condition is still lacking a proper conceptualisation. According to the psychoanalytical model of Rado (1926) drugs change the Ego functions and the Ego gets under the influence of the Id. This concept is consistent with the newer findings from neuro-sciences and psychology. These findings show that self-control is impaired and that the Ego undergoes ``Ego-depletion''. These changes vary over time, thus addicts are able to give an informed consent to a treatment, which has to fulfil the conditions of a modern bio-ethic (respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice of distribution). Opioid substitution treatment has proven to be an effective measure in heroin addiction. The constitution of the WHO declares ``the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being'', the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adds a right for treatment and social support, further specified by the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. From this derives the obligation of the state to take positive steps to realise the right for health. Heroin addicts have thus a right for substitution. The same applies to prisoners according to the resolution of the UN General Assembly 45/111.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Haemmig2010,
      author = {Haemmig, R.},
      title = {Stigma, Ethics, and the Right for Opioid Substitution},
      journal = {SUCHTTHERAPIE},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {11},
      number = {3},
      pages = {116-120},
      doi = {{10.1055/s-0030-1261915}}
    }
    
    Hagger, M.S. Sleep, Self-Regulation, Self-Control and Health {2010} STRESS AND HEALTH
    Vol. {26}({3}), pp. {181-185} 
    article DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hagger2010a,
      author = {Hagger, Martin S.},
      title = {Sleep, Self-Regulation, Self-Control and Health},
      journal = {STRESS AND HEALTH},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {26},
      number = {3},
      pages = {181-185},
      doi = {{10.1002/smi.1345}}
    }
    
    Hagger, M.S., Wood, C., Stiff, C. & Chatzisarantis, N.L.D. Ego Depletion and the Strength Model of Self-Control: A Meta-Analysis {2010} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {136}({4}), pp. {495-525} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: According to the strength model, self-control is a finite resource that determines capacity for effortful control over dominant responses and, once expended, leads to impaired self-control task performance, known as ego depletion. A meta-analysis of 83 studies tested the effect of ego depletion on task performance and related outcomes, alternative explanations and moderators of the effect, and additional strength model hypotheses. Results revealed a significant effect of ego depletion on self-control task performance. Significant effect sizes were found for ego depletion on effort, perceived difficulty, negative affect, subjective fatigue, and blood glucose levels. Small, nonsignificant effects were found for positive affect and self-efficacy. Moderator analyses indicated minimal variation in the effect across sphere of depleting and dependent task, frequently used depleting and dependent tasks, presentation of tasks as single or separate experiments, type of dependent measure and control condition task, and source laboratory. The effect size was moderated by depleting task duration, task presentation by the same or different experimenters, intertask interim period, dependent task complexity, and use of dependent tasks in the choice and volition and cognitive spheres. Motivational incentives, training on self-control tasks, and glucose supplementation promoted better self-control in ego-depleted samples. Expecting further acts of self-control exacerbated the effect. Findings provide preliminary support for the ego-depletion effect and strength model hypotheses. Support for motivation and fatigue as alternative explanations for ego depletion indicate a need to integrate the strength model with other theories. Findings provide impetus for future investigation testing additional hypotheses and mechanisms of the ego-depletion effect.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hagger2010,
      author = {Hagger, Martin S. and Wood, Chantelle and Stiff, Chris and Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.},
      title = {Ego Depletion and the Strength Model of Self-Control: A Meta-Analysis},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {136},
      number = {4},
      pages = {495-525},
      doi = {{10.1037/a0019486}}
    }
    
    Hammer, E. From the laboratory to the classroom and back: The science of interpersonal relationships informs teaching {2005} JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {24}({1}), pp. {3-10} 
    article  
    Abstract: Social psychological research can be applied easily to teaching and related classroom experiences. Given that the interpersonal aspects of teaching styles are important in student perceptions and motivation, the applications of research on interpersonal relationships is especially useful. Previous research on attributional styles, ego depletion, and relationship styles is considered for its relevance to the faculty-student dynamic. Just as these theories go a long way to inform our teaching, they also inform the scholarship of teaching.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hammer2005,
      author = {Hammer, EY},
      title = {From the laboratory to the classroom and back: The science of interpersonal relationships informs teaching},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {24},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-10}
    }
    
    Hofmann, W., Friese, M. & Strack, F. Impulse and Self-Control From a Dual-Systems Perspective {2009} PERSPECTIVES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {4}({2}), pp. {162-176} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Though human beings embody a unique ability for planned behavior, they also often act impulsively. This insight may be important for the study of self-control situations in which people are torn between their long-term goals to restrain behavior and their immediate impulses that promise hedonic fulfillment. In the present article, we outline a dual-systems perspective of impulse and self-control and suggest a framework for the prediction of self-control outcomes. This framework combines three elements that, considered jointly, may enable a more precise prediction of self-control outcomes than they do when studied in isolation: impulsive precursors of behavior, reflective precursors, and situational or dispositional boundary conditions. The theoretical and practical utility of such an approach is demonstrated by drawing on recent evidence from several domains of self-control such as eating, drinking, and sexual behavior.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hofmann2009,
      author = {Hofmann, Wilhelm and Friese, Malte and Strack, Fritz},
      title = {Impulse and Self-Control From a Dual-Systems Perspective},
      journal = {PERSPECTIVES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {4},
      number = {2},
      pages = {162-176},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01116.x}}
    }
    
    Hofmann, W., Rauch, W. & Gawronski, B. And deplete us not into temptation: Automatic attitudes, dietary restraint, and self-regulatory resources as determinants of eating behavior {2007} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {43}({3}), pp. {497-504} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Linking contemporary models of self-regulation to recent research on automatic attitudes, the present study investigated the impact of automatic candy attitudes, dietary restraint standards, and self-regulation resources on eating behavior. Participants were assigned to either an emotion suppression task (low self-regulation resources) or an emotion flow task (high self-regulation resources), and were then given an opportunity to taste candies. When self-regulation resources were high, candy consumption was uniquely related to dietary restraint standards (but not automatic candy attitudes). In contrast, when self-regulation resources were low, candy consumption was primarily predicted by automatic candy attitudes, with dietary restraint standards showing a tendency for counterintentional effects. These results indicate that the behavioral impact of automatic attitudes and personal standards depends on available control resources. Implications for research on automatic attitudes and self-regulation are discussed. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hofmann2007,
      author = {Hofmann, Wilhelm and Rauch, Wolfgang and Gawronski, Bertram},
      title = {And deplete us not into temptation: Automatic attitudes, dietary restraint, and self-regulatory resources as determinants of eating behavior},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {43},
      number = {3},
      pages = {497-504},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jesp.2006.05.004}}
    }
    
    Hofmann, W., Strack, F. & Deutsch, R. Free to buy? Explaining self-control and impulse in consumer behavior {2008} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {18}({1}), pp. {22-26} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: An important goal for consumer psychology is to understand when and why consumer behavior is driven by impulses versus rational decisions. Models accounting for the different shades of consumer behavior should spell out how impulsive versus reflective precursors of action are instigated, how they transform into behavior, when they conflict with each other, how such conflicts are resolved, and which boundary conditions (such as ego depletion) affect the relative influence of impulsive versus reflective precursors on behavior. Introducing the notion of free will into consumer psychology may discourage researchers from investigating the specific mechanisms underlying consumer choice and behavior. (c) 2007 Society for Consumer Psychology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All fights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hofmann2008,
      author = {Hofmann, Wilhelm and Strack, Fritz and Deutsch, Roland},
      title = {Free to buy? Explaining self-control and impulse in consumer behavior},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {18},
      number = {1},
      pages = {22-26},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jcps.2007.10.005}}
    }
    
    Holton, R. Determinism, Self-Efficacy, and the Phenomenology of Free Will {2009} INQUIRY-AN INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY
    Vol. {52}({4}), pp. {412-428} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Some recent studies have suggested that belief in determinism tends to undermine moral motivation: subjects who are given determinist texts to read become more likely to cheat or engage in vindictive behaviour. One possible explanation is that people are natural incompatibilists, so that convincing them of determinism undermines their belief that they are morally responsible. I suggest a different explanation, and in doing so try to shed some light on the phenomenology of free will. I contend that one aspect of the phenomenology is our impression that maintaining a resolution requires effortan impression well supported by a range of psychological data. Determinism can easily be interpreted as showing that such effort will be futile: in effect determinism is conflated with fatalism, in a way that is reminiscent of the Lazy argument used against the Stoics. If this interpretation is right, it explains how belief in determinism undermines moral motivation without needing to attribute sophisticated incompatibilist beliefs to subjects; it works by undermining subjects' self-efficacy. It also provides indirect support for the contention that this is one of the sources of the phenomenology of free will.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Holton2009,
      author = {Holton, Richard},
      title = {Determinism, Self-Efficacy, and the Phenomenology of Free Will},
      journal = {INQUIRY-AN INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {52},
      number = {4},
      pages = {412-428},
      doi = {{10.1080/00201740903087383}}
    }
    
    Hui, S.-k.A., Wright, R.A., Stewart, C.C., Simmons, A., Eaton, B. & Nolte, R.N. Performance, cardiovascular, and health behavior effects of an inhibitory strength training intervention {2009} MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
    Vol. {33}({4}), pp. {419-434} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Female undergraduates were assigned to one of three groups, two involving regulatory training and one not. Training participants performed for 2 weeks tasks that required strong behavioral restraint (Strong Training) or weak behavioral restraint (Weak Training). Later, they took part in (1) a laboratory session in which they performed tasks with inhibitory components, and (2) a follow-up week in which they provided health behavior reports and used designated dental supplies. No Training participants took part only in the session and follow-up week. As expected, laboratory performance was improved for Strong- relative to No Training participants, with performance for Weak Training participants falling in between. Also as expected, Strong Training participants used more floss in the follow-up week than did the No Training participants, with floss for Weak Training participants falling between. Contrary to expectation, Strong Training participants used less toothpaste and reported having brushed less than the No Training participants. In addition, Strong Training participants evinced exaggerated-rather than diminished-cardiovascular responses during the laboratory tasks. The performance and floss use data support the suggestion that inhibitory system strength can be increased through use. The brushing and cardiovascular findings may be interpretable in inhibitory strength terms.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hui2009,
      author = {Hui, Siu-kuen Azor and Wright, Rex A. and Stewart, Christopher C. and Simmons, Angel and Eaton, Bradley and Nolte, R. Nicholas},
      title = {Performance, cardiovascular, and health behavior effects of an inhibitory strength training intervention},
      journal = {MOTIVATION AND EMOTION},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {33},
      number = {4},
      pages = {419-434},
      doi = {{10.1007/s11031-009-9146-0}}
    }
    
    Inzlicht, M. & Kang, S.K. Stereotype Threat Spillover: How Coping With Threats to Social Identity Affects Aggression, Eating, Decision Making, and Attention {2010} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {99}({3}), pp. {467-481} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Stereotype threat spillover is a situational predicament in which coping with the stress of stereotype confirmation leaves one in a depleted volitional state and thus less likely to engage in effortful self-control in a variety of domains. We examined this phenomenon in 4 studies in which we had participants cope with stereotype and social identity threat and then measured their performance in domains in which stereotypes were not ``in the air.'' In Study 1 we examined whether taking a threatening math test could lead women to respond aggressively. In Study 2 we investigated whether coping with a threatening math test could lead women to indulge themselves with unhealthy food later on and examined the moderation of this effect by personal characteristics that contribute to identity-threat appraisals. In Study 3 we investigated whether vividly remembering an experience of social identity threat results in risky decision making. Finally, in Study 4 we asked whether coping with threat could directly influence attentional control and whether the effect was implemented by inefficient performance monitoring, as assessed by electroencephalography. Our results indicate that stereotype threat can spill over and impact self-control in a diverse array of nonstereotyped domains. These results reveal the potency of stereotype threat and that its negative consequences might extend further than was previously thought.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Inzlicht2010,
      author = {Inzlicht, Michael and Kang, Sonia K.},
      title = {Stereotype Threat Spillover: How Coping With Threats to Social Identity Affects Aggression, Eating, Decision Making, and Attention},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {99},
      number = {3},
      pages = {467-481},
      doi = {{10.1037/a0018951}}
    }
    
    Inzlicht, M., McKay, L. & Aronson, J. Stigma as ego depletion - How being the target of prejudice affects self-control {2006} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {17}({3}), pp. {262-269} 
    article  
    Abstract: This research examined whether stigma diminishes people's ability to control their behaviors. Because coping with stigma requires self-regulation, and self-regulation is a limited-capacity resource, we predicted that individuals belonging to stigmatized groups are less able to regulate their own behavior when they become conscious of their stigmatizing status or enter threatening environments. Study 1 uncovered a correlation between stigma sensitivity and self-regulation; the more Black college students were sensitive to prejudice, the less self-control they reported having. By experimentally activating stigma, Studies 2 and 3 provided causal evidence for stigma's ego-depleting qualities: When their stigma was activated, stigmatized participants (Black students and females) showed impaired self-control in two very different domains (attentional and physical self-regulation). These results suggest that (a) stigma is ego depleting and (b) coping with it can weaken the ability to control and regulate one's behaviors in domains unrelated to the stigma.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Inzlicht2006,
      author = {Inzlicht, M and McKay, L and Aronson, J},
      title = {Stigma as ego depletion - How being the target of prejudice affects self-control},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {17},
      number = {3},
      pages = {262-269}
    }
    
    Janssen, L., Fennis, B.M., Pruyn, A.T.H. & Vohs, K.D. The path of least resistance: Regulatory resource depletion and the effectiveness of social influence techniques {2008} JOURNAL OF BUSINESS RESEARCH
    Vol. {61}({10}), pp. {1041-1045} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Two experiments examine the role of regulatory resource depletion in the effectiveness of social influence techniques aimed at inducing consumer compliance. They test the two-step hypothesis that a) responding to the initial request stage of an influence technique requires self-control, thereby depleting one's limited resource of self-regulatory energy, and b) a state of regulatory resource depletion fosters the use of heuristics present in the persuasion context, which increases the odds of compliance with the target request of an influence technique. A first field experiment shows that yielding to initial requests (answering a series of questions) induces resource depletion. Experiment 2 demonstrates that a lower level of self-regulatory resources increases the extent of compliance with a request through the employment of the heuristic principle of authority. Together these results provide support for the prediction that regulatory resource depletion is important in explaining the effectiveness of social influence techniques. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Janssen2008,
      author = {Janssen, Loes and Fennis, Bob M. and Pruyn, Ad Th. H. and Vohs, Kathleen D.},
      title = {The path of least resistance: Regulatory resource depletion and the effectiveness of social influence techniques},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF BUSINESS RESEARCH},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {61},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1041-1045},
      note = {34th International Research Conference on Marketing - Marketing Communications and Consumer Behavior, La Londe, FRANCE, 2007},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.09.013}}
    }
    
    Johns, M., Inzlicht, M. & Schmader, T. Stereotype Threat and Executive Resource Depletion: Examining the Influence of Emotion Regulation {2008} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL
    Vol. {137}({4}), pp. {691-705} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Research shows that stereotype threat reduces performance by diminishing executive resources, but less is known about the psychological processes responsible for these impairments. The authors tested the idea that targets of stereotype threat try to regulate their emotions and that this regulation depletes, executive resources. resulting in underperformance. Across 4 experiments, they provide converging evidence that targets of stereotype threat spontaneously attempt to control their expression of anxiety and that such emotion regulation depletes executive resources needed to perform well on tests of cognitive ability. They also demonstrate that providing threatened individuals with a means to effectively cope with negative emotions-by reappraising the situation or the meaning of their anxiety-can restore executive resources and improve test performance. They discuss these results within the framework of an integrated process model of stereotype threat, in which affective and cognitive processes interact to undermine performance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Johns2008,
      author = {Johns, Michael and Inzlicht, Michael and Schmader, Toni},
      title = {Stereotype Threat and Executive Resource Depletion: Examining the Influence of Emotion Regulation},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {137},
      number = {4},
      pages = {691-705},
      note = {7th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Personality-and-Social-Psychology, Palm Springs, CA, JAN, 2006},
      doi = {{10.1037/a0013834}}
    }
    
    Johnson, S.E., Mitchell, M.A., Bean, M.G., Richeson, J.A. & Shelton, J.N. Gender moderates the self-regulatory consequences of suppressing emotional reactions to sexism {2010} GROUP PROCESSES & INTERGROUP RELATIONS
    Vol. {13}({2, Sp. Iss. SI}), pp. {215-226} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This study examined whether members of low-status, stigmatized groups are less susceptible to the negative cognitive consequences of suppressing their emotional reactions to prejudice, compared with members of high-status, non-stigmatized groups. Specifically, we examined whether regulating one's emotional reactions to sexist comments-an exercise of self-regulation-leaves women less cognitively depleted than their male counterparts. We hypothesized that the greater practice and experience of suppressing emotional reactions to sexism that women are likely to have relative to men should leave them less cognitively impaired by such emotion suppression. Results were consistent with this hypothesis. Moreover, these results suggest that our social group memberships may play an important role in determining which social demands we find depleting.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Johnson2010,
      author = {Johnson, Sarah E. and Mitchell, Melissa A. and Bean, Meghan G. and Richeson, Jennifer A. and Shelton, J. Nicole},
      title = {Gender moderates the self-regulatory consequences of suppressing emotional reactions to sexism},
      journal = {GROUP PROCESSES & INTERGROUP RELATIONS},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {13},
      number = {2, Sp. Iss. SI},
      pages = {215-226},
      doi = {{10.1177/1368430209344867}}
    }
    
    Joireman, J., Balliet, D., Sprott, D., Spangenberg, E. & Schultz, J. Consideration of future consequences, ego-depletion, and self-control: Support for distinguishing between CFC-Immediate and CFC-Future sub-scales {2008} PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
    Vol. {45}({1}), pp. {15-21} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We examine how individual differences in the consideration of future consequences (Strathman et al., 1994) impact trait self-control, and temporal discounting under conditions of ego-depletion. Study 1 (N = 986) reveals that the CFC scale contains two underlying factors, which can be labeled the CFC-Immediate (CFC-I) and CFC-Future (CFC-F) sub-scales. Supporting the distinction between the two sub-scales, Study 2 (N = 147) shows that lower levels of trait self-control are best predicted by higher levels of CFC-I (not CFC-F), while Study 3 (N = 104) reveals that ego-depletion leads to more temporal discounting only among those high in CFC-I. Future use of the two sub-scales is encouraged. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Joireman2008,
      author = {Joireman, Jeff and Balliet, Daniel and Sprott, David and Spangenberg, Eric and Schultz, Jenifer},
      title = {Consideration of future consequences, ego-depletion, and self-control: Support for distinguishing between CFC-Immediate and CFC-Future sub-scales},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {45},
      number = {1},
      pages = {15-21},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.paid.2008.02.011}}
    }
    
    Kahan, D., Polivy, J. & Herman, C. Conformity and dietary disinhibition: A test of the ego-strength model of self-regulation {2003} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS
    Vol. {33}({2}), pp. {165-171} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Objective: Ego-strength depletion was examined as an explanation for dietary disinhibition in restrained eaters. We predicted that the depletion of ego strength resulting from having to choose whether to conform would undermine dietary restraint. Method: Participants completed an Asch-type conformity bask, after which they completed a taste-rating task in which food intake was measured. Results: As predicted, restrained eaters who repeatedly exercised choice ate significantly more than did restrained eaters who did not exercise choice. Discussion: An ego-strength model of dietary restraint is discussed. (C) 2003 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kahan2003,
      author = {Kahan, D and Polivy, J and Herman, CP},
      title = {Conformity and dietary disinhibition: A test of the ego-strength model of self-regulation},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {33},
      number = {2},
      pages = {165-171},
      note = {62nd Annual Convention of the Canadian-Psychological-Association, ST FOY, CANADA, JUN, 2001},
      doi = {{10.1002/eat.10132}}
    }
    
    Kaplan, S. & Berman, M.G. Directed Attention as a Common Resource for Executive Functioning and Self-Regulation {2010} PERSPECTIVES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {5}({1}), pp. {43-57} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Research on executive functioning and on self-regulation have each identified a critical resource that is central to that domain and is susceptible to depletion. In addition, studies have shown that self-regulation tasks and executive-functioning tasks interact with each other, suggesting that they may share resources. Other research has focused specifically on restoring what we propose is the shared resource between self-regulation and executive functioning. Utilizing a theory-based natural environment intervention, these studies have found improvements in executive-functioning performance and self-regulation effectiveness, suggesting that the natural environment intervention restores this shared resource.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kaplan2010,
      author = {Kaplan, Stephen and Berman, Marc G.},
      title = {Directed Attention as a Common Resource for Executive Functioning and Self-Regulation},
      journal = {PERSPECTIVES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {43-57},
      doi = {{10.1177/1745691609356784}}
    }
    
    Kaye, W., Frank, G., Bailer, U., Henry, S., Meltzer, C., Price, J., Mathis, C. & Wagner, A. Serotonin alterations, in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: New insights from imaging studies {2005} PHYSIOLOGY & BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {85}({1, Sp. Iss. SI}), pp. {73-81} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are related disorders with relatively homogenous presentations such as age of onset and gender distribution. In addition, they share symptoms, such as extremes of food consumption, body image distortion, anxiety and obsessions, and ego-syntonic neglect, raises the possibility that these symptoms reflect disturbed brain function that contributes to the pathophysiology of this illness. Recent brain imaging studies have identified altered activity in frontal, cingulate, temporal, and parietal cortical regions in AN and BN. Importantly, such disturbances are present when subjects are ill and persist after recovery, suggesting that these may be traits that are independent of the state of the illness. Emerging data point to a dysregulation of serotonin pathways in cortical and limbic structures that may be related to anxiety, behavioral inhibition, and body image distortions. In specific, recent studies using PET with serotonin specific radioligands implicate alterations of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors and the 5-HT transporter. Alterations of these circuits may affect mood and impulse control as well as the motivating and hedonic aspects of feeding behavior. Such imaging studies may offer insights into new pharmacology and psychotherapy approaches. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kaye2005,
      author = {Kaye, WH and Frank, GK and Bailer, UF and Henry, SE and Meltzer, CC and Price, JC and Mathis, CA and Wagner, A},
      title = {Serotonin alterations, in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: New insights from imaging studies},
      journal = {PHYSIOLOGY & BEHAVIOR},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {85},
      number = {1, Sp. Iss. SI},
      pages = {73-81},
      note = {Annual Meeting of the Society-for-the-Study-of-Ingestive-Behavior, Cincinnati, OH, JUL 21-24, 2004},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.physbeh.2005.04.013}}
    }
    
    Knowles, E. & Linn, J. Approach-avoidance model of persuasion: Alpha and omega strategies for change {2004} RESISTANCE AND PERSUASION, pp. {117-148}  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Knowles2004,
      author = {Knowles, ES and Linn, JA},
      title = {Approach-avoidance model of persuasion: Alpha and omega strategies for change},
      booktitle = {RESISTANCE AND PERSUASION},
      year = {2004},
      pages = {117-148},
      note = {Conference on Resistance and Persuasion, Fayetteville, WA, APR 12-13, 2002}
    }
    
    Kraft, P., Drozd, F. & Olsen, E. Digital therapy: Addressing willpower as part of the cognitive-affective processing system in the service of habit change {2008}
    Vol. {5033}PERSUASIVE TECHNOLOGY, pp. {177-188} 
    inproceedings  
    Abstract: We know much too little about how to design effective digital interventions to support sustained behavior change and improved well-being. The purpose of the present paper was to contribute in two ways. First, we want to contribute to current practice in designing such interventions. Second, we try to identify key research questions that could be a point of departure for a more detailed and comprehensive future research program. The propositions we suggest reflect that the construction of digital interventions should be seen as an iterative process which should take into account both ``content'' and ``design'' factors. However, we argue that intervention research and practical design experience is not just something that follows basic research at a polite distance, but rather is its inherent complement.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Kraft2008,
      author = {Kraft, Pal and Drozd, Filip and Olsen, Elin},
      title = {Digital therapy: Addressing willpower as part of the cognitive-affective processing system in the service of habit change},
      booktitle = {PERSUASIVE TECHNOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5033},
      pages = {177-188},
      note = {3rd International Conference on Persuasive Technology, Oulu, FINLAND, JUN 04-06, 2008}
    }
    
    Lam, C.K., Huang, X. & Janssen, O. Contextualizing Emotional Exhaustion and Positive Emotional Display: The Signaling Effects of Supervisors' Emotional Exhaustion and Service Climate {2010} JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {95}({2}), pp. {368-376} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In this study, we investigated how supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate jointly influence the relationship between subordinates' emotional exhaustion and their display of positive emotions at work. Using data from frontline sales employees and their immediate supervisors in a fashion retailer, we hypothesized and found that under the condition of a less positive service climate, subordinates' emotional exhaustion was more negatively related to their positive emotional display when supervisors' emotional exhaustion was higher rather than lower; this interaction effect of subordinates' and supervisors' emotional exhaustion was not significant in a more positive service climate. These results suggest that service climate and supervisors' emotional exhaustion provide emotionally exhausted employees with important information cues about the possible availability of compensatory resources they need to uphold their efforts to display service-focused emotions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lam2010,
      author = {Lam, Catherine K. and Huang, Xu and Janssen, Onne},
      title = {Contextualizing Emotional Exhaustion and Positive Emotional Display: The Signaling Effects of Supervisors' Emotional Exhaustion and Service Climate},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {95},
      number = {2},
      pages = {368-376},
      doi = {{10.1037/a0017869}}
    }
    
    Legault, L., Green-Demers, I. & Eadie, A.L. When internalization leads to automatization: The role of self-determination in automatic stereotype suppression and implicit prejudice regulation {2009} MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
    Vol. {33}({1}), pp. {10-24} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Recent evidence suggests that self-determined prejudice regulation is negatively related to both self-reported prejudice and automatic racial bias. However, the social-cognitive processes involved in this association have not yet been examined. Thus, the current project sought to test the `internalization-automatization hypothesis', that is, to assess the extent to which prejudice regulation is automatic for those high and low in self-determined motivation to regulate prejudice. To this end, two different experimental paradigms were used. In Experiment 1 (N = 84), differences in the automatic activation and application of stereotypes were assessed for those high and low in self-determined prejudice regulation. As expected, both types of prejudice regulators showed similar stereotype activation. However, only self-determined individuals inhibited the application of stereotypes following a prime. Experiment 2 (N = 134), assessed the impact of self-regulatory depletion on the regulation of implicit prejudice. As anticipated, for the self-determined regulators, prejudice regulation did not vary between depleted and non-depleted individuals. However, when non-self-determined prejudice regulators were depleted, prejudice increased, relative to non-depleted controls. Results are discussed in terms of an increased understanding of prejudice regulation through self-determination. Evidence of the automatization of self-determined prejudice regulation offers promising implications for the reduction of prejudice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Legault2009,
      author = {Legault, Lisa and Green-Demers, Isabelle and Eadie, Allison L.},
      title = {When internalization leads to automatization: The role of self-determination in automatic stereotype suppression and implicit prejudice regulation},
      journal = {MOTIVATION AND EMOTION},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {33},
      number = {1},
      pages = {10-24},
      doi = {{10.1007/s11031-008-9110-4}}
    }
    
    Levy, N. The social: A missing term in the debate over addiction and voluntary control {2007} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BIOETHICS
    Vol. {7}({1}), pp. {35-36} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levy2007,
      author = {Levy, Neil},
      title = {The social: A missing term in the debate over addiction and voluntary control},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BIOETHICS},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {35-36}
    }
    
    Levy, N. Addiction, autonomy and ego-depletion: A response to Bennett Foddy and Julian Savulescu {2006} BIOETHICS
    Vol. {20}({1}), pp. {16-20} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levy2006,
      author = {Levy, N},
      title = {Addiction, autonomy and ego-depletion: A response to Bennett Foddy and Julian Savulescu},
      journal = {BIOETHICS},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {20},
      number = {1},
      pages = {16-20}
    }
    
    Liu, Y., Prati, L.M., Perrewe, P.L. & Brymer, R.A. Individual Differences in Emotion Regulation, Emotional Experiences at Work, and Work-related Outcomes: A Two-Study Investigation {2010} JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {40}({6}), pp. {1515-1538} 
    article  
    Abstract: The relationships among individual differences in emotion regulation (i.e., habitual tendencies to use reappraisal vs. suppression), employee emotions at work, and job performance and satisfaction were examined with 2 samples. Results indicated that reappraisal was positively associated with positive emotions and negatively associated with negative emotions. However, different from prior research, no emotional correlates were found for suppression. Further, it was found that job satisfaction was positively associated with positive emotions and negatively associated with negative emotions. Self-rating of job performance was positively related to positive emotions, but was not significantly related to negative emotions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Liu2010,
      author = {Liu, Yongmei and Prati, L. Melita and Perrewe, Pamela L. and Brymer, Robert A.},
      title = {Individual Differences in Emotion Regulation, Emotional Experiences at Work, and Work-related Outcomes: A Two-Study Investigation},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {40},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1515-1538}
    }
    
    Loveland, K.E., Smeesters, D. & Mandel, N. ``Still Preoccupied with 1985: The Effect of Imagined Interaction on Preference for Nostalgic Products'' {2009}
    Vol. {36}ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL XXXVI, pp. {64-67} 
    inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Loveland2009,
      author = {Loveland, Kathleen E. and Smeesters, Dirk and Mandel, Naomi},
      title = {``Still Preoccupied with 1985: The Effect of Imagined Interaction on Preference for Nostalgic Products''},
      booktitle = {ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL XXXVI},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {36},
      pages = {64-67},
      note = {36th Annual Conference of the Association-for-Consumer-Research, San Francisco, CA, OCT 23-26, 2008}
    }
    
    Magen, E. & Gross, J.J. Harnessing the need for immediate gratification: Cognitive reconstrual modulates the reward value of temptations {2007} EMOTION
    Vol. {7}({2}), pp. {415-428} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Many of us succumb to temptations, despite knowing that we will later regret doing so. How can such behavior be avoided? In three studies, the authors tested the hypothesis that reconstruing temptation as a test of a valued internal quality (''willpower'') would decrease the tendency to succumb by reducing the appeal of the temptation. In Study 1, participants who construed a challenging handgrip task as a test of willpower resisted the temptation to terminate the painful task longer than participants who did not. In Study 2, participants performed a handgrip task twice. Only participants who changed their construal of the task into a test of willpower improved their performance. In Study 3, participants took a timed math test while being tempted by comedy clips. Participants who reconstrued the situation as willpower test compared with participants who did not, (a) enjoyed the videos less, and (b) were better able to resist the tempting videos. These studies demonstrate that cognitive reconstrual can be used to modify reward contingencies, so that succumbing to temptation becomes less appealing, and resisting temptation becomes more appealing.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Magen2007,
      author = {Magen, Eran and Gross, James J.},
      title = {Harnessing the need for immediate gratification: Cognitive reconstrual modulates the reward value of temptations},
      journal = {EMOTION},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {415-428},
      doi = {{10.1037/1528-3542.7.2.415}}
    }
    
    Martijn, C., Alberts, H., Sheeran, P., Peters, G.-J.Y., Mikolajczak, J. & de Vries, N.K. Blocked goals, persistent action: Implementation intentions engender tenacious goal striving {2008} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {44}({4}), pp. {1137-1143} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Research on goal attainment has demonstrated that people are more likely to reach their goals when they form implementation intentions. Three experiments tested whether implementation intentions lead to tenacious goal striving following blockage of an initial attempt to reach the goal. In all three experiments some participants were instructed to form an implementation intention and other participants were not. Subsequently, the initial goal-directed attempt of all participants was unexpectedly blocked. Experiment I found that implementation intentions resulted in more attempts to realize one's goal. Experiment 2 showed that when participants formed an implementation intention their repeated attempt was acted out as intensely as their first, blocked attempt. Experiment 3 found that implementation intentions still allow people to seize an alternative, more onerous means to realize their intention. These results imply that implementation intention conserve self-regulatory strength. After goal blockage, the remaining strength can be used to continue goal-directed action. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Martijn2008,
      author = {Martijn, Carolien and Alberts, Hugo and Sheeran, Paschal and Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y. and Mikolajczak, Jochen and de Vries, Nanne K.},
      title = {Blocked goals, persistent action: Implementation intentions engender tenacious goal striving},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {44},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1137-1143},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jesp.2008.01.005}}
    }
    
    Martijn, C., Alberts, H.J.E.M., Merckelbach, H., Havermans, R., Huijts, A. & De Vries, N.K. Overcoming ego depletion: The influence of exemplar priming on self-control performance {2007} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {37}({2}), pp. {231-238} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Self-regulation research suggested that active self-control depends on a limited resource. Therefore the capacity for self-control is lower among people who already exercised control, a phenomenon labelled as ego depletion. This experiment examines whether priming of a persistent person exemplar may help to overcome ego depletion. Half of the participants engaged in a demanding self-control task (solving extremely difficult labyrinths) whereas the other half took part in a task that demanded little self-control (solving easy labyrinths). Then, half of the participants received a person exemplar prime related to persistence; the other half received a neutral prime. Finally, participants' persistence on a subsequent self-control task (squeezing a handgrip) was measured. The effect of a person exemplar prime on a subsequent self-control task depended on initial self-control demands. Participants who exercised high initial self-control and were then presented with a persistent exemplar prime showed assimilation. Their handgrip persistence was higher than the persistence of participants who received a neutral prime. Under conditions of low initial self-control the opposite pattern was found. A persistent person prime resulted in contrast and resulted in lower handgrip performance as compared to those who received a neutral prime. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Martijn2007,
      author = {Martijn, Carolien and Alberts, Hugo J. E. M. and Merckelbach, Harald and Havermans, Remco and Huijts, Annemiek and De Vries, Nanne K.},
      title = {Overcoming ego depletion: The influence of exemplar priming on self-control performance},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {37},
      number = {2},
      pages = {231-238},
      doi = {{10.1002/ejsp.350}}
    }
    
    Martijn, C., Tenbult, P., Merckelbach, H., Dreezens, E. & de Vries, N. Getting a grip on ourselves: Challenging expectancies about loss of energy after self-control {2002} SOCIAL COGNITION
    Vol. {20}({6}), pp. {441-460} 
    article  
    Abstract: Research suggests that two, consecutive acts of self-control lead to impaired performance. This phenomenon is termed ``ego depletion.'' It is assumed that an act of self-control consumes energy from some limited resource leaving less energy available for a subsequent act of self-control. Study 1 tested the alternative hypothesis that people's naive theory or expectancy of the consequences of self-control influences their performance on control-demanding tasks. Participants watched an upsetting video fragment and subsequently performed a physical exercise test demanding self-control. Participants who suppressed their emotional reactions to the video showed ego-depletion: Their performance at the physical test decreased. However, if their (implicit) expectation that self-control negatively influences subsequent performance was challenged, their performance increased. Study 2 showed the existence of a dominant expectation that self-control consumes energy. These results indicate that the occurrence of the ego depletion phenomenon is strongly influenced by expectancies or schemata about self-control.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Martijn2002,
      author = {Martijn, C and Tenbult, P and Merckelbach, H and Dreezens, E and de Vries, NK},
      title = {Getting a grip on ourselves: Challenging expectancies about loss of energy after self-control},
      journal = {SOCIAL COGNITION},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {20},
      number = {6},
      pages = {441-460}
    }
    
    Mick, D.G. Degrees of freedom of will: An essential endless question in consumer behavior {2008} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {18}({1}), pp. {17-21} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Baumeister, Sparks, Stillman, and Vohs [Baumeister, R. F., Sparks, E. A., Stillman, T. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2008). Free will in consumer behavior: Self-control, ego depletion, and choice. Journal of Consumer Psychology] provide new insights on consumer free will by linking it to self-regulation within the context of culture, the market system, and ego depletion. They imply that free will is strong and widespread, as consumers set their goals and budgets and choose products and brands according to self-interests. However, the article gives little attention to the forces that substantially constrain consumer free will. These include the structure and power of international corporations, the role of socioeconomic status and biography, and the 24/7, high-speed, multitasking, hyperchoice lifestyle of millions of people. I identify some consumer behaviors that appear higher in free will than brand choices per se. I then outline additional research on belief in free will, the experience of free will, the association between wisdom and free will, and the roles of nonconscious factors and marketplace metacognition in exercising free will. (c) 2007 Society for Consumer Psychology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mick2008,
      author = {Mick, David Glen},
      title = {Degrees of freedom of will: An essential endless question in consumer behavior},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {18},
      number = {1},
      pages = {17-21},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jcps.2007.10.004}}
    }
    
    Moller, A.C., Deci, E.L. & Ryan, R.M. Choice and ego-depletion: The moderating role of autonomy {2006} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {32}({8}), pp. {1024-1036} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The self-regulatory strength model maintains that all acts of self-regulation, self-control, and choice result in a state of fatigue called ego-depletion. Self-determination theory differentiates between autonomous regulation and controlled regulation. Because making decisions represents one instance of self-regulation, the authors also differentiate between autonomous choice and controlled choice. Three experiments support the hypothesis that whereas conditions representing controlled choice would be ego-depleting, conditions that represented autonomous choice would not. In Experiment 3, the authors found significant mediation by perceived self-determination of the relation between the choice condition (autonomous vs. controlled) and ego-depletion as measured by performance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Moller2006,
      author = {Moller, Arlen C. and Deci, Edward L. and Ryan, Richard M.},
      title = {Choice and ego-depletion: The moderating role of autonomy},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {32},
      number = {8},
      pages = {1024-1036},
      doi = {{10.1177/0146167206288008}}
    }
    
    Monin, B., Pizarro, D.A. & Beer, J.S. Deciding versus reacting: Conceptions of moral judgment and the reason-affect debate {2007} REVIEW OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {11}({2}), pp. {99-111} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Recent approaches to moral judgment have typically pitted emotion against reason. In an effort to move beyond this debate, we propose that authors presenting diverging models are considering quite different prototypical situations: those focusing on the resolution of complex dilemmas conclude that morality involves sophisticated reasoning, whereas those studying reactions to shocking moral violations find that morality involves quick, affect-laden processes. We articulate these diverging dominant approaches and consider three directions for future research (moral temptation, moral self-image, and lay understandings of morality) that we propose have not received sufficient attention as a result of the focus on these two prototypical situations within moral psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Monin2007,
      author = {Monin, Benoit and Pizarro, David A. and Beer, Jennifer S.},
      title = {Deciding versus reacting: Conceptions of moral judgment and the reason-affect debate},
      journal = {REVIEW OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {11},
      number = {2},
      pages = {99-111},
      doi = {{10.1037/1089-2680.11.2.99}}
    }
    
    Muraven, M. Prejudice as self-control failure {2008} JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {38}({2}), pp. {314-333} 
    article  
    Abstract: Research has suggested that whereas stereotypical attitudes may be automatically activated, the response to these stereotypes can be controlled. Anything that interferes with self-control may result in more biased behavior. The ego strength model hypothesizes that after exerting self-control, subsequent self-control performance will suffer. Hence, depletion of ego strength may lead to increased prejudice. In 2 studies, depletion was found only to affect individuals who normally try to control their prejudicial responses. Participants who do not normally try to control their use of stereotypes were equally prejudiced, regardless of their level of ego strength. The results have implications for prejudice and stereotyping, as well as models of self-control.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Muraven2008a,
      author = {Muraven, Mark},
      title = {Prejudice as self-control failure},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {38},
      number = {2},
      pages = {314-333}
    }
    
    Muraven, M. Autonomous self-control is less depleting {2008} JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY
    Vol. {42}({3}), pp. {763-770} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Autonomously motivated self-control may be less depleting than extrinsically motivated self-control. Participants were asked to not eat cookies and their motivation orientation for resisting that temptation was assessed. Their self-control performance was assessed immediately before and after fighting the temptation. As compared to their baseline performance, participants who avoided eating the cookies for more autonomous reasons performed better at the second measure relative to participants who did not eat for more extrinsic reasons. Mood, arousal, and demographic factors were not related to self-control performance and feelings of autonomy. Overall, it appears that feeling compelled to exert self-control may deplete more strength than having more freedom when exerting self-control. The results may increase our understanding of how self-control strength and feelings of autonomy interact. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Muraven2008b,
      author = {Muraven, Mark},
      title = {Autonomous self-control is less depleting},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {42},
      number = {3},
      pages = {763-770},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jrp.2007.08.002}}
    }
    
    Muraven, M., Gagne, M. & Rosman, H. Helpful self-control: Autonomy support, vitality, and depletion {2008} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {44}({3}), pp. {573-585} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Why someone exerts self-control may influence how depleting a task is. Feeling compelled to exert self-control require more self-control strength than exerting self-control for more autonomous reasons. Across three experiments, individuals whose autonomy was supported while exerting self-control performed better on a subsequent test of self-control as compared to individuals who had more pressure placed upon them while exerting self-control. The differences in self-control performance were not due to anxiety, stress, unpleasantness, or reduced motivation among the controlled participants. Additional analyses suggested that the decline in self-control performance was mediated by subjective vitality. Feelings of autonomy support lead to enhanced feelings of subjective vitality. This increased vitality may help replenish lost ego-strength, which lead to better self-control performance subsequently. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Muraven2008,
      author = {Muraven, Mark and Gagne, Marylene and Rosman, Heather},
      title = {Helpful self-control: Autonomy support, vitality, and depletion},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {44},
      number = {3},
      pages = {573-585},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jesp.2007.10.008}}
    }
    
    Muraven, M., Rosman, H. & Gagne, M. Lack of autonomy and self-control: Performance contingent rewards lead to greater depletion {2007} MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
    Vol. {31}({4}), pp. {322-330} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Exerting self-control appears to deplete a needed resource, which leads to poorer self-control subsequently. However, the amount of depletion may vary, based on how controlling versus autonomy supportive the situation is. In particular, feeling compelled to exert self-control may deplete more strength than having more freedom when exerting self-control. In three experiments, participants who were given performance contingent rewards to exert self-control performed more poorly on a subsequent test of self-control than participants who were non-contingent rewards. There were no differences in mood, arousal, or anxiety between the groups; however, feelings of autonomy were related to self-control performance. The results have implications for understanding self-control depletion, as well as the impact of autonomous motivation on self-control performance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Muraven2007,
      author = {Muraven, Mark and Rosman, Heather and Gagne, Marylene},
      title = {Lack of autonomy and self-control: Performance contingent rewards lead to greater depletion},
      journal = {MOTIVATION AND EMOTION},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {31},
      number = {4},
      pages = {322-330},
      doi = {{10.1007/s11031-007-9073-x}}
    }
    
    Nan, X. Pursuit of Regulatory Goals and the Use of Self-Regulatory Resources {2005}
    Vol. {32}ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL 32, pp. {467-472} 
    inproceedings  
    Abstract: This paper proposes that pursuit of a prevention goal demands more self-regulatory resources than does pursuit of a promotion goal. As a result, depleting self-regulatory resources should be more likely to adversely influence the pursuit of a prevention goal than the pursuit of a promotion goal. Two studies are conducted in the contexts of hypothesis generating and endowment effect to test this proposition. Results of the studies provided support for the proposition.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Nan2005,
      author = {Nan, Xiaoli},
      title = {Pursuit of Regulatory Goals and the Use of Self-Regulatory Resources},
      booktitle = {ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL 32},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {32},
      pages = {467-472},
      note = {32nd Annual Meeting of the Association-for-Consumer-Research, Portland, OR, OCT 07-10, 2004}
    }
    
    Neshat-Doost, H.T., Dalgleish, T. & Golden, A.-M.J. Reduced Specificity of Emotional Autobiographical Memories Following Self-Regulation Depletion {2008} EMOTION
    Vol. {8}({5}), pp. {731-736} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The present study used a Color Stroop task, involving naming the ink colors of incongruous color words, to deplete self-regulation resources prior to retrieving a series of autobiographical memories to emotional and neutral cue words-the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT). Control participants either read color words written in black ink or performed no task prior to the AMT. Difficulty accessing specific memories on the AMT has been shown to index key aspects of the onset and maintenance of depression and other emotional disorders. Our hypothesis that depleted participants would retrieve fewer specific memories to cues on the AMT relative to controls was supported, even when levels of depressed and anxious mood, an index of clinical depression, posttraumatic stress, and verbal intelligence were covaried. The results indicate that self-regulation depletion via a neutral, unrelated task can impact on emotion-related autobiographical memory processes that have been shown to be dysfunctional in emotionally disordered populations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Neshat-Doost2008,
      author = {Neshat-Doost, Hamid Taher and Dalgleish, Tim and Golden, Ann-Marie J.},
      title = {Reduced Specificity of Emotional Autobiographical Memories Following Self-Regulation Depletion},
      journal = {EMOTION},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {8},
      number = {5},
      pages = {731-736},
      doi = {{10.1037/a0013507}}
    }
    
    Neubach, B. & Schmidt, K.-H. Main and interaction effects of different self-control demands on indicators of job strain {2008} ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ARBEITS-UND ORGANISATIONSPSYCHOLOGIE
    Vol. {52}({1}), pp. {17-24} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: More and more jobs require employees to behave in accordance with the companies' interests and to fulfil customer demands. That is, employees are expected to exert self-control to guide their activities in a goal-directed way. Recent studies have indicated that job-related self-control demands represent a novel stress factor. In the present study, effects of three facets of self-control at work were analyzed in a sample of 549 employees of an administration. The results show that overcoming inner obstacles, impulse-control, and resisting distractions correlate significantly with indicators of job strain. Furthermore, hierarchical moderated regression analyses revealed that effects of high demands on impulse-control were strengthened with increasing demands on overcoming inner obstacles. This result supports the assumptions of the ego-depletion theory, according to which different self-control demands draw on one and the same resource.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Neubach2008,
      author = {Neubach, Barbara and Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut},
      title = {Main and interaction effects of different self-control demands on indicators of job strain},
      journal = {ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ARBEITS-UND ORGANISATIONSPSYCHOLOGIE},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {52},
      number = {1},
      pages = {17-24},
      doi = {{10.1026/0932-4089.52.1.17}}
    }
    
    Neubach, B. & Schmidt, K.-H. Effects of self-control demands and job control on occupational strain {2006} ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PSYCHOLOGIE
    Vol. {214}({3}), pp. {150-160} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Due to changing work demands, self-control at the workplace is of increasing importance, but has rarely been investigated. According to Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model of job strain we investigated whether the negative effects of self-control on job strain would be moderated by high levels of job control. Two hundred and sixty staff members of nursing homes for elderly people participated in the study. The results show that among employees who report low levels of job control self-control is positively associated with emotional exhaustion, psychosomatic complaints, and absenteeism during the year following the study as well, as negatively related to job satisfaction. By way of contrast, there is no adverse effect of self-control on job strain for those who perceive high levels of job-control.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Neubach2006,
      author = {Neubach, Barbara and Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut},
      title = {Effects of self-control demands and job control on occupational strain},
      journal = {ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PSYCHOLOGIE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {214},
      number = {3},
      pages = {150-160},
      doi = {{10.1026/0044-3409.214.3.150}}
    }
    
    O'Connell, K.A., Schwartz, J.E. & Shiffman, S. Do Resisted Temptations During Smoking Cessation Deplete or Augment Self-Control Resources? {2008} PSYCHOLOGY OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS
    Vol. {22}({4}), pp. {486-495} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: A resource depletion model of self-control posits that for some period following performance of a task requiring self-control, self-control will be reduced and thus less available for use in a subsequent task. Using 2 substantial data sets collected in real time from individuals who were trying to quit smoking (1,660 and 9,516 temptation episodes collected from 61 and 248 individuals, respectively), we evaluated this model by testing the hypotheses that the number and length of resisted temptations and the intensity of the most recently reported urge during the prior 4 hr predict decreased self-control and increased likelihood of lapsing. Survival and multilevel regression modeling showed that contrary to the hypothesis, the number of recently resisted temptations predicted a lower risk of lapsing in both samples. Duration of resisted temptations had no significant effect in either sample. Intensity of most recently reported urge predicted lapsing in I data set but not in the other. Overall, there was little support for the resource depletion model. The protective effect of successfully resisting temptations was an unexpected but provocative finding.
    BibTeX:
    @article{O'Connell2008,
      author = {O'Connell, Kathleen A. and Schwartz, Joseph E. and Shiffman, Saul},
      title = {Do Resisted Temptations During Smoking Cessation Deplete or Augment Self-Control Resources?},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {22},
      number = {4},
      pages = {486-495},
      doi = {{10.1037/0893-164X.22.4.486}}
    }
    
    Oaten, M. & Cheng, K. Academic examination stress impairs self-control {2005} JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {24}({2}), pp. {254-279} 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent research proposes that human beings have a limited capacity for self-regulation. Self-regulatory efforts may fail because this capacity is depleted, and such depletion is exacerbated by stress. The present study tested whether academic examination stress would impair regulatory behavior by consuming self-control strength. An exam-stress group was assessed at baseline and then during the commencement of exams; a control group was assessed at two unstressful times. Perceived stress, emotional distress, and regulatory behavior were assessed by questionnaire. During the exam period, the exam-stress group showed impaired performance on a lab task (Stroop) following thought suppression, a form of self-regulatory activity. They also reported significant increases in perceived stress and emotional distress; they also reported an increase in smoking and caffeine consumption; a decrease in healthy eating, emotional control, frequency and duration of physical activity, maintenance of household chores and self-care habits, attendance to commitments, and monitoring of spending; and a deterioration in sleep patterns and study habits. The control group showed no systematic changes in the lab task, perceived stress, emotional distress, or regulatory behavior across sessions. The results are discussed in relation to the effect of real-world stress in decreasing self-control strength.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Oaten2005,
      author = {Oaten, M and Cheng, K},
      title = {Academic examination stress impairs self-control},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {24},
      number = {2},
      pages = {254-279}
    }
    
    Oikawa, M. How do conscious and unconscious goals differ? Suppression of stereotypes by instructions or priming {2005} JAPANESE JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {53}({4}), pp. {504-515} 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent research on goal effects has indicated that conscious and unconscious goals share similar characteristics and functions. However, the extent to which these 2 forms of goal pursuits differ, and under what conditions, is unclear. In the present study, 2 experiments utilizing a suppression paradigm were conducted to demonstrate the difference between suppression that is induced consciously via instructions, and suppression induced unconsciously via egalitarian goal priming. Experiment 1 demonstrated that unconscious suppression did not lead to paradoxical effects, a by-product accompanying conscious suppression. Those participants who were instructed to avoid stereotyping foreigners during a writing task engaged in more stereotyping in a subsequent impression-formation task. This result was not found in the unconscious suppression group. In Experiment 2, based on the assumption that unconscious suppression is more efficient than conscious suppression, it was predicted that unconscious suppression would be less resource-consuming. A self-report measure after the suppression task indicated that only the participants in the conscious suppression condition reported increased fatigue. However, performance on a subsequent anagram task indicated that the performance of both groups Was equally degraded and no difference was observed between the 2 groups in the amount of ego-depletion.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Oikawa2005,
      author = {Oikawa, M},
      title = {How do conscious and unconscious goals differ? Suppression of stereotypes by instructions or priming},
      journal = {JAPANESE JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {53},
      number = {4},
      pages = {504-515}
    }
    
    Olsen, E. & Kraft, P. Digital therapy: The role of digital positive psychotherapy in successful self-regulation {2008}
    Vol. {5033}PERSUASIVE TECHNOLOGY, pp. {249-253} 
    inproceedings  
    Abstract: We are currently developing a digital positive psycho-therapy intervention. The intervention will be presented at the 3rd International Conference on Persuasive Technology 2008. By means of installing positive emotions, digital positive psycho-therapy may help prevent ego-depletion and hence increase the chances for successful self-regulation. This may turn out to be an important component in many health behaviour interventions. The current paper discusses some basic insights regarding how digital psychotherapy interventions can be designed and why they hold the potential to make a valuable contribution.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Olsen2008,
      author = {Olsen, Elin and Kraft, Pal},
      title = {Digital therapy: The role of digital positive psychotherapy in successful self-regulation},
      booktitle = {PERSUASIVE TECHNOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {5033},
      pages = {249-253},
      note = {3rd International Conference on Persuasive Technology, Oulu, FINLAND, JUN 04-06, 2008}
    }
    
    Patall, E.A., Cooper, H. & Robinson, J.C. The effects of choice on intrinsic motivation and related outcomes: A meta-analysis of research findings {2008} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {134}({2}), pp. {270-300} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: A meta-analysis of 41 studies examined the effect of choice on intrinsic motivation and related outcomes in a variety of settings with both child and adult samples. Results indicated that providing choice enhanced intrinsic motivation, effort, task performance, and perceived competence, among other outcomes. Moderator tests revealed the effect of choice on intrinsic motivation was stronger (a) for instructionally irrelevant choices compared to choices made between activities, versions of a task, rewards, and instructionally relevant options, (b) when 2 to 4 successive choices were given, (c) when rewards were not given after the choice manipulation, (d) when participants given choice were compared to the most controlling forms of control groups, (e) for children compared to adults, (f) for designs that yoked choice and control conditions compared to matched designs in which choice was reduced or designs in which nonyoked, nonmatched controls were used, and (g) when the experiment was conducted in a laboratory embedded in a natural setting. Implications for future research and applications to real-world settings are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Patall2008,
      author = {Patall, Erika A. and Cooper, Harris and Robinson, Jorgianne Civey},
      title = {The effects of choice on intrinsic motivation and related outcomes: A meta-analysis of research findings},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {134},
      number = {2},
      pages = {270-300},
      doi = {{10.1037/0033-2909.134.2.270}}
    }
    
    Patrick, V.M., Chun, H.H. & Macinnis, D.J. Affective forecasting and self-control: Why anticipating pride wins over anticipating shame in a self-regulation context {2009} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {19}({3}), pp. {537-545} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We demonstrate that anticipating pride from resisting temptation facilitates self-control due to an enhanced focus on the self while anticipating shame from giving in to temptation results in self-control failure due to a focus on the tempting stimulus. In two studies we demonstrate the effects of anticipating pride (vs. shame) on self-control thoughts and behavior over time (Studies 1 and 2) and illustrate the process mechanism of self vs. stimulus focus underlying the differential influence of these emotions on self-control (Study 2). We present thought protocols, behavioral data (quantity consumed) and observational data (number/size of bites) to support our hypotheses. (C) 2009 Society for Consumer Psychology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Patrick2009,
      author = {Patrick, Vanessa M. and Chun, HaeEun Helen and Macinnis, Deborah J.},
      title = {Affective forecasting and self-control: Why anticipating pride wins over anticipating shame in a self-regulation context},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {19},
      number = {3},
      pages = {537-545},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jcps.2009.05.006}}
    }
    
    Pocheptsova, A., Amir, O., Dhar, R. & Baumeister, R.F. Deciding Without Resources: Resource Depletion and Choice in Context {2009} JOURNAL OF MARKETING RESEARCH
    Vol. {46}({3}), pp. {344-355} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although choices can occur after careful deliberation, many everyday choices are usually effortless and are guided by intuitive thinking. This research examines the implications of the interplay between these two types of decision processes for context effects in choice by exploring the consequences of the depletion of executive resources in a prior, unrelated task. Building on a substantial body of psychological literature that points to a single underlying resource used for self-regulation and executive control, this article demonstrates that resource depletion has a systematic influence on choice in context. Specifically, resource depletion enhances the role of intuitive reasoning by impairing deliberate, careful processing. In five experiments, the authors find that resource depletion increases the share of reference-dependent choices, decreases the compromise effect, and magnifies the attraction effect. The results shed light on the mechanisms underlying context effects in choice and suggest that the scope of the depleted resource is not constrained to self-regulation activities but rather extends to choice in general.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pocheptsova2009,
      author = {Pocheptsova, Anastasiya and Amir, On and Dhar, Ravi and Baumeister, Roy F.},
      title = {Deciding Without Resources: Resource Depletion and Choice in Context},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF MARKETING RESEARCH},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {46},
      number = {3},
      pages = {344-355}
    }
    
    Price, D.A. & Yates, G.C.R. Ego depletion effects on mathematics performance in primary school students: why take the hard road? {2010} EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {30}({3}), pp. {269-281} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Reduction in performance level following on from brief periods of self-control is referred to as ego depletion. This study aimed to investigate if a brief ego depletion experience would impact upon primary school students working through an online mathematics exercise involving 40 computational trials. Seventy-two students participated in the control group, and 80 students participated in the ego depletion group. The students were 10-14 years of age. A three-minute task involving resistance to distraction was used as the depletion experience. Before each trial, participants selected task difficulty level. Control group students began by working at a moderate difficulty level and then progressed to work on more difficult items. Ego-depleted students chose to work on easy problems throughout. Ego depletion did not markedly affect error rate after the first trial. Depletion effects can be evident in students' academic application through encouraging students to undertake easier options.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Price2010,
      author = {Price, Deborah Ann and Yates, Gregory C. R.},
      title = {Ego depletion effects on mathematics performance in primary school students: why take the hard road?},
      journal = {EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {30},
      number = {3},
      pages = {269-281},
      doi = {{10.1080/01443410903563330}}
    }
    
    Pu, J., Schmeichel, B.J. & Demaree, H.A. Cardiac vagal control predicts spontaneous regulation of negative emotional expression and subsequent cognitive performance {2010} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {84}({3, Sp. Iss. SI}), pp. {531-540} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The present research investigated whether cardiac vagal control (as measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia. RSA) predicts an individual's predisposition to suppress negative emotional expressions. One hundred thirty-six participants watched either a negative film or a neutral film. Facial expressions were recorded during the film and subjective emotional responses were assessed afterwards. Participants performed verbal and spatial working memory tasks both before and after the film clips. We found that resting RSA modulated the degree of coherence between facial expressions of emotion and subjective emotional experience in the negative film condition. Specifically, participants with higher resting RSA expressed less but reported feeling just as much negative emotion as those with lower resting RSA. Moreover, higher resting RSA predicted smaller pre-film to post-film improvements in spatial working memory performance in the negative film condition, suggesting that expressive suppression among high RSA participants temporarily undermined the operation of working memory. In the neutral film condition, resting RSA did not relate to expressive or subjective responses or subsequent working memory performance. These results support the notion that cardiac vagal control reflects an internal marker of self-regulatory tendencies and suggest that spontaneous self-regulation associated with individual differences in resting RSA may temporarily deplete self-regulatory resources. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pu2010,
      author = {Pu, Jie and Schmeichel, Brandon J. and Demaree, Heath A.},
      title = {Cardiac vagal control predicts spontaneous regulation of negative emotional expression and subsequent cognitive performance},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {84},
      number = {3, Sp. Iss. SI},
      pages = {531-540},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.biopsycho.2009.07.006}}
    }
    
    Pu, J., Schmeichel, B.J. & Demaree, H.A. Cardiac vagal control predicts spontaneous regulation of negative emotional expression and subsequent cognitive performance {2009} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {82}({2}), pp. {186-195} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The present research investigated whether cardiac vagal control (as measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) predicts an individual's predisposition to suppress negative emotional expressions. One hundred thirty-six participants watched either a negative film or a neutral film. Facial expressions were recorded during the film and subjective emotional responses were assessed afterwards. Participants performed verbal and spatial working memory tasks both before and after the film clips. We found that resting RSA modulated the degree of coherence between facial expressions of emotion and subjective emotional experience in the negative film condition. Specifically, participants with higher resting RSA expressed less but reported feeling just as much negative emotion as those with lower resting RSA. Moreover, higher resting RSA predicted smaller pre-film to post-film improvements in spatial working memory performance in the negative film condition, suggesting that expressive suppression among high RSA participants temporarily undermined the operation of working memory. In the neutral film condition, resting RSA did not relate to expressive or subjective responses or subsequent working memory performance. These results support the notion that cardiac vagal control reflects an internal marker of self-regulatory tendencies and suggest that spontaneous self-regulation associated with individual differences in resting RSA may temporarily deplete self-regulatory resources. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pu2009,
      author = {Pu, Jie and Schmeichel, Brandon J. and Demaree, Heath A.},
      title = {Cardiac vagal control predicts spontaneous regulation of negative emotional expression and subsequent cognitive performance},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {82},
      number = {2},
      pages = {186-195},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.biopsycho.2009.07.006}}
    }
    
    Qiu, C., Lee, Y.H. & Yeung, C.W.M. Suppressing feelings: A double-edged sword to consumer judgment and choice {2009} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {19}({3}), pp. {427-439} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Consumers may suppress their feelings toward the attractive looks of products when they wish to minimize the influence of feelings on their judgments and choices. However, this research suggests that feeling suppression may result in a paradoxical reliance on feelings in product judgments and choices, especially when the product performance judgment is difficult to make. Findings from a series of experiments suggest that this paradoxical effect stems from the requisite resource input for feeling suppression and the consequent resource competition with functionality processing which then impairs product performance judgment. (C) 2009 Society for Consumer Psychology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Qiu2009,
      author = {Qiu, Cheng and Lee, Yih Hwai and Yeung, Catherine W. M.},
      title = {Suppressing feelings: A double-edged sword to consumer judgment and choice},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {19},
      number = {3},
      pages = {427-439},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jcps.2009.04.004}}
    }
    
    Rabiau, M., Knauper, B. & Miquelon, P. The eternal quest for optimal balance between maximizing pleasure and minimizing harm: The compensatory health beliefs model {2006} BRITISH JOURNAL OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {11}({Part 1}), pp. {139-153} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Particularly in the health domain, humans thrive to reach an equilibrium between maximizing pleasure and minimizing harm. We propose that a cognitive strategy people employ to reach this equilibrium is the activation of Compensatory Health Beliefs (CHBs). CHBs are beliefs that the negative effects of an unhealthy behaviour can be compensated for, or ``neutralized:' by engaging in another, healthy behaviour. ``I can eat this piece of cake now because I will exercise this evening'' is an example of such beliefs. Our theoretical framework aims at explaining why people create CHBs and how they employ CHBs to regulate their health behaviours. The model extends current health behaviour models by explicitly integrating the motivational conflict that emerges from the interplay between affective states (i.e., cravings or desires) and motivation (i.e., health goals). As predicted by the model, previous research has shown that holding CHBs hinder an individual's success at positive health behaviour change, and may explain why many people fail to adhere to behaviour change programs such as dieting or exercising. Moreover, future research using the model and implications for possible interventions are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rabiau2006,
      author = {Rabiau, M and Knauper, B and Miquelon, P},
      title = {The eternal quest for optimal balance between maximizing pleasure and minimizing harm: The compensatory health beliefs model},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {11},
      number = {Part 1},
      pages = {139-153},
      doi = {{10.1348/135910705X52237}}
    }
    
    Ren, J., Hu, L., Zhang, H. & Huang, Z. IMPLICIT POSITIVE EMOTION COUNTERACTS EGO DEPLETION {2010} SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND PERSONALITY
    Vol. {38}({7}), pp. {919-928} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Previous researchers have shown that individual acts of self-regulation deplete individual psychological resources, resulting in poor subsequent self-regulation and ego depletion. It has also been shown that to counteract ego depletion, besides getting enough sleep or rest, positive emotions are important. In this study we aimed to establish whether or not implicit positive emotion is important in countering ego depletion. In 2 experiments measuring the duration of self-regulation after implicit positive emotion it was found that self-regulation counteracts ego depletion. Participants in an ego-depleted condition were exposed to subliminal positive stimuli and they persisted in subsequent self-regulation longer than another group of participants who were exposed to subliminal neutral stimuli.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ren2010,
      author = {Ren, Jun and Hu, Lingyun and Zhang, Hongying and Huang, Zihui},
      title = {IMPLICIT POSITIVE EMOTION COUNTERACTS EGO DEPLETION},
      journal = {SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND PERSONALITY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {38},
      number = {7},
      pages = {919-928},
      doi = {{10.2224/sbp.2010.38.7.919}}
    }
    
    Rice, J.A., Levine, L.J. & Pizarro, D.A. ``Just stop thinking about it'': Effects of emotional disengagement on children's memory for educational material {2007} EMOTION
    Vol. {7}({4}), pp. {812-823} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Children regulate negative emotions in a variety of ways. Emotion education programs typically discourage emotional disengagement and encourage emotional engagement or ``working through'' negative emotions. The authors examined the effects of emotional disengagement and engagement on children's memory for educational material. Children averaging 7 or 10 years of age (N = 200) watched either a sad or an emotionally neutral film and were then instructed to emotionally disengage, instructed to engage in problem solving concerning their emotion, or received no emotion regulation instructions. All children then watched and were asked to recall the details of an emotionally neutral educational film. Children instructed to disengage remembered the educational film better than children instructed to work through their feelings or children who received no emotion regulation instructions. Although past research has indicated that specific forms of emotional disengagement can impair memory for emotionally relevant events, the current findings suggest that disengagement is a useful short-term strategy for regulating mild negative emotion in educational settings.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rice2007,
      author = {Rice, John A. and Levine, Linda J. and Pizarro, David A.},
      title = {``Just stop thinking about it'': Effects of emotional disengagement on children's memory for educational material},
      journal = {EMOTION},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {7},
      number = {4},
      pages = {812-823},
      doi = {{10.1037/1528-3542.7.4.812}}
    }
    
    Ritter, S.M., Karremans, J.C. & van Schie, H.T. The role of self-regulation in derogating attractive alternatives {2010} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {46}({4}), pp. {631-637} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The present research addresses the question of how romantically involved individuals are able to shield their ongoing romantic relationship from the temptation of attractive alternative partners Specifically, two studies examined, and supported, the prediction that self-regulation promotes romantically involved individuals' tendency to derogate attractive others as potential partners Heterosexual participants responded to pictures of attractive and unattractive opposite-sex others by indicating their interest in these others as potential partners In both studies the possibility for self-regulation exertion was manipulated (by means of self-regulation depletion in Study 1, and time-pressure in Study 2) When self-regulatory resources were relatively high, romantically involved participants exhibited less interest in attractive opposite-sex others than non-involved participants However. when self-regulatory resources were low, interest in attractive opposite-sex others did not differ between romantically involved and non-involved participants (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ritter2010,
      author = {Ritter, Simone M. and Karremans, Johan C. and van Schie, Hein T.},
      title = {The role of self-regulation in derogating attractive alternatives},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {46},
      number = {4},
      pages = {631-637},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jesp.2010.02.010}}
    }
    
    Roberts, B.W., Walton, K., Bogg, T. & Caspi, A. De-investment in work and non-normative personality trait change in young adulthood {2006} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {20}({6}), pp. {461-474} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The present study investigated the relationship between experiences of de-investment in work and change in personality traits in an 8-year longitudinal study of young adults (N= 907). De-investment was defined as participating in activities that run counter to age-graded norms for acceptable behaviour De-investment in work was operationalised with a measure of counterproductive work behaviours (CWBs), which included actions such as stealing from the workplace, malingering andfighting with co-workers. CWBs were used to predict changes in personality traits from age 18 to age 26 Consistent with hypotheses, greater amounts of CWB was associated with changes in the broad trait domains of negative emotionality and constraint. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Roberts2006,
      author = {Roberts, Brent W. and Walton, Kate and Bogg, Tim and Caspi, Avshalom},
      title = {De-investment in work and non-normative personality trait change in young adulthood},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {20},
      number = {6},
      pages = {461-474},
      doi = {{10.1002/per.607}}
    }
    
    Rutjens, B.T. & Loseman, A. The society-supporting self: System justification and cultural worldview defense as different forms of self-regulation {2010} GROUP PROCESSES & INTERGROUP RELATIONS
    Vol. {13}({2, Sp. Iss. SI}), pp. {241-250} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Justifying social systems and defending cultural worldviews may seem to resemble the same human need to protect what is known and predictable. The current paper would like to argue that these society-supporting tendencies concern two different forms of self-regulation: the need for control and the need for meaning. Results show higher levels of system justification when participants were lacking control than when they had to think about death or about a control topic. Simultaneously, participants showed stronger worldview defense reactions when they thought about their own death, compared to those experiencing low control. This suggests that system justification may be used to compensate a loss of personal control, while cultural worldviews protect the person from existential anxiety.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rutjens2010,
      author = {Rutjens, Bastiaan T. and Loseman, Annemarie},
      title = {The society-supporting self: System justification and cultural worldview defense as different forms of self-regulation},
      journal = {GROUP PROCESSES & INTERGROUP RELATIONS},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {13},
      number = {2, Sp. Iss. SI},
      pages = {241-250},
      doi = {{10.1177/1368430209351703}}
    }
    
    Sassenberg, K., Moskowitz, G.B., Jacoby, J. & Hansen, N. The carry-over effect of competition: The impact of competition on prejudice towards uninvolved outgroups {2007} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {43}({4}), pp. {529-538} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Following realistic group-conflict theory, negative interdependence between groups (e.g., competition) leads to prejudice towards the opposing outgroup. Based on research on mindset priming, it is hypothesized that competition increases prejudice, regardless of whether the derogated outgroup is involved in the competition or not. In Experiment 1, participants remembered an event involving either competition or cooperation; in Experiments 2 and 3 they participated in a competitive, cooperative, or individual assessment of their knowledge. Subsequent measures indicated that competition results in higher levels of prejudice, even when it is not related to the intergroup context. Additional evidence suggests that this effect is not driven by the transfer of negative affect or ego-depletion. Possible underlying cognitive processes are discussed. (C) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sassenberg2007,
      author = {Sassenberg, Kai and Moskowitz, Gordon B. and Jacoby, Johann and Hansen, Nina},
      title = {The carry-over effect of competition: The impact of competition on prejudice towards uninvolved outgroups},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {43},
      number = {4},
      pages = {529-538},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jesp.2006.05.009}}
    }
    
    Sato, T., Harman, B.A., Donohoe, W.M., Weaver, A. & Hall, W.A. Individual differences in ego depletion: The role of sociotropy-autonomy {2010} MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
    Vol. {34}({2}), pp. {205-213} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In his cognitive theory of depression, Beck (1987) suggested that highly sociotropic individuals have a strong need for social acceptance whereas highly autonomous individuals have an excessive need for achievement. Research by Baumeister (2000) has suggested that a phenomenon known as ego depletion, the weakening of performance on tasks following active self-control, occurs because it depletes a limited inner resource. The present study examined whether individuals who are highly sociotropic or autonomous would respond differently when faced with tasks requiring self-control. Participants completed the Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale (Clark et al. 1995) and engaged in two active self-control tasks. The results revealed that sociotropy levels were negatively correlated with persistence on tasks that require self-control whereas autonomy was positively correlated to persistence on the same task. In addition, the results suggested that, following a task requiring self-control, highly sociotropic individuals expend less effort, whereas highly autonomous individuals expend more effort on subsequent tasks requiring self-control.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sato2010,
      author = {Sato, Toru and Harman, Brittany A. and Donohoe, Whitney M. and Weaver, Allison and Hall, William A.},
      title = {Individual differences in ego depletion: The role of sociotropy-autonomy},
      journal = {MOTIVATION AND EMOTION},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {34},
      number = {2},
      pages = {205-213},
      doi = {{10.1007/s11031-010-9166-9}}
    }
    
    Schmeichel, B., Demaree, H., Robinson, J. & Pu, J. Ego depletion by response exaggeration {2006} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {42}({1}), pp. {95-102} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Suppressing or inhibiting responses has a host of negative effects, including a temporary reduction in self-regulatory strength (ego depletion). Less attention has been given to response exaggeration, which should also deplete regulatory strength and therefore disrupt subsequent self-control. We tested the depletion hypothesis by having participants perform tests of cognitive fluency after exaggerating responses (or not) to a disgusting film clip. Response exaggeration produced increased emotional expression but did not increase Subjective emotional experience. Moreover, exaggerating disgust reactions impaired Subsequent performance on tests of cognitive fluency. The cognitive aftereffects of exaggeration were not attributable to emotional experience or to changes in sympathetic or parasympathetic arousal (its indicated by skin conductance and heart rate variability high frequency power, respectively). Poorer cognitive fluency after response exaggeration indicates a detrimental effect Of purposeful self-regulation. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schmeichel2006,
      author = {Schmeichel, BJ and Demaree, HA and Robinson, JL and Pu, J},
      title = {Ego depletion by response exaggeration},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {42},
      number = {1},
      pages = {95-102},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jesp.2005.02.005}}
    }
    
    Schmeichel, B., Vohs, K. & Baumeister, R. Intellectual performance and ego depletion: Role of the self in logical reasoning and other information processing {2003} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {85}({1}), pp. {33-46} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Some complex thinking requires active guidance by the self, but simpler mental activities do not. Depletion of the self's regulatory resources should therefore impair the former and not the latter. Resource depletion was manipulated by having some participants initially regulate attention (Studies 1 and 3) or emotion (Study 2). As compared with no-regulation participants who did not perform such exercises, depleted participants performed worse at logic and reasoning (Study 1), cognitive extrapolation (Study 2), and a test of thoughtful reading comprehension (Study 3). The same manipulations failed to cause decrements on a test of general knowledge (Study 2) or, on memorization and recall of nonsense syllables (Study 3). Successful performance at complex thinking may therefore rely on limited regulatory resources.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schmeichel2003,
      author = {Schmeichel, BJ and Vohs, KD and Baumeister, RF},
      title = {Intellectual performance and ego depletion: Role of the self in logical reasoning and other information processing},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {85},
      number = {1},
      pages = {33-46},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-3514.85.1.33}}
    }
    
    Schmeichel, B.J. Ego depletion and cognitive load: What's the difference? {2008} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {43}({3-4}), pp. {213} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schmeichel2008,
      author = {Schmeichel, Brandon J.},
      title = {Ego depletion and cognitive load: What's the difference?},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {43},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {213}
    }
    
    Schmeichel, B.J. Attention control, memory updating, and emotion regulation temporarily reduce the capacity for executive control {2007} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL
    Vol. {136}({2}), pp. {241-255} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This research tested the hypothesis that initial efforts at executive control temporarily undermine subsequent efforts at executive control. Four experiments revealed that controlling the focus of visual attention (Experiment 1), inhibiting predominant writing tendencies (Experiment 2), taking a working memory test (Experiment 3), or exaggerating emotional expressions (Experiment 4) undermined performance on subsequent tests of working memory span, reverse digit span, and response inhibition, respectively. The results supported a limited resource model of executive control and cast doubt on competing accounts based on mood, motivation, or task difficulty. Prior efforts at executive control are a significant contextual determinant of the operation of executive processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schmeichel2007,
      author = {Schmeichel, Brandon J.},
      title = {Attention control, memory updating, and emotion regulation temporarily reduce the capacity for executive control},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {136},
      number = {2},
      pages = {241-255},
      doi = {{10.1037/0096-3445.136.2.241}}
    }
    
    Schmeichel, B.J., Harmon-Jones, C. & Harmon-Jones, E. Exercising Self-Control Increases Approach Motivation {2010} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {99}({1}), pp. {162-173} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The present research tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control causes an increase in approach motivation. Study 1 found that exercising (vs. not exercising) self-control increases self-reported approach motivation. Study 2a identified a behavior-betting on low-stakes gambles-that is correlated with approach motivation but is relatively uncorrelated with self-control, and Study 2b observed that exercising self-control temporarily increases this behavior. Last, Study 3 found that exercising self-control facilitates the perception of a reward-relevant symbol (i.e., a dollar sign) but not a reward-irrelevant symbol (i.e., a percent sign). Altogether, these results support the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation. Failures of self-control that follow from prior efforts at self-control (i.e., ego depletion) may be explained in part by increased approach motivation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schmeichel2010,
      author = {Schmeichel, Brandon J. and Harmon-Jones, Cindy and Harmon-Jones, Eddie},
      title = {Exercising Self-Control Increases Approach Motivation},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {99},
      number = {1},
      pages = {162-173},
      doi = {{10.1037/a0019797}}
    }
    
    Schmeichel, B.J. & Vohs, K. Self-Affirmation and Self-Control: Affirming Core Values Counteracts Ego Depletion {2009} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {96}({4}), pp. {770-782} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Research has established that acts of self-control deplete a resource required for subsequent self-control tasks. The present investigation revealed that a psychological intervention-self-affirmation-facilitates self-control when the resource has been depleted. Experiments 1 and 2 found beneficial effects of self-affin-nation on self-control in a depleted state. Experiments 3 and 4 suggested that self-affirmation improves self-control by promoting higher levels (vs. lower levels) of mental construal. Self-affirmation therefore holds promise as a mental strategy that reduces the likelihood of self-control failure.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schmeichel2009,
      author = {Schmeichel, Brandon J. and Vohs, Kathleen},
      title = {Self-Affirmation and Self-Control: Affirming Core Values Counteracts Ego Depletion},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {96},
      number = {4},
      pages = {770-782},
      doi = {{10.1037/a0014635}}
    }
    
    Schmeichel, B.J. & Zell, A. Trait self-control predicts performance on behavioral tests of self-control {2007} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {75}({4}), pp. {743-755} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Two studies tested the extent to which trait self-control predicts performance on objective laboratory tests of behavioral self-control. In Study 1, participants attempted to refrain from blinking for a period of 2 minutes. Participants who reported higher trait self-control blinked less often than participants who reported lower trait self-control. In Study 2, participants attempted to tolerate a painful stimulus, and those higher in trait self-control tolerated pain longer than participants lower in trait self-control. These findings indicate that self-reported self-control corresponds moderately well with performance on objective behavioral tests of self-control. The discussion focuses on implications for self-control theory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schmeichel2007a,
      author = {Schmeichel, Brandon J. and Zell, Anne},
      title = {Trait self-control predicts performance on behavioral tests of self-control},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {75},
      number = {4},
      pages = {743-755},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1467-6494.2007.00455.x}}
    }
    
    Schmidt, K.-H. & Neubach, B. Self-control demands - questionnaire for measuring a so far neglected job stressor {2010} DIAGNOSTICA
    Vol. {56}({3}), pp. {133-143} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The aim the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of three scales for assessing different forms of self-control demands at work (such as impulse control, overcoming inner resistances, resisting distractions). Recent theoretical considerations and the results of basic research suggest that coping with these demands is an important source of stress at work. Data from two occupational groups reveal that the scales cover three distinct, moderately correlated forms of control demands. In addition, the scales have satisfactory internal consistencies and test-retest reliabilities. Furthermore, significant positive relationships with indicators of job strain as validity criteria (for example, burnout and absence measures) were found both cross-sectionally and longitudinally.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schmidt2010,
      author = {Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut and Neubach, Barbara},
      title = {Self-control demands - questionnaire for measuring a so far neglected job stressor},
      journal = {DIAGNOSTICA},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {56},
      number = {3},
      pages = {133-143},
      doi = {{10.1026/0012-1924/a000015}}
    }
    
    Schmidt, K.-H. & Neubach, B. Self-control demands as a specific source of stress at work {2009} ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PERSONALPSYCHOLOGIE
    Vol. {8}({4}), pp. {169-179} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Following recent theoretical developments and empirical results of basic research in the area of social and cognitive psychology, the present study examined whether self-control demands at work exert significant influences on indicators of job strain. Consequently, three forms of self-control demands at work (impulse control, resisting distractions, overcoming inner resistances) were investigated in combination with well-established work stressors and resources with regard to their effects on strain. Data from 518 staff members of a large civil service organization reveal that the three forms of self-control demands jointly contribute significant portions of incremental variance to the prediction of various measures of psychological job strain. In addition, each form exerts some unique influences on strain. As an indicator of physical strain, a measure of musculoskeletal complaints does not reflect comparably strong influences of self-control demands.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schmidt2009,
      author = {Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut and Neubach, Barbara},
      title = {Self-control demands as a specific source of stress at work},
      journal = {ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PERSONALPSYCHOLOGIE},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {8},
      number = {4},
      pages = {169-179},
      doi = {{10.1026/1617-6391.8.4.169}}
    }
    
    Schweiger-Gallo, I., De Miguel, J., Rodriguez-Monter, M., Alvaro, J.-L. & Gollwitzer, P.M. Effects of implementation intentions on health interventions {2009} REVISTA DE PSICOLOGIA SOCIAL
    Vol. {24}({3}), pp. {413-426} 
    article  
    Abstract: In the past decade, implementation intentions have consistently been shown to be effective self-regulatory tools in a multitude of studies (Gollwitzer & Sheeran, 2006). In this article, we will review their effectiveness in the health domain. Thus, by forming implementation intentions it is possible to foster the promotion of healthy ( healthy eating, physical exercise) and unpleasant behaviors ( home blood glucose monitoring or self-examinations), as well as the control of unwanted influences and the promotion of goal attainment in critical populations that have difficulties with action control ( such as schizophrenics and children with ADHD). Moreover, recent research on the costs of action control by implementation intentions has also revealed that forming implementation intentions is not accompanied by rigidity, or by rebound effects, which points to the importance of this self-regulatory strategy. The limitations of this strategy, as well as future interventions are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schweiger-Gallo2009,
      author = {Schweiger-Gallo, Inge and De Miguel, Jesus and Rodriguez-Monter, Miryam and Alvaro, Jose-Luis and Gollwitzer, Peter M.},
      title = {Effects of implementation intentions on health interventions},
      journal = {REVISTA DE PSICOLOGIA SOCIAL},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {24},
      number = {3},
      pages = {413-426}
    }
    
    Segerstrom, S.C. How does optimism suppress immunity? Evaluation of three affective pathways {2006} HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {25}({5}), pp. {653-657} 
    article  
    Abstract: Studies have linked optimism to poorer immunity during difficult stressors. In this study, when 1st-year law students (N = 46) relocated to attend law school, reducing conflict among curricular and extracurricular goals, optimism predicted larger delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, indicating more robust in vivo cellular immunity. However, when students did not relocate, increasing goal conflict, optimism predicted smaller responses. Although this effect has been attributed to negative affect when difficult stressors violate optimistic expectancies, distress did not mediate optimism's effects on immunity. Alternative affective mediators related to engagement-engaged affect and fatigue-likewise failed to mediate optimism's effects, although all 3 types of affect independently influenced in vivo immunity. Alternative pathways include effort or self-regulatory depletion.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Segerstrom2006,
      author = {Segerstrom, Suzanne C.},
      title = {How does optimism suppress immunity? Evaluation of three affective pathways},
      journal = {HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {25},
      number = {5},
      pages = {653-657}
    }
    
    Segerstrom, S.C. & Solberg Nes, L. Heart rate variability reflects self-regulatory strength, effort, and fatigue {2007} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {18}({3}), pp. {275-281} 
    article  
    Abstract: Experimental research reliably demonstrates that self-regulatory deficits are a consequence of prior self-regulatory effort. However, in naturalistic settings, although people know that they are sometimes vulnerable to saying, eating, or doing the wrong thing, they cannot accurately gauge their capacity to self-regulate at any given time. Because self-regulation and autonomic regulation colocalize in the brain, an autonomic measure, heart rate variability (HRV), could provide an index of self-regulatory strength and activity. During an experimental manipulation of self-regulation (eating carrots or cookies), HRV was elevated during high self-regulatory effort (eat carrots, resist cookies) compared with low self-regulatory effort (eat cookies, resist carrots). The experimental manipulation and higher HRV at baseline independently predicted persistence at a subsequent anagram task. HRV appears to index self-regulatory strength and effort, making it possible to study these phenomena in the field as well as the lab.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Segerstrom2007,
      author = {Segerstrom, Suzanne C. and Solberg Nes, Lise},
      title = {Heart rate variability reflects self-regulatory strength, effort, and fatigue},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {18},
      number = {3},
      pages = {275-281}
    }
    
    Shamosh, N.A. & Gray, J.R. The relation between fluid intelligence and self-regulatory depletion {2007} COGNITION & EMOTION
    Vol. {21}({8}), pp. {1833-1843} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Self-regulation depends on a limited resource that can be depleted temporarily, but little is known about how this resource relates to individual differences in cognitive ability. We investigated whether self-regulatory depletion would vary with individual differences in fluid intelligence (gF), a stable index of cognitive ability with ties to executive function. Participants performed an emotion regulation task varying in self-regulatory demand, followed by the Multi-Source Interference Task to assess depletion. On a separate day, participants completed Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices to assess gF. Emotion suppression led to impairment on the interference task, indicating self-regulatory depletion. Critically, higher gF was associated with greater depletion. Controlling for variables reflecting susceptibility to task demands and trait motivation did not influence this effect. The results have implications for theories of the relation between self- regulatory and cognitive abilities, and the mechanisms supporting the control of behaviour.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Shamosh2007,
      author = {Shamosh, Noah A. and Gray, Jeremy R.},
      title = {The relation between fluid intelligence and self-regulatory depletion},
      journal = {COGNITION & EMOTION},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {21},
      number = {8},
      pages = {1833-1843},
      doi = {{10.1080/02699930701273658}}
    }
    
    Stillman, T.F., Tice, D.M., Fincham, F.D. & Lambert, N.M. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PRESENCE OF FAMILY IMPROVES SELF-CONTROL {2009} JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {28}({4}), pp. {498-529} 
    article  
    Abstract: Three studies show that the psychological presence of family provides a temporary increase in self-control. In Study 1, participants (n = 79) subliminally primed with the names of their family members subsequently performed better at an open-ended language task relative to participants primed with neutral words. Study 2 ruled out two plausible alternative interpretations of this result. Participants in Study 2 (n = 139) who wrote a short essay about a family member with whom they had a good relationship demonstrated more self-control than those who wrote about a humorous episode or an enemy relationship, as measured by their performance on a simple but tedious math test. Study 3 was designed to demonstrate that self-control, rather than motivation, was affected by thoughts of the family. Participants (n = 66) primed with a visual cue of a family member ate fewer cookies than those not primed-when individual differences in eating restraint were controlled. The theoretical and applied implications of these findings are outlined.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Stillman2009,
      author = {Stillman, Tyler F. and Tice, Dianne M. and Fincham, Frank D. and Lambert, Nathaniel M.},
      title = {THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PRESENCE OF FAMILY IMPROVES SELF-CONTROL},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {28},
      number = {4},
      pages = {498-529}
    }
    
    Stompe, T. & Strobl, R. Negative delusional identity with schizophrenia {2000} FORTSCHRITTE DER NEUROLOGIE PSYCHIATRIE
    Vol. {68}({4}), pp. {169-175} 
    article  
    Abstract: With schizophrenics negative delusional identities constitute one way of psychotic alteration of self-identification. The main notion is of being a personification of evil. In a cross-cultural comparison study we found in the Austrian sample 13 patients with negative delusional identities. Our present study is based on detailed interviews and evaluations of medical records of this sample. Our aim was to draft a typology of delusional identities as a basic requirement for a phenomenology of the negative manifestations. Further investigative goals were the efforts of self-explanation undertaken by the patients with regard to their altered condition, the search for a pathogenetic transitional series and the functional value of the new identities. According to our estimation the basic mood on which negative delusional identities are founded is timid and dejected. Further basic requirements are a disturbed conscience of the ego and the concurrence of grandeur and guilt ideas. Half of our patients imagined to be reincarnations of negative biblical figures, three regarded themselves as possessed, two attributed their identities to heredity. Despite of diverse situative points of departure a common pathogenetic transitional series emerged for all patients. From a functional point of view a negative delusional identity seems to offer some kind of protection from further structural disintegration as well as relief from feelings of guilt all that however at the price of structural deformations with dynamic depletion.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Stompe2000,
      author = {Stompe, T and Strobl, R},
      title = {Negative delusional identity with schizophrenia},
      journal = {FORTSCHRITTE DER NEUROLOGIE PSYCHIATRIE},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {68},
      number = {4},
      pages = {169-175}
    }
    
    Stucke, T. & Baumeister, R. Ego depletion and aggressive behavior: Is the inhibition of aggression a limited resource? {2006} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {36}({1}), pp. {1-13} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: If self-regulation is a limited resource, the capacity to inhibit aggressive behavior should be lower among people who have already exercised self-regulation. In Experiment 1, participants who had to resist the urge to eat tempting food later reacted more aggressively to an insult than other participants who were allowed to eat as much as they wanted. In Experiments 2 and 3, some participants had to self-regulate by making themselves concentrate on a boring film and stifling their physical and facial movements, and afterward they, too, responded more aggressively than controls. Experiment 3 also showed that the results were not due to differential moods and that one act of self-regulation (unrelated to aggression) was sufficient to enhance subsequent aggressive responses toward the experimenter. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Stucke2006,
      author = {Stucke, TS and Baumeister, RF},
      title = {Ego depletion and aggressive behavior: Is the inhibition of aggression a limited resource?},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {36},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-13},
      doi = {{10.1002/ejsp.285}}
    }
    
    Stumm, S., Thomas, E. & Dormann, C. Self-regulatory strength and performance: Dual predictor in cooperative university education {2010} ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ARBEITS-UND ORGANISATIONSPSYCHOLOGIE
    Vol. {54}({4}), pp. {171-181} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In modern work environment there is continuous trend towards more personal responsibility among employees. The, growing individual autonomy requires a high degree of self-regulation. Major processes of self-regulation occur during volitionally controlled phases of action including, for instance, aligning ones own behavior, emotions, and cognitions with organization's goals. Limited resource models of self-regulation strength (SCS) imply that SCS should ultimately define individual job performance. Within cooperative education, students not only have to face up to job-related but also to academic requirements. In the present study we investigated the main effects of self-regulation capacity on job-related and academic performance. Analyzing a sample of 101 students of a cooperative education program demonstrates that self-regulation capacity correlates with both job-related and academic performance indicators. These results suggest that the individual capacity for self-regulation is a promising criterion in selection research and practice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Stumm2010,
      author = {Stumm, Sebastian and Thomas, Edgar and Dormann, Christian},
      title = {Self-regulatory strength and performance: Dual predictor in cooperative university education},
      journal = {ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ARBEITS-UND ORGANISATIONSPSYCHOLOGIE},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {54},
      number = {4},
      pages = {171-181},
      doi = {{10.1026/0932-4089/a000030}}
    }
    
    Sugizaki, M., Kubo, S., Murakami, T., Ota, N., Ozawa, H., Takahashi, T., Kaneda, H., Iyomoto, N., Kamae, T., Kokubun, M., Kubota, A., Makishima, K., Tamura, T., Tashiro, M., Koyama, K. & Tsunemi, H. Development of the large area silicon PIN diode with 2 mm-thick depletion layer for hard x-ray detector (HXD) on-board ASTRO-E {1997}
    Vol. {3115}HARD X-RAY AND GAMMA-RAY DETECTOR PHYSICS, OPTICS, AND APPLICATIONS, pp. {244-253} 
    inproceedings  
    Abstract: ASTRO-E is the next Japanese X-ray satellite to be launched in the year of 2000, It carries three high-energy astrophysical experiments, including the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) which is unique in covering the wide energy band from 10 keV to 700 keV with an extremely low background. The HSD is a compound-eye detector, employing 16 GSO/BGO well-type phoswich scintillation counters together with 64 silicon PIN detectors. The scintillation counters cover an energy range of 40-700 keV, while the PIN diodes fill the intermediate energy range from 10 keV to 70 keV with an energy resolution about 3 keV. In this paper, we report on the developments of the large area, thick silicon PIN diodes. In order to achieve a high quantum efficiency up to 70 keV with a high energy resolution, we utilize a double stack of silicon PIN diodes, each 20 x 20 mm(2) in size and 2 mm thick. Signals from the two diodes are summed into a single output. Four of these stacks (or eight diodes) are placed inside the deep EGO active-shield well of a phoswich counter, to achieve an extremely low background environment. Thus, the HXD utilizes 64 stacked silicon PIN detectors, achieving a total geometrical collecting area of 256 cm(2) We have developed the 2 mm thick silicon PIN diodes which have a low leakage current, a low capacitance, and a high breakdown voltage to meet the requirements of our goal. Through various trials in fabricating PIN diodes with different structures, we have found optimal design parameters, such as mask design of the surface p(+) layer and the implantation process.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Sugizaki1997,
      author = {Sugizaki, M and Kubo, S and Murakami, T and Ota, N and Ozawa, H and Takahashi, T and Kaneda, H and Iyomoto, N and Kamae, T and Kokubun, M and Kubota, A and Makishima, K and Tamura, T and Tashiro, M and Koyama, K and Tsunemi, H},
      title = {Development of the large area silicon PIN diode with 2 mm-thick depletion layer for hard x-ray detector (HXD) on-board ASTRO-E},
      booktitle = {HARD X-RAY AND GAMMA-RAY DETECTOR PHYSICS, OPTICS, AND APPLICATIONS},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {3115},
      pages = {244-253},
      note = {Conference on Hard X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detector Physics, Optics, and Applications, SAN DIEGO, CA, JUL 31-AUG 01, 1997}
    }
    
    Tice, D.M., Baumeister, R.F., Shmueli, D. & Muraven, M. Restoring the self: Positive affect helps improve self-regulation following ego depletion {2007} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {43}({3}), pp. {379-384} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Previous work has shown that acts of self-regulation appear to deplete a psychological resource, resulting in poorer self-regulation subsequently, Four experiments using assorted manipulations and measures found that positive mood or emotion can counteract ego depletion. After an initial act of self-regulation, participants who watched a comedy video or received a surprise gift self-regulated on various tasks as well as non-depleted participants and significantly better than participants who experienced a sad mood induction, a neutral mood stimulus, or a brief rest period. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tice2007,
      author = {Tice, Dianne M. and Baumeister, Roy F. and Shmueli, Dikla and Muraven, Mark},
      title = {Restoring the self: Positive affect helps improve self-regulation following ego depletion},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {43},
      number = {3},
      pages = {379-384},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jesp.2006.05.007}}
    }
    
    Trawalter, S. & Richeson, J. Regulatory focus and executive function after interracial interactions {2006} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {42}({3}), pp. {406-412} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Recent research finds that interracial interactions can negatively impact executive function. The present study examined whether regulatory focus may moderate this effect. Specifically, prior to an interracial interaction, 45 White female students were told either to try to have a positive interracial exchange (promotion focus), avoid prejudice (prevention focus), or given no instruction (control). After the interaction, participants completed the Stroop color-naming task, which assessed executive attentional task performance. Results revealed that participants in the prevention and the no instruction, control conditions performed worse on the Stroop than participants in the promotion condition. The findings suggest that promoting positive contact through active engagement rather than prejudice avoidance attenuates the previously documented negative effects of interracial contact on cognitive functioning. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Trawalter2006,
      author = {Trawalter, S and Richeson, JA},
      title = {Regulatory focus and executive function after interracial interactions},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {42},
      number = {3},
      pages = {406-412},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jesp.2005.05.008}}
    }
    
    Tyler, J.M. In the Eyes of Others: Monitoring for Relational Value Cues {2008} HUMAN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH
    Vol. {34}({4}), pp. {521-U34} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: It was hypothesized that monitoring the social environment for relational value (RV) cues both consumes and depletes self-regulatory resources. Consistent with predictions, the results suggest that regulatory resources are depleted when people monitor for relational cues (Experiments 1 and 2), that the capacity to monitor for complex (vs. simple) forms of relational cues is negatively impacted by prior depletion of the self's resources (Experiment 3), and that insofar as the self's resources are depleted by recent acts of self-regulation, people are less effective at monitoring for relational cues (Experiment 4). These findings suggest an integrative relationship between regulatory resources and people's capacity to accurately monitor the social environment for cues that communicate their RV.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tyler2008a,
      author = {Tyler, James M.},
      title = {In the Eyes of Others: Monitoring for Relational Value Cues},
      journal = {HUMAN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {34},
      number = {4},
      pages = {521-U34},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1468-2958.2008.00331.x}}
    }
    
    Tyler, J.M. & Burns, K.C. Triggering Conservation of the Self's Regulatory Resources {2009} BASIC AND APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {31}({3}), pp. {255-266} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Three experiments investigated people's motivation to conserve the self's limited regulatory resource after it is depleted by initial self-control exertion. Across the experiments, the results supported the idea of a conservation process. In Experiment 1, depleted participants' subsequent performance decreased when expecting to engage in a future self-regulation task compared to engaging in no task at all. In Experiments 2 and 3 we employed the oend-effecto pattern found in past vigilance research to further examine conservation. In Experiment 2, depleted and nondepleted participants who knew the study ran for 30min performed similarly following 20min of self-regulation, whereas 3min or 10min of self-regulation produced typical depletion effects. Likewise, the findings from Experiment 3 revealed this same conservation pattern using a shortened 6-min initial task. Specifically, when depleted participants believed the study was finished their task performance was better compared to those who believed the study would run for another 20min. In short, the current findings support the idea of conservationdecrements in self-regulatory performance may represent an adaptive inclination to conserve the self's diminished resources rather than an inability to wield further self-control.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tyler2009,
      author = {Tyler, James M. and Burns, Kathleen C.},
      title = {Triggering Conservation of the Self's Regulatory Resources},
      journal = {BASIC AND APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {31},
      number = {3},
      pages = {255-266},
      doi = {{10.1080/01973530903058490}}
    }
    
    Tyler, J.M. & Burns, K.C. After depletion: The replenishment of the self's regulatory resources {2008} SELF AND IDENTITY
    Vol. {7}({3}), pp. {305-321} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Two experiments investigated how people replenish the self's limited regulatory resource after it is depleted by self-control exertion. Specifically, in Experiment 1, when depleted participants received a 10-minute period between regulatory tasks, their subsequent performance equaled non-depleted participants. In Experiment 2, inducing participants to relax between self-regulation tasks reduced the typical depletion effects. Thus, these findings suggest that replenishment of the self's depleted resources occurs given the occurrence of favorable conditions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tyler2008,
      author = {Tyler, James M. and Burns, Kathleen C.},
      title = {After depletion: The replenishment of the self's regulatory resources},
      journal = {SELF AND IDENTITY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {305-321},
      doi = {{10.1080/15298860701799997}}
    }
    
    Unger, A. Influence of ego-depletion on risk-behavior {2008} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {43}({3-4}), pp. {213} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Unger2008,
      author = {Unger, Alexander},
      title = {Influence of ego-depletion on risk-behavior},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {43},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {213}
    }
    
    Updike, D.L. & Strome, S. A Genomewide RNAi Screen for Genes That Affect the Stability, Distribution and Function of P Granules in Caenorhabditis elegans {2009} GENETICS
    Vol. {183}({4}), pp. {1397-1419} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: P granules are non-membrane-bound organelles found in the germ-line cytoplasm throughput Caenorhabditis elegans development. Like their ``germ granule'' counterparts in other animals, P granules are thought to act as determinants of the identity and special properties of germ cells, properties that include tire unique ability to give rise to all tissues of future generations of an organism. Therefore, understanding how P granules work is critical to understanding how cellular immortality and totipotency are retained, gained, and lost. Here we report on a genome wide RNAi screen in C. elegans, which identified 173 genes that affect the stability, localization, and function of P granules. Many of these genes fall into specific classes with shared P-granule phenotypes, allowing Lis to better understand how cellular processes such as protein degradation, translation, splicing, nuclear transport, and mRNA homeostasis converge on P-granule assembly and function. One of the more striking phenotypes is caused by the depletion of CSR-1, an Argonaute associated with an endogenous siRNA pathway that functions in the germ line. We show that CSR-1 and two other endo-siRNA pathway members, the RNA-dependent, RNA polymerase EGO-1 and the helicase DRH-3, act to antagonize RNA and P-granule accumulation in the germ line. our findings Strengthen the emerging view that germ grannies are involved in numerous aspects of RNA metabolism, including an endo-siRNA pathway in germ cells.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Updike2009,
      author = {Updike, Dustin L. and Strome, Susan},
      title = {A Genomewide RNAi Screen for Genes That Affect the Stability, Distribution and Function of P Granules in Caenorhabditis elegans},
      journal = {GENETICS},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {183},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1397-1419},
      doi = {{10.1534/genetics.109.110171}}
    }
    
    VanDellen, M.R. & Hoyle, R.H. Regulatory Accessibility and Social Influences on State Self-Control {2010} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {36}({2}), pp. {251-263} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The current work examined how social factors influence self-control. Current conceptions of state self-control treat it largely as a function of regulatory capacity. The authors propose that state self-control might also be influenced by social factors because of regulatory accessibility. Studies 1 through 4 provide evidence that individuals' state self-control is influenced by the trait and state self-control of salient others such that thinking of others with good trait or state self-control leads to increases in state self-control and thinking of others with bad trait or state self-control leads to decreases in state self-control. Study 5 provides evidence that the salience of significant others influences both regulatory accessibility and state self-control. Combined, these studies suggest that the effects of social influences on state self-control occur through multiple mechanisms.
    BibTeX:
    @article{VanDellen2010,
      author = {VanDellen, Michelle R. and Hoyle, Rick H.},
      title = {Regulatory Accessibility and Social Influences on State Self-Control},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {36},
      number = {2},
      pages = {251-263},
      doi = {{10.1177/0146167209356302}}
    }
    
    Vohs, K., Baumeister, R. & Ciarocco, N. Self-regulation and self-presentation: Regulatory resource depletion impairs impression management and effortful self-presentation depletes regulatory resources {2005} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {88}({4}), pp. {632-657} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Self-presentation may require self-regulation, especially when familiar or dispositional tendencies must be overridden in service of the desired impression. Studies 1-4 showed that self-presentation under challenging conditions or according to counternormative patterns (presenting oneself modestly to strangers, boastfully to friends, contrary to gender norms, to a skeptical audience, or while being a racial token) led to impaired self-regulation later, suggesting that those self-presentations depleted self-regulatory resources. When self-presentation conformed to familiar, normative, or dispositional patterns, self-regulation was less implicated. Studies 5-8 showed that when resources for self-regulation had been depleted by prior acts of self-control, self-presentation drifted toward less-effective patterns (talking too much, overly or insufficiently intimate disclosures, or egotistical arrogance). Thus, inner processes may serve interpersonal functions, although optimal interpersonal activity exacts a short-term cost.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Vohs2005,
      author = {Vohs, KD and Baumeister, RF and Ciarocco, NJ},
      title = {Self-regulation and self-presentation: Regulatory resource depletion impairs impression management and effortful self-presentation depletes regulatory resources},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {88},
      number = {4},
      pages = {632-657},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-3514.88.4.632}}
    }
    
    Vohs, K. & Schmeichel, B. Self-regulation and the extended now: Controlling the self alters the subjective experience of time {2003} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {85}({2}), pp. {217-230} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: These studies investigated self-regulation and subjective experience of time from the perspective of the regulatory resource model. Studies 1-2 showed that participants who were instructed to regulate their emotions while viewing a film clip perceived that the film lasted, longer than participants who did not regulate their emotions. In Study 3, participants provided time estimates during a resource-depleting or nondepleting task. Subsequent task persistence was measured. Time perceptions mediated the effect of initial self-regulation on subsequent self-regulated performance. In Study 4, participants performed either a resource-depleting or a nondepleting thought-listing task and then performed a different regulatory task. Compared with nondepleted participants, depleted participants persisted less on the 2nd task but estimated that they had persisted longer. Subjective time estimates statistically accounted for reduced persistence after depletion. Together, results indicate people believe that self-regulatory endeavors last overly long, a belief that may result in abandonment of further self-control.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Vohs2003,
      author = {Vohs, KD and Schmeichel, BJ},
      title = {Self-regulation and the extended now: Controlling the self alters the subjective experience of time},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {85},
      number = {2},
      pages = {217-230},
      note = {Conference of the Society-for-Personality-and-Social-Psychology, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, 2003},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.217}}
    }
    
    Vohs, K.D. Self-regulatory resources power the reflective system: Evidence from five domains {2006} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {16}({3}), pp. {217-223} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this commentary, I focus on the deficiencies in the reflective-impulsive model (RIM) by Strack, Werth, and Deutsch (2006) in terms of understanding the mechanics of the reflective system. Strack et al. outlined the cognitive architecture of the consumer with the RIM but failed to specify how its most impressive feature, the reflective system, is powered. Drawing on the literature on self-regulation (as a reconceptualization of RIM incompatibility), I argue that self-regulatory resources drive the reflective system. Research from 5 domains-overeating among dieters, impulsive spending, logical thinking, making choices, and subjective perceptions of duration-supports this hypothesis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Vohs2006,
      author = {Vohs, Kathleen D.},
      title = {Self-regulatory resources power the reflective system: Evidence from five domains},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {16},
      number = {3},
      pages = {217-223}
    }
    
    Vohs, K.D., Schmeichel, B.J., Nelson, N.M., Baumeister, R.F., Twenge, J.M. & Tice, D.M. Making choices impairs subsequent self-control: A limited-resource account of decision making, self-regulation, and active initiative {2008} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {94}({5}), pp. {883-898} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The current research tested the hypothesis that making many choices impairs subsequent self-control. Drawing from a limited-resource model of self-regulation and executive function, the authors hypothesized that decision making depletes the same resource used for self-control and active responding. In 4 laboratory studies, some participants made choices among consumer goods or college course options, whereas others thought about the same options without making choices. Making choices led to reduced self-control (i.e., less physical stamina, reduced persistence in the face of failure, more procrastination, and less quality and quantity of arithmetic calculations). A field study then found that reduced self-control was predicted by shoppers' self-reported degree of previous active decision making. Further studies suggested that choosing is more depleting than merely deliberating and forming preferences about options and more depleting than implementing choices made by someone else and that anticipating the choice task as enjoyable can reduce the depleting effect for the first choices but not for many choices.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Vohs2008,
      author = {Vohs, Kathleen D. and Schmeichel, Brandon J. and Nelson, Noelle M. and Baumeister, Roy F. and Twenge, Jean M. and Tice, Dianne M.},
      title = {Making choices impairs subsequent self-control: A limited-resource account of decision making, self-regulation, and active initiative},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {94},
      number = {5},
      pages = {883-898},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-3514.94.5.883}}
    }
    
    Vosgerau, J., Bruyneel, S., Dhar, R. & Wertenbroch, K. ``Ego Depletion and Cognitive Load: Same or Different Constructs?'' {2008}
    Vol. {35}ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL 35, pp. {217-218} 
    inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Vosgerau2008,
      author = {Vosgerau, Joachim and Bruyneel, Sabrina and Dhar, Ravi and Wertenbroch, Klaus},
      title = {``Ego Depletion and Cognitive Load: Same or Different Constructs?''},
      booktitle = {ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL 35},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {35},
      pages = {217-218},
      note = {35th Annual Conference of the Association-for-Consumer-Research, Memphis, TN, OCT 25-28, 2007}
    }
    
    de Vries, H., van't Riet, J., Spigt, M., Metsemakers, J., van den Akker, M., Vermunt, J.K. & Kremers, S. Clusters of lifestyle behaviors: Results from the Dutch SMILE study {2008} PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
    Vol. {46}({3}), pp. {203-208} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Objective. This study aimed to identify differences and similarities in health behavior clusters for respondents with different educational backgrounds. Methods. A total of 9449 respondents from the 2002 wave of the Dutch SMILE cohort study participated. Latent class analyses were used to identify clusters of people based on their adherence to Dutch recommendations for five important preventive health behaviors: non-smoking, alcohol use, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption and physical exercise. Results. The distribution of these groups of behaviors resulted in three clusters of people: a healthy, an unhealthy and poor nutrition cluster. This pattern was replicated in groups with low, moderate and high educational background. The high educational group scored much better on all health behaviors, whereas the lowest educational group scored the worst on the health behaviors. Conclusion. The same three patterns of health behavior can be found in different educational groups (high, moderate, low). The high educational group scored much better on all health behaviors, whereas the lowest educational group scored the worst on the health behaviors. Tailoring health education messages using a cluster-based approach may be a promising new approach to address multiple behavior change more effectively. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Vries2008,
      author = {de Vries, Hein and van't Riet, Jonathan and Spigt, Mark and Metsemakers, Job and van den Akker, Marjan and Vermunt, Jeroen K. and Kremers, Stef},
      title = {Clusters of lifestyle behaviors: Results from the Dutch SMILE study},
      journal = {PREVENTIVE MEDICINE},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {46},
      number = {3},
      pages = {203-208},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.08.005}}
    }
    
    Wallace, J.C., Edwards, B.D., Shull, A. & Finch, D.M. Examining the Consequences in the Tendency to Suppress and Reappraise Emotions on Task-Related Job Performance {2009} HUMAN PERFORMANCE
    Vol. {22}({1}), pp. {23-43} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This research tested the effects of individual differences in emotion regulation tendencies on task-related job performance and the mediating role of task focus. Emotion regulation has been divided into two broad classes, suppression and reappraisal, which may differentially relate to performance. By following self-regulation theories, it is believed that suppression requires more resources and will negatively relate to task performance via less task focus. Reappraisal requires fewer resources and should positively relate to performance via greater task focus. Results generally supported our expected relationships across both lab and field studies, and we discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wallace2009,
      author = {Wallace, J. Craig and Edwards, Bryan D. and Shull, Amanda and Finch, David M.},
      title = {Examining the Consequences in the Tendency to Suppress and Reappraise Emotions on Task-Related Job Performance},
      journal = {HUMAN PERFORMANCE},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {22},
      number = {1},
      pages = {23-43},
      doi = {{10.1080/08959280802540957}}
    }
    
    Walsh, D. & Mantonakis, A. At What Stage of Process Does Depletion Hurt the Most? {2009}
    Vol. {36}ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL XXXVI, pp. {772} 
    inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Walsh2009,
      author = {Walsh, Darlene and Mantonakis, Antonia},
      title = {At What Stage of Process Does Depletion Hurt the Most?},
      booktitle = {ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL XXXVI},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {36},
      pages = {772},
      note = {36th Annual Conference of the Association-for-Consumer-Research, San Francisco, CA, OCT 23-26, 2008}
    }
    
    Wan, E.W., Rucker, D.D., Tormala, Z.L. & Clarkson, J.J. Feeling Fatigued Leads to Feeling Certain: Regulatory Resource Depletion and Attitude Certainty {2009}
    Vol. {36}ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL XXXVI, pp. {625-626} 
    inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Wan2009,
      author = {Wan, Echo Wen and Rucker, Derek D. and Tormala, Zakary L. and Clarkson, Joshua J.},
      title = {Feeling Fatigued Leads to Feeling Certain: Regulatory Resource Depletion and Attitude Certainty},
      booktitle = {ADVANCES IN CONSUMER RESEARCH, VOL XXXVI},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {36},
      pages = {625-626},
      note = {36th Annual Conference of the Association-for-Consumer-Research, San Francisco, CA, OCT 23-26, 2008}
    }
    
    Wan, E.W., Rucker, D.D., Tormala, Z.L. & Clarkson, J.J. The Effect of Regulatory Depletion on Attitude Certainty {2010} JOURNAL OF MARKETING RESEARCH
    Vol. {47}({3}), pp. {531-541} 
    article  
    Abstract: This research explores how regulatory depletion affects consumers' responses to advertising. Initial forays into this area suggest that the depletion of self-regulatory resources is irrelevant when advertisement arguments are strong or consumers are highly motivated to process. In contrast to these conclusions, the authors contend that depletion has important but previously hidden effects in such contexts. That is, although attitudes are equivalent in valence and extremity, consumers are more certain of their attitudes when they form them under conditions of depletion than nondepletion. The authors propose that this effect occurs because feeling depleted induces the perception of having engaged in thorough information processing. As a consequence of greater attitude certainty, depleted consumers' attitudes exert greater influence on their purchase behavior. Three experiments, using different products and ad exposure times, confirm these hypotheses. Experiment 3 demonstrates the potential to vary consumers' naive beliefs about the relationship between depletion and thoroughness of processing, and this variation moderates the effect of depletion on attitude certainty. The authors discuss the theoretical contributions and implications for marketing.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wan2010,
      author = {Wan, Echo Wen and Rucker, Derek D. and Tormala, Zakary L. and Clarkson, Joshua J.},
      title = {The Effect of Regulatory Depletion on Attitude Certainty},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF MARKETING RESEARCH},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {47},
      number = {3},
      pages = {531-541}
    }
    
    Wan, E.W. & Sternthal, B. Regulating the effects of depletion through monitoring {2008} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {34}({1}), pp. {32-46} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: A robust finding is that participants who perform a depleting initial self-regulatory task are less persistent on a contiguous second task than are those who perform a less arduous initial self-regulatory task. We explain this regulatory depletion effect in terms of a monitoring process. According to this view, depleted individuals focus on the resources they have devoted to a second task, neglect to monitor their performance against their standards for such activities, and prematurely suspend their performance. Consistent with this view, we demonstrate that the regulatory depletion effect can be eliminated when individuals are encouraged to monitor their performance against some standard (Studies 1, 2, and 4) or when they have a proclivity to engage in such monitoring (Studies 3 and 4).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wan2008,
      author = {Wan, Echo Wen and Sternthal, Brian},
      title = {Regulating the effects of depletion through monitoring},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {34},
      number = {1},
      pages = {32-46},
      doi = {{10.1177/0146167207306756}}
    }
    
    Webb, T. & Sheeran, P. Integrating concepts from goal theories to understand the achievement of personal goals {2005} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {35}({1}), pp. {69-96} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The aim of this research was to integrate concepts from goal theories to understand the factors that distinguish between successful versus unsuccessful achievement of a personal goal. In two studies participants completed a questionnaire that measured 17 constructs identified from research on goals in relation to a recent situation in which they either succeeded or failed to see a task through to the end (Study 1) or in relation to their performance on an undergraduate course (Study 2). Factor analyses of the responses revealed 12 factors underlying self-regulatory efforts. Discriminant analysis showed that self-regulatory success was associated with high levels of motivation and task-focus, and with forming an implementation intention. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Webb2005,
      author = {Webb, TL and Sheeran, P},
      title = {Integrating concepts from goal theories to understand the achievement of personal goals},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {35},
      number = {1},
      pages = {69-96},
      doi = {{10.1002/ejsp.233}}
    }
    
    Webb, T. & Sheeran, P. Can implementation intentions help to overcome ego-depletion? {2003} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {39}({3}), pp. {279-286} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Research on ego-depletion suggests that the ability to self-regulate one's behavior is limited: Exerting self-control on an initial task reduces performance on a subsequent task that also requires self-control. Two experiments tested whether forming implementation intentions could prevent ego-depletion and/or offset the effects of ego-depletion. Experiment I found that participants who formed implementation intentions during an initial ego-depleting task subsequently showed greater persistence on an unsolvable puzzles task compared to participants who did not form implementation intentions. Experiment 2 found that among participants who had been ego-depleted during an initial task, forming implementation intentions improved subsequent performance on a Stroop task to the level exhibited by non-depleted controls. Thus, implementation intentions help to enhance people's ability to self-regulate their behavior. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Webb2003,
      author = {Webb, TL and Sheeran, P},
      title = {Can implementation intentions help to overcome ego-depletion?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {39},
      number = {3},
      pages = {279-286},
      doi = {{10.1016/S0022-1031(02)00527-9}}
    }
    
    Webb, T.L. & Sheeran, P. How do implementation intentions promote goal attainment? A test of component processes {2007} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {43}({2}), pp. {295-302} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Implementation intentions are plans that specify the when, where, and how of goal striving in advance, and have been shown to enhance rates of goal attainment compared to merely forming respective goal intentions. The present research investigated whether the accessibility of the specified situation (cue accessibility) and the strength of the association between the specified situation and the intended response (cue-response linkage) explain the impact of implementation intentions on goal achievement. Findings indicated that participants who planned how to undertake a verbal task better attained their goal compared to participants who did not form a plan. Crucially, implementation intention effects were mediated by the accessibility of the specified cue and by the strength of cue-response links. These findings support the idea that implementation intentions benefit performance because control of behavior is delegated to specified situational cues that initiate action automatically. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Webb2007,
      author = {Webb, Thomas L. and Sheeran, Paschal},
      title = {How do implementation intentions promote goal attainment? A test of component processes},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {43},
      number = {2},
      pages = {295-302},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jesp.2006.02.001}}
    }
    
    Wertenbroch, K., Vosgerau, J. & Bruyneel, S.D. Free will, temptation, and self-control: We must believe in free will, we have no choice (Isaac B. Singer) {2008} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {18}({1}), pp. {27-33} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Baumeister, Sparks, Stillman, and Vohs (2007) sketch a theory of free will as the human ability to exert self-control. Self-control can produce goal-directed behavior, which free will conceptualized as random behavior cannot. We question whether consumer psychology can shed light on the ontological question of whether free will exists. We suggest that it is more fruitful for consumer psychology to examine consumers' belief in free will. Specifically, we propose that this belief arises from consumers' phenomenological experience of exercising self-control in the face of moral or intertemporal conflicts of will. Based on extant literature in philosophy, psychology, and economics, we offer both a narrower conceptualization of the nature of self-control problems and a more general conceptualization of self-control strategies, involving not only willpower but also precommitment. We conclude with a discussion of the consequences of consumers' belief in free will. (c) 2007 Society for Consumer Psychology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wertenbroch2008,
      author = {Wertenbroch, Klaus and Vosgerau, Joachim and Bruyneel, Sabrina D.},
      title = {Free will, temptation, and self-control: We must believe in free will, we have no choice (Isaac B. Singer)},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {18},
      number = {1},
      pages = {27-33},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jcps.2007.10.006}}
    }
    
    Westling, E., Mann, T. & Ward, A. Self-control of smoking: When does narrowed attention help? {2006} JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {36}({9}), pp. {2115-2133} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two studies examined the capacity of cognitive load to enhance or disrupt the self-control of smoking in the presence of situational pressures that either promote or discourage the behavior. In Study 1, participants who were exposed to cues encouraging smoking smoked more under high cognitive load than under low cognitive load. In Study 2, participants who were exposed to cues discouraging smoking smoked less under high load than under low load. Cognitive load appears to narrow attention, resulting in a state of attentional myopia, which leads to disinhibited smoking behavior when pressures to smoke are disproportionately salient and enhanced control of smoking when pressures not to smoke are disproportionately salient. Implications for smoking cessation are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Westling2006,
      author = {Westling, Erika and Mann, Traci and Ward, Andrew},
      title = {Self-control of smoking: When does narrowed attention help?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {36},
      number = {9},
      pages = {2115-2133}
    }
    
    Wheeler, S.C., Brinol, P. & Hermann, A.D. Resistance to persuasion as self-regulation: Ego-depletion and its effects on attitude change processes {2007} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {43}({1}), pp. {150-156} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Counterarguing persuasive messages requires active control processes (e.g., generation and application of contradictory information) similar to those involved in other forms of self-regulation. Prior research has indicated that self-regulation ability is a finite resource subject to temporary depletion with use, and so engaging in self-regulatory tasks could impair individuals' ability to subsequently counterargue. Participants completed an initial task designed to deplete or not deplete their regulatory resources. Following the manipulation, participants read a message supporting a counterattitudinal policy. Results indicated that prior self-regulation reduced subsequent resistance, primarily when the message arguments were specious. Counterargument appears to be a self-regulatory process that can be undermined when self-regulatory resources have previously been diminished. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wheeler2007,
      author = {Wheeler, S. Christian and Brinol, Pablo and Hermann, Anthony D.},
      title = {Resistance to persuasion as self-regulation: Ego-depletion and its effects on attitude change processes},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {43},
      number = {1},
      pages = {150-156},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jesp.2006.01.001}}
    }
    
    Wood, W., Quinn, J. & Kashy, D. Habits in everyday life: Thought, emotion, and action {2002} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {83}({6}), pp. {1281-1297} 
    article  
    Abstract: To illustrate the differing thoughts and emotion's involved in guiding habitual and nonhabitual behavior, 2,. diary studies were conducted in which participants provided hourly reports of their ongoing experiences. When participants were engaged in habitual behavior, defined as behavior that had been performed almost daily in stable contexts, they were likely to think about issues unrelated to their behavior, presumably because they did not have to consciously guide their actions. When engaged in nonhabitual behavior,or actions performed less often or :in shifting contexts; participants' thoughts tended to correspond to their behavior, suggesting that thought was necessary to guide action. Furthermore, the self-regulatory, benefits of habits were apparent in the lesser feelings of stress associated with habitual,. than nonhabitual behavior.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wood2002,
      author = {Wood, W and Quinn, JM and Kashy, DA},
      title = {Habits in everyday life: Thought, emotion, and action},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {83},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1281-1297}
    }
    
    Wright, R.A., Junious, T.R., Neal, C., Avello, A., Graham, C., Herrmann, L., Junious, S. & Walton, N. Mental fatigue influence on effort-related cardiovascular response: difficulty effects and extension across cognitive performance domains {2007} MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
    Vol. {31}({3}), pp. {219-231} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Two experiments investigated cardiovascular effects of mental fatigue as a function of (1) the difficulty of the cognitive challenge with which participants were confronted, and (2) the relevance of that challenge to the activity that instigated the fatigue. In the first, participants performed an easy (fatigue low) or difficult (fatigue high) counting task and then were presented an arithmetic challenge (task B relevance high) or a scanning challenge (task B relevance low) with instructions that they would avoid a noise if they attained a modest performance standard. Analysis of blood pressure responses assessed during the work periods revealed fatigue main effects, reflecting stronger responses for High Fatigue participants, regardless of the character of the second task. In the second, the procedure was the same except that it included a high performance standard and provided the chance to win a prize. Analysis of the pressure data revealed fatigue x work period interactions, reflecting relatively stronger responses among High Fatigue participants in work period 1, but relatively weaker responses among these participants in work period 2. Results confirm previous findings and support an analysis of fatigue influence on effort and associated cardiovascular responses. They also argue against the idea that mental fatigue influence may be confined to relevant cognitive performance realms.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wright2007,
      author = {Wright, Rex A. and Junious, Tonia R. and Neal, Christin and Avello, Ashley and Graham, Candace and Herrmann, Laura and Junious, Sonia and Walton, Natasha},
      title = {Mental fatigue influence on effort-related cardiovascular response: difficulty effects and extension across cognitive performance domains},
      journal = {MOTIVATION AND EMOTION},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {31},
      number = {3},
      pages = {219-231},
      doi = {{10.1007/s11031-007-9066-9}}
    }
    
    Wright, R.A., Stewart, C.C. & Barnett, B.R. Mental fatigue influence on effort-related cardiovascular response: Extension across the regulatory (inhibitory)/non-regulatory performance dimension {2008} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY
    Vol. {69}({2}), pp. {127-133} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Participants first performed a scanning task that was weak (fatigue low) or strong (fatigue high) in self-regulatory (inhibitory) demand. They then were presented a cognitive challenge that had a strong regulatory component (the Stroop color-word conflict task) or a weak regulatory component (single-digit mental multiplication) with instructions that they would avoid noise if they attained a moderate performance standard. Analysis of cardiovascular data collected during the two work periods revealed fatigue main effects for systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure. The effects reflected stronger blood pressure responses for High Fatigue participants across work periods and regardless of the character of the challenge presented in work period 2. Results conceptually replicate previous mental fatigue findings, which have shown extension of fatigue influence across cognitive performance domains. At least as importantly, they also extend those findings by showing extension across a fresh and theoretically significant cognitive performance dimension. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wright2008,
      author = {Wright, Rex A. and Stewart, Christopher C. and Barnett, Bradley R.},
      title = {Mental fatigue influence on effort-related cardiovascular response: Extension across the regulatory (inhibitory)/non-regulatory performance dimension},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {69},
      number = {2},
      pages = {127-133},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2008.04.002}}
    }
    
    Xu, K., Dartt, D. & Yu, F. EGF-induced ERK phosphorylation independent of PKC isozymes in human corneal epithelial cells {2002} INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {43}({12}), pp. {3673-3679} 
    article  
    Abstract: PURPOSE. To investigate the role of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes in epithelial growth factor (EGO-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cell proliferation in cultured human corneal epithelial cells. METHODS. Simian virus (SV)40 stably transfected human corneal epithelial (THCE) cells were cultured in keratinocyte growth medium. PKC isozymes and phosphorylation of ERK in THCE cells were assessed by Western blot analysis. Translocation of the PKC isozyme was determined by subcellular fractionation followed by Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was measured by incorporation of [H-3]-thymidine into DNA. RESULTS. Six PKC isozymes-PKC-alpha, -betaI, -betaII, -delta, -epsilon, and -mu-were found in THCE cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused PKC-alpha, -betaI, and -epsilon, initially present in the cytoplasm, to be translocated to the membrane and nuclear subcellular fractions and PKC-delta to be depleted from the cytoskeleton. The PKC inhibitor GF109203X inhibited PMA-induced, but not basal or EGF-induced, phosphorylation of ERK, whereas the EGF receptor inhibitor tyrphostin AG1478 blocked basal and EGF-, but not PMA-, induced phosphorylation of ERK. Depletion of PMA-sensitive PKC isozymes including PKC-alpha, -betaI, -betaII, -delta, and -epsilon, inhibited PMA-, but not EGF-, induced phosphorylation of ERK. Depletion of these PKC isozymes blocked PMA-, but not EGF-, induced cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS. Although activation of PKC by PMA results in activation of ERK, EGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK and/or cell proliferation is independent of the conventional and novel isozymes PKC-alpha, -betaI, -betaII, -delta, and -epsilon in human corneal epithelial cells.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Xu2002,
      author = {Xu, KP and Dartt, DA and Yu, FSX},
      title = {EGF-induced ERK phosphorylation independent of PKC isozymes in human corneal epithelial cells},
      journal = {INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {43},
      number = {12},
      pages = {3673-3679}
    }
    
    Zyphur, M.J., Warren, C.R., Landis, R.S. & Thoresen, C.J. Self-regulation and performance in high-fidelity simulations: An extension of ego-depletion research {2007} HUMAN PERFORMANCE
    Vol. {20}({2}), pp. {103-118} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article extends the research literature related to ``ego-depletion.'' Although numerous studies have focused on the self-regulatory failure associated with ego-depletion, the extant literature is generally characterized by relatively simple behavioral manipulations and dependent measures. Two studies are described that extend previous ego-depletion findings by employing a high-fidelity, customer service simulation as an ego-depleting manipulation (Study 1) and by using performance on a cognitively demanding naval combat simulator as a dependent measure (Study 2). Results of both studies show the generalizability of the effects of ego-depletion; the implications for self-regulatory failure in more naturalistic settings are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zyphur2007,
      author = {Zyphur, Michael J. and Warren, Christopher R. and Landis, Ronald S. and Thoresen, Carl J.},
      title = {Self-regulation and performance in high-fidelity simulations: An extension of ego-depletion research},
      journal = {HUMAN PERFORMANCE},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {20},
      number = {2},
      pages = {103-118}
    }
    

    Created by JabRef on 18/11/2010.