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    Aarsen, F., Van Dongen, H., Paquier, P., Van Mourik, M. & Catsman-Berrevoets, C. Long-term sequelae in children after cerebellar astrocytoma surgery {2004} NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {62}({8}), pp. {1311-1316} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To study long-term effects on neurologic, neuropsychological, and behavioral functioning in children treated for cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma (CPA) without additional radio- and chemotherapy. Methods: The authors assessed speech, language, nonverbal intelligence, attention, memory, executive skills, and visual (- spatial) functions in a consecutive series of 23 children. Neurologic and neuropsychological follow-up ranged from 1 year to 8 years and 10 months after resection. Results: Long-term sequelae in the investigated domains were found in all children. Apraxia, motor neglect, and dysarthric features, as well as language, sustained attention, visual-spatial, executive, memory, and behavioral problems, were observed in various combinations and to different degrees. No clear pattern of neurocognitive disturbances could be discerned in this group. In addition, significant relationships were revealed between severity of preoperative hydrocephalus and visual-spatial skills. The high percentage of children who needed special education reflects the severity of the impairments. Conclusion: Despite the current opinion of a good quality of life after CPA treatment, careful long-term neurocognitive follow-up is needed in order to inform parents and teachers about the behavioral and cognitive sequelae and to contribute to timely social and educational intervention.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aarsen2004,
      author = {Aarsen, FK and Van Dongen, HR and Paquier, PF and Van Mourik, M and Catsman-Berrevoets, CE},
      title = {Long-term sequelae in children after cerebellar astrocytoma surgery},
      journal = {NEUROLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {62},
      number = {8},
      pages = {1311-1316}
    }
    
    Aarsland, D., Bronnick, K., Larsen, J.P., Tysnes, O.B., Alves, G. & Norwegian Pk W Study Grp Cognitive impairment in incident, untreated Parkinson disease The Norwegian ParkWest Study {2009} NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {72}({13}), pp. {1121-1126} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background: Little is known regarding the cognitive impairment in subjects with early, drug-naive Parkinson disease (PD). The aim of this study was to explore the proportion with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subtypes in an incidence cohort of untreated PD in Southern and Western Norway. Methods: A total of 196 non-demented, drug-naive patients who were recruited after an extensive search of all new cases of PD in the area and 201 healthy control subjects completed a battery of neuropsychological tests of verbal memory, visuospatial, and attentional-executive functioning. Subjects were classified as MCI if the age- and education-corrected z-score was falling 1.5 standard deviations below the mean for at least one of the cognitive domains. Results: The PD group was more impaired on all neuropsychological tests than controls, but the effect sizes were small. The largest effect size was found for verbal memory. A total of 18.9% of the patients with PD were classified as MCI, with a relative risk of 2.1 (1.2-3.6) in PD compared to the control group. Patients with PD with and without MCI did not differ significantly regarding demographic and motor features. Among PD-MCI patients, nearly two-thirds had a non-amnestic MCI subtype, and one third had an amnestic MCI subtype. The findings demonstrate a twofold increase in the proportion with cognitive impairment in subjects with early, untreated Parkinson disease (PD) compared to controls. This has implications for diagnosis and management of PD. Neurology (R) 2009;72:1121-1126
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aarsland2009,
      author = {Aarsland, D. and Bronnick, K. and Larsen, J. P. and Tysnes, O. B. and Alves, G. and Norwegian Pk W Study Grp},
      title = {Cognitive impairment in incident, untreated Parkinson disease The Norwegian ParkWest Study},
      journal = {NEUROLOGY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {72},
      number = {13},
      pages = {1121-1126},
      doi = {{10.1212/01.wnl.0000338632.00552.cb}}
    }
    
    Aarsland, D., Cummings, J. & Larsen, J. Neuropsychiatric differences between Parkinson's disease with dementia and Alzheimer's disease {2001} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {16}({2}), pp. {184-191} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective. To compare the profile of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design. Cross-sectional survey of a population-based sample of patients with PDD and AD patients matched for age, sex, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. Method. Patients were diagnosed according to published criteria for PD and AD. The diagnosis of dementia in PD was made according to DSM-III-R, and was based on clinical interview of the patient and a relative, psychometric testing (including MMSE, Dementia Rating Scale and tests assessing memory, executive functions and visuospatial functioning) and physical examination. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) was administered to all patients. Results. One or more psychiatric symptoms was reported in 95% of AD and 83% of PDD patients. Hallucinations were more severe in PD patients, while aberrant motor behavior, agitation, disinhibition, irritability, euphoria, and apathy were more severe in AD. In PDD, apathy was more common in mild Hoehn and Yahr stages, while delusions increased with more severe motor and cognitive disturbances. In PDD, only delusions correlated with the MMSE score. Conclusions. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common and severe in patients with PDD, with important implications for the management of these patients. AD and PDD patients have different neuropsychiatric profiles, suggesting different underlying mechanisms. Cognitive impairment, psychopathology, and motor features progress independently in PDD patients Copyright (C) 2001 John Wiley Br Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aarsland2001,
      author = {Aarsland, D and Cummings, JL and Larsen, JP},
      title = {Neuropsychiatric differences between Parkinson's disease with dementia and Alzheimer's disease},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {16},
      number = {2},
      pages = {184-191}
    }
    
    Abu-Akel, A. A neurobiological mapping of theory of mind {2003} BRAIN RESEARCH REVIEWS
    Vol. {43}({1}), pp. {29-40} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This paper attempts, based on a review of a wide range of clinical, biobehavioral and neuroanatomical studies, to account for the various theory of mind impairments observed in psychiatric and developmental disorders in a single neurobiological model. The proposed model is composed of a representational component subserved by posterior brain regions (temporal and parietal) and an application/execution component subserved by prefrontal regions. Information processed in posterior regions is relayed through a limbic-paralimbic system, which is essential for the implementation of theory of mind processes. In addition to its clinical implications, the proposed model accounts for (1) the ability to mentalize about both the self and others, (2) the nature of the anatomic connections of the various brain regions and their functional correlates, and (3) theories pertaining to the inferencing mechanisms used during mental representation/attribution. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Abu-Akel2003,
      author = {Abu-Akel, A},
      title = {A neurobiological mapping of theory of mind},
      journal = {BRAIN RESEARCH REVIEWS},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {43},
      number = {1},
      pages = {29-40},
      doi = {{10.1016/S0165-0173(03)00190-5}}
    }
    
    Addington, J. & Addington, D. Cognitive functioning in first-episode schizophrenia {2002} JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY & NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {27}({3}), pp. {188-192} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To compare the cognitive functioning of a sample of patients experiencing their first episode of schizophrenia with that of patients with an established schizophrenia illness. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Setting: The Calgary Early Psychosis Treatment and Prevention Program and an outpatient clinic in a department of psychiatry at a university-affiliated hospital. Participants: One hundred and eleven patients who were experiencing their first episode of schizophrenia and 76 outpatients with an established schizophrenia illness. Measures: The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia was administered to all subjects to determine levels of positive and negative symptoms. Executive functioning, information processing, visual memory, and immediate and delayed verbal memory were assessed. Results: There were limited differences between the 2 groups in terms of cognitive functioning. Although the first-episode patients demonstrated generally superior scores, their performance was impaired. Conclusions: These results support the findings of previous studies suggesting that first-episode patients demonstrate cognitive impairments similar to those of patients with an established schizophrenia illness.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Addington2002,
      author = {Addington, J and Addington, D},
      title = {Cognitive functioning in first-episode schizophrenia},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY & NEUROSCIENCE},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {27},
      number = {3},
      pages = {188-192}
    }
    
    Addington, J. & Addington, D. Neurocognitive and social functioning in schizophrenia: a 2.5 year follow-up study {2000} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {44}({1}), pp. {47-56} 
    article  
    Abstract: In our previous study we demonstrated that, in 80 schizophrenia subjects, verbal ability, verbal memory and executive functioning were significantly associated with social problem solving. The objective of this present study was to assess the longitudinal stability of the relationship between social and neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia. This 2.5 year longitudinal cohort stud!: re-assessed community functioning, social problem solving and symptoms in 65 of the 80 original subjects to determine the predictive ability of neurocognitive functioning. Neurocognition was not re-assessed at this follow-up. Positive and negative symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Social functioning was assessed using the Social Functioning Scale, the Quality of Life Scale, and the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills (AIPSS). Verbal ability, verbal memory and vigilance were significant predictors of social problem solving as assessed by the AIPSS. Results suggest that the association between neurocognition and social functioning remains consistent over time. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Addington2000,
      author = {Addington, J and Addington, D},
      title = {Neurocognitive and social functioning in schizophrenia: a 2.5 year follow-up study},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {44},
      number = {1},
      pages = {47-56}
    }
    
    Addington, J. & Addington, D. Neurocognitive and social functioning in schizophrenia {1999} SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN
    Vol. {25}({1}), pp. {173-182} 
    article  
    Abstract: This cross-sectional study examined the relationships between neurocognitive and social functioning in a sample of 80 outpatients with DSM-III-R schizophrenia. The neurocognitive battery included measures of verbal ability, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning, visual-spatial organization, vigilance, and early information processing. Positive and negative symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. A range of social behaviors were assessed using the Social Functioning Scale (SFS), the Quality of Life Scale (QLS), and a video-based test, the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills (AIPSS). Social functioning as assessed by the SFS was unrelated to neurocognitive functioning. Poor cognitive flexibility was associated with low scores on the QLS and the AIPSS. Verbal ability and verbal memory were also significantly associated with the AIPSS. Visual-spatial ability and vigilance were associated with the sending skills subscale of the AIPSS. In this study, which used a wide range of neurocognitive tests and measures of community functioning and social problem solving, results support earlier research that suggests an association between certain aspects of neurocognitive functioning and social functioning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Addington1999,
      author = {Addington, J and Addington, D},
      title = {Neurocognitive and social functioning in schizophrenia},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {25},
      number = {1},
      pages = {173-182}
    }
    
    Addington, J. & Addington, D. Substance abuse and cognitive functioning in schizophrenia {1997} JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY & NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {22}({2}), pp. {99-104} 
    article  
    Abstract: Individuals with schizophrenia have an increased vulnerability to abuse drugs or alcohol. This vulnerability can interfere with the course and treatment of the disorder and may also have a detrimental effect on already compromised cognitive functioning. This study has a matched, cross-sectional design and compares the social and cognitive functioning and the symptoms of 33 schizophrenia subjects who abuse substances with 33 nonabusing schizophrenia subjects. Subjects were matched on sex, age, and education variables and were all outpatients. Measures of social functioning and quality of life were used. Assessment of cognitive functioning included measures of verbal ability, attention, executive functioning, and verbal and visual memory. Substance-abusing subjects had significantly lower quality of life. There were no other differences between the 2 groups, Several explanations are offered for the lack of observed differences in cognitive functioning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Addington1997,
      author = {Addington, J and Addington, D},
      title = {Substance abuse and cognitive functioning in schizophrenia},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY & NEUROSCIENCE},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {22},
      number = {2},
      pages = {99-104}
    }
    
    Aharonovich, E., Hasin, D., Brooks, A., Liu, X., Bisaga, A. & Nunes, E. Cognitive deficits predict low treatment retention in cocaine dependent patients {2006} DRUG AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE
    Vol. {81}({3}), pp. {313-322} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Previously, we found that impaired cognition predicted treatment dropout from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in a small sample of cocaine dependent patients. To further address the role of impaired cognition in retention and treatment outcome of cocaine-dependent patients in CBT, we expanded a previous investigation to a larger sample, added depressed cocaine patients, and added an additional cognitive assessment. Fifty-six cocaine dependent patients receiving CBT in outpatient clinical trials were assessed for cognitive performance at treatment entry with the computerized MicroCog (MC) and the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST). Treatment completion was defined as 12 or more weeks. Treatment dropouts had significantly lower MC scores (poorer cognitive functioning) than completers on attention, memory, spatial ability, speed, accuracy, global functioning, and cognitive proficiency, with effect sizes in the moderate to large range. These findings were not affected by depression, demographics (age, gender, race, sex, marital status) or drug use (years of cocaine use or average weekly cocaine expenditure in the prior 30 days). In contrast, patients' performance on the WCST was in the average or near-average range, and WCST scores did not differentiate between completers and dropouts. Consistent with previous research, results suggest that mild cognitive impairments (<= 1 S.D. below the mean) negatively affect retention in outpatient CBT treatment for cocaine dependence. Future studies should examine whether there are specific effects of different executive functioning abilities on treatment outcome. Modified behavioral and pharmacologic interventions should be considered to target mild cognitive impairments to improve substance treatment outcome. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aharonovich2006,
      author = {Aharonovich, E and Hasin, DS and Brooks, AC and Liu, XH and Bisaga, A and Nunes, EV},
      title = {Cognitive deficits predict low treatment retention in cocaine dependent patients},
      journal = {DRUG AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {81},
      number = {3},
      pages = {313-322},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2005.08.003}}
    }
    
    Aleman, A., Agrawal, N., Morgan, K.D. & David, A.S. Insight in psychosis and neuropsychological function - Meta-analysis {2006} BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {189}, pp. {204-212} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background One factor contributing to impaired awareness of illness (poor insight) in psychotic disorders may be neurocognitive deficits. Method A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted after data extraction. Following an overall analysis, in which measures of different cognitive domains were taken together, more fine-grained analyses investigated whether there was a specific relation with frontal executive functioning, and whether this was influenced by diagnosis or the insight scales used. Results There was a significant mean correlation between insight ratings and neurocognitive performance (mean weighted r=0.17, 95% Cl 0.13-0.21, z=8.3, P < 0.0001), based on 35 studies with a total of 2354 individuals. Further analyses revealed that the effect of general intellectual impairment was smaller than the specific association with executive function. This was only the case for psychosis in general, and not in an analysis limited to schizophrenia, where all cognitive domains were associated with impaired insight to a similar degree. Conclusions Neuropsychological dysfunction, specifically impairment of set-shifting and error monitoring, contributes to poor insight in psychosis. Specific relations with different dimensions of insight and the putative role of meta-cognitive functions require further study.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aleman2006,
      author = {Aleman, Andre and Agrawal, Niruj and Morgan, Kevin D. and David, Anthony S.},
      title = {Insight in psychosis and neuropsychological function - Meta-analysis},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {189},
      pages = {204-212},
      doi = {{10.1192/bjp.189.3.204}}
    }
    
    Alexopoulos, G., Kiosses, D., Klimstra, S., Kalayam, B. & Bruce, M. Clinical presentation of the ``depression-executive dysfunction syndrome'' of late life {2002} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {10}({1}), pp. {98-106} 
    article  
    Abstract: It has been proposed that a ``depression-executive dysfunction (DED) syndrome'' occurs in late life. This assertion was based on clinical, neuropathological, and neuroimaging findings suggesting that frontostriatal dysfunctions contribute to the development of bot depression and executive dysfunction and influence the course of depression. The authors describe the clinical presentation of DED and its relationship to disability studying 126 elderly subjects with major depression and evaluating depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning, disability and personality dimensions. Patients with the DED syndrome bad reduced fluency, impaired visual naming, paranoia, loss of interest in activities, and psychomotor retardation, but showed a rather mild vegetative syndrome. Depressive symptomatology and especially psychomotor retardation and loss of interest in activities, contributed to disability in DED patients, whereas paranoia was associated with disability independently of executive dysfunction. These findings may aid clinicians in identifying patients needing vigilant follow-up, because depression with executive dysfunction was found to be associated with disability, poor treatment response, relapse, and recurrence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alexopoulos2002,
      author = {Alexopoulos, GS and Kiosses, DN and Klimstra, S and Kalayam, B and Bruce, ML},
      title = {Clinical presentation of the ``depression-executive dysfunction syndrome'' of late life},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {98-106}
    }
    
    ALMKVIST, O. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICITS IN VASCULAR DEMENTIA IN RELATION TO ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE - REVIEWING EVIDENCE FOR FUNCTIONAL SIMILARITY OR DIVERGENCE {1994} DEMENTIA
    Vol. {5}({3-4}), pp. {203-209} 
    article  
    Abstract: The hypothesis that vascular dementia (VAD) may be associated with a specific pattern of neuropsychological dysfunction as compared to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is reviewed. The empirical findings were evaluated with regard to methodology, most importantly the comparability between groups regarding demographic variables and severity of dementia. They were also classified according to the cognitive and sensory-motor functions affected. No consistent differences were found between VAD and AD patients in neuropsychological performance testing general cognitive functioning, syntax, verbal comprehension, visuospatial tasks, and primary as well as semantic memory, indicating a functional similarity between VAD and AD. However, inferior performance was found for VAD in executive functioning, verbal fluency, attention, and motor performance. Superior performance for VAD was found in naming and with regard to intrusion errors. The findings on episodic memory were inconclusive. These results should be considered in light of possible selection bias due to the fact that all studies used a hospital-based sample of subjects and not subjects from the community. Bias may also arise from the variations in lesion site, size, number, and timing between different VAD groups. Third, the risk of confounding errors due to a lack of comparability between etiological groups in terms of demographic variables as well as cognitive decline cannot be excluded. Future studies should take into account variation in the severity of cognitive decline, variation regarding lesion characteristics, etiological factors, and subtypes of VAD in order to increase our knowledge about the functional features of VAD.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ALMKVIST1994,
      author = {ALMKVIST, O},
      title = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICITS IN VASCULAR DEMENTIA IN RELATION TO ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE - REVIEWING EVIDENCE FOR FUNCTIONAL SIMILARITY OR DIVERGENCE},
      journal = {DEMENTIA},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {5},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {203-209},
      note = {2nd Symposium on Ageing and Ageing Disorders, STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN, AUG 19-20, 1993}
    }
    
    Altshuler, L., Ventura, J., van Gorp, W., Green, M., Theberge, D. & Mintz, J. Neurocognitive function in clinically stable men with bipolar I disorder or schizophrenia and normal control subjects {2004} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {56}({8}), pp. {560-569} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background: Patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have been shown to have neurocognitive deficits when compared with control subjects. The degree and pattern of impairment between psychiatric groups have rarely been compared, especially when subjects are psychiatrically stable. Methods: Using a standard neurocognitive battery, we compared euthymic outpatients with bipolar disorder (n = 40), stable patients with schizophrenia (n = 20), and subjects with no psychiatric disorder (h = 22). The neurocognitive domains assessed included executive functioning, verbal memory, visual memory, procedural learning, visuoconstructive ability, and language functions. Effect sizes were calculated for each cognitive domain across groups. Results: Stable schizophrenic subjects demonstrated a generalized cognitive impairment across most domains compared with control subjects, with average effect sizes of .9. Euthymic bipolar subjects were significantly impaired compared with control subjects only in executive functioning (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) and verbal memory (California Verbal Learning Test) domains (effect sizes in the .8-.9 range). Performance on the executive function measures was bimodal among bipolar subjects, suggesting two subgroups: one with relatively normal and one with impaired executive functioning. No significant differences between the bipolar patient group and control subjects were observed in visuoconstructive ability, procedural learning, or language function. Conclusions: Both euthymic bipolar subjects and relatively stable schizophrenic subjects differed from control subjects in neurocognitive function. Among schizophrenic subjects, a generalized cognitive impairment was observed, and the degree of impairment was greater in the schizophrenic compared with the bipolar subjects. Subjects with bipolar disorder were impaired in two specific domains (verbal memory and executive function). Furthermore, within the bipolar group there was a subset with relatively normal executive functioning and a subset with? significant impairment. Possible reasons for the persistence of these neurocognitive deficits in some subjects with bipolar disorder during periods of euthymia are reviewed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Altshuler2004,
      author = {Altshuler, LL and Ventura, J and van Gorp, WG and Green, MF and Theberge, DC and Mintz, J},
      title = {Neurocognitive function in clinically stable men with bipolar I disorder or schizophrenia and normal control subjects},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {56},
      number = {8},
      pages = {560-569},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.08.002}}
    }
    
    Amieva, H., Phillips, L., Della Sala, S. & Henry, J. Inhibitory functioning in Alzheimer's disease {2004} BRAIN
    Vol. {127}({Part 5}), pp. {949-964} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We present a comprehensive review of studies assessing inhibitory functioning in Alzheimer's disease. The objectives of this review are: (i) to establish whether Alzheimer's disease affects all inhibitory mechanisms equally, and (ii) where possible, to assess whether any effects of Alzheimer's disease on inhibition tasks might be caused by other cognitive deficits, such as slowed processing. We review inhibitory mechanisms considered to play a crucial role in various domains of cognition, such as inhibition involved in working memory, selective attention and shifting abilities, and the inhibition of motor and verbal responses. It was found that whilst most inhibitory mechanisms are affected by the disorder, some are relatively preserved, suggesting that inhibitory deficits in Alzheimer's disease may not be the result of a general inhibitory breakdown. In particular, the experimental results reviewed showed that Alzheimer's disease has a strong effect on tasks requiring controlled inhibition processes, such as the Stroop task. However, the presence of the disease appears to have relatively little effect on tasks requiring more automatic inhibition, such as the inhibition of return task. Thus, the distinction between automatic, reflexive inhibitory mechanisms and controlled inhibitory mechanisms may be critical when predicting the integrity of inhibitory mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease. Substantial effects of Alzheimer's disease on tasks such as negative priming, which are not cognitively complex but do require some degree of controlled inhibition, support this hypothesis. A meta-analytic review of seven studies on the Stroop paradigm revealed substantially larger effects of Alzheimer's disease on the inhibition condition relative to the baseline condition, suggesting that these deficits do not simply reflect general slowing.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Amieva2004,
      author = {Amieva, H and Phillips, LH and Della Sala, S and Henry, JD},
      title = {Inhibitory functioning in Alzheimer's disease},
      journal = {BRAIN},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {127},
      number = {Part 5},
      pages = {949-964},
      doi = {{10.1093/brain/awh045}}
    }
    
    Amodio, P., Montagnese, S., Gatta, A. & Morgan, M. Characteristics of minimal hepatic encephalopathy {2004} METABOLIC BRAIN DISEASE
    Vol. {19}({3-4}), pp. {253-267} 
    article  
    Abstract: The term minimal hepatic encephalopathy refers to the subtle changes in cognitive function, electrophysiological parameters, cerebral neurochemical/neurotransmitter homeostasis, cerebral blood flow, metabolism, and fluid homeostasis that can be observed in patients with cirrhosis who have no clinical evidence of hepatic encephalopathy. Use of this term emphasizes the fact that the entity of hepatic encephalopathy is a single syndrome with quantitatively distinct features relating to severity. The absence of clinical evidence of hepatic encephalopathy is key to the diagnosis and can only be determined by a detailed assessment of the patients' history and a comprehensive neurological assessment of consciousness, cognitive, and motor function. The neuropsychological features of minimal hepatic encephalopathy point to a disorder of executive functioning, particularly selective attention and psychomotor speed, but other abnormalities may be observed. Alterations in electrophysiological variables have been described; endogenous evoked potentials are, in principle, more likely to reflect the presence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy, since they reflect cognitive phenomena rather than mere stimulus conduction but the specificity of the changes observed is unclear at present. Changes have also been described in the execution of diadochokinetic movements and in the capacity to discriminate flickering light, both of which may have diagnostic potential. The changes observed in cerebral blood flow and metabolism in SPET, PET, and H-1 and P-31 MRS studies reflect the pathogenic process that underlies the condition rather than providing diagnostic information. Similarly, the morphological brain abnormalities identified in this population, including mild brain oedema, hyperintensity of the globus pallidus and other subcortical nuclei observed in cerebral MR studies, and the central and cortical atrophy observed in neural imaging studies, are unlikely to have diagnostic utility. The presence of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is not without clinical consequence; it has a detrimental effect on health-related quality of life, the ability to perform complex tasks such as driving, and on outcome.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Amodio2004,
      author = {Amodio, P and Montagnese, S and Gatta, A and Morgan, MY},
      title = {Characteristics of minimal hepatic encephalopathy},
      journal = {METABOLIC BRAIN DISEASE},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {19},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {253-267},
      note = {3rd International Hannover Conference on Hepatic Encephalopathy, Bremen, GERMANY, MAY 31-AUG 21, 2003}
    }
    
    Anderson, C., Bigler, E. & Blatter, D. Frontal lobe lesions, diffuse damage, and neuropsychological functioning in traumatic brain-injured patients {1995} JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {17}({6}), pp. {900-908} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study quantified lesion volume in relation to damage location and executive functioning in traumatic brain-injured (TBI) patients. Magnetic resonance (MR) scans of 68 TBI patients were analyzed by taking volumetric measures of lesion sites. Patients were grouped according the presence/absence of frontal lobe lesions. Measures of frontal lesion volume were studied as predictors for outcome on designated tests of executive functioning (Halstead Category Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Results showed no significant differences in level of deficit between groups. In addition, no significant differences were found between groups on other tests of neuropsychological functioning (Trail Making Test, Parts A and B, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised). These results suggest that tests that are traditionally used to detect `'frontal lobe'' damage may not be adequate for distinguishing specific frontal lobe dysfunction, and do not add anything unique about frontal lobe integrity and neuropsychological functioning in TBI patients.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Anderson1995,
      author = {Anderson, CV and Bigler, ED and Blatter, DD},
      title = {Frontal lobe lesions, diffuse damage, and neuropsychological functioning in traumatic brain-injured patients},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {17},
      number = {6},
      pages = {900-908}
    }
    
    Anderson, P., Doyle, L. & Victorian Infant Collaborative Grp Executive functioning in school-aged children who were born very preterm or with extremely low birth weight in the 1990s {2004} PEDIATRICS
    Vol. {114}({1}), pp. {50-57} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective. To determine the frequency, nature, and severity of executive dysfunction (EDF) at 8 years of age in extremely low birth weight (ELBW)/very preterm infants who were born in the 1990s, compared with normal birth weight (NBW) control subjects. Methods. A geographically determined cohort study was conducted in Victoria, Australia. The ELBW/very preterm cohort comprised 298 consecutive survivors at 2 years of age who had gestational ages <28 completed weeks or birth weights <1000 g and were born during 1991-1992. The NBW cohort comprised 262 randomly selected children of birth weight >2499 g matched on date of birth, gender, ethnicity, and health insurance status. The participation rate was 92% (275 of 298) for the ELBW/very preterm cohort and 85% (223 of 262) for the NBW cohort. Cognitive and behavioral measures of executive functioning were administered. Results. The ELBW/very preterm cohort exhibited significant EDF compared with their NBW peers in all areas assessed. The cognitive assessment revealed global impairment rather than deficits in specific executive domains. The ELBW/very preterm children also displayed more behavioral problems indicative of EDF than the NBW children. Severe impairments were exhibited in only a small minority of ELBW/very preterm children. No statistical conclusions were altered after adjustment for sociodemographic variables or when children with substantial neurosensory impairment were excluded. Conclusions. School-aged children who were born in the 1990s and were very preterm or had ELBW are at greater risk for developing EDF and require ongoing neuropsychological review throughout middle childhood.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Anderson2004,
      author = {Anderson, PJ and Doyle, LW and Victorian Infant Collaborative Grp},
      title = {Executive functioning in school-aged children who were born very preterm or with extremely low birth weight in the 1990s},
      journal = {PEDIATRICS},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {114},
      number = {1},
      pages = {50-57}
    }
    
    Anderson, V., Anderson, P., Northam, E., Jacobs, R. & Catroppa, C. Development of executive functions through late childhood and adolescence in an Australian sample {2001} DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {20}({1}), pp. {385-406} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although there have been significant theoretical advances in the field of child neuropsychology, developmental features of adolescence have received less attention. Progress in clinical practice is restricted due to a lack of well-standardized, developmentally appropriate assessment techniques. This article addresses these issues in relation to executive skills. These abilities are targeted,for 2 reasons: first, because they are often considered to be mature during late childhood and adolescence, despite limited investigation in this age range; and second, because! of their central importance to efficient day-to-day functioning. Using a normative sample of 138 children, aged 11.0 to 17.11 years, this article plots the development of executive skills through late childhood and early adolescence and interprets progress in these skills with reference to current neurological and cognitive theory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Anderson2001,
      author = {Anderson, VA and Anderson, P and Northam, E and Jacobs, R and Catroppa, C},
      title = {Development of executive functions through late childhood and adolescence in an Australian sample},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {20},
      number = {1},
      pages = {385-406}
    }
    
    Aouizerate, B., Cuny, E., Martin-Guehl, C., Guehl, D., Amieva, H., Benazzouz, A., Fabrigoule, C., Allard, M., Rougier, A., Bioulac, B., Tignol, J. & Burbaud, P. Deep brain stimulation of the ventral caudate nucleus in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depression - Case report {2004} JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY
    Vol. {101}({4}), pp. {682-686} 
    article  
    Abstract: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder associated with recurrent intrusive thoughts and repetitive behaviors. Although conventional pharmacological and/or psychological treatments are well established and effective in treating OCD, symptoms remain unchanged in up to 30% of patients. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior limb of the internal capsule has recently been proposed as a possible therapeutic alternative in treatment-resistant OCD. In the present Study, the authors tested the hypothesis that DBS of the ventral caudate nucleus might be effective in a patient with intractable severe OCD and concomitant major depression. Psychiatric assessment included the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale for determining the symptom severity of OCD, depression, and anxiety as well as the quality of pychosocial and occupational functioning, respectively. Neuropsychological assessment consisted of a wide range of tests primarily exploring memory and executive functions. Deep brain stimulation of the ventral caudate nucleus markedly improved symptoms of depression and anxiety until their remission, which was achieved at 6 months after the start of stimulation (HDRS less than or equal to 7 and HARS less than or equal to 10). Remission of OCD (Y-BOCS < 16) was also delayed after 12 or 15 months of DBS. The level of functioning pursuant to the GAF scale progressively increased during the 15-month follow-up period. No neuropsychological deterioration was observed, indicating that DBS of the ventral caudate nucleus could be a promising strategy in the treatment of refractory cases of both OCD and major depression.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aouizerate2004,
      author = {Aouizerate, B and Cuny, E and Martin-Guehl, C and Guehl, D and Amieva, H and Benazzouz, A and Fabrigoule, C and Allard, M and Rougier, A and Bioulac, B and Tignol, J and Burbaud, P},
      title = {Deep brain stimulation of the ventral caudate nucleus in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depression - Case report},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {101},
      number = {4},
      pages = {682-686}
    }
    
    Archibald, S. & Kerns, K. Identification and description of new tests of executive functioning in children {1999} CHILD NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {5}({2}), pp. {115-129} 
    article  
    Abstract: The understanding of executive functioning in pediatric neuropsychological evaluation is of clinical significance, yet there are few developmentally appropriate executive function measures that have been adequately normed in this population. The present study provides normative data, collected on a sample of 89 normal children from ages 7-12, for several measures thought to be appropriate for assessing executive functioning in children. Executive function measures were selected and/or modified to be developmentally appropriate, to tap less complex and integrative aspects of executive function, and to assess fundamental working memory (Self-Ordered Pointing: Delayed Alternation/Non-alternation) and inhibitory control (Developmental Stroop tasks: Go/No Go) dimensions of executive functioning. The results supported the potential utility of these measures in assessing those abilities in children.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Archibald1999,
      author = {Archibald, SJ and Kerns, KA},
      title = {Identification and description of new tests of executive functioning in children},
      journal = {CHILD NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {5},
      number = {2},
      pages = {115-129}
    }
    
    Ardouin, C., Pillon, B., Peiffer, E., Bejjani, P., Limousin, P., Damier, P., Arnulf, I., Benabid, A., Agid, Y. & Pollak, P. Bilateral subthalamic or pallidal stimulation for Parkinson's disease affects neither memory nor executive functions: A consecutive series of 62 patients {1999} ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {46}({2}), pp. {217-223} 
    article  
    Abstract: There is a renewal of interest in surgical approaches including lesions and deep brain stimulation directed at motor subcorticofrontal loops. Bilateral lesioning presents a far greater risk of adverse effects, especially cognitive impairment. Furthermore, the main advantages of the stimulation procedure over lesioning are adaptability and reversibility of effects. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus or internal globus pallidus on memory and executive functions in Parkinson's disease. Sixty-two patients were assessed before and after 3 to 6 months of chronic bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (n = 49) or internal globus pallidus (n = 13). The neuropsychological tests used were the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, the Grober and Buschke Verbal Learning Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, category and literal fluency, graphic and motor series, the Stroop Test, and the Trail Making Test. Mood was evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory. Only 4 of 25 cognitive variables were affected by deep brain stimulation. Under stimulation, performance improved for Parts A and B of the Trail Making Test, but there was a deterioration in literal and total lexical fluency. There was also a mild but significant improvement in mood. It may therefore be concluded that stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus or internal globus pallidus does not change the overall cognitive performance in Parkinson's disease and does not greatly affect the functioning of subcorticofrontal loops involved in cognition in humans. This relative absence of cognitive impairment in bilateral deep brain stimulation is likely because of the accurate positioning of the electrodes, allowing the effects of stimulation to be confined to sensorimotor circuits.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ardouin1999,
      author = {Ardouin, C and Pillon, B and Peiffer, E and Bejjani, P and Limousin, P and Damier, P and Arnulf, I and Benabid, AL and Agid, Y and Pollak, P},
      title = {Bilateral subthalamic or pallidal stimulation for Parkinson's disease affects neither memory nor executive functions: A consecutive series of 62 patients},
      journal = {ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {46},
      number = {2},
      pages = {217-223}
    }
    
    Arnett, P., Higginson, C. & Randolph, J. Depression in multiple sclerosis: Relationship to planning ability {2001} JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY
    Vol. {7}({6}), pp. {665-674} 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent research has demonstrated deficits on effortful executive tasks involving planning in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Given the high prevalence of depression in MS and the commonly reported link between depression and performance on executive tasks, planning impairments in MS may be associated with depression. We compared the performance of depressed and nondepressed MS patients on a planning task (Tower of London-TOL) to evaluate this hypothesis. Compared with nondepressed MS patients, depressed MS patients made significantly (p < .05) more moves and took more time per trial on the TOL. A follow-up regression analysis was conducted that included the TOL and speeded attentional/working memory task indices found to be associated with depression in MS from the authors' prior reports. This analysis revealed that 25% of the variance in depression scores was predicted by the most sensitive speeded attentional/working memory task. Furthermore, this variance overlapped completely with variance predicted by the TOL-time/trial index. The only clearly nonspeeded task index, TOL-moves per trial, was associated with unique variance (8 in predicting MS depression scores. These results suggest that slowed information processing speed and, secondarily, deficient nonspeeded central executive skill, may be core to the cognitive deficits characteristic of depressed MS patients.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Arnett2001,
      author = {Arnett, PA and Higginson, CI and Randolph, JJ},
      title = {Depression in multiple sclerosis: Relationship to planning ability},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {7},
      number = {6},
      pages = {665-674},
      note = {26th Annual Meeting of the International-Neuropsychological-Society, HONOLULU, HAWAII, FEB 04-05, 1998}
    }
    
    Arnett, P., Higginson, C., Voss, W., Wright, B., Bender, W., Wurst, J. & Tippin, J. Depressed mood in multiple sclerosis: Relationship to capacity-demanding memory and attentional functioning {1999} NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {13}({3}), pp. {434-446} 
    article  
    Abstract: Because it is theorized that depression results in reduced available attentional capacity that, in turn, can explain the impaired performance on capacity-demanding tasks in depressed individuals, the authors predicted that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with depressed mood would have difficulty with these types of tasks. Twenty depressed mood MS participants were compared with 41 nondepressed mood MS participants and 8 nondepressed mood controls on 5 attentional capacity-demanding clinical memory and attentional tasks and 3 tasks with minimal capacity demands. Depressed mood MS patients performed significantly worse than both nondepressed mood groups on the 3 speeded capacity-demanding attentional measures but not on any of the tasks requiring few capacity demands, supporting the authors' predictions. The possibility that the impaired performance of depressed mood MS patients on speeded attentional tasks was mediated by reduced verbal working memory capacity, impaired deployment of executive strategies that access working memory capacity, or psychomotor slowing is explored.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Arnett1999,
      author = {Arnett, PA and Higginson, CI and Voss, WD and Wright, B and Bender, WI and Wurst, JM and Tippin, JP},
      title = {Depressed mood in multiple sclerosis: Relationship to capacity-demanding memory and attentional functioning},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {13},
      number = {3},
      pages = {434-446}
    }
    
    Arts, B., Jabben, N., Krabbendam, L. & van Os, J. Meta-analyses of cognitive functioning in euthymic bipolar patients and their first-degree relatives {2008} PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE
    Vol. {38}({6}), pp. {771-785} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background. Previous work suggests that impairments in executive function and verbal memory in particular may persist in euthymic bipolar patients and serve as an indicator of genetic risk (endophenotype). Method. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. Effects sizes were extracted from selected papers and pooled using meta-analytical techniques. Results. In bipolar patients, large effect sizes (d > 0.8) were noted for executive functions (working memory, executive control, fluency) and verbal memory. Medium effect sizes (0.5 < d < 0.8) were reported for aspects of executive function (concept shifting, executive control), mental speed, visual memory, and sustained attention. Small effect sizes (d < 0.5) were found for visuoperception. In first-degree relatives, effect sizes were small (d < 0.5), but significantly different from healthy controls for executive function and verbal memory in particular. Conclusions. Executive function and verbal memory are candidate bipolar endophenotypes given large deficits in these domains in bipolar patients and small, but intermediate, cognitive impairments in first-degree relatives.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Arts2008,
      author = {Arts, B. and Jabben, N. and Krabbendam, L. and van Os, J.},
      title = {Meta-analyses of cognitive functioning in euthymic bipolar patients and their first-degree relatives},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {38},
      number = {6},
      pages = {771-785},
      doi = {{10.1017/S0033291707001675}}
    }
    
    Ashcraft, M. & Kirk, E. The relationships among working memory, math anxiety, and performance {2001} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL
    Vol. {130}({2}), pp. {224-237} 
    article  
    Abstract: Individuals with high math anxiety demonstrated smaller working memory spans, especially when assessed with a computation-based span task. This reduced working memory capacity led to a pronounced increase in reaction time and errors when mental addition was performed concurrently with a memory load task. The effects of the reduction also generalized to a working memory-intensive transformation task. Overall, the results demonstrated that an individual difference variable, math anxiety, affects on-line performance in math-related tasks and that this effect is a transitory disruption of working memory. The authors consider a possible mechanism underlying this effect-disruption of central executive processes-and suggest that individual difference variables like math anxiety deserve greater empirical attention, especially on assessments of working memory capacity and functioning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ashcraft2001,
      author = {Ashcraft, MH and Kirk, EP},
      title = {The relationships among working memory, math anxiety, and performance},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {130},
      number = {2},
      pages = {224-237},
      note = {68th Annual Meeting of the Midwestern-Psychological-Association, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, MAY 03, 1996}
    }
    
    Au, R., Massaro, J., Wolf, P., Young, M., Beiser, A., Seshadri, S., D'Agostino, R. & DeCarli, C. Association of white matter hyperintensity volume with decreased cognitive functioning - The Framingham Heart Study {2006} ARCHIVES OF NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {63}({2}), pp. {246-250} 
    article  
    Abstract: objective: To examine the relationship between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume on magnetic resonance images and cognitive tests in a large, population-based sample. Methods: Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological evaluations were performed in 1820 dementia- and stroke-free participants from the Framingham Offspring Cohort. The WMH volume relative to total cranial volume was computed; WMH volumes more than 1 SD above the age-predicted mean were defined as large. Adjusting for age, sex, education, height, and Framingham Stroke Risk Profile, we examined the relationship between WMH and 3 cognitive factors derived from a neuropsychological test battery (verbal memory, visuospatial memory and organization, and visual scanning and motor speed) and 3 individual measures of new learning, abstract reasoning, and naming. Results: Compared with those with no or little WMH volume, participants with large WMH volume performed worse on the cognitive factors of visuospatial memory and organization (P = .04) and visual scanning and motor speed (P = .01), as well as on new learning (P = .04), but not on verbal memory (P = .52). Conclusions: In this younger community-based population of nondemented individuals, those with large WMH volume, as compared with those with less or no WMH volumes, performed significantly worse in cognitive domains generally associated with frontal lobe systems and, to a lesser extent, the medial temporal area. Further study will clarify whether large WMH volume and associated cognitive impairment lead to future risk of stroke or dementia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Au2006,
      author = {Au, R and Massaro, JM and Wolf, PA and Young, ME and Beiser, A and Seshadri, S and D'Agostino, RB and DeCarli, C},
      title = {Association of white matter hyperintensity volume with decreased cognitive functioning - The Framingham Heart Study},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF NEUROLOGY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {63},
      number = {2},
      pages = {246-250}
    }
    
    Aytaclar, S., Tarter, R., Kirisci, L. & Lu, S. Association between hyperactivity and executive cognitive functioning in childhood and substance use in early adolescence {1999} JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {38}({2}), pp. {172-178} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To determine whether deficient executive cognitive functioning (ECF) in association with high behavioral activity level comprise components of the liability to substance abuse. Method: A high-risk (HR) group having fathers with a lifetime DSM-III-R diagnosis of a psychoactive substance use disorder was compared with a low-average-risk (LAR) group whose fathers had neither psychoactive substance use disorder nor another adult Axis I psychiatric disorder. ECF and behavioral activity were measured using neuropsychological tests, activity monitor, diagnostic interview, and informant ratings when the subjects were 10 to 12 years of age. alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use were measured at 2-year follow-up. Results: At baseline. the HR group had a significantly higher behavioral activity level and exhibited poorer performance on ECF tests than the LAR group. By early adolescence, HR subjects had a higher lifetime rate of tobacco and cannabis use and earlier age at onset of cannabis use. ECF capacity, but not behavioral activity level, predicted tobacco and cannabis use, total number of drugs ever tried, and severity of drug involvement. ECF accounted for additional variance beyond the effects of conduct problems on these outcomes. Conclusion: Whereas behavioral activity and ECF capacity in late childhood distinguishes HR from LAR youth, childhood ECF capacity is the more salient predictor of drug use in early adolescence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aytaclar1999,
      author = {Aytaclar, S and Tarter, RE and Kirisci, L and Lu, S},
      title = {Association between hyperactivity and executive cognitive functioning in childhood and substance use in early adolescence},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {38},
      number = {2},
      pages = {172-178}
    }
    
    Bachevalier, J. & Loveland, K. The orbitofrontal-amygdala circuit and self-regulation of social-emotional behavior in autism {2006} NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS
    Vol. {30}({1}), pp. {97-117} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Individuals with an autistic spectrum disorder are impaired not only in understanding others' mental states, but also in self-regulation of social-emotional behavior. Therefore, a model of the brain in autism must encompass not only those brain systems that subserve social-cognitive and emotional functioning, but also those that subserve the self-regulation of behavior in response to a changing social environment. We present evidence to support the hypothesis that developmental dysfunction of the orbitofrontal-amygdala circuit of the brain is a critical factor in the development of autism and that some of the characteristic deficits of persons with autism in socio-emotional cognition and behavioral self-regulation are related to early dysfunction of different components of this circuit. A secondary hypothesis posits that the degree of intellectual impairment present in individuals with autism is directly related to the integrity of the dorsolateral prefrontal-hippocampal circuit of the brain. Together, these hypotheses have the potential to help explain the neurodevelopmental basis of some of the primary manifestations of autism as well as the heterogeneity of outcomes. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bachevalier2006,
      author = {Bachevalier, J and Loveland, KA},
      title = {The orbitofrontal-amygdala circuit and self-regulation of social-emotional behavior in autism},
      journal = {NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {30},
      number = {1},
      pages = {97-117},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.07.002}}
    }
    
    Backman, L., Jones, S., Berger, A., Laukka, E. & Small, B. Cognitive impairment in preclinical Alzheimer's disease: A meta-analysis {2005} NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {19}({4}), pp. {520-531} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: To determine the size of the impairment across different cognitive domains in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), a meta-analysis based on 47 studies involving 9,097 controls and 1,207 preclinical AD cases was conducted. There were marked preclinical deficits in global cognitive ability, episodic memory, perceptual speed, and executive functioning; somewhat smaller deficits in verbal ability, visuospatial skill, and attention; and no preclinical impairment in primary memory. Younger age (< 75 years) and shorter follow-up intervals (< 3 years) were associated with larger effect sizes for both global cognitive ability and episodic memory. For global cognitive ability, studies that used population-based sampling yielded larger effect sizes; for episodic memory, larger differences were seen in studies that preidentified groups in terms of baseline cognitive impairment. Within episodic memory, delayed testing and recall-based assessment resulted in the largest effect sizes. The authors conclude that deficits in multiple cognitive domains are characteristic of AD several years before clinical diagnosis. The generalized nature of the deficit is consistent with recent observations that multiple brain structures and functions are affected long before the AD diagnosis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Backman2005,
      author = {Backman, L and Jones, S and Berger, AK and Laukka, EJ and Small, BJ},
      title = {Cognitive impairment in preclinical Alzheimer's disease: A meta-analysis},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {19},
      number = {4},
      pages = {520-531},
      doi = {{10.1037/0894-4105.19.4.520}}
    }
    
    Backman, L., Jones, S., Berger, A., Laukka, E. & Small, B. Multiple cognitive deficits during the transition to Alzheimer's disease {2004} JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE
    Vol. {256}({3}), pp. {195-204} 
    article  
    Abstract: The literature on cognitive markers in preclinical AD is reviewed. The findings demonstrate that impairment in multiple cognitive domains is typically observed several years before clinical diagnosis. Measures of executive functioning, episodic memory and perceptual speed appear to be most effective at identifying at-risk individuals. The fact that these cognitive domains are most implicated in normal cognitive aging suggests that the cognitive deficit observed preclinically is not qualitatively different from that observed in normal aging. The degree of cognitive impairment prior to the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) appears to generalize relatively well across major study characteristics, including sample ascertainment procedures, age and cognitive status of participants, as well as time to diagnosis of dementia. In episodic memory, there is evidence that the size of the preclinical deficit increases with increasing cognitive demands. The global cognitive impairment observed is highly consistent with observations that multiple brain structures and functions are affected long before the diagnosis of AD. However, there is substantial overlap in the distribution of cognitive scores between those who will and those who will not be diagnosed with AD, hence limiting the clinical utility of cognitive markers for early identification of cases. Future research should consider combining cognitive indicators with other types of markers (i.e. social, somatic, genetic, brain-based) in order to increase prediction accuracy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Backman2004,
      author = {Backman, L and Jones, S and Berger, AK and Laukka, EJ and Small, BJ},
      title = {Multiple cognitive deficits during the transition to Alzheimer's disease},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {256},
      number = {3},
      pages = {195-204},
      note = {1st Key Symposium on Mild Cognitive Impairment*, Stockholm, SWEDEN, SEP, 2003}
    }
    
    BADDELEY, A., BRESSI, S., DELLASALA, S., LOGIE, R. & SPINNLER, H. THE DECLINE OF WORKING MEMORY IN ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE - A LONGITUDINAL-STUDY {1991} BRAIN
    Vol. {114}({Part 6}), pp. {2521-2542} 
    article  
    Abstract: A previous study (Baddeley et al., 1986) explored the hypothesis that patients suffering from dementia of the Alzheimer type (AD) are particularly impaired in the functioning of the central executive component of working memory. It showed that, when patients are required to perform 2 concurrent tasks simultaneously, the AD patients are particularly impaired. even when level of performance on the individual tasks is equated with that of age-matched controls. Although the results were clear, interpretation was still complicated by 2 issues: first, the question of comparability of performance on the separate tests between AD and control patients; secondly, the question of whether our results could be interpreted simply in terms of a limited general processing capacity being more taxed by more difficult dual tasks than by the individual tasks performed alone. The present study followed up the AD and control patients after 6 and 12 mths. We were able to allow for the problem of comparability of performance by using patients as their own control. Under these conditions. there is a very clear tendency for dual task performance to deteriorate while single task performance is maintained. A second experiment varied difficulty within a single task in which patients and controls were required to categorize words as belonging to 1, 2 or 4 semantic categories. There was a clear effect of number of categories on performance and a systematic decline in performance over time. There was, however, no interaction between task difficulty as measured by number of alternatives and rate of deterioration, suggesting that the progressive deterioration in performance shown by AD patients is a function of whether single or dual task performance is required, and is not dependent on simple level of task difficulty. Implications for the analysis of the central executive component of working memory are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BADDELEY1991,
      author = {BADDELEY, AD and BRESSI, S and DELLASALA, S and LOGIE, R and SPINNLER, H},
      title = {THE DECLINE OF WORKING MEMORY IN ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE - A LONGITUDINAL-STUDY},
      journal = {BRAIN},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {114},
      number = {Part 6},
      pages = {2521-2542}
    }
    
    Baillieux, H., De Smet, H.J., Paquier, P.F., De Deyn, P.P. & Marien, P. Cerebellar neurocognition: Insights into the bottom of the brain {2008} CLINICAL NEUROLOGY AND NEUROSURGERY
    Vol. {110}({8}), pp. {763-773} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The traditional view on the core functions of the cerebellum consists of the regulation of motor coordination, balance and motor speech. However, during the past decades results from neuroanatomical, neuroimaging and clinical studies have substantially extended the functional role of the cerebellum to cognitive and affective regulation. Neuroanatomical studies convincingly showed cerebellar connectivity with associative areas of the cerebral cortex involved in higher cognitive functioning, while functional neuroimaging provided evidence of cerebellar activation during a variety of cognitive tasks. In addition, more systematic neuropsychological research performed in patients with cerebellar lesions and the development of more sensitive neuropsychological tests allowed clinicians to identify significant cognitive and affective disturbances following cerebellar damage. In this review, an overview is presented of the cerebellar role in a variety of cognitive processes, such as executive functioning, memory, learning, attention, visuo-spatial regulation, language and behavioral-affective modulation. In addition, recent evidence with regard to cerebellar induced clinical entities Such as the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS) and the posterior fossa syndrome (PFS), will be discussed. Although extensive research has substantially broadened the insights in the cognitive and affective role of the cerebellum, the precise nature of the cerebellar contribution to cognitive and affective regulation is not yet clear. In this review experimental and clinical data will be discussed a that substantiate the presumed neurobiological mechanisms underlying the cognitive and affective modulatory role of the cerebellum. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baillieux2008,
      author = {Baillieux, Hanne and De Smet, Hyo Jung and Paquier, Philippe F. and De Deyn, Peter P. and Marien, Peter},
      title = {Cerebellar neurocognition: Insights into the bottom of the brain},
      journal = {CLINICAL NEUROLOGY AND NEUROSURGERY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {110},
      number = {8},
      pages = {763-773},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.clineuro.2008.05.013}}
    }
    
    Banaschewski, T. & Brandeis, D. Annotation: What electrical brain activity tells us about brain function that other techniques cannot tell us - a child psychiatric perspective {2007} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {48}({5}), pp. {415-435} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background: Monitoring brain processes in real time requires genuine subsecond resolution to follow the typical timing and frequency of neural events. Non-invasive recordings of electric (EEG/ERP) and magnetic (MEG) fields provide this time resolution. They directly measure neural activations associated with a wide variety of brain states and processes, even during sleep or in infants. Mapping and source estimation can localise these time-varying activation patterns inside the brain. Methods: Recent EEG/ERP research on brain functions in the domains of attention and executive functioning, perception, memory, language, emotion and motor processing in ADHD, autism, childhood-onset schizophrenia, Tourette syndrome, specific language disorder and developmental dyslexia, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and depression is reviewed. Results: Over the past two decades, electrophysiology has substantially contributed to the understanding of brain functions during normal development, and psychiatric conditions of children and adolescents. Its time resolution has been important to measure covert processes, and to distinguish cause and effect. Conclusions: In the future, EEG/ERP parameters will increasingly characterise the interplay of neural states and information processing. They are particularly promising tools for multilevel investigations of etiological pathways and potential predictors of clinical treatment response.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Banaschewski2007,
      author = {Banaschewski, Tobias and Brandeis, Daniel},
      title = {Annotation: What electrical brain activity tells us about brain function that other techniques cannot tell us - a child psychiatric perspective},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {48},
      number = {5},
      pages = {415-435},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01681.x}}
    }
    
    Bannon, S., Gonsalvez, C., Croft, R. & Boyce, P. Response inhibition deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder {2002} PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH
    Vol. {110}({2}), pp. {165-174} 
    article  
    Abstract: Difficulty inhibiting irrelevant information may play a central role in the aetiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of the present study was to determine whether OCD subjects (n=20) exhibit deficits in behavioural and cognitive inhibition compared with a clinical control group diagnosed with panic disorder (n=20). All subjects were administered a Go/Nogo task (a measure of behavioural inhibition) and a Stroop test (a measure of cognitive inhibition). OCD subjects made more commission errors on the Go/Nogo task, and they made more errors and displayed longer reaction times on the interference trial of the Stroop task. Trends towards correlations were observed between OCD severity scores and Stroop reaction time, where the more severe the OCD symptoms the faster was the response. No correlations between clinical symptomatology or subject demographics and the Go/ Nogo task were observed. It was demonstrated that OCD subjects exhibit deficits in behavioural and cognitive inhibition, which together may underlie the repetitive symptomatic behaviours of the disorder, such as compulsions and obsessions. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bannon2002,
      author = {Bannon, S and Gonsalvez, CJ and Croft, RJ and Boyce, PM},
      title = {Response inhibition deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder},
      journal = {PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {110},
      number = {2},
      pages = {165-174}
    }
    
    Bar-On, R., Tranel, D., Denburg, N. & Bechara, A. Exploring the neurological substrate of emotional and social intelligence {2003} BRAIN
    Vol. {126}({Part 8}), pp. {1790-1800} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The somatic marker hypothesis posits that deficits in emotional signalling (somatic states) lead to poor judgment in decision-making, especially in the personal and social realms. Similar to this hypothesis is the concept of emotional intelligence, which has been defined as an array of emotional and social abilities, competencies and skills that enable individuals to cope with daily demands and be more effective in their personal and social life. Patients with lesions to the ventromedial (VM) prefrontal cortex have defective somatic markers and tend to exercise poor judgment in decision-making, which is especially manifested in the disadvantageous choices they typically make in their personal lives and in the ways in which they relate with others. Furthermore, lesions to the amygdala or insular cortices, especially on the right side, also compromise somatic state activation and decision-making. This suggests that the VM, amygdala and insular regions are part of a neural system involved in somatic state activation and decision-making. We hypothesized that the severe impairment of these patients in real-life decision-making and an inability to cope effectively with environmental and social demands would be reflected in an abnormal level of emotional and social intelligence. Twelve patients with focal, stable bilateral lesions of the VM cortex or with right unilateral lesions of the amygdala or the right insular cortices, were tested on the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), a standardized psychometric measure of various aspects of emotional and social intelligence. We also examined these patients with various other procedures designed to measure decision-making (the Gambling Task), social functioning, as well as personality changes and psychopathology; standardized neuropsychological tests were applied to assess their cognitive intelligence, executive functioning, perception and memory as well. Their results were compared with those of 11 patients with focal, stable lesions in structures outside the neural circuitry thought to mediate somatic state activation and decision-making. Only patients with lesions in the somatic marker circuitry revealed significantly low emotional intelligence and poor judgment in decision-making as well as disturbances in social functioning, in spite of normal levels of cognitive intelligence (IQ) and the absence of psychopathology based on DSM-IV criteria. The findings provide preliminary evidence suggesting that emotional and social intelligence is different from cognitive intelligence. We suggest, moreover, that the neural systems supporting somatic state activation and personal judgment in decision-making may overlap with critical components of a neural circuitry subserving emotional and social intelligence, independent of the neural system supporting cognitive intelligence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bar-On2003,
      author = {Bar-On, R and Tranel, D and Denburg, NL and Bechara, A},
      title = {Exploring the neurological substrate of emotional and social intelligence},
      journal = {BRAIN},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {126},
      number = {Part 8},
      pages = {1790-1800},
      doi = {{10.1093/brain/awg177}}
    }
    
    Barkley, R. Issues in the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children {2003} BRAIN & DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {25}({2}), pp. {77-83} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This paper provides a brief overview of the nature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and the current criteria used in its clinical diagnosis. While the disorder continues to be viewed as one of inattention and/or hyperactive-impulsive behavior, theories of ADHD are beginning to focus more on poor inhibition and deficient executive functioning (self-regulation) as being central to the disorder. Problems have been identified by research pertaining to the clinical diagnostic criteria Outlined in the DSM-IV that, at present, remain unresolved. Clinicians should be aware of these problems and the adjustments that need to be made to them when dealing with special populations that were not represented in the field trials used to develop these criteria. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barkley2003,
      author = {Barkley, RA},
      title = {Issues in the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children},
      journal = {BRAIN & DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {25},
      number = {2},
      pages = {77-83},
      note = {Meeting of the Japanese-Society-of-Child-Neurology, SENDAI, JAPAN, JUN 27-29, 2002},
      doi = {{10.1016/S0387-7604(02)00152-3}}
    }
    
    Barkley, R. The executive functions and self-regulation: An evolutionary neuropsychological perspective {2001} NEUROPSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {11}({1}), pp. {1-29} 
    article  
    Abstract: Neoropsychology has customarily taken a molecular and myopic view of executive functioning, concentrating largely on those proximal processes of which it may be comprised. Although commendable as a starting point, such an approach can never answer the question, ``Why executive functioning?'' The present paper encourages neuropsychologists to contemplate the longer-term, functional nature of the executive functions (EFs), using an evolutionary perspective. For purely illustrative purposes, a previously developed model of the EFs is briefly presented and is then examined from an evolutionary perspective. That model views the EFs as forms of behavior-to-the-self that evolved from overt (public) to covert (private) responses as a means of self-regulation. That was necessary given the interpersonal competition that arises within this group-living species. The EFs serve to shift the control of behavior from the immediate context, social others, and the temporal now to self-regulation by internal representations regarding the hypothetical social future. The EFs seem to meet the requirements of a biological adaptation, being an improbable complex design for a purpose that exists universally in humans. Discovering the adaptive problems that the EFs evolved to solve offers an invaluable research agenda for neuropsychology lest that agenda be resolved first by other scientific disciplines. Some adaptive problems that the EFs may have evolved to solve are then considered, among them being social exchange (reciprocal altruism or selfish cooperation), imitation and vicarious learning as types of experiential theft, mimetic skill (private behavioral rehearsal) and gestural communication, and social self-defense against such theft and interpersonal manipulation. Although clearly speculative at the moment, these proposals demonstrate the merit of considering the larger adaptive problems that the EFs evolved to solve. Taking the evolutionary stance toward the EFs would achieve not only greater insight into their nature, but also into their assessment and into those larger adaptive capacities that may be diminished through injury or developmental impairment toward that system.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barkley2001a,
      author = {Barkley, RA},
      title = {The executive functions and self-regulation: An evolutionary neuropsychological perspective},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-29}
    }
    
    Barkley, R. Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD {1997} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {121}({1}), pp. {65-94} 
    article  
    Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comprises a deficit in behavioral inhibition. A theoretical model is constructed that links inhibition to 4 executive neuropsychological functions that appear to depend on it for their effective execution: (a) working memory, (b) self-regulation of affect-motivation-arousal, (c) internalization of speech, and (d) reconstitution (behavioral analysis and synthesis). Extended to ADHD, the model predicts that ADHD should be associated with secondary impairments in these 4 executive abilities and the motor control they afford. The author reviews evidence for each of these domains of functioning and finds it to be strongest for deficits in behavioral inhibition, working memory, regulation of motivation, and motor control in those with ADHD. Although the model is promising as a potential theory of self-control and ADHD, far more research is required to evaluate its merits and the many predictions it makes about ADHD.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barkley1997,
      author = {Barkley, RA},
      title = {Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {121},
      number = {1},
      pages = {65-94}
    }
    
    Barkley, R., Edwards, G., Laneri, M., Fletcher, K. & Metevia, L. Executive functioning, temporal discounting, and sense of time in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) {2001} JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {29}({6}), pp. {541-556} 
    article  
    Abstract: Clinic-referred teens (ages 12-19) with ADHD and ODD (N = 101) were compared to community control (CC) teens, equated for age and sex, (N = 39) on a variety of psychological tasks assessing executive functioning (EF), temporal reward discounting, and time estimation and reproduction. A factor analysis reduced the EF measures to three dimensions, representing CPT Inattention, Working Memory, and CPT Inhibition. Results indicated that the ADHD group had significantly more CPT Inattention than the CC group. No differences were found for Working Memory or CPT Inhibition. The ADHD group displayed significantly greater temporal discounting of delayed hypothetical monetary rewards relative to immediate ones and manifested more impaired time reproduction, but not time estimation, than did the CC group. Main effects for level of IQ were found only on the Working Memory factor and largely did not interact with the group factor otherwise. The group differences in CPT Inattention. temporal discounting, and time reproduction were not a function of level of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. delinquency, or anxiety-depression. Results are reasonably consistent with past research on EF and sense of time in children with ADHD and extend these findings to the adolescent age group. Problems with working memory and CPT inhibition found in prior studies of children with ADHD, however, were not evident here, perhaps owing to age-related improvements or insufficient task difficulty.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barkley2001,
      author = {Barkley, RA and Edwards, G and Laneri, M and Fletcher, K and Metevia, L},
      title = {Executive functioning, temporal discounting, and sense of time in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {29},
      number = {6},
      pages = {541-556}
    }
    
    Barkley, R., Murphy, K., Dupaul, G. & Bush, T. Driving in young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Knowledge, performance, adverse outcomes, and the role of executive functioning {2002} JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY
    Vol. {8}({5}), pp. {655-672} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Past studies find that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) creates a higher risk, for adverse driving outcomes. This study comprehensively evaluated driving in adults with ADHD by comparing 105 young adults with the disorder (age 17-28) to 64 community control (CC) adults on five domains of driving ability and a battery of executive function tasks. The ADHD group self-reported significantly more traffic citations, particularly for speeding, vehicular crashes, and license suspensions than the CC group, with most of these differences corroborated in the official DMV records, Cognitively, the ADHD group was less attentive and made more errors during a visual reaction task under rule-reversed conditions than the CC group. The ADHD group also obtained lower scores on a test of driving rules and decision-making but not on a simple driving simulator. Both self- and other-ratings showed the CC group employed safer routine driving habits than the ADHD group, Relationships between the cognitive and driving measures and the adverse outcomes were limited or absent, calling into question their use in screening ADHD adults for driving risks, Several executive functions also were significantly yet modestly related to accident frequency and total traffic violations after controlling for severity of ADHD. These results are consistent with earlier studies showing significant driving problems are associated with ADHD. This study found that these driving difficulties were not a function of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder, depression, anxiety, or frequency of alcohol or illegal drug use. Findings to date argue for the development of interventions to reduce driving risks among adults with ADHD.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barkley2002,
      author = {Barkley, RA and Murphy, KR and Dupaul, GJ and Bush, T},
      title = {Driving in young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Knowledge, performance, adverse outcomes, and the role of executive functioning},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {8},
      number = {5},
      pages = {655-672},
      doi = {{10.1017/S1355617702801345}}
    }
    
    Baron-Cohen, S. & Belmonte, M. Autism: A window onto the development of the social and the analytic brain {2005} ANNUAL REVIEW OF NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {28}, pp. {109-126} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Although the neurobiological understanding of autism has been increasing exponentially, the diagnosis of autism spectrum conditions still rests entirely on behavioral criteria. Autism is therefore most productively approached using a combination of biological and psychological theory. The triad of behavioral abnormalities in social function, communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests can be explained psychologically by an impaired capacity for empathizing, or modeling the mental states governing the behavior of people, along with a superior capacity for systemizing, or inferring the rules governing the behavior of objects. This empathizing-systemizing theory explains other psychological models such as impairments of executive function or central coherence, and may have a neurobiological basis in abnormally low activity of brain regions subserving social cognition, along with abnormally high activity of regions subserving lower-level, perceptual processing-a pattern that may result from a skewed balance of local versus long-range functional connectivity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baron-Cohen2005,
      author = {Baron-Cohen, S and Belmonte, MK},
      title = {Autism: A window onto the development of the social and the analytic brain},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF NEUROSCIENCE},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {28},
      pages = {109-126},
      doi = {{10.1146/annurev.neuro.27.070203.144137}}
    }
    
    Baron-Cohen, S., O'Riordan, M., Stone, V., Jones, R. & Plaisted, K. Recognition of faux pas by normally developing children and children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism {1999} JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
    Vol. {29}({5}), pp. {407-418} 
    article  
    Abstract: Most theory of mind (ToM) tests are designed for subjects with a mental age of 4-6 years. There are very few ToM tests for subjects who are older or more able than this. We report a new test of ToM, designed for children 7-11 years old. The task involves recognizing faux pas. Study 1 tested 7-9, and 11-year-old normal children. Results showed that the ability to detect faux pas developed with age and that there was a differential developmental profile between the two sexes (female superiority). Study 2 tested children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA), selected for being able to pass traditional 4- to 6-year level (first- and second-order) false belief tests. Results showed that whereas normal 9- to 11-year-old children were skilled at detecting faux pas, children with AS or HFA were impaired on this task. Study 3 reports a refinement in the test, employing control stimuli. This replicated the results from Study 2. Some patients with AS or HFA were able to recognize faux pas but still produced them. Future research should assess faux pas production.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baron-Cohen1999,
      author = {Baron-Cohen, S and O'Riordan, M and Stone, V and Jones, R and Plaisted, K},
      title = {Recognition of faux pas by normally developing children and children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {29},
      number = {5},
      pages = {407-418}
    }
    
    Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Stone, V. & Rutherford, M. A mathematician, a physicist and a computer scientist with Asperger syndrome: Performance on folk psychology and folk physics tests {1999} NEUROCASE
    Vol. {5}({6}), pp. {475-483} 
    article  
    Abstract: We describe three cases of very-high-functioning individuals with Asperger syndrome, two of whom are university students (in physics and computer science, respectively), and the third a professor of mathematics, and winner of the Field Medal (equivalent to the Nobel Prize). The interest in these cases is whether there is a social-cognitive deficit, given their self-evident academic achievements. Such cases provide a rare opportunity to test for dissociations of cognitive skills, since these cases possess exceptionally high ability. These three individuals were given one test of folk psychology, one test of folk physics and one test of executive function. All three cases showed deficits on the adult-level `theory of mind' (folk psychology) test involving reading mental states from photographs of the eyes, whilst showing no deficits on a control task of judging gender from the same photographs. In addition, all three cases were at ceiling on the test of folk physics and on the most complex test of executive function (the Tower of Hanoi), Fourteen control subjects clarified normative performance on the folk psychology and folk physics tests. These results strongly suggest that theory of mind (folk psychology) is independent of IQ, executive function and reasoning about the physical world.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baron-Cohen1999a,
      author = {Baron-Cohen, S and Wheelwright, S and Stone, V and Rutherford, M},
      title = {A mathematician, a physicist and a computer scientist with Asperger syndrome: Performance on folk psychology and folk physics tests},
      journal = {NEUROCASE},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {5},
      number = {6},
      pages = {475-483}
    }
    
    Bauminger, N. & Kasari, C. Loneliness and friendship in high-functioning children with autism {2000} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {71}({2}), pp. {447-456} 
    article  
    Abstract: Loneliness and friendship were examined in 22 high-functioning children with autism and 19 typically developing children equated with the autistic children for IQ, CA, gender, mother's education, and ethnicity. Children between the ages of 8 and 14 were asked to report on both their understanding and feelings of loneliness and the quality of their friendship. Compared to typically developing children, children with autism were both lonelier and had less complete understandings of loneliness. Although all children with autism reported having at least one friend, the quality of their friendships was poorer in terms of companionship, security, and help. Fewer associations were found between loneliness and friendship for the autistic than for the non-autistic children, suggesting less understanding of the relation between loneliness and friendship. Implications of these results are discussed for conceptualizing the social deficits in autism.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bauminger2000,
      author = {Bauminger, N and Kasari, C},
      title = {Loneliness and friendship in high-functioning children with autism},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {71},
      number = {2},
      pages = {447-456}
    }
    
    Bearden, C., Hoffman, K. & Cannon, T. The neuropsychology and neuroanatomy of bipolar affective disorder: a critical review {2001} BIPOLAR DISORDERS
    Vol. {3}({3}), pp. {106-150} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objectives: To present a comprehensive review of the existing neuropsychological and neuroinlaging literature on bipolar affective disorder. This review critically evaluates two common conceptions regarding the neuropsychology of bipolar disorder: 1) that, in contrast to schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder is not associated with general cognitive impairment independent of illness episodes, and 2) relative right hemisphere (RH) dysfunction is implicated in bipolar illness patients, supported by reports of relatively greater impairment in visuospatial functioning, lateralization abnormalities, and mania secondary to RH lesions. Methods: The major computerized databases (Medline and PSYCInfo) were consulted in order to conduct a comprehensive, integrated review of the literature on the neuropsychology and neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder. Articles meeting specified criteria were included in this review. Results: In a critical evaluation of the above notions, this paper determines that: 1) while there is little evidence for selective RH dysfunction, significant cognitive impairment may be present in bipolar illness, particularly in a subgroup of chronic, elderly or multiple-episode patients, suggesting a possible toxic disease process, and 2) the underlying functional correlate of these cognitive deficits may be white matter lesions ('signal hyperintensities') in the frontal lobes and basal ganglia, regions critical for executive function, attention, speeded information processing, learning and memory, and affect regulation, While this hypothesized neural correlate of cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder is speculative, preliminary functional neuroimaging evidence supports the notion of frontal and subcortical hypometabolism in bipolar illness, Conclusions: The etiology of the structural brain abnormalities commonly seen in bipolar illness, and their corresponding functional deficits, remains unknown. It is possible that neurodevelopmental anomalies may play a role, and it remains to be determined whether there is also some pathophysiological progression that occurs with repeated illness episodes. More research is needed on first-episode patients, relatives of bipolar probands, and within prospective longitudinal paradigms in order to isolate disease-specific impairments and genetic markers of neurocognitive function in bipolar disorder.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bearden2001,
      author = {Bearden, CE and Hoffman, KM and Cannon, TD},
      title = {The neuropsychology and neuroanatomy of bipolar affective disorder: a critical review},
      journal = {BIPOLAR DISORDERS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {106-150}
    }
    
    Beebe, D. & Gozal, D. Obstructive sleep apnea and the prefrontal cortex: towards a comprehensive model linking nocturnal upper airway obstruction to daytime cognitive and behavioral deficits {2002} JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH
    Vol. {11}({1}), pp. {1-16} 
    article  
    Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is accompanied by significant daytime cognitive and behavioral deficits that extend beyond the effects of sleepiness. This article outlines a causal model by which to understand these psychological effects among OSA patients. The model proposes that sleep disruption and blood gas abnormalities prevent sleep-related restorative processes, and further induce chemical and structural central nervous system cellular injury. This, in turn, leads to dysfunction of prefrontal regions of the brain cortex (PFC), manifested behaviorally in what neuropsychologists have termed `executive dysfunction'. Executive dysfunction is proposed to markedly affect the functional application of cognitive abilities, resulting in maladaptive daytime behaviors. The proposed model (1) accounts for the specific psychological phenotype associated with OSA, (2) accommodates developmental components in this phenotype, (3) bridges between physical and psychological phenomena, (4) suggests mechanisms by which the nocturnal disorder might have effects on daytime functioning, (5) is empirically testable, (6) generates unique research hypotheses, and (7) has practical implications. The model is intended to act as a catalyst for future research and as a preliminary guide for clinicians.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Beebe2002,
      author = {Beebe, DW and Gozal, D},
      title = {Obstructive sleep apnea and the prefrontal cortex: towards a comprehensive model linking nocturnal upper airway obstruction to daytime cognitive and behavioral deficits},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-16}
    }
    
    Beebe, D., Groesz, L., Wells, C., Nichols, A. & McGee, K. The neuropsychological effects of obstructive sleep apnea: A meta-analysis of norm-referenced and case-controlled data {2003} SLEEP
    Vol. {26}({3}), pp. {298-307} 
    article  
    Abstract: Study Objectives: The research literature on the neuropsychological effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has yielded seemingly contradictory findings, and narrative reviews of this literature are prone to interpretive errors. We used sophisticated meta-analytic models to minimize such errors, with the goal of clarifying the effect of OSA on neuropsychological functioning. Design: Meta-analytic review of research through 2001. Participants: We reviewed studies of neuropsychological functioning among adults with untreated OSA. Twenty-five studies met review criteria, representing 1092 patients with OSA and 899 healthy controls. Measurements and Results: Two sets of effect sizes were generated. One compared OSA group means against those of healthy controls in case-controlled studies. The other compared all OSA group means against published normative data. Within each data set, 10 neuropsychological outcome domains were coded. In both data sets, untreated OSA was found to have a negligible impact on intellectual and verbal functioning but a substantial impact upon vigilance and executive functioning. Data were mixed with regard to visual and motor functioning; posthoc inspection of the data suggested that tests of fine-motor coordination or drawing were more sensitive to OSA than were tests of fine-motor speed or visual perception. Data were also mixed with regard to memory functioning, probably related to methodologic differences across studies. Conclusions: Etiologic models should emphasize mechanisms known to affect vigilance, executive functioning, and motor coordination but not intelligence, verbal functioning, or visual perception. Clinicians should be alert to OSA symptoms in patients with declines in vigilance, executive functioning, or coordination.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Beebe2003,
      author = {Beebe, DW and Groesz, L and Wells, C and Nichols, A and McGee, K},
      title = {The neuropsychological effects of obstructive sleep apnea: A meta-analysis of norm-referenced and case-controlled data},
      journal = {SLEEP},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {26},
      number = {3},
      pages = {298-307}
    }
    
    Beebe, D., Wells, C., Jeffries, J., Chini, B., Kalra, M. & Amin, R. Neuropsychological effects of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea {2004} JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY
    Vol. {10}({7}), pp. {962-975} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a fairly common nocturnal breathing disorder, affecting 2-4% of individuals. Although OSA is associated with medical morbidity, its most functionally disruptive effects in adults appear to be neuropsychological in nature. Research oil the neuropsychological effects of pediatric OSA has been limited. This study compared the neuropsychological functioning of school-aged children with OSA to that of healthy children. The primary goal was to clarify the presence and pattern of neuropsychotogical morbidity associated with pediatric OSA. Sleep was assessed with parent-report questionnaires and laboratory sleep studies. Neuropsychological functioning was assessed by formal tests and parent- and teacher-report questionnaires. Data indicated OSA-related cognitive and behavioral impairment that was particularly marked on measures of behavior regulation and some aspects of attention and executive functioning. Minimal effects were observed on measures of intelligence, verbal memory, or processing speed. Exploratory analyses failed to indicate any clear relationship between neuropsychological functioning and objective indexes of hypoxia or sleep disruption, though the sample was small. These data add to a growing literature which suggests that significant neuropsychological deficits are associated with pediatric OSA. Findings suggest a pattern of neuropsychological morbidity that is similar but not identical to that seen in adult OSA.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Beebe2004,
      author = {Beebe, DW and Wells, CT and Jeffries, J and Chini, B and Kalra, M and Amin, R},
      title = {Neuropsychological effects of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {10},
      number = {7},
      pages = {962-975},
      note = {18th Annual Meeting of the Associated-Professional-Sleep-Societies, Philadelphia, PA, JUN 05-10, 2004},
      doi = {{10.1017/S135561770410708X}}
    }
    
    Beebe, D.W. Neurobehavioral morbidity associated with disordered breathing during sleep in children: A comprehensive review {2006} SLEEP
    Vol. {29}({9}), pp. {1115-1134} 
    article  
    Abstract: Study Objectives: To comprehensively review research on the association between childhood sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and neurobehavioral functioning. Design: Qualitative and quantitative literature review. Setting: N/A. Patients or Participants: N/A. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The findings of 61 studies of the relationship between childhood SDB and neurobehavioral functioning were critically evaluated and synthesized. There is strong evidence that childhood SDB is associated with deficits in behavior and emotion regulation, scholastic performance, sustained attention, selective attention, and alertness. There is also evidence that SDB has minimal association with a child's typical mood, expressive language skills, visual perception, and working memory. Findings have been insufficient to draw conclusions about intelligence, memory, and some aspects of executive functioning. Mechanisms by which SDB might result in neurobehavioral morbidity are being explored, but clinical symptoms such as chronic snoring remain the best predictors of morbidity. Short-term SDB treatment outcome studies are encouraging, but the long-term outcomes are not known. Failing to treat SDB appears to leave children at risk for long-term neurobehavioral deficits. Conclusions: Childhood SDB is associated with neurobehavioral morbidity. Applying commonly used guidelines for causal inference, even in the absence of a much-needed randomized clinical trial, there is strong evidence of association, consistent findings, and specificity of effect. There is suggestive evidence that this association fits the expected temporal pattern and that SDB is a biologically plausible cause of neurobehavioral deficits. Clinicians should be alert to the coexistence of SDB symptoms and concerns about a child's academic progress, attention, arousal, or behavior or emotion regulation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Beebe2006,
      author = {Beebe, Dean W.},
      title = {Neurobehavioral morbidity associated with disordered breathing during sleep in children: A comprehensive review},
      journal = {SLEEP},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {29},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1115-1134}
    }
    
    Bennetto, L., Pennington, B., Porter, D., Taylor, A. & Hagerman, R. Profile of cognitive functioning in women with the fragile X mutation {2001} NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {15}({2}), pp. {290-299} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two studies tested the specificity of the neurocognitive profile of women with fragile X syndrome (FXS). First, women with an FXS full mutation were compared with women with a premutation and women without FXS who grew up in FXS families. Women with FXS had a significantly lower IQ than the other groups, and analyses of subtest profiles showed they had a relative weakness on Arithmetic and strength on Picture Completion. Women with FXS performed worse than the other groups on executive function, spatial ability, and visual memory. Next, women with FXS were compared with women without FXS matched on age and IQ. A similar IQ profile was found, but women with FXS were worse than controls only on executive function. The authors also examined which neurocognitive indices were related to the underlying biology of the disorder. Overall, the results indicated that executive rather than visuospatial deficits were primary in the neurocognitive profile of FXS.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bennetto2001,
      author = {Bennetto, L and Pennington, BF and Porter, D and Taylor, AK and Hagerman, RJ},
      title = {Profile of cognitive functioning in women with the fragile X mutation},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {15},
      number = {2},
      pages = {290-299}
    }
    
    Bennetto, L., Pennington, B. & Rogers, S. Intact and impaired memory functions in autism {1996} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {67}({4}), pp. {1816-1835} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study examined memory functions in individuals with autism. Based on previous evidence of executive function (EF) deficits, we hypothesized that subjects with autism would demonstrate a pattern of intact and impaired memory functions similar to that found in other groups with EF deficits, such as patients with frontal lobe pathology. We compared the performance of high-functioning children and adolescents with autism (n = 19) and clinical comparison subjects (n = 19) matched on sex, CA, and VIQ on measures of memory and EF. The group with autism performed significantly worse than comparison subjects on measures of temporal order memory, source memory, supraspan free recall, working memory, and EF, but not on short- and long-term recognition, cued recall, or new learning ability, consistent with the predictions of the EF theory. The cognitive measures were significantly more intercorrelated in the autism group than the comparison group, consistent with a limit in central cognition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bennetto1996,
      author = {Bennetto, L and Pennington, BF and Rogers, SJ},
      title = {Intact and impaired memory functions in autism},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {67},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1816-1835}
    }
    
    Bialystok, E. Cognitive complexity and attentional control in the bilingual mind {1999} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {70}({3}), pp. {636-644} 
    article  
    Abstract: In the analysis and control framework, Bialystok identifies analysis (representation) and control (selective attention) as components of language processing and has shown that one of these, control, develops earlier in bilingual children than in comparable monolinguals. In the theory of cognitive complexity and control (CCC), Zelazo and Frye argue that preschool children lack the conscious representation and executive functioning needed to solve problems based on conflicting rules. The present study investigates whether the bilingual advantage in control can be found in a nonverbal task, the dimensional change card sort, used by Zelazo and Frye to assess CCC. This problem contains misleading information characteristic of high-control tasks but minimal demands for analysis. Sixty preschool children, half of whom were bilingual, were divided into a group of younger (M = 4,2) and older (M = 5,5) children. All the children were given a test of English proficiency (PPVT-R) and working memory (Visually-Cued Recall Task) to assure comparability of the groups and then administered the dimensional change card sort task and the moving word task. The bilingual children M ere more advanced than the monolinguals in the solving of experimental problems requiring high levels of control. These results demonstrate the role of attentional control in both these tasks, extends our knowledge about the cognitive development of bilingual children, and provides a means of relating developmental proposals articulated in two different theoretical frameworks, namely CCC and analysis-control.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bialystok1999,
      author = {Bialystok, E},
      title = {Cognitive complexity and attentional control in the bilingual mind},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {70},
      number = {3},
      pages = {636-644}
    }
    
    Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I.M. & Ryan, J. Executive control in a modified antisaccade task: Effects of aging and bilingualism {2006} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION
    Vol. {32}({6}), pp. {1341-1354} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Two studies are reported that assess differences associated with aging and bilingualism in an executive control task. Previous work has suggested that bilinguals have an advantage over monolinguals in nonlinguistic tasks involving executive control; the major purpose of the present article is to ascertain which aspects of control are sensitive to the bilingual experience. Study 1 used an antisaccade task and found no effects of aging or bilingualism. Study 2 used the identical visual display but coupled to keypress responses. The results showed that bilinguals resolved various types of response conflict faster than monolinguals and that this bilingual advantage generally increased with age. A speculative interpretation of this pattern of results is offered in conclusion.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bialystok2006,
      author = {Bialystok, Ellen and Craik, Fergus I. M. and Ryan, Jennifer},
      title = {Executive control in a modified antisaccade task: Effects of aging and bilingualism},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {32},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1341-1354},
      doi = {{10.1037/0278-7393.32.6.1341}}
    }
    
    Biederman, J., Monuteaux, M., Doyle, A., Seidman, L., Wilens, T., Ferrero, F., Morgan, C. & Faraone, S. Impact of executive function deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on academic outcomes in children {2004} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {72}({5}), pp. {757-766} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as at least 2 executive function measures impaired. Significantly more children and adolescents with ADHD had EFDs than did control participants. ADHD with EFDs was associated with an increased risk for grade retention and a decrease in academic achievement relative to (a) ADHD alone, (b) controlled socioeconomic status, (c) learning disabilities, and (d) IQ. No differences were noted in social functioning or psychiatric comorbidity. Children and adolescents with ADHD and EFDs were found to be at high risk for significant impairments in academic functioning. These results support screening children with ADHD for EFDs to prevent academic failure.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biederman2004,
      author = {Biederman, J and Monuteaux, MC and Doyle, AE and Seidman, LJ and Wilens, TE and Ferrero, F and Morgan, CL and Faraone, SV},
      title = {Impact of executive function deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on academic outcomes in children},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {72},
      number = {5},
      pages = {757-766},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-006X.72.5.757}}
    }
    
    Bilder, R., Goldman, R., Volavka, J., Czobor, P., Hoptman, M., Sheitman, B., Lindenmayer, J., Citrome, L., McEvoy, J., Kunz, M., Chakos, M., Cooper, T., Horowitz, T. & Lieberman, J. Neurocognitive effects of clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol in patients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder {2002} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {159}({6}), pp. {1018-1028} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: Newer antipsychotic drugs have shown promise in ameliorating neurocognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia, but few studies have compared newer antipsychotic drugs with both clozapine and conventional agents, particularly in patients who have had suboptimal response to prior treatments. Method: The authors examined the effects of clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol on 16 measures of neurocognitive functioning in a double-blind, 14-week trial involving 101 patients. A global score was computed along with scores in four neurocognitive domains: memory, attention, motor function, and general executive and perceptual organization, Results: Global neurocognitive function improved with olanzapine and risperidone treatment, and these improvements were superior to those seen with haloperidol. Patients treated with olanzapine exhibited improvement in the general and attention domains but not more than that observed with other treatments. Patients treated with risperidone exhibited improvement in memory that was superior to that of both clozapine and haloperidol. Clozapine yielded improvement in motor function but not more than in other groups. Average effect sizes for change were in the small to medium range. More than half of the patients treated with olanzapine and risperidone experienced ``clinically significant'' improvement (changes in score of at least one-half standard deviation relative to baseline). These findings did not appear to be mediated by changes in symptoms, side effects, or blood levels of medications. Conclusions: Patients with a history of suboptimal response to conventional treatments may show cognitive benefits from newer antipsychotic drugs, and there may be differences between atypical antipsychotic drugs in their patterns of cognitive effects.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bilder2002,
      author = {Bilder, RM and Goldman, RS and Volavka, J and Czobor, P and Hoptman, M and Sheitman, B and Lindenmayer, JP and Citrome, L and McEvoy, J and Kunz, M and Chakos, M and Cooper, TB and Horowitz, TL and Lieberman, JA},
      title = {Neurocognitive effects of clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol in patients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {159},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1018-1028},
      note = {8th International Congress on Schizophrenia Research, WHISTLER, CANADA, APR 28-MAY 02, 2001}
    }
    
    Binetti, G., Magni, E., Padovani, A., Cappa, S., Bianchetti, A. & Trabucchi, M. Executive dysfunction in early Alzheimer's disease {1996} JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {60}({1}), pp. {91-93} 
    article  
    Abstract: Twenty five patients with probable mild Alzheimer's disease were assessed for deficits in executive functioning and the impact of these deficits on performance in other neuropsychological domains. The Wisconsin card sorting test, the release from proactive interference paradigm, the verbal fluency test, and the Stroop test were adopted to classify patients with (AD+) and without (AD-) executive deficits. Seven of the patients showed an impairment in executive function (AD+), defined as a performance below the cut off score in at least two of these tests. There were no significant differences in clinical assessments, demographic features, or other cognitive functions between patients. Executive dysfunction may be an early additional feature in a subgroup of patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. Impairment on frontal lobe tests does not seem to be related to the severity or duration of disease, or to a different pattern of impairment in other cognitive domains.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Binetti1996,
      author = {Binetti, G and Magni, E and Padovani, A and Cappa, SF and Bianchetti, A and Trabucchi, M},
      title = {Executive dysfunction in early Alzheimer's disease},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {60},
      number = {1},
      pages = {91-93}
    }
    
    Binks, P., Waters, W. & Hurry, M. Short-term total sleep deprivations does not selectively impair higher cortical functioning {1999} SLEEP
    Vol. {22}({3}), pp. {328-334} 
    article  
    Abstract: Previous research has shown that total sleep deprivation produces impairment in sustained attention and vigilance especially if the deprivation period is greater than 48 hours. However little is known about the effects of sleep deprivation on performance of tasks considered to be measures of higher cortical functioning such as tests of cognitive flexibility and the capacity to shift from one response set to another. One current hypothesis is that sleep deprivation of a shorter duration (34-36 hours) adversely affects higher cortical function while effects on attention and vigilance tasks are relatively mild. Performance on an intelligence test, a test of sustained attention and tests designed to measure higher cortical function were compared in a group of 29 subjects who underwent 34-36 hours of continuous sleep deprivation and 32 normal sleeping control subjects. No significant group performance differences in the hypothesized direction were noted on any measure. One night of total sleep deprivation does not appear to impair performance on tasks that are designed to assess higher cortical functioning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Binks1999,
      author = {Binks, PG and Waters, WF and Hurry, M},
      title = {Short-term total sleep deprivations does not selectively impair higher cortical functioning},
      journal = {SLEEP},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {22},
      number = {3},
      pages = {328-334}
    }
    
    Blair, C. How similar are fluid cognition and general intelligence? A developmental neuroscience perspective on fluid cognition as an aspect of human cognitive ability {2006} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {29}({2}), pp. {109+} 
    article  
    Abstract: This target article considers the relation of fluid cognitive functioning to general intelligence. A neurobiological model differentiating working memory executive function cognitive processes of the prefrontal cortex from aspects of psychometrically defined general intelligence is presented. Work examining the rise in mean intelligence-test performance between normative cohorts, the neuropsychology and neuroscience of cognitive function in typically and atypically developing human populations, and stress, brain development, and corticolimbic connectivity in human and nonhuman animal models is reviewed and found to provide evidence of mechanisms through which early experience affects the development of an aspect of cognition closely related to, but distinct from, general intelligence. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of emotion in fluid cognition and on research indicating fluid cognitive deficits associated with early hippocampal pathology and with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress-response system. Findings are seen to be consistent with the idea of an independent fluid cognitive construct and to assist with the interpretation of findings from the study of early, compensatory education for children facing psychosocial adversity and from behavior genetic research oil intelligence. It is concluded that ongoing development of neurobiologically grounded measures of fluid cognitive skills appropriate for young children will play a key role in understanding early mental development and the adaptive success to which it is related, particularly for young children facing social and economic disadvantage. Specifically, in the evaluation of the efficacy of compensatory education efforts such as Head Start and the readiness for school of children from diverse backgrounds, it is important to distinguish fluid cognition from psychometrically defined general intelligence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Blair2006,
      author = {Blair, C},
      title = {How similar are fluid cognition and general intelligence? A developmental neuroscience perspective on fluid cognition as an aspect of human cognitive ability},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {29},
      number = {2},
      pages = {109+}
    }
    
    Blair, C. School readiness - Integrating cognition and emotion in a neurobiological conceptualization of children's functioning at school entry {2002} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {57}({2}), pp. {111-127} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The author examines the construct of emotionality, developmental relations between cognition and emotion, and neural plasticity and frontal cortical functioning and proposes a developmental neurobiological model of children's school readiness. Direct links are proposed among emotionality, use-dependent synaptic stabilization related to the prefrontal cortex, the development of executive function abilities, and academic and social competence in school settings. The author considers research on the efficacy of preschool compensatory education in promoting school readiness and recommends that programs expand to include curricula directly addressing social and emotional competence. Research should focus on the ontogeny of self-regulation and successful adaptation to the socially defined role of student, the development of prevention research programs to reflect this orientation, and interdisciplinary collaborations that integrate scientific methods and questions in the pursuit of comprehensive knowledge of human developmental processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Blair2002,
      author = {Blair, C},
      title = {School readiness - Integrating cognition and emotion in a neurobiological conceptualization of children's functioning at school entry},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {57},
      number = {2},
      pages = {111-127},
      doi = {{10.1037//0003-066X.57.2.111}}
    }
    
    Bogod, N., Mateer, C. & MacDonald, S. Self-awareness after traumatic brain injury: A comparison of measures and their relationship to executive functions {2003} JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY
    Vol. {9}({3}), pp. {450-458} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Poor awareness of deficit is common after brain injury. Recent literature has examined various tools for measurement of this phenomenon; the most widely used being self-other rating scales. Although self-other scale measures have face validity, their criterion-related validity has not been adequately demonstrated, and there is little information as to whether and how they relate to other neuropsychological measures. The present study compared measurement of awareness by the Dysexecutive (DEX) Questionnaire self-other rating scale with the Self-Awareness of Deficits Interview (SADI), a semistructured interview measure. Evaluation of awareness by these measures was compared to tests of executive functioning and IQ. Results indicated significant, albeit marginal relationships between the two measures, and better correlation of the SADI with measures of frontal lobe functioning. The SADI also predicted injury severity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bogod2003,
      author = {Bogod, NM and Mateer, CA and MacDonald, SWS},
      title = {Self-awareness after traumatic brain injury: A comparison of measures and their relationship to executive functions},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {450-458},
      doi = {{10.1017/S1355617703930104}}
    }
    
    Bohnen, N., Kaufer, D., Hendrickson, R., Ivanco, L., Lopresti, B., Constantine, G., Mathis, C., Davis, J., Moore, R. & DeKosky, S. Cognitive correlates of cortical cholinergic denervation in Parkinson's disease and parkinsonian dementia {2006} JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {253}({2}), pp. {242-247} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We recently reported findings that loss of cortical acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is greater in parkinsonian dementia than in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we determined cognitive correlates of in vivo cortical AChE activity in patients with parkinsonian dementia (PDem, n = 11), Parkinson's disease without dementia (PD, n = 13), and in normal controls (NC, n = 14) using N-C-11]methyl-piperidin-4-yl propionate ([C-11]PMP) AChE positron emission tomography (PET). Cortical AChE activity was significantly reduced in the PDem (-20.9 and PD (-12.7 subjects (P < 0.001) when compared with the control subjects. Analysis of the cognitive data within the patient groups demonstrated that scores on the WAIS-III Digit Span, a test of working memory and attention, had most robust correlation with cortical AChE activity (R = 0.61, p < 0.005). There were also significant correlations between cortical AChE activity and other tests of attentional and executive functions, such as the Trail Making and Stroop Color Word tests. There was no significant correlation between cortical AChE activity and duration of motor disease (R = -0.01, ns) or severity of parkinsonian motor symptoms (R = 0.14, ns). We conclude that cortical cholinergic denervation in PD and parkinsonian dementia is associated with decreased performance on tests of attentional and executive functioning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bohnen2006,
      author = {Bohnen, NI and Kaufer, DI and Hendrickson, R and Ivanco, LS and Lopresti, BJ and Constantine, GM and Mathis, CA and Davis, JG and Moore, RY and DeKosky, ST},
      title = {Cognitive correlates of cortical cholinergic denervation in Parkinson's disease and parkinsonian dementia},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {253},
      number = {2},
      pages = {242-247},
      doi = {{10.1007/s00415-005-0971-0}}
    }
    
    Bolla, K., Brown, K., Eldreth, D., Tate, K. & Cadet, J. Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use {2002} NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {59}({9}), pp. {1337-1343} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Although about 7 million people in the US population use marijuana at least weekly, there is a paucity of scientific data on persistent neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Objective: To determine if neurocognitive deficits persist in 28-day abstinent heavy marijuana users and if these deficits are dose-related to the number of marijuana joints smoked per week. Methods: A battery of neurocognitive tests was given to 28-day abstinent heavy marijuana abusers. Results: As joints smoked per week increased, performance decreased on tests measuring memory, executive functioning, psychomotor speed, and manual dexterity. When dividing the group into light, middle, and heavy user groups, the heavy group performed significantly below the light group on 5 of 35 measures and the size of the effect ranged from 3.00 to 4.20 SD units. Duration of use had little effect on neurocognitive performance. Conclusions: Very heavy use of marijuana is associated with persistent decrements in neurocognitive performance even after 28 days of abstinence. It is unclear if these decrements will resolve with continued abstinence or become progressively worse with continued heavy marijuana use.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bolla2002,
      author = {Bolla, KI and Brown, K and Eldreth, D and Tate, K and Cadet, JL},
      title = {Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use},
      journal = {NEUROLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {59},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1337-1343}
    }
    
    Bolla, K., Rothman, R. & Cadet, J. Dose-related neurobehavioral effects of chronic cocaine use {1999} JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCES
    Vol. {11}({3}), pp. {361-369} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although cocaine use is a significant public health problem, there is a paucity of scientific data on long-term neurobehavioral effects. This study examined the dose-related association between chronic cocaine use and neurobehavioral performance. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to 30 abstinent chronic cocaine abusers and 21 non-drug-using control subjects matched for age, education, and intelligence. After controlling for age, education, and intellectual ability, greater use of cocaine (grams per week) was associated with larger decrements on tests measuring executive functioning, visuoperception, psychomotor speed, and manual dexterity. These results suggest that chronic cocaine use is associated with persistent decrements in cognitive function that are most pronounced in heavy users. Knowledge of specific cognitive processing deficits in chronic cocaine users would be useful for designing individually tailored drug treatment programs.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bolla1999,
      author = {Bolla, KI and Rothman, R and Cadet, JL},
      title = {Dose-related neurobehavioral effects of chronic cocaine use},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCES},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {11},
      number = {3},
      pages = {361-369}
    }
    
    BOONE, K., LESSER, I., MILLER, B., WOHL, M., BERMAN, N., LEE, A., PALMER, B. & BACK, C. COGNITIVE-FUNCTIONING IN OLDER DEPRESSED OUTPATIENTS - RELATIONSHIP OF PRESENCE AND SEVERITY OF DEPRESSION TO NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TEST-SCORES {1995} NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {9}({3}), pp. {390-398} 
    article  
    Abstract: Neuropsychological evaluation of 73 older healthy, unmedicated outpatients with major depression and 110 controls suggested that relatively distinct cognitive profiles map correspond to the presence vs. severity of depression. Specifically, the presence of depression was associated with subtle weaknesses in visual memory and nonverbal intelligence, with sparing of verbal skills (verbal intelligence, language, and verbal memory), constructional ability, attention, information-processing speed, and executive functions. In contrast, increasing severity of depression was associated with mild weaknesses, primarily in information-processing speed and executive skills, but was essentially unrelated to memory (verbal or visual), intelligence, language skills, constructional ability, or basic attention. Findings are discussed in terms of a possible state vs. trait modal of depression.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BOONE1995,
      author = {BOONE, KB and LESSER, IM and MILLER, BL and WOHL, M and BERMAN, N and LEE, A and PALMER, B and BACK, C},
      title = {COGNITIVE-FUNCTIONING IN OLDER DEPRESSED OUTPATIENTS - RELATIONSHIP OF PRESENCE AND SEVERITY OF DEPRESSION TO NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TEST-SCORES},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {390-398}
    }
    
    Boonstra, A., Oosterlaan, J., Sergeant, J. & Buitelaar, J. Executive functioning in adult ADHD: a meta-analytic review {2005} PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE
    Vol. {35}({8}), pp. {1097-1108} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background. Several theoretical explanations of ADHD in children have focused on executive functioning as the main explanatory neuropsychological domain for the disorder. In order to establish if these theoretical accounts are supported by research data for adults with ADHD, we compared neuropsychological executive functioning and non-executive functioning between adults with ADHD and normal controls in a meta-analytic design. Method. We compared 13 studies that (1) included at least one executive functioning measure, (2) compared the performance of an adult ADHD group with that of an adult normal control group, (3) provided sufficient information for calculation of effect sizes, and (4) used DSM-III-R or DSM-IV criteria to diagnose ADHD. Results. We found medium effect sizes both in executive functioning areas [verbal fluency (d = 0.62), inhibition (d = 0.64 and d = 0.89), and set shifting (d = 0.65)] and in non-executive functioning domains [consistency of response (d = 0.57), word reading (d = 0.60) and color naming (d = 0.62)]. Conclusions. Neuropsychological difficulties in adult ADHD may not be confined to executive functioning. The field is in urgent need of better-designed executive functioning tests, methodological improvements, and direct comparisons with multiple clinical groups to answer questions of specificity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Boonstra2005,
      author = {Boonstra, AM and Oosterlaan, J and Sergeant, JA and Buitelaar, JK},
      title = {Executive functioning in adult ADHD: a meta-analytic review},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {35},
      number = {8},
      pages = {1097-1108},
      doi = {{10.1017/S003329170500499X}}
    }
    
    Bora, E., Vahip, S., Gonul, A., Akdeniz, F., Alkan, M., Ogut, M. & Eryavuz, A. Evidence for theory of mind deficits in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder {2005} ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA
    Vol. {112}({2}), pp. {110-116} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: i) To investigate the subtle ToM (theory of mind) deficits in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. ii) To investigate the impact of non-ToM cognitive deficits on ToM abilities. Forty-three euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and 30 healthy control subjects were involved in this study. ToM was assessed by the Eyes test and the Hinting task. Both groups were also evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery including tasks for basic emotion and face recognition. The patient group was impaired on both of the ToM tasks. The patient group also showed impairment in many cognitive tasks including tasks related to sustained attention. Even euthymic patients with bipolar disorder may be impaired in advanced ToM tasks. Executive dysfunction and some other cognitives deficits such as basic emotion recognition may be at least partly responsible for this result.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bora2005,
      author = {Bora, E and Vahip, S and Gonul, AS and Akdeniz, F and Alkan, M and Ogut, M and Eryavuz, A},
      title = {Evidence for theory of mind deficits in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder},
      journal = {ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {112},
      number = {2},
      pages = {110-116},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1600-0447.2005.00570.x}}
    }
    
    Breitenstein, C., Van Lancker, D., Daum, I. & Waters, C. Impaired perception of vocal emotions in Parkinson's disease: Influence of speech time processing and executive functioning {2001} BRAIN AND COGNITION
    Vol. {45}({2}), pp. {277-314} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Little is known about the underlying dimensions of impaired recognition of emotional prosody that is frequently observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Because patients with PD also suffer from working memory deficits and impaired time perception. the present study examined the contribution of (a) working memory (frontal executive functioning) and (b) processing of the accustic parameter speech rate to the perception of emotional prosody in PD. Two acoustic parameters known to be important for emotional classifications (speech duration and pitch variability) were systematically varied in prosodic utterances. Twenty pa with PD and 16 healthy controls (matched for age, sex, and IQ) participated in the study. The findings imply that (1) working memory dysfunctions and perception of emotional prosody are not independent in PD. (2) PD and healthy control subjects perceived vocal emotions categorically along two acoustic manipulation continua, and(3) patients with PD show impairments in processing of speech rats information. (C) 2001 Academic Press.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Breitenstein2001,
      author = {Breitenstein, C and Van Lancker, D and Daum, I and Waters, CH},
      title = {Impaired perception of vocal emotions in Parkinson's disease: Influence of speech time processing and executive functioning},
      journal = {BRAIN AND COGNITION},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {45},
      number = {2},
      pages = {277-314},
      doi = {{10.1006/breg.2000.1246}}
    }
    
    Brekke, J., Kohrt, B. & Green, M. Neuropsychological functioning as a moderator of the relationship between psychosocial functioning and the subjective experience of self and life in schizophrenia {2001} SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN
    Vol. {27}({4}), pp. {697-708} 
    article  
    Abstract: Psychosocial interventions and models of quality of life in schizophrenia are based on the notion that increases in psychosocial functioning will be related to improvements in subjective experience outcomes such as self-esteem and satisfaction with life. However, studies have repeatedly failed to demonstrate a direct relationship between psychosocial functioning and subjective experience in schizophrenia. This study of 40 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia examined whether neurocognitive measures of executive functioning moderated the relationship between psychosocial functioning and subjective experience. Subjective experience was represented by measures of satisfaction with life and self-esteem. The Global Assessment Scale measured psychosocial functioning, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test measured executive functioning. Multiple regression and correlation analyses indicated that executive functioning was a strong moderator. Specifically, individuals with schizophrenia with impaired executive functioning displayed a positive and statistically significant association between psychosocial functioning and both measures of subjective experience (r = 0.55 and 0.61). However, among schizophrenia patients with intact executive performance, psychosocial functioning was negatively associated with self-esteem and satisfaction with life (r = -0.24 and -0.46). And the findings were internally replicated using two other neuropsychological measures relevant to executive functioning. These findings indicate that executive functioning plays a major role in moderating the relationship between subjective experience and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. Implications for biosocial models, psychosocial interventions, and models of quality of life in schizophrenia are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brekke2001,
      author = {Brekke, JS and Kohrt, B and Green, MF},
      title = {Neuropsychological functioning as a moderator of the relationship between psychosocial functioning and the subjective experience of self and life in schizophrenia},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {27},
      number = {4},
      pages = {697-708}
    }
    
    Brewer, W., Francey, S., Wood, S., Jackson, H., Pantelis, C., Phillips, L., Yung, A., Anderson, V. & McGorry, P. Memory impairments identified in people at ultra-high risk for psychosis who later develop first-episode psychosis {2005} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {162}({1}), pp. {71-78} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: While cognitive deficits are frequently reported in psychotic disorders, it is unclear whether these impairments predate the onset of illness and to what extent they are predictive of later transition to psychosis. Method: The authors studied 37 healthy volunteers and 98 symptomatic, help-seeking patients meeting the inclusion criteria of a treatment program for people at ultra-high risk for psychosis. Of the ultra-high-risk patients, 34 (34.7 developed psychosis over the course of the investigation. Premorbid and current IQ, attention, memory, and executive functioning were measured with instruments including subtests from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R). Analyses compared the ultra-high-risk patients who became psychotic, those who did not become psychotic, and the comparison subjects. Results: Overall, the ultra-high-risk subjects had significantly lower performance IQs than the comparison subjects Further, impairments were also found in the visual reproduction subtest and the verbal memory index (predominantly owing to lower logical memory scores) of the for MS-R that were specific to the ultra-high-risk-patients who developed psychosis. No other memory, attentional, or executive tasks discriminated between any of the groups. Conclusions: These findings suggest that visuospatial processing impairment and some memory deficits were apparent before the full expression of psychotic illness. Cognitive performance on more complex tasks requiring rapid registration and efficient recall may be compromised before development of first-episode psychosis. Further experimental tasks that challenge these cognitive domains are required to clarify the predictive value of these results.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brewer2005,
      author = {Brewer, WJ and Francey, SM and Wood, SJ and Jackson, HJ and Pantelis, C and Phillips, LJ and Yung, AR and Anderson, VA and McGorry, PD},
      title = {Memory impairments identified in people at ultra-high risk for psychosis who later develop first-episode psychosis},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {162},
      number = {1},
      pages = {71-78},
      note = {6th International Congress on Schizophrenia Research, COLORADO SPRINGS, CO, APR 12-17, 1997}
    }
    
    Brocki, K. & Bohlin, G. Executive functions in children aged 6 to 13: A dimensional and developmental study {2004} DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {26}({2}), pp. {571-593} 
    article  
    Abstract: A cross-sectional study using 92 children aged 6 to 13 years investigated the dimensionality and the development of executive functioning. The measures were drawn from developmentally relevant conceptualizations of executive functioning and included a go/no-go task, a verbal fluency task, a continuous performance task, a Stroop-like task, a hand movements task, and a digit span task. Analyses revealed 3 dimensions interpreted as Disinhibition, Speed/arousal, and Working memory/Fluency. Age and sex differences were analyzed for the delineated functions, which means that the results may be taken to represent age effects at the level of specific processes within the executive domain rather than on single tests. Age-dependent changes in children's performance on all 3 dimensions were demonstrated, with 3 particularly active stages of maturation: early childhood (6-8 years of age), middle childhood (9-12 years of age), and during early adolescence. Sex differences were only found for the speed/arousal dimension. The results are discussed in terms of 2 developmental executive function frameworks (Barkley, 1997b; Roberts & Pennington, 1996), where inhibition and the interaction between inhibition and working memory, respectively, are seen as key in the development of executive functioning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brocki2004,
      author = {Brocki, KC and Bohlin, G},
      title = {Executive functions in children aged 6 to 13: A dimensional and developmental study},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {26},
      number = {2},
      pages = {571-593}
    }
    
    Brosnan, M., Demetre, J., Hamill, S., Robson, K., Shepherd, H. & Cody, G. Executive functioning in adults and children with developmental dyslexia {2002} NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA
    Vol. {40}({12}), pp. {2144-2155} 
    article  
    Abstract: The performance of developmentally dyslexic children and adults was studied upon a range of tasks that involved executive functioning. Both adult and child samples of dyslexics were found to under-perform on the group-embedded figures test. This test required the identification of constituent parts from within complex visual arrays, with good performance necessitating the inhibition of the processing of the surrounding context. A general deficit on visual-spatial tasks was eliminated as an explanation as dyslexics performed normally upon a range of other Don-verbal assessments. The dyslexics consistently demonstrated a deficit in digit span tasks, a decrement that was increased with distractors, again suggesting difficulties in inhibiting the processing of the surrounding context. A deficit was also identified upon a verbal fluency task without a deficit in vocabulary level. Additionally, a specific deficit in the recollection of the temporal order of the presentation of items was in evidence, without a deficit in the recognition of the items themselves. The findings taken as a whole suggest that dyslexic individuals show deficiencies in executive functions relating to inhibition of distractors and to sequencing of events, a set of tasks associated with left prefrontal cortex functioning in the acquired neuropsychology literature. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brosnan2002,
      author = {Brosnan, M and Demetre, J and Hamill, S and Robson, K and Shepherd, H and Cody, G},
      title = {Executive functioning in adults and children with developmental dyslexia},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {40},
      number = {12},
      pages = {2144-2155}
    }
    
    Bruene, M., Abdel-Hamid, M., Lehmkaemper, C. & Sonntag, C. Mental state attribution, neurocognitive functioning, and psychopathology: What predicts poor social competence in schizophrenia best? {2007} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {92}({1-3}), pp. {151-159} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background: Research into mental state attribution has repeatedly shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired in their capacity to reflect upon their own and others' beliefs, knowledge and intentions, with important confounds being executive functioning, intelligence, duration of illness, and medication. Furthermore, the extent to which impaired mental state attribution, neurocognition and psychopathology explain abnormal social behavior in schizophrenic patients has been a matter of debate. We sought to determine whether mental state attribution in schizophrenia predicts poor social competence better than ``non-social'' cognitive factors or psychopathology. Methods: Intelligence, executive functioning, mental state attribution, psychopathology and social behavior were assessed in 38 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV criteria and compared with 29 healthy controls paralleled for age and sex. All patients received antipsychotic treatment, and all participants had no history of substance abuse or traumatic brain injury. Results: In the entire schizophrenia group impaired mental state attribution alone accounted for about 50% of the variance of deviant social behavior, whereas the PANSS positive score and the duration of illness contributed an additional small amount of variance. This effect was even more pronounced in a subgroup of patients with at least normal intelligence, where neither the PANSS score nor the chronicity of the disorder remained significant predictors of poor social competence. Medication was not associated with any one of the neurocognitive measures including mental state attribution, psychopathology or social behavior. Conclusions: Impaired capacity to appreciate one's own and others' mental states is the single-best predictor of poor social competence in schizophrenia, and should perhaps be included in future definitions of the ``core'' symptomatology of schizophrenic disorders. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bruene2007,
      author = {Bruene, Martin and Abdel-Hamid, Mona and Lehmkaemper, Caroline and Sonntag, Claudia},
      title = {Mental state attribution, neurocognitive functioning, and psychopathology: What predicts poor social competence in schizophrenia best?},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {92},
      number = {1-3},
      pages = {151-159},
      doi = {{10.1016/J.SCHRES.2007.01.006}}
    }
    
    Brune, M. Emotion recognition, `theory of mind,' and social behavior in schizophrenia {2005} PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH
    Vol. {133}({2-3}), pp. {135-147} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Several studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia are impaired in recognizing emotions from facial expressions and in appreciating other people's mental states-the latter commonly referred to as `theory of mind.' The question as to how social cognitive skills relate to patients' actual social behavior is, however, largely unanswered. This study examined emotion recognition, `theory of mind,' and social behavior in schizophrenia. Emotion recognition, `theory of mind,' executive functioning, `crystallized' verbal intelligence, psychopathology, and social behavior were assessed in patients with schizophrenia compared with a healthy control group. Patients were significantly impaired on all tasks involving executive functioning, emotion recognition, and `theory of mind.' Impaired executive functioning did, however, only partially account for the deficits in social perception and social cognition. Social perception and cognition in schizophrenia predicted the odds of being a patient significantly better than nonsocial cognition. Severe social behavioral abnormalities were linked to the duration of the illness, and even more so to `theory of mind' deficits. Considering impaired social perception and social cognition significantly contributes to the understanding of social behavioral problems in schizophrenia. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brune2005,
      author = {Brune, M},
      title = {Emotion recognition, `theory of mind,' and social behavior in schizophrenia},
      journal = {PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {133},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {135-147},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.psychres.2004.10.007}}
    }
    
    Brune, M. & Brune-Cohrs, U. Theory of mind - evolution, ontogeny, brain mechanisms and psychopathology {2006} NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS
    Vol. {30}({4}), pp. {437-455} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The ability to infer other persons' mental states and emotions has been termed `theory of mind'. It represents an evolved psychological capacity most highly developed in humans. The evolutionary origins of theory of mind can be traced back in extant non-human primates; theory of mind probably emerged as an adaptive response to increasingly complex primate social interaction. This sophisticated `metacognitive' ability comes, however, at an evolutionary cost, reflected in a broad spectrum of psychopathological conditions. Extensive research into autistic spectrum disorders has revealed that theory of mind may be selectively impaired, leaving other cognitive faculties intact. Recent studies have shown that observed deficits in theory of mind task performance are part of a broad range of symptoms in schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, some forms of dementia, `psychopathy' and in other psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the evolutionary psychology of theory of mind including its ontogeny and representation in the central nervous system, and studies of theory of mind in psychopathological conditions. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brune2006,
      author = {Brune, M and Brune-Cohrs, U},
      title = {Theory of mind - evolution, ontogeny, brain mechanisms and psychopathology},
      journal = {NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {30},
      number = {4},
      pages = {437-455},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.08.001}}
    }
    
    Bull, R., Espy, K.A. & Wiebe, S.A. Short-term memory, working memory, and executive functioning in preschoolers: Longitudinal predictors of mathematical achievement at age 7 years {2008} DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {33}({3}), pp. {205-228} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This study examined whether measures of short-term memory, working memory, and executive functioning in preschool children predict later proficiency in academic achievement at 7 years of age (third year of primary school). Children were tested in preschool (M age = 4 years, 6 months) on a battery of cognitive measures, and mathematics and reading outcomes (from standardized, norm-referenced school-based assessments) were taken on entry to primary school, and at the end of the first and third year of primary school. Growth curve analyses examined predictors of math and reading achievement across the duration of the study and revealed that better digit span and executive function skills provided children with an immediate head start in math and reading that they maintained throughout the first three years of primary school. Visual-spatial short-term memory span was found to be a predictor specifically of math ability. Correlational and regression analyses revealed that visual short-term and working memory were found to specifically predict math achievement at each time point, while executive function skills predicted learning in general rather than learning in one specific domain. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to further understanding the role of cognitive skills in different mathematical tasks, and in relation to the impact of limited cognitive skills in the classroom environment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bull2008,
      author = {Bull, Rebecca and Espy, Kimberly Andrews and Wiebe, Sandra A.},
      title = {Short-term memory, working memory, and executive functioning in preschoolers: Longitudinal predictors of mathematical achievement at age 7 years},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {33},
      number = {3},
      pages = {205-228},
      doi = {{10.1080/87565640801982312}}
    }
    
    Bull, R., Johnston, R. & Roy, J. Exploring the roles of the visual-spatial sketch pad and central executive in children's arithmetical skills: Views from cognition and developmental neuropsychology {1999} DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {15}({3}), pp. {421-442} 
    article  
    Abstract: Short-term memory has often been found to play a major role in children's arithmetical skills. However, Bull and Johnston (1997) found that when differences in reading skills were controlled for, short-term memory, specifically the functioning of the articulatory loop, did not represent a fundamental deficit for children of low mathematical ability. This study examined the role of other working-memory mechanisms in arithmetical skills, namely the central executive, using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the visual-spatial sketch pad, using the Corsi Blocks. Results showed that children of high and low mathematics ability differed significantly on WCST measures after controlling for differences in reading ability and IQ but did not differ in visual sequential memory. Correlation analyses revealed a significant correlation between arithmetic performance and perseveration measures from the WCST. The implications of this result are discussed in terms of central-executive functioning and related cognitive and behavioral difficulties.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bull1999,
      author = {Bull, R and Johnston, RS and Roy, JA},
      title = {Exploring the roles of the visual-spatial sketch pad and central executive in children's arithmetical skills: Views from cognition and developmental neuropsychology},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {15},
      number = {3},
      pages = {421-442}
    }
    
    Bull, R. & Scerif, G. Executive functioning as a predictor of children's mathematics ability: Inhibition, switching, and working memory {2001} DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {19}({3}), pp. {273-293} 
    article  
    Abstract: Children's mathematical skills were considered in relation to executive functions. Using multiple measures-including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), dual-task performance, Stroop task, and counting span-it was found that mathematical ability was significantly correlated with all measures of executive functioning, with the exception of dual-task performance. Furthermore, regression analyses revealed that each executive function measure predicted unique variance in mathematics ability. These results are discussed in terms of a central executive with diverse functions (Shallice & Burgess, 1996) and with recent evidence from Miyake, et al. (2000) showing the unity and diversity among executive functions. It is proposed that the particular difficulties for children of lower mathematical ability are lack of inhibition and poor working memory, which result in problems with switching and evaluation of new strategies for dealing with a particular task. The practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed, along with suggestions for task changes and longitudinal studies that would clarify theoretical and developmental issues related to executive functioning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bull2001,
      author = {Bull, R and Scerif, G},
      title = {Executive functioning as a predictor of children's mathematics ability: Inhibition, switching, and working memory},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {19},
      number = {3},
      pages = {273-293}
    }
    
    Butters, M., Becker, J., Nebes, R., Zmuda, M., Mulsant, B., Pollock, B. & Reynolds, C. Changes in cognitive functioning following treatment of late-life depression {2000} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {157}({12}), pp. {1949-1954} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: Knowledge of the relationship between various clinical characteristics and cognitive functioning is advancing, but little is known about the cognitive response to treatment for geriatric depression. The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive response to treatment for patients with late-life depression. Method: Subjects included 45 nondemented, elderly depressed patients who achieved remission after 12 weeks of antidepressant treatment and 20 elderly comparison subjects. All subjects were administered a battery of clinical measures, including cognitive screening instruments, before and after treatment. Results: As a group, the elderly depressed patients showed a small improvement in overall cognitive functioning after treatment. Among depressed patients with concomitant cognitive impairment at baseline, performance on the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale domains of conceptualization and initiation/perseveration improved significantly relative to those of depressed patients with normal cognition. Despite the improvement following treatment, the overall level of cognitive functioning in the elderly depressed patients with cognitive impairment at baseline remained mildly impaired, especially in the memory and initiation/perseveration domains. Conclusions: Elderly depressed patients with cognitive impairment may experience improvement in specific domains following antidepressant treatment but may not necessarily reach normal levels of performance, particularly in memory and executive functions. This subgroup of late-life depression patients is likely at high risk of developing progressive dementia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Butters2000,
      author = {Butters, MA and Becker, JL and Nebes, RD and Zmuda, MD and Mulsant, BH and Pollock, BG and Reynolds, CF},
      title = {Changes in cognitive functioning following treatment of late-life depression},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {157},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1949-1954},
      note = {106th Annual Convention of the American-Psychological-Association, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, AUG 14-18, 1998}
    }
    
    Butters, M., Whyte, E., Nebes, R., Begley, A., Dew, M., Mulsant, B., Zmuda, M., Bhalla, R., Meltzer, C., Pollock, B., Reynolds, C. & Becker, J. The nature and determinants of neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression {2004} ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {61}({6}), pp. {587-595} 
    article  
    Abstract: Context: Cognitive impairment in late-life depression (LLD) is highly prevalent, disabling, poorly understood, and likely related to long-term outcome. Objectives: To determine the characteristics and de terminants of neuropsychological functioning LLD. Design: Cross-sectional study of groups of LLD patients and control subjects. Setting: Outpatient, university-based depression research clinic. Participants: One hundred patients without dementia 60 years and older who met DSM-IV criteria for current episode of unipolar major depression (nonpsychotic) and 40 nondepressed, age- and education-equated control subjects. Main Outcome Measures: A comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Results: Relative to control subjects, LLD patients performed poorer in all cognitive domains. More than half exhibited significant impairment (performance below the 10th percentile of the control group). Information processing speed and visuospatial and executive abilities were the most broadly and frequently impaired. The neuropsychological impairments were mediated almost entirely by slowed information processing (beta = .45-.80). Education (beta = .32) and ventricular atrophy (beta = .28) made additional modest contributions to variance in measures of language ability. Medical and vascular disease burden, apolipoprotein E genotype, and serum anticholinergicity did not contribute to variance in any cognitive domain. Conclusions: Late-life depression is characterized by slowed information processing; which affects all realms of cognition. This supports the concept that frontostriatal dysfunction plays a key role in LLD. The putative role of some risk factors was validated (eg, advanced age, low education, depression severity), whereas others were not (eg, medical burden, age at onset of first depressive episode). Further studies of neuropsychological functioning in remitted LLD patients are needed to parse episode-related and persistent factors and to relate them to underlying neural dysfunction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Butters2004,
      author = {Butters, MA and Whyte, EM and Nebes, RD and Begley, AE and Dew, MA and Mulsant, BH and Zmuda, MD and Bhalla, R and Meltzer, CC and Pollock, BG and Reynolds, CF and Becker, JT},
      title = {The nature and determinants of neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {61},
      number = {6},
      pages = {587-595}
    }
    
    Cadenhead, K., Perry, W., Shafer, K. & Braff, D. Cognitive functions in schizotypal personality disorder {1999} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {37}({2}), pp. {123-132} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: Schizophrenia spectrum subjects have cognitive deficits in a variety of domains. Schizotypal personality disordered (SPD) subjects do not have many of the confounds seen in schizophrenic patients, but may have the same pattern of cognitive deficits in attention and executive functioning. Hypotheses: We hypothesized that SPD subjects would have impairments on measures of attention, abstract reasoning, cognitive inhibition, working memory and verbal recognition memory when compared to normal subjects, and that these deficits would be intermediate to those observed in schizophrenic patients. Method: SPD subjects (N = 20) were compared to age-, gender- and education-matched schizophrenic patients (N = 20) and normal comparison subjects (N = 20) on a battery of cognitive measures. Results: The data were analyzed using standard statistical methods, including effect sizes. Using a conservative alpha level of 0.01, schizophrenic patients had deficits on many of these measures compared to normal subjects. Although the SPD subjects did not significantly differ from normal comparison subjects at the p < 0.01 level, there were trends (p < 0.019-0.028) toward impairment on measures of working memory and general intellectual functioning. On further effect size analyses, SPD subjects performed intermediate to normals and schizophrenic patients on measures of attention, abstract reasoning, cognitive inhibition, verbal working memory, recognition memory, and general intellectual functioning, with moderate to large effect sizes separating groups. Conclusions: These results suggest that SPD subjects have possible widespread cognitive deficits that are of lesser magnitude than those observed in schizophrenic patients. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cadenhead1999,
      author = {Cadenhead, KS and Perry, W and Shafer, K and Braff, DL},
      title = {Cognitive functions in schizotypal personality disorder},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {37},
      number = {2},
      pages = {123-132}
    }
    
    Cahn-Weiner, D., Sullivan, E., Shear, P., Fama, R., Lim, K., Yesavage, J., Tinklenberg, J. & Pfefferbaum, A. Brain structural and cognitive correlates of clock drawing performance in Alzheimer's disease {1999} JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY
    Vol. {5}({6}), pp. {502-509} 
    article  
    Abstract: The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is widely used in the assessment of dementia and is known to be sensitive to the detection of deficits in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). CDT performance is dependent not only on visuospatial and constructional abilities, but also on conceptual and executive functioning; therefore, it is likely to be mediated by multiple brain regions. The purpose of the present study was to identify component cognitive processes and regional cortical volumes that contribute to CDT performance in AD. in 29 patients with probable AD, CDT performance was significantly related to right-, but not left-hemisphere, regional gray matter volume. Specifically, CDT score correlated significantly with the right anterior and posterior superior temporal lobe volumes. CDT scores showed significant relationships with tests of semantic knowledge, executive function, and visuoconstruction, and receptive language. These. results suggest that in AD patients, CDT performance is attributable to impairment in multiple cognitive domains but is related specifically to regional volume loss of right temporal cortex.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cahn-Weiner1999,
      author = {Cahn-Weiner, DA and Sullivan, EV and Shear, PK and Fama, R and Lim, KO and Yesavage, JA and Tinklenberg, JR and Pfefferbaum, A},
      title = {Brain structural and cognitive correlates of clock drawing performance in Alzheimer's disease},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {5},
      number = {6},
      pages = {502-509},
      note = {26th Annual Meeting of the International-Neuropsychological-Society, HONOLULU, HAWAII, FEB 04-05, 1998}
    }
    
    Callejas, A., Lupianez, J. & Tudela, P. The three attentional networks: On their independence and interactions {2004} BRAIN AND COGNITION
    Vol. {54}({3}), pp. {225-227} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The present investigation was aimed to the study of the three attentional networks (Alerting, Orienting, and Executive Function) and their interactions. A modification of the task developed by Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, and Posner (2002) was used, in which a cost and benefit paradigm was combined with a flanker task and an alerting signal. We obtained significant interactions as predicted. The alerting network seemed to inhibit the executive function network (a larger flanker-congruency effect was found on trials where an alerting signal had been previously presented). The orienting network influenced the executive function network in a positive way (the flanker effect was smaller for cued than for uncued trials). Finally, alertness increased orienting (the cueing effect was bigger after the alerting signal). This last result, taken together with previous findings, points to an influence in the sense of a faster orienting under alertness, rather than a larger one. These results offer new insight into the functioning of the attentional system. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Callejas2004,
      author = {Callejas, A and Lupianez, J and Tudela, P},
      title = {The three attentional networks: On their independence and interactions},
      journal = {BRAIN AND COGNITION},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {54},
      number = {3},
      pages = {225-227},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.bandc.2004.02.012}}
    }
    
    Canfield, R., Gendle, M. & Cory-Slechta, D. Impaired neuropsychological functioning in lead-exposed children {2004} DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {26}({1}), pp. {513-540} 
    article  
    Abstract: Neuropsychological functions were assessed in 174 children participating in a longitudinal study of low-level lead exposure. At age 5(1)/(2) years, children were administered the Working Memory and Planning Battery of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery. Measures of sociodemographic characteristics of the family, prenatal and perinatal risk, quality of caregiving and crowding in the home, and maternal and child intelligence were used as covariates to test the hypothesis that children with higher lifetime average blood lead concentrations would perform more poorly on tests of working memory, attentional flexibility, and planning and problem solving. The lifetime average blood lead level in this sample was 7.2 micrograms per deciliter (mug/dL; range: 0-20 mug/dL). Children with greater exposure performed more poorly on tests of executive processes. In both bivariate and multivariate analyses, children with higher lifetime average blood lead concentrations showed impaired performance on the tests of spatial working memory, spatial memory span, intradimensional and extradimensional shifts, and an analog of the Tower of London task. Many of the significant associations remained after controlling for children's intelligence test scores, in addition to the other covariates. These findings indicate that the effects of pediatric lead exposure are not restricted to global indexes of general intellectual functioning, and executive processes may be at particular risk of lead-induced neurotoxicity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Canfield2004,
      author = {Canfield, RL and Gendle, MH and Cory-Slechta, DA},
      title = {Impaired neuropsychological functioning in lead-exposed children},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {26},
      number = {1},
      pages = {513-540}
    }
    
    Carli, M., Baviera, M., Invernizzi, R. & Balducci, C. Dissociable contribution of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex to different aspects of executive control such as impulsivity and compulsive perseveration in rats {2006} NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
    Vol. {31}({4}), pp. {757-767} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Serotonin (5-HT) receptors are increasingly recognized as major targets for cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia. Several lines of evidence suggest a pathophysiological role for glutamate NMDA receptors in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and associated disorders in attention and executive functioning. We investigated how the interactions between 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A and glutamate NMDA receptor mechanisms in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) contribute to the control of different aspects of attentional performance. Rats were trained on a five-choice serial reaction time (5-CSRT) task, which provides indices of attentional functioning ( percentage of correct responses), executive control ( measured by anticipatory and perseverative responses), and speed. The competitive NMDA receptor antagonist CPP ( 50 ng/side) was infused directly into the mPFC 5 min after infusion of either 8-OH-DPAT ( 30 and 100 ng/side) or M100907 ( 100 and 300 ng/side) into the same brain area. Impairments in attentional functioning induced by CPP were completely abolished by both doses of 8-OH-DPAT or M100907. In addition, M100907 abolished the CPP-induced anticipatory responding but had no effects on perseverative over-responding, while 8-OH-DPAT reduced the perseverative over-responding but had no effects on anticipatory responding induced by CPP. The selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 ( 30 ng/side) antagonized the effects of 8-OH-DPAT ( 100 ng/side). 8-OH-DPAT at 30 ng/side reduced the latency of correct responses in controls and CPP-injected rats and lowered the percentage of omissions in CPP-injected rats. The data show that 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the mPFC exert opposing actions on attentional functioning and demonstrate a dissociable contribution of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the mPFC to different aspects of executive control such as impulsivity and compulsive perseveration.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Carli2006,
      author = {Carli, M and Baviera, M and Invernizzi, RW and Balducci, C},
      title = {Dissociable contribution of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex to different aspects of executive control such as impulsivity and compulsive perseveration in rats},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {31},
      number = {4},
      pages = {757-767},
      doi = {{10.1038/sj.npp.1300893}}
    }
    
    Carlson, M., Fried, L., Xue, Q., Bandeen-Roche, K., Zeger, S. & Brandt, J. Association between executive attention and physical functional performance in community-dwelling older women {1999} JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY SERIES B-PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
    Vol. {54}({5}), pp. {S262-S270} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objectives. Executive functions supervise the contents of working memory, where information from long-term memory is integrated with information in the immediate present. This study examined whether executive attentional abilities were uniquely associated with the performance of complex, instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) in cognitively intact and physically high-functioning older women. Methods. Participants were 406 community-residing. older women aged 70-80 years in the Women's Health and Aging Study (WHAS) II, screened to be physically high functioning and cognitively intact using the Mini-Mental State Exam. Hierarchical regression models, adjusted for demographic and disease variables, were used to evaluate the association of cognitive domains, including executive attention, memory, psychomotor speed, and spatial ability with summary measures of IADL (e.g., looking up and dialing a telephone number) and mobility-based ADL (e.g.. walking 4 meters) function. Results. Tests of executive attention were associated with performance on IADLs (6.6 and, to a lesser degree, mobility-based ADLs (1, adjusting for demographic and disease variables. In particular, the mental flexibility component of the Trail Making Test accounted for the majority of attentional variance in IADL performance. Older age, lower education. and African American race were also associated with poorer physical test performances. Discussion. Executive difficulties in flexibly planning and initiating a course of action were selectively associated with slower performance of higher-order IADL tests, relative to other domains of cognition, in a high-functioning, community-based older cohort. These results suggest that executive functions may be important in mediating the onset and progression of physical functional declines.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Carlson1999,
      author = {Carlson, MC and Fried, LP and Xue, QL and Bandeen-Roche, K and Zeger, SL and Brandt, J},
      title = {Association between executive attention and physical functional performance in community-dwelling older women},
      journal = {JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY SERIES B-PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {54},
      number = {5},
      pages = {S262-S270}
    }
    
    Carlson, S. Developmentally sensitive measures of executive function in preschool children {2005} DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {28}({2}), pp. {595-616} 
    article  
    Abstract: Changes in executive functioning in the preschool years are recognized as playing a critical role in cognitive and social development, yet comprehensive data and recommendations about measurement of these changes are lacking. The performance of 602 preschool children on several executive function tasks was analyzed and reported as (a) age trends in performance and (b) task difficulty scales at 2, 3, 4, and 5 to 6 years of age. This analysis informs theories of executive function development and offers researchers an evidence-based guide to task selection and design.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Carlson2005,
      author = {Carlson, SA},
      title = {Developmentally sensitive measures of executive function in preschool children},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {28},
      number = {2},
      pages = {595-616}
    }
    
    Carlson, S., Mandell, D. & Williams, L. Executive function and theory of mind: Stability and prediction from ages 2 to 3 {2004} DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {40}({6}), pp. {1105-1122} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Several studies have demonstrated a relation between executive functioning (EF) and theory of mind (ToM) in preschoolers, yet the developmental course of this relation remains unknown. Longitudinal stability and EF-ToM relations were examined in 81 children at 24 and 39 months. At Time 1, EF was unrelated to behavioral measures of ToM but was significantly related to parent report of children's internal-state language, independent of vocabulary size. At Time 2, behavioral batteries of EF and ToM were significantly related (r = .50, p < .01). Furthermore, EF (Time 1) significantly predicted ToM (Time 2), independent of several controls. A reciprocal relation (internal-state language -->EF at Time 2) was nonsignificant with the controls included. Individual differences in EF were relatively stable.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Carlson2004,
      author = {Carlson, SM and Mandell, DJ and Williams, L},
      title = {Executive function and theory of mind: Stability and prediction from ages 2 to 3},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {40},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1105-1122},
      doi = {{10.1037/0012-1649.40.6.1105}}
    }
    
    Carlson, S. & Moses, L. Individual differences in inhibitory control and children's theory of mind {2001} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {72}({4}), pp. {1032-1053} 
    article  
    Abstract: This research examined the relation between individual differences in inhibitory control (IC; a central component of executive functioning) and theory-of-mind (ToM) performance in preschool-age children. Across two sessions, 3- and 4-year-old children (N = 107) were given multitask batteries measuring IC and ToM. Inhibitory control was strongly related to ToM, r =.66, p < .001. This relation remained significant controlling for age, gender, verbal ability, motor sequencing, family size, and performance on pretend-action and mental state control tasks. Inhibitory tasks requiring a novel response in the face of a conflicting prepotent response (Conflict scale) and those requiring the delay of a prepotent response (Delay scale) were significantly related to ToM. The Conflict stale, however, significantly predicted ToM performance over and above the Delay scale and control measures, whereas the Delay scale was not significant in a corresponding analysis. These findings suggest that IC may be a crucial enabling factor for ToM development, possibly affecting both the emergence and expression of mental state knowledge. The implications of the findings for a variety of executive accounts of ToM are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Carlson2001,
      author = {Carlson, SM and Moses, LJ},
      title = {Individual differences in inhibitory control and children's theory of mind},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {72},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1032-1053}
    }
    
    Carlson, S., Moses, L. & Claxton, L. Individual differences in executive functioning and theory of mind: An investigation of inhibitory control and planning ability {2004} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {87}({4}), pp. {299-319} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This research examined the relative contributions of two aspects of executive function-inhibitory control and planning ability-to theory of mind in 49 3- and 4-year-olds. Children were given two standard theory of mind measures (Appearance-Reality and False Belief), three inhibitory control tasks (Bear/Dragon, Whisper, and Gift Delay), three planning tasks (Tower of Hanoi, Truck Loading, and Kitten Delivery), and a receptive vocabulary test (Pea-body Picture Vocabulary Test [PPVT-3]). Multiple regression analyses indicated that two inhibition tasks (Bear/Dragon and Whisper) were significantly related to theory of mind after accounting for age, receptive vocabulary, and planning. In contrast, the planning tasks did not share unique variance with theory of mind. These results increase our understanding of the specific nature of executive function-theory of mind relations during early childhood. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Carlson2004a,
      author = {Carlson, SM and Moses, LJ and Claxton, LJ},
      title = {Individual differences in executive functioning and theory of mind: An investigation of inhibitory control and planning ability},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {87},
      number = {4},
      pages = {299-319},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jecp.2004.01.002}}
    }
    
    Carmelli, D., Swan, G., DeCarli, C. & Reed, T. Quantitative genetic modeling of regional brain volumes and cognitive performance in older male twins {2002} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {61}({1-2}), pp. {139-155} 
    article  
    Abstract: As part of an ongoing longitudinal twin study, data from both MRI brain scanning and from neuropsychological testing were obtained from 139 male-male twin pairs (72 monozygotic [MZ] and 67 dizygotic [DZ]), 69-80 years old at the time of examination. For descriptive purposes, we examined the MZ and DZ intraclass correlations (ICC) of four lobar brain volumes (frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital), two cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes (lateral ventricle and temporal horn of the lateral ventricles), and two measures of cognitive functioning (verbal memory and executive function). We found that for lobar brain and CSF space volumes, the MZ ICC were significantly greater than zero (r = 0.37-0.77) and greater than the corresponding DZ correlations (r = 0.02-0.49). Similarly, within-pair correlations for the two neuropsychological factors were statistically significant and significantly larger in MZ twin, pairs than in DZ pairs, suggesting the presence of genetic variance. Bivariate genetic analysis revealed that while. close to 60% of individual differences in neuropsychological performance were due to genetic influences, less than 50% of genetic effects were in common with those influencing brain volumes. These data may shed light on the genetic liability for brain diseases that affect the elderly. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Carmelli2002,
      author = {Carmelli, D and Swan, GE and DeCarli, C and Reed, T},
      title = {Quantitative genetic modeling of regional brain volumes and cognitive performance in older male twins},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {61},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {139-155}
    }
    
    Carte, E., Nigg, J. & Hinshaw, S. Neuropsychological functioning, motor speed, and language processing in boys with and without ADHD {1996} JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {24}({4}), pp. {481-498} 
    article  
    Abstract: We administered a neuropsychological battery to boys aged 6 to 12 years old diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 51) and to comparison boys of the same age range (n = 31). Boys with ADHD had greater difficulty than comparison youngsters on nonautomated language and motor tasks administered with a fast instructional set and on one of two traditional frontal executive measures (Porteus mazes). When tasks requiring automatic processing were paired with similar tasks requiring greater use of selective attention processes, the latter, controlled processing tasks differentiated groups better than did automated tasks. This differential effect of otherwise similar tasks is interpreted in terms of an output deficit mediated by response organization as detailed in the information processing literature. The ADHD group also exhibited slow gross motor output, measured independently of verbal output. The findings are evaluated in terms of both Luria's (1973) tripartite model of neurocognitive organization and frontal striatal models, with an emphasis on output processes. The observed language deficits could represent frontal lobe processes intricately related to self-monitoring and planning. The utility of controlled processing, self-paced tasks with fast instructional sets in assessing language and motor skills in ADHD is highlighted.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Carte1996,
      author = {Carte, ET and Nigg, JT and Hinshaw, SP},
      title = {Neuropsychological functioning, motor speed, and language processing in boys with and without ADHD},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {24},
      number = {4},
      pages = {481-498}
    }
    
    Carter, C., MacDonald, A., Ross, L. & Stenger, V. Anterior cingulate cortex activity and impaired self-monitoring of performance in patients with schizophrenia: An event-related fMRI study {2001} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {158}({9}), pp. {1423-1428} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: The authors examined brain activity associated with the internal monitoring of performance to test the hypothesis that error-related activity in the anterior cingulate cortex is impaired in patients with schizophrenia. Method: Seventeen patients with schizophrenia and 16 healthy comparison subjects underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging during a continuous performance task; stimulus degradation was used to increase error rates. Results: Comparison subjects, but not schizophrenic patients, showed error-related activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, and this difference in brain activity was significantly different across the two groups. Patients also showed less slowing of reaction time after error commission. Conclusions: Lower error-related activity in the anterior cingulate cortex and less performance adjustment after error commission are consistent with the hypothesis that disturbances in anterior cingulate cortex function are related to a specific alteration in an evaluative component of executive functioning-the internal monitoring of performance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Carter2001,
      author = {Carter, CS and MacDonald, AW and Ross, LL and Stenger, VA},
      title = {Anterior cingulate cortex activity and impaired self-monitoring of performance in patients with schizophrenia: An event-related fMRI study},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {158},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1423-1428}
    }
    
    Castaneda, A.E., Tuuio-Henriksson, A., Marttunen, M., Suvisaari, J. & Lonnqvist, J. A review on cognitive impairments in depressive and anxiety disorders with a focus on young adults {2008} JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS
    Vol. {106}({1-2}), pp. {1-27} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background: There is growing evidence for cognitive dysfunction in depressive and anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, the neuropsychological profile of young adult patients has not received much systematic investigation. The following paper reviews the existing literature on cognitive impairments in depressive and anxiety disorders particularly among young adults. Additionally, the focus of young adult age group and the effect of confounding variables on study results are discussed. Methods: Electronic database searches were conducted to identify research articles focusing on cognitive impairments in depressive or anxiety disorders among young adults published in English during years 1990-2006. Results: Cognitive impairments are common in young adults with major depression and anxiety disorders, although their nature remains partly unclear. Accordingly, executive dysfunction is evident in major depression, but other more specific deficits appear to depend essentially on disorder characteristics. The profile of cognitive dysfunction seems to depend on anxiety disorder subtype, but at least obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with deficits in executive functioning and visual memory. The conflicting results may be explained by heterogeneity within study participants, such as illness status, comorbid mental disorders, and medication, and other methodological issues, including inadequate matching of study groups and varying testing procedures. Limitations: The study is a comprehensive review, but not a formal meta-analysis, due to methodological heterogeneity. Conclusions: Cognitive impairments are common in major depression and anxiety disorders. However, more research is needed to confirm and widen these findings, and to expand the knowledge into clinical practice. Controlling of confounding variables in future studies is highly recommended. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Castaneda2008,
      author = {Castaneda, Anu E. and Tuuio-Henriksson, Annamari and Marttunen, Mauri and Suvisaari, Jaana and Lonnqvist, Jouko},
      title = {A review on cognitive impairments in depressive and anxiety disorders with a focus on young adults},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {106},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {1-27},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jad.2007.06.006}}
    }
    
    Castellanos, F. Toward a pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder {1997} CLINICAL PEDIATRICS
    Vol. {36}({7}), pp. {381-393} 
    article  
    Abstract: Converging insights into attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) support the notion that ADHD is best characterized behaviorally as a disorder of self-regulation or executive functioning. Anatomic neuroimaging studies suggest that the relevant regulatory circuits include the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia, which are modulated by dopaminergic innervation from the midbrain and by stimulant medications. The emerging model proposed in this review encompasses a developmental perspective into this common condition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Castellanos1997,
      author = {Castellanos, FX},
      title = {Toward a pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder},
      journal = {CLINICAL PEDIATRICS},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {36},
      number = {7},
      pages = {381-393}
    }
    
    CASTELLANOS, F., GIEDD, J., ECKBURG, P., MARSH, W., VAITUZIS, A., KAYSEN, D., HAMBURGER, S. & RAPOPORT, J. QUANTITATIVE MORPHOLOGY OF THE CAUDATE-NUCLEUS IN ATTENTION-DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER {1994} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {151}({12}), pp. {1791-1796} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: Because the caudate nuclei receive inputs from cortical regions implicated in executive functioning and attentional tasks, caudate and total brain volumes were examined in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normal comparison subjects. To gain developmental perspective, a wade age range was sampled for both groups. Method: The brains of so male ADHD patients (aged 6-19) and 48 matched comparison subjects were scanned by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Volumetric measures of the head and body of the caudate nucleus were obtained from T-1-weighted coronal images. Interrater reliabilities (intraclass correlations) were 0.89 or greater. Results: The normal pattern of slight but significantly greater right caudate volume across all ages was not seen in ADHD. Mean right caudate volume was slightly but significantly smaller in the ADHD patients than in the comparison subjects, white there was no significant difference for the left. Together these facts accounted for the highly significant lack of normal asymmetry in caudate volume in the ADHD boys. Total brain volume was 5% smaller in the ADHD boys, and this was not accounted for by age, height, weight, or IQ. Smaller brain volume in ADHD did not account for the caudate volume or symmetry differences. For the normal boys, caudate volume decreased substantially (13 and significantly with age, while in ADHD there was no age-related change. Conclusions: Along with previous MRI findings of low volumes in corpus callosum regions, these results support developmental abnormalities of frontal-striatal circuits in ADHD.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CASTELLANOS1994,
      author = {CASTELLANOS, FX and GIEDD, JN and ECKBURG, P and MARSH, WL and VAITUZIS, AC and KAYSEN, D and HAMBURGER, SD and RAPOPORT, JL},
      title = {QUANTITATIVE MORPHOLOGY OF THE CAUDATE-NUCLEUS IN ATTENTION-DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {151},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1791-1796}
    }
    
    Chanraud, S., Martelli, C., Delain, F., Kostogianni, N., Douaud, G., Aubin, H.-J., Reynaud, M. & Martinot, J.-L. Brain morphometry and cognitive performance in detoxified alcohol-dependents with preserved psychosocial functioning {2007} NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
    Vol. {32}({2}), pp. {429-438} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The extent of structural brain damage and related cognitive deficits has been little described in alcohol-dependent individuals with preserved social functioning. Thus, we investigated the relationship between regional alterations, executive performance, and drinking history. Volumes of gray and white matter were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry in healthy men and in detoxified alcohol-dependent men with good psychosocial functioning. Their executive performance was assessed using neuropsychological tests. Regression analyses were carried out in the regions in which volume differences were detected. Decreases in gray matter were detected bilaterally in alcohol-dependents in the dorsolateral frontal cortex (up to 20% lower), and to a lesser extent in the temporal cortex, insula, thalamus, and cerebellum. Decreases in white matter volume were widespread, being up to 10% in corpus callosum. The degradation of neuropsychological performance correlated with gray matter volume decreases in the frontal lobe, insula, hippocampus, thalami and cerebellum, and with white matter decrease in the brainstem. An early age at first drinking was associated with decreased gray matter volumes in the cerebellum, brainstem (pons), and frontal regions. Regional alteration in gray and white matter volume was associated with impairment of executive function despite preserved social and somatic functioning in detoxified patients. Besides involving frontal regions, these findings are consistent with a cerebello-thalamo-cortical model of impaired executive functions in alcohol-dependent individuals.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chanraud2007,
      author = {Chanraud, Sandra and Martelli, Catherine and Delain, Francoise and Kostogianni, Nikoletta and Douaud, Gwenaelle and Aubin, Henri-Jean and Reynaud, Michel and Martinot, Jean-Luc},
      title = {Brain morphometry and cognitive performance in detoxified alcohol-dependents with preserved psychosocial functioning},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {32},
      number = {2},
      pages = {429-438},
      doi = {{10.1038/sj.npp.1301219}}
    }
    
    CHRISTENSEN, K., KIM, S., DYSKEN, M. & HOOVER, K. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE IN OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER {1992} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {31}({1}), pp. {4-18} 
    article  
    Abstract: Neuropsychological functioning was examined in a group of 18 nondepressed patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and 18 age-, education-, and gender-matched normal controls. A recent nonverbal memory deficit was identified in the patients with OCD. From performance on timed and untimed measures of the same constructs, it appears that OCD patients score more poorly than controls when speed is a factor. Although performance on a timed tactual-spatial motor test was also impaired, it is unclear whether this deficit is attributable to the nonverbal memory and/or speed deficits. Deficits in verbal abilities, including recent verbal memory, were not identified. Results were equivocal for executive function and visual-spatial abilities. The previously established association of recent nonverbal memory abilities with functioning of the right mesial temporal area is discussed in the context of current hypotheses about the neuroanatomic substrate of OCD.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CHRISTENSEN1992,
      author = {CHRISTENSEN, KJ and KIM, SW and DYSKEN, MW and HOOVER, KM},
      title = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE IN OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {31},
      number = {1},
      pages = {4-18}
    }
    
    Cicerone, K. Remediation of `working attention' in mild traumatic brain injury {2002} BRAIN INJURY
    Vol. {16}({3}), pp. {185-195} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Several studies have reported beneficial effects of treatments for attentional deficits following traumatic brain injury. Improvements in speed of processing appear to be less robust than improvements on non-speeded tasks, while several studies suggest greater benefits of training more complex forms of attention. The present study presents preliminary results concerning the effectiveness of an intervention for attentional deficits after mild traumatic brain injury. The treatment was based upon the conceptualization of deficits and interventions as a function of the central executive component of working memory, or `working attention'. A prospective, case-comparison design was employed comparing four treatment participants with an untreated comparison sample. Treatment tasks were derived from experimental procedures which have been demonstrated to elicit working memory demands, consisting of `n-back', random generation, and dual-task procedures. The intervention emphasized the conscious and deliberate use of strategies to effectively allocate attentional resources and manage the rate of information during task performance. Treatment participants were more likely to exhibit clinically significant improvement on measures of attention and reduction of self-reported attentional difficulties in their daily functioning. Further analysis suggested that the principal effect of the intervention was on working memory, i.e. the ability to temporarily maintain and manipulate information during task performance, with no direct effect on processing speed. The results are consistent with a strategy training model of remediation, in which the benefits of treatment are due to participants' improved ability to compensate for residual deficits and adopt strategies for the more effective allocation of their remaining attentional resources.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cicerone2002,
      author = {Cicerone, KD},
      title = {Remediation of `working attention' in mild traumatic brain injury},
      journal = {BRAIN INJURY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {16},
      number = {3},
      pages = {185-195},
      doi = {{10.1080/02699050110103959}}
    }
    
    Cicerone, K., Dahlberg, C., Kalmar, K., Langenbahn, D., Malec, J., Bergquist, T., Felicetti, T., Giacino, J., Harley, J., Harrington, D., Herzog, J., Kneipp, S., Laatsch, L. & Morse, P. Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Recommendations for clinical practice {2000} ARCHIVES OF PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION
    Vol. {81}({12}), pp. {1596-1615} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Objective: To establish evidence-based recommendations for the clinical practice of cognitive rehabilitation,, derived from a methodical review of the scientific literature concerning the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation for persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) or stroke. Data Sources: A MEDLINE literature search using combinations of these key words as search terms: attention, awareness, cognition, communication, executive, language, memory, perception, problem solving, reasoning, rehabilitation, remediation, and training. Reference lists from identified articles also were reviewed; a total bibliography of 655 published articles was compiled. Study Selection: Studies were initially reviewed according to the following exclusion criteria:;nonintervention studies; theoretical, descriptive, or review papers; papers without adequate specification of interventions; subjects other than persons with TBI or stroke; pediatric subjects; pharmacologic interventions; and non-English language papers. After screening, 232 articles were eligible for inclusion. After detailed review, 61 of these were excluded as single case reports without data, subjects other than TBI and stroke, and nontreatment studies.. This screening yielded 171 articles to be evaluated. Data Extraction: Articles were assigned to 1 of 7 categories according to their primary area of intervention: attention, visual perception and constructional abilities, language and communication, memory, problem solving and executive functioning, multi-modal interventions, and comprehensive-holistic cognitive rehabilitation. All articles were independently reviewed by at least 2 committee members and abstracted according to specified criteria. The 171 studies that passed initial review were classified according to the strength of their methods. Class I studies were defined as prospective randomized controlled trials. Class II studies were defined as prospective cohort studies, retrospective case-control studies, or clinical series with well-designed controls. Class III studies were defined as clinical series without concurrent controls, or studies with appropriate single-subject methodology. Data Synthesis: Of the 171 studies evaluated, 29 were rated as Class I, 35 as Class II, and 107 as Class III. The overall evidence within each predefined area of intervention was then synthesized and recommendations were derived based on consideration of the relative strengths of the evidence. The resulting practice parameters were organized into 3 types of recommendations: Practice Standards, Practice Guidelines, and Practice Options. Conclusions: Overall, support exists for the effectiveness of several forms of cognitive rehabilitation for persons with stroke and TBI. Specific recommendations can be made for remediation of language and perception after left and right hemisphere stroke, respectively, and for the remediation of attention, memory, functional communication, and executive functioning after I TBI. These recommendations may help to establish parameters of effective treatment, which should be of assistance to practicing clinicians.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cicerone2000,
      author = {Cicerone, KD and Dahlberg, C and Kalmar, K and Langenbahn, DM and Malec, JF and Bergquist, TF and Felicetti, T and Giacino, JT and Harley, JP and Harrington, DE and Herzog, J and Kneipp, S and Laatsch, L and Morse, PA},
      title = {Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Recommendations for clinical practice},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {81},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1596-1615},
      doi = {{10.1053/apmr.2000.19240}}
    }
    
    Cicerone, K., Dahlberg, C., Malec, J., Langenbahn, D., Felicetti, T., Kneipp, S., Ellmo, W., Kalmar, K., Giacino, J., Harley, J., Laatsch, L., Morse, P. & Catanese, J. Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Updated review of the literature from 1998 through 2002 {2005} ARCHIVES OF PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION
    Vol. {86}({8}), pp. {1681-1692} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Cicerone KD, Dahlberg C, Malec JF, Langenbahn DM, Felicetti T, Kneipp S, Ellmo W, Kalmar K, Giacino JT, Harley JP, Laatsch L, Morse PA, Catanese J. Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: updated review of the literature from 1998 through 2002. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86: 1681-92. Objective: To update the previous evidence-based recommendations of the Brain Injury Interdisciplinary Special Interest Group of the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine for cognitive rehabilitation of people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, based on a systematic review of the literature from 1998 through 2002. Data Sources: PubMed and Infotrieve literature searches were conducted using the terms attention, awareness, cognition, communication, executive, language, memory, perception, problem solving, and reasoning combined with each of the terms rehabilitation, remediation, and training. Reference lists from identified articles were reviewed and a bibliography listing 312 articles was compiled. Study Selection: One hundred eighteen articles were initially selected for inclusion. Thirty-one studies were excluded after detailed review. Excluded articles included 14 studies without data, 6 duplicate publications or follow-up studies, 5 nontreatment studies, 4 reviews, and 2 case studies involving diagnoses other than TBI or stroke. Data Extraction: Articles were assigned to I of 7 categories reflecting the primary area of intervention: attention; visual perception; apraxia; language and communication; memory; executive functioning, problem solving and awareness; and comprehensive-holistic cognitive rehabilitation. Articles were abstracted and levels of evidence determined using specific criteria. Data Synthesis: Of the 87 studies evaluated, 17 were rated as class 1, 8 as class 11, and 62 as class III. Evidence within each area of intervention was synthesized and recommendations for practice standards, practice guidelines, and practice options were made. Conclusions: There is substantial evidence to support cognitive-linguistic therapies for people with language deficits after left hemisphere stroke. New evidence supports training for apraxia after left hemisphere stroke. The evidence supports visuospatial rehabilitation for deficits associated with visual neglect after right hemisphere stroke. There is substantial evidence to support cognitive rehabilitation for people with TBI, including strategy training for mild memory impairment, strategy training for postacute attention deficits, and interventions for functional communication deficits. The overall analysis of 47 treatment comparisons, based on class I studies included in the current and previous review, reveals a differential benefit in favor of cognitive rehabilitation in 37 of 47 (78.7 comparisons, with no comparison demonstrating a benefit in favor of the alternative treatment condition. Future research should move beyond the simple question of whether cognitive rehabilitation is effective, and examine the therapy factors and patient characteristics that optimize the clinical outcomes of cognitive rehabilitation. (c) 2005 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cicerone2005,
      author = {Cicerone, KD and Dahlberg, C and Malec, JF and Langenbahn, DM and Felicetti, T and Kneipp, S and Ellmo, W and Kalmar, K and Giacino, JT and Harley, JP and Laatsch, L and Morse, PA and Catanese, J},
      title = {Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Updated review of the literature from 1998 through 2002},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {86},
      number = {8},
      pages = {1681-1692},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.apmr.2005.03.024}}
    }
    
    Clark, C., Prior, M. & Kinsella, G. The relationship between executive function abilities, adaptive behaviour, and academic achievement in children with externalising behaviour problems {2002} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {43}({6}), pp. {785-796} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Specific domains of adaptive behaviours and academic achievement may, in part, depend on executive function capacities. Executive function deficits have been found to be associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), not Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder (ODD/CD). Method: Using a sample of 110 adolescents, comprising four groups, ADHD only, co-morbid ADHD and ODD/CD, ODD/CD only, and a normal community control group, we assessed socialisation and communication skills with the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, along with reading ability, and executive functioning. Results: Poorer adaptive communication skills were specifically associated with ADHD when compared with either ODD/CD or the control group, and the social competence of adolescents with ADHD was as low as the levels associated with ODD/CD. Presence of ADHD was associated with lower word recognition scores, while the reading levels of adolescents with ODD/CD were equivalent to those without behaviour problems. Executive function test scores correlated with all adaptive behaviour outcomes. Multiple regression analyses indicated that verbal ability predicted communication and reading scores, with executive function abilities contributing significant variance to the prediction in the adaptive behaviour, communication, and socialisation domains. Conclusions: Further research with other samples, both community and clinical groups, is needed to assess the generalisability of the findings. Small numbers of girls in the groups gave us insufficient power to adequately address potential gender differences.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Clark2002a,
      author = {Clark, C and Prior, M and Kinsella, G},
      title = {The relationship between executive function abilities, adaptive behaviour, and academic achievement in children with externalising behaviour problems},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {43},
      number = {6},
      pages = {785-796}
    }
    
    Clark, L., Iversen, S. & Goodwin, G. Sustained attention deficit in bipolar disorder {2002} BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {180}, pp. {313-319} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background Recovery in bipolar disorder is central to its definition but is rarely complete. Previous work has suggested that neuropsychological impairment persists during the euthymic state but has been confounded partly by mild affective symptoms in remitted patients. Aims To characterise neuropsychological functioning in the euthymic phase of bipolar disorder with an emphasis on tasks of executive functioning. Method Thirty euthymic patients with bipolar disorder were compared with thirty healthy controls on neuropsychological tasks differentially sensitive to damage within prefrontal cortex. Results Bipolar 1 patients were impaired on tasks of attentional set shifting, verbal memory and sustained attention. Only sustained attention deficit survived controlling for mild affective symptoms. This deficit was related to progression of illness, but was none the less present in a subgroup of patients near illness onset. Conclusions Sustained attention deficit may represent a neuropsychological vulnerability marker for bipolar disorder, providing a focus for further understanding of the phenotype and analysis of the neuronal networks involved. Declaration of interest None.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Clark2002,
      author = {Clark, L and Iversen, SD and Goodwin, GM},
      title = {Sustained attention deficit in bipolar disorder},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {180},
      pages = {313-319},
      note = {29th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Neuroscience, MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA, OCT 23-28, 1999}
    }
    
    Clark, L., Iversen, S. & Goodwin, G. A neuropsychological investigation of prefrontal cortex involvement in acute mania {2001} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {158}({10}), pp. {1605-1611} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: Mania has received little attention from a contemporary neuropsychological perspective despite its clear resemblance to the disinhibition syndrome sometimes seen after frontal brain injury, particularly injury to the inferior aspect of the prefrontal cortex. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the neuropsychological profile of severe acute mania by using a range of tasks selected primarily for the detection of localized neural disruption within the prefrontal cortex. Method: Fifteen acutely manic inpatients were compared with 30 nonpsychiatric subjects on tasks from the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (Tower of London, spatial working memory, intradimensional-extradimensionaI attentional shift, and rapid visual information processing tasks) and on the Iowa Gambling Task, Stroop Color and Word Test, a verbal fluency task, and the California Verbal Learning Test. Results: Discriminant function analysis identified deficits in sustained attention (on the rapid visual information processing task) and verbal learning (on the California Verbal Learning Test) as the best indicators of manic performance, rather than deficits on any of the tests of executive functioning. The model correctly classified 91% of subjects overall and 87% of manic subjects. Manic patients did not resemble patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage in their performance on the Iowa Gambling Task. Conclusions: Acute mania is characterized by core deficits in verbal memory and sustained attention against a background of milder impairments in functions that are traditional measures of prefrontal cortex integrity (attentional set shifting, planning, working memory). The data do not implicate ventral prefrontal cortex disruption as a locus of pathology in acute mania. Verbal memory and sustained attention deficits may relate differentially to the state and trait characteristics of bipolar disorder.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Clark2001,
      author = {Clark, L and Iversen, SD and Goodwin, GM},
      title = {A neuropsychological investigation of prefrontal cortex involvement in acute mania},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {158},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1605-1611}
    }
    
    Cohen, R., Boland, R., Paul, R., Tashima, K., Schoenbaum, E., Celentano, D., Schuman, P., Smith, D. & Carpenter, C. Neurocognitive performance enhanced by highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women {2001} AIDS
    Vol. {15}({3}), pp. {341-345} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To determine whether highly active retroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with better neurocognitive outcome overtime among HIV-infected women with severely impaired immune function. Methods: A semiannual neurocognitive examination on four tasks was administered: Color Trail Making, Controlled Oral Word Association, Grooved Pegboard and Four-Word Learning. This protocol was initiated in the HIV Epidemiological Research study (HERS) study when a woman's CD4 cell count fell to < 100 x 10(6) cells/l. Immune function (CD4), viral load status and depression severity (CESD) were also assessed semi-annually, along with an interview to determine medication intake and illicit drug use. Results: HAART was not available to any participant at the rime of enrollment (baseline), while 44% reported taking HAART at their most recent visit (mean duration of HAART 36.3 +/- 12.6 months). HAART-treated women had improved neurocognitive performance compared with those not treated with HAART. Women taking HAART for 18 months or more showed the strongest neurocognitive performance with improved verbal fluency psychomotor and executive functions. These functions worsened among women not taking HAART. Substance abuse status, severity of depressive symptoms, age and educational revel did not influence the HAART treatment effects on neurocognitive performance. Neurocognitive improvements were strongly associated with the magnitude of CD4 cell count increases. Conclusions: HAART appeared to produce beneficial effect on neurocognitive functioning in HIV-infected women with severely impaired immune systems. Benefits were greatest for women who reported receiving HAART for more than 18 months. (C) 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cohen2001,
      author = {Cohen, RA and Boland, R and Paul, R and Tashima, KT and Schoenbaum, EE and Celentano, DD and Schuman, P and Smith, DK and Carpenter, CCJ},
      title = {Neurocognitive performance enhanced by highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women},
      journal = {AIDS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {15},
      number = {3},
      pages = {341-345}
    }
    
    Collette, F., Hogge, M., Salmon, E. & Van der Linden, M. Exploration of the neural substrates of executive functioning by functional neuroimaging {2006} NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {139}({1}), pp. {209-221} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This review presents neuroimaging studies that have explored the cerebral substrates of executive functioning. These studies have demonstrated that different executive functions not only recruit various frontal areas but also depend upon posterior (mainly parietal) regions. These results are in accordance with the hypothesis that executive functioning relies on a distributed cerebral network that is not restricted to anterior cerebral areas. However, there exists an important heterogeneity in the cerebral areas associated with these different processes, and also between different tasks assessing the same process. Since these discrepant results could be due to the paradigms used (subtraction designs), recent results obtained with conjunction and interaction analyses are presented, which confirm the role of parietal areas in executive functioning and also demonstrate the existence of some specificity in the neural substrates of the executive processes of updating, shifting and inhibition. Finally, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies show that the activity in cerebral areas involved in executive tasks can be transient or sustained. Consequently, to better characterize the functional role of areas associated with executive functioning, it is important to take into account not only the localization of cerebral activity but also the temporal pattern of this activity. (C) 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Collette2006,
      author = {Collette, F and Hogge, M and Salmon, E and Van der Linden, M},
      title = {Exploration of the neural substrates of executive functioning by functional neuroimaging},
      journal = {NEUROSCIENCE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {139},
      number = {1},
      pages = {209-221},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.05.035}}
    }
    
    Collette, F. & Van der Linden, M. Brain imaging of the central executive component of working memory {2002} NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS
    Vol. {26}({2}), pp. {105-125} 
    article  
    Abstract: This review presents neuroimaging studies which have explored the cerebral substrates of the central executive component of the working memory model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch [working memory (1986); Recent advances in learning and motivation (1974)]. These studies have demonstrated that different executive functions (manipulating and updating of information, dual-task coordination, inhibition and shifting processes) not only recruit various frontal areas, but also depend upon posterior (mainly parietal) regions. Such results are in agreement with the hypothesis that executive functions rely on a distributed cerebral network not restricted to anterior cerebral areas. Moreover, the intervention of similar prefrontal regions in a large number of executive tasks suggests that the central executive functioning must be understood in terms of different interactions between a network of regions rather than in terms of a specific association between one region and one higher-level cognitive process. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Collette2002,
      author = {Collette, F and Van der Linden, M},
      title = {Brain imaging of the central executive component of working memory},
      journal = {NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {26},
      number = {2},
      pages = {105-125}
    }
    
    Collette, F., Van der Linden, M., Bechet, S. & Salmon, E. Phonological loop and central executive functioning in Alzheimer's disease {1999} NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA
    Vol. {37}({8}), pp. {905-918} 
    article  
    Abstract: The phonological loop and central executive functioning were examined in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in normal elderly subjects. AD patients showed abnormal functioning of the phonological loop and decreased performance on tasks assessing the central executive. However, when AD patients were separated into two groups on the basis of their span level, both groups showed deficits of the central executive but only patients with the lower span level presented a dysfunction of the phonological loop as well as impaired performance in tasks of phonological discrimination, articulation rate and speed of processing. These results are interpreted in terms of progression of the disease, with high-span level patients being less severely demented and displaying deficits only in higher-level cognitive functions (such as manipulation of information stored in working memory) whereas patients with a low span level have impairments encompassing a series of more basic processes. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Collette1999a,
      author = {Collette, F and Van der Linden, M and Bechet, S and Salmon, E},
      title = {Phonological loop and central executive functioning in Alzheimer's disease},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {37},
      number = {8},
      pages = {905-918}
    }
    
    Collette, F., Van der Linden, M., Laureys, S., Delfiore, G., Degueldre, C., Luxen, A. & Salmon, E. Exploring the unity and diversity of the neural substrates of executive functioning {2005} HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING
    Vol. {25}({4}), pp. {409-423} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Previous studies exploring the neural substrates of executive functioning used task-specific analyses, which might not be the most appropriate approach due to the difficulty of precisely isolating executive functions. Consequently, the aim of this study was to use positron emission tomography (PET) to reexamine by conjunction and interaction paradigms the cerebral areas associated with three executive processes (updating, shifting, and inhibition). Three conjunction analyses allowed us to isolate the cerebral areas common to tasks selected to tap into the same executive process. A global conjunction analysis demonstrated that foci of activation common to all tasks were observed in the right intraparietal sulcus, the left superior parietal gyrus, and at a lower statistical threshold, the left lateral prefrontal cortex. These regions thus seem to play a general role in executive functioning. The right intraparietal sulcus seems to play a role in selective attention to relevant stimuli and in suppression of irrelevant information. The left superior parietal region is involved in amodal switching/integration processes. One hypothesis regarding the functional role of the lateral prefrontal cortex is that monitoring and temporal organization of cognitive processes are necessary to carry out ongoing tasks. Finally, interaction analyses showed that specific prefrontal cerebral areas were associated with each executive process. The results of this neuro-imaging study are in agreement with cognitive studies demonstrating that executive functioning is characterized by both unity and diversity of processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Collette2005,
      author = {Collette, F and Van der Linden, M and Laureys, S and Delfiore, G and Degueldre, C and Luxen, A and Salmon, E},
      title = {Exploring the unity and diversity of the neural substrates of executive functioning},
      journal = {HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {25},
      number = {4},
      pages = {409-423},
      doi = {{10.1002/hbm.20118}}
    }
    
    Collette, F., Van der Linden, M. & Salmon, E. Executive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease {1999} CORTEX
    Vol. {35}({1}), pp. {57-72} 
    article  
    Abstract: Executive functioning was examined in 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 normal elderly subjects. The results showed that AD patients present lower performance compared to control subjects in all executive tasks, confirming that some executive deficits may be present in the first stages of the disease. A factorial analysis suggested that these deficits can be related to two domains of the executive functions: the inhibition abilities and the capacity to co-ordinate simultaneously storage and processing of information. Moreover, the performance on these factors is correlated to different anterior and posterior cortical areas.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Collette1999,
      author = {Collette, F and Van der Linden, M and Salmon, E},
      title = {Executive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease},
      journal = {CORTEX},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {35},
      number = {1},
      pages = {57-72}
    }
    
    Conklin, H., Curtis, C., Calkins, M. & Iacono, W. Working memory functioning in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree relatives: cognitive functioning shedding light on etiology {2005} NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA
    Vol. {43}({6}), pp. {930-942} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: There is accumulating evidence for involvement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. A primary function supported by the PFC is working memory (WM). Findings from WM studies in schizophrenia can provide insight into the nature of clinical symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with this disorder, as well as begin to suggest areas of underlying neuropathology. To date, studies have not adequately investigated different WM domains (e.g., verbal, spatial, or object) or processing requirements (e.g., maintenance, monitoring, or manipulation), shown to be associated with distinct patterns of neural activation, in schizophrenia patients and their well relatives. Accordingly, this study evaluated the performance of schizophrenia patients, their first-degree biological relatives, and nonpsychiatric controls on a comprehensive battery of WM tasks and investigated the association among WM deficits and schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. The findings indicate that schizophrenia patients are consistently impaired on WM tasks, irrespective of WM domain or processing requirements. In contrast, their unaffected relatives are only impaired on WM tasks with higher central executive processing requirements. This pattern of WM performance may further implicate DLPFC dysfunction in the liability for schizophrenia and has implications for future cognitive, genetic, and neurodevelopmental research. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Conklin2005,
      author = {Conklin, HA and Curtis, CE and Calkins, ME and Iacono, WG},
      title = {Working memory functioning in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree relatives: cognitive functioning shedding light on etiology},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {43},
      number = {6},
      pages = {930-942},
      note = {55th Annual Convention of the Society-of-Biological-Psychiatry, Chicago, IL, MAY 11-13, 2000},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2004.09.013}}
    }
    
    Connor, P., Sampson, P., Bookstein, F., Barr, H. & Streissguth, A. Direct and indirect effects of prenatal alcohol damage on executive function {2000} DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {18}({3}), pp. {331-354} 
    article  
    Abstract: Patients with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) often have difficulty functioning appropriately in everyday life and seem to employ poor problem-solving strategies. Tests of executive function are relevant for quantifying the functional deficits and underlying real-life problems associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. This study considers two pathways for the effects of prenatal alcohol on executive function: a direct effect and an indirect effect through prenatal alcohol's effect on IQ. We compared 30 men who had been diagnosed with FAS or FAE with young adults participating in a longitudinal prospective study (n = 419)and 15 control participants that comprised a comparison group. This study is unique in its analysis of the same battery of assessments of executive function in both a large low dose longitudinal study sample and a clinically diagnosed group. Participants were evaluated on 9 tests (including 58 scores) of executive function. For some but not all of the tests in this executive function battery, the decrement in the alcohol exposure group is greater than would be predicted from their IQ scores. We found that 3 of 6 Stroop scores, 2 of 4 Trails scores, 9 of 16 Wisconsin Card Sorting scores, 1 of 2 Ruffs Figural Fluency scores, and 2 of 4 Consonant Trigrams scores appear to be particularly sensitive to the direct effects of prenatal alcohol damage for patients with FAS and FAE. The findings suggest that these executive function tests would be particularly useful in clinical evaluations of persons suspected of fetal alcohol damage because they would not simply reflect deficits in IQ or facial stigmata.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Connor2000,
      author = {Connor, PD and Sampson, PD and Bookstein, FL and Barr, HM and Streissguth, AP},
      title = {Direct and indirect effects of prenatal alcohol damage on executive function},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {18},
      number = {3},
      pages = {331-354}
    }
    
    Cornish, K., Munir, F. & Cross, G. Differential impact of the FMR-1 full mutation on memory and attention functioning: A neuropsychological perspective {2001} JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {13}({1}), pp. {144-150} 
    article  
    Abstract: Memory and attention processing were examined in a group of 15 adult Fragile-X syndrome (FXS) males with Fragile-X mental retardation 1 (FMR-1) full mutation and compared to two control groups: a learning disabled (LD) control and a normal functioning control. Performance was assessed across a wide range of tasks including working memory, recognition memory. selective attention, sustained attention, and attentional switching. All three groups performed st a comparable level on recognition memory tasks, and the Fragile-X males and LD control group performed worse than the control group on tasks of working memory and sustained attention. On a task of executive function, the Fragile-X males demonstrated a significant deficit in comparison to the LD control group and the normal control group, but performed better than the LD control group and at a comparable level to the control group on tasks of selective attention. Molecular analyses of the lymphocyte DNA provided little evidence for a correlation between expansion size and performance on tasks of memory and attention, The findings from the present study are discussed in the context of functional neuroimaging and brain-behavior-molecular correlates.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cornish2001,
      author = {Cornish, KM and Munir, F and Cross, G},
      title = {Differential impact of the FMR-1 full mutation on memory and attention functioning: A neuropsychological perspective},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {144-150}
    }
    
    Correa, D., DeAngelis, L., Shi, W., Thaler, H., Glass, A. & Abrey, L. Cognitive functions in survivors of primary central nervous system lymphoma {2004} NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {62}({4}), pp. {548-555} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: The standard treatment for primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) involves high-dose methotrexate-based (MTX) chemotherapy and whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). This combined regimen prolongs patient survival, but also carries a substantial risk for delayed neurotoxicity particularly in the elderly. However, cognitive outcome evaluations have not been included in most clinical trials. Objective: To assess cognitive functioning and quality of life in PCNSL survivors treated either with WBRT MTX-based chemotherapy or chemotherapy alone. Methods: Twenty-eight PCNSL patients in disease remission received a post-treatment baseline neuropsychological evaluation, and a subset of patients were available for an 8-month follow-up evaluation. Assessment of quality of life and extent of white matter disease on MRI were also performed. Results: Patients displayed mild to moderate impairments across several cognitive domains. These were of sufficient severity to reduce quality of life in half of the patient sample. Comparisons according to treatment type revealed more pronounced cognitive impairment, particularly in the memory and attention/executive domains, among patients treated with WBRT +/- chemotherapy. Extent of white matter disease correlated with attention/executive, memory, and language impairment. Conclusions: PCNSL survivors treated with WBRT chemotherapy displayed more pronounced cognitive dysfunction than patients treated with MTX-based chemotherapy alone.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Correa2004,
      author = {Correa, DD and DeAngelis, LM and Shi, W and Thaler, H and Glass, A and Abrey, LE},
      title = {Cognitive functions in survivors of primary central nervous system lymphoma},
      journal = {NEUROLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {62},
      number = {4},
      pages = {548-555}
    }
    
    Crawford, F., Vanderploeg, R., Freeman, M., Singh, S., Waisman, M., Michaels, L., Abdullah, L., Warden, D., Lipsky, R., Salazar, A. & Mullan, M. APOE genotype influences acquisition and recall following traumatic brain injury {2002} NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {58}({7}), pp. {1115-1118} 
    article  
    Abstract: APOE has been demonstrated to influence traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcome. The relationship between APOE genotype and memory following TBI was examined in 110 participants in the Defense and Veterans' Head Injury Program. Memory performance was worse in those who had an APOE epsilon4 allele (n = 30) than those who did not (n = 80), whereas genotype groups did not differ on demographic or injury variables or on measures of executive functioning. These data support a specific role for the APOE protein in memory outcome following TBI, and suggest an APOE isoform-specific effect on neuronal repair processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Crawford2002,
      author = {Crawford, FC and Vanderploeg, RD and Freeman, MJ and Singh, S and Waisman, M and Michaels, L and Abdullah, L and Warden, D and Lipsky, R and Salazar, A and Mullan, MJ},
      title = {APOE genotype influences acquisition and recall following traumatic brain injury},
      journal = {NEUROLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {58},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1115-1118}
    }
    
    Cropley, V., Fujita, M., Innis, R. & Nathan, P. Molecular imaging of the dopaminergic system and its association with human cognitive function {2006} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {59}({10}), pp. {898-907} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Molecular imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has recently been used to examine dopamine (DA)Junction and its relationship with cognition in human subjects. This article will review PET and SPECT studies that have explored the relationship between cognitive processes and components of the DA system (pre-, intra-, and postsynaptic) in healthy and patient populations such as Parkinsons disease (PD), schizophrenia, Huntington's disease, and aging. it is demonstrated that DA activity modulates a range of frontal executive-type cognitive processes such as working memory, attentional functioning, and sequential organization, and alterations of DA within the fronto-striato-thalamic circuits might contribute to the cognitive impairments observed in PD, schizophrenia, and normal aging. Although associations between DA and cognitive measures need to be considered within the context of fronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, it is suggested that striatal (especially caudate) DA receptors, might be important for response inhibition, temporal organization of material, and motor activity, particularly via D-2 receptors might be important for response inhibition, temporal organization of material, and motor performance, whereas conical DA transmission via D-1 receptors might be important for maintaining and representing on-going behavior.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cropley2006,
      author = {Cropley, VL and Fujita, M and Innis, RB and Nathan, PJ},
      title = {Molecular imaging of the dopaminergic system and its association with human cognitive function},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {59},
      number = {10},
      pages = {898-907},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.03.004}}
    }
    
    Cuesta, M., Peralta, V. & Zarzuela, A. Effects of olanzapine and other antipsychotics on cognitive function in chronic schizophrenia: a longitudinal study {2001} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {48}({1}), pp. {17-28} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study aimed to determine the effect of olanzapine and other antipsychotic drugs on cognitive functions after 6 months of treatment. Baseline, 3 month and 6 month psychopathological and cognitive evaluations were made. Thirty-eight partially responsive outpatients with DSM-IV chronic schizophrenia diagnosis were included in the study. On the indication of their attending psychiatrists, 21 patients initiated treatment with olanzapine, and 17 remained on their previous treatment with other antipsychotic drugs. Cognitive assessments were blind to medication and psychopathological status. The olanzapine group presented a significantly greater improvement in negative symptomatology and verbal memory than the comparison group in repeated-measures of MANOVAs between baseline, 3 month and 6 month assessments. These differences remained statistically significant after covarying out gender, treatment with other atypical antipsychotics, biperidene doses and changes in positive and negative symptoms. In order to match previous differences between groups, cognitive baseline scores for each test were introduced as covariates, resulting in a significant improvement for the olanzapine group in negative symptomatology and the interference task of the Stroop test. We then re-analyzed the data, dividing the comparison group into two groups: risperidone-heated patients (n = 9) and patients receiving conventional antipsychotic drugs (n = 8). Post-hoc analyses between groups were carried out with baseline cognitive assessment as covariate. The olanzapine group improved significantly more than the risperidone group in negative symptomatology and in the interference task of Stroop test. The improvement in the number of categories of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test was higher in risperidone patients than in those receiving olanzapine or conventional antipsychotic treatment. Conventional antipsychotic drugs did not present a significant improvement over atypical antipsychotic drugs in any cognitive function. In summary, in patients suffering from chronic schizophrenia, atypical antipsychotic agents were associated with slight differential improvements over time in attentional, verbal memory and executive functions compared with conventional neuroleptic drugs. No differential improvements were found in social functioning, verbal fluency, non-verbal domains of memory or visuo-motor abilities. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cuesta2001,
      author = {Cuesta, MJ and Peralta, V and Zarzuela, A},
      title = {Effects of olanzapine and other antipsychotics on cognitive function in chronic schizophrenia: a longitudinal study},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {48},
      number = {1},
      pages = {17-28}
    }
    
    Daban, C., Martinez-Aran, A., Torrent, C., Tabares-Seisdedos, R., Balanza-Martinez, V., Salazar-Fraile, J., Selva-Vera, G. & Vieta, E. Specificity of cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder versus schizophrenia - A systematic review {2006} PSYCHOTHERAPY AND PSYCHOSOMATICS
    Vol. {75}({2}), pp. {72-84} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background: More and more epidemiological, genetic and neuroimaging studies show similarities between bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Cognitive functions are known to be highly impaired in SZ and are increasingly studied in BD. When both populations are compared, the conclusions appear to be contradictory. The purpose of this review is to help define the profile of cognitive deficits in BD and in SZ. Methods: A systematic review of the literature of neuropsychological studies comparing BD and SZ was made, beginning in January 1990 and ending in January 2005. Thirty-eight studies met the required quality criteria and were included in this review. Results: Bipolar patients exhibit extensive cognitive abnormalities with a pattern of deficits that is not unique to this disease. However, when compared to schizophrenic patients, bipolar patients demonstrate a lesser degree of deficits, particularly concerning premorbid and current intelligence quotient and perhaps attention, verbal memory and executive functions. When looking into effect sizes, there seem to be different profiles even in studies finding no significant differences. Conclusions: The neuropsychological differences reported between both groups could be due to the presence of psychotic features, to environmental factors (stressful events, duration of the disease and number of hospitalisations) and could also be related to differences during the neurodevelopmental phase. Further studies should confirm whether these results are truly related to different neurobiological backgrounds. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Daban2006,
      author = {Daban, C and Martinez-Aran, A and Torrent, C and Tabares-Seisdedos, R and Balanza-Martinez, V and Salazar-Fraile, JS and Selva-Vera, G and Vieta, E},
      title = {Specificity of cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder versus schizophrenia - A systematic review},
      journal = {PSYCHOTHERAPY AND PSYCHOSOMATICS},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {75},
      number = {2},
      pages = {72-84},
      doi = {{10.1159/000090891}}
    }
    
    Damoiseaux, J.S., Beckmann, C.F., Arigita, E.J.S., Barkhof, F., Scheltens, P., Stam, C.J., Smith, S.M. & Rombouts, S.A.R.B. Reduced resting-state brain activity in the ``default network'' in normal aging {2008} CEREBRAL CORTEX
    Vol. {18}({8}), pp. {1856-1864} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Normal aging is associated with cognitive decline. Functions such as attention, information processing, and working memory are compromised. It has been hypothesized that not only regional changes, but also alterations in the integration of regional brain activity (functional brain connectivity) underlie the observed age-related deficits. Here, we examined the functional properties of brain networks based on spontaneous fluctuations within brain systems using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We hypothesized that functional connectivity of intrinsic brain activity in the ``default-mode'' network (DMN) is affected by normal aging and that this relates to cognitive function. Ten younger and 22 older subjects were scanned at ``rest,'' that is, lying awake with eyes closed. Our results show decreased activity in older versus younger subjects in 2 resting-state networks (RSNs) resembling the previously described DMN, containing the superior and middle frontal gyrus, posterior cingulate, middle temporal gyrus, and the superior parietal region. These results remain significant after correction for RSN-specific gray matter volume. The relevance of these findings is illustrated by the correlation between reduced activity of one of these RSNs and less effective executive functioning/processing speed in the older group.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Damoiseaux2008,
      author = {Damoiseaux, J. S. and Beckmann, C. F. and Arigita, E. J. Sanz and Barkhof, F. and Scheltens, Ph. and Stam, C. J. and Smith, S. M. and Rombouts, S. A. R. B.},
      title = {Reduced resting-state brain activity in the ``default network'' in normal aging},
      journal = {CEREBRAL CORTEX},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {18},
      number = {8},
      pages = {1856-1864},
      doi = {{10.1093/cercor/bhm207}}
    }
    
    Damoiseaux, J.S., Rombouts, S.A.R.B., Barkhof, F., Scheltens, P., Stam, C.J., Smith, S.M. & Beckmann, C.F. Consistent resting-state networks across healthy subjects {2006} PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
    Vol. {103}({37}), pp. {13848-13853} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Functional MRI (fMRI) can be applied to study the functional connectivity of the human brain. It has been suggested that fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal during rest reflect the neuronal baseline activity of the brain, representing the state of the human brain in the absence of goal-directed neuronal action and external input, and that these slow fluctuations correspond to functionally relevant resting-state networks. Several studies on resting fMRI have been conducted, reporting an apparent similarity between the identified patterns. The spatial consistency of these resting patterns, however, has not yet been evaluated and quantified. In this study, we apply a data analysis approach called tensor probabilistic independent component analysis to resting-state fMRI data to find coherencies that are consistent across subjects and sessions. We characterize and quantify the consistency of these effects by using a bootstrapping approach, and we estimate the BOLD amplitude modulation as well as the voxel-wise cross-subject variation. The analysis found 10 patterns with potential functional relevance, consisting of regions known to be involved in motor function, visual processing, executive functioning, auditory processing, memory, and the so-called default-mode network, each with BOLD signal changes up to 3 In general, areas with a high mean percentage BOLD signal are consistent and show the least variation around the mean. These findings show that the baseline activity of the brain is consistent across subjects exhibiting significant temporal dynamics, with percentage BOLD signal change comparable with the signal changes found in task-related experiments.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Damoiseaux2006,
      author = {Damoiseaux, J. S. and Rombouts, S. A. R. B. and Barkhof, F. and Scheltens, P. and Stam, C. J. and Smith, S. M. and Beckmann, C. F.},
      title = {Consistent resting-state networks across healthy subjects},
      journal = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {103},
      number = {37},
      pages = {13848-13853},
      doi = {{10.1073/pnas.0601417103}}
    }
    
    DAWSON, G., HEYES, C. & IVERSEN, S. PHARMACOLOGICAL MECHANISMS AND ANIMAL-MODELS OF COGNITION {1992} BEHAVIOURAL PHARMACOLOGY
    Vol. {3}({4}), pp. {285-297} 
    article  
    Abstract: Requirements for an effective animal model of cognition are discussed with special reference to the cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease. It is argued, with reference to research on vasopressin and ACE inhibitors, that many putative animal models of cognition lack predictive clinical validity because they either confound the effects of cognitive and arousal processes, or fail to model a specific component of cognitive functioning. A survey of recent research on the cholinergic hypothesis illustrates how these weaknesses can be overcome. Studies involving scopolamine and basal forebrain excitatory amino acid lesion models of the cholinergic deficit in Alzheimer's disease have employed a delayed-matching-to-position test in rodents which, unlike passive avoidance, allows the effects of memory and attentional variables to be distinguished. In combination with recent human studies, these experiments suggest that the cholinergic system has a major role in executive control of attentional resources, and lead to the recommendation of a `top down' strategy in the investigation of neurochemical processes and pharmacological mechanisms underlying cognition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DAWSON1992,
      author = {DAWSON, GR and HEYES, CM and IVERSEN, SD},
      title = {PHARMACOLOGICAL MECHANISMS AND ANIMAL-MODELS OF COGNITION},
      journal = {BEHAVIOURAL PHARMACOLOGY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {3},
      number = {4},
      pages = {285-297}
    }
    
    DeBaun, M., Schatz, J., Siegel, M., Koby, M., Craft, S., Resar, L., Chu, J., Launius, G., Dadash-Zadeh, M., Lee, R. & Noetzel, M. Cognitive screening examinations for silent cerebral infarcts in sickle cell disease {1998} NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {50}({6}), pp. {1678-1682} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: In children with sickle cell disease (SCD), silent cerebral infarcts are the most frequent cause of neurologic injury. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of selective neurocognitive measures when separating children with silent cerebral infarcts and SCD from sibling controls. Additionally, we tested the validity of the same cognitive measures to identify patients with overt strokes. Methods: We examined performance on a neuropsychologic battery containing measures of attention/executive, spatial, language, memory, and motor functioning for seven children with SCD and silent cerebral infarct, 21 children with SCD and overt stroke, and 17 normal siblings. Diagnosis of cerebral infarct was based on results of MRI. Results: Measures from the attention and executive domains were the most useful for identifying children with silent cerebral infarct. The Test of Variables of Attention was the most robust measure and yielded a sensitivity rate of 86% and a specificity rate of 81 This measure also showed a sensitivity rate of 95% in identifying overt stroke. Conclusions: Brief cognitive screening measures, if properly constructed, may be an effective means of identifying children with silent cerebral infarct. Future prospective studies should be pursued to assess the utility of cognitive screening for silent cerebral infarcts in SCD.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DeBaun1998,
      author = {DeBaun, MR and Schatz, J and Siegel, MJ and Koby, M and Craft, S and Resar, L and Chu, JY and Launius, G and Dadash-Zadeh, M and Lee, RB and Noetzel, M},
      title = {Cognitive screening examinations for silent cerebral infarcts in sickle cell disease},
      journal = {NEUROLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {50},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1678-1682}
    }
    
    Decary, A., Rouleau, I. & Montplaisir, J. Cognitive deficits associated with sleep apnea syndrome: A proposed neuropsychological test battery {2000} SLEEP
    Vol. {23}({3}), pp. {369-381} 
    article  
    Abstract: Numerous studies have assessed a wide range of cognitive deficits associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), The comparison of these various results, however, is hampered by the fact that different studies employ different neuropsychological tests, even when assessing the same function, The aim of this paper is to present a standardized neuropsychological test battery for the evaluation of OSAS patients. Following a description of the general characteristics of OSAS, we review the main cognitive functions reported as being impaired in OSAS patients. These include general intellectual functioning, attentional functioning, memory and learning abilities, executive functions, and motor performance. Based on this review, we propose a test battery designed to cover these cognitive processes while taking into account the time constraints present in most research and clinical centers. In addition to providing a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation of OSAS patients, the proposed test battery should facilitate the comparison of results from different laboratories.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Decary2000,
      author = {Decary, A and Rouleau, I and Montplaisir, J},
      title = {Cognitive deficits associated with sleep apnea syndrome: A proposed neuropsychological test battery},
      journal = {SLEEP},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {23},
      number = {3},
      pages = {369-381}
    }
    
    Deckersbach, T., Otto, M., Savage, C., Baer, L. & Jenike, M. The relationship between semantic organization and memory in obsessive-compulsive disorder {2000} PSYCHOTHERAPY AND PSYCHOSOMATICS
    Vol. {69}({2}), pp. {101-107} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: A variety of evidence suggests that frontostriatal dysfunction is involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), This evidence includes both neuroimaging findings and results from studies using neuropsychological assessments, Previous studies have documented nonverbal memory deficits in individuals with OCD, whereas verbal learning and memory were less affected, Methods: The present study examined both verbal and nonverbal memory in a sample of 17 untreated outpatients with OCD, We also evaluated the effects of encoding strategies which are believed to be mediated by frontostriatal system functioning, Results: OCD patients were significantly impaired in both verbal and nonverbal memory performance, This deficit was correlated with impairments in organizational and semantic clustering strategies at the time of encoding, Conclusions: Deficits in organizational strategies are consistent with frontostriatal dysfunction models in OCD, Copyright (C) 2000 S. Karger AG. Basel.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Deckersbach2000,
      author = {Deckersbach, T and Otto, MW and Savage, CR and Baer, L and Jenike, MA},
      title = {The relationship between semantic organization and memory in obsessive-compulsive disorder},
      journal = {PSYCHOTHERAPY AND PSYCHOSOMATICS},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {69},
      number = {2},
      pages = {101-107}
    }
    
    Deckersbach, T., Savage, C., Reilly-Harrington, N., Clark, L., Sachs, G. & Rauch, S. Episodic memory impairment in bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: the role of memory strategies {2004} BIPOLAR DISORDERS
    Vol. {6}({3}), pp. {233-244} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: There is evidence that individuals with bipolar disorder exhibit neuropsychological impairments not only during mood episodes but also when they are euthymic. One of the most consistently reported cognitive problems in euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder is an impairment in verbal episodic memory. Verbal learning and memory depend on individuals' ability to organize verbal information appropriately during learning. The purpose of the present Study was (i) to determine whether episodic memory impairment in euthymic individuals with bipolar disorder is mediated by impairments in organization of verbal information during learning and (ii) to compare the characteristics of memory impairment in bipolar disorder with that previously found in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods: Study participants were 30 individuals with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder (BP-I), 30 individuals with DSM-IV OCD and 30 normal control participants matched for age, gender and education. Participants completed the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), a well-established measure of verbal learning and memory that enables assessment of verbal organization strategies during learning. Results: Compared with control subjects, both BP-I and OCD participants showed impaired performance in long-delayed free recall and verbal organization strategies during learning. BP-I participants showed greater long-delay free recall difficulties but not greater verbal organization difficulties during learning than OCD participants. For OCD participants, the long-delay recall impairment was mediated by difficulties using verbal organizational strategies during learning. In contrast, the group difference in long-delayed free recall between BP-I and control participants remained significant even when semantic clustering was introduced as a mediator. This indicated that BP-I participants' long-delayed free recall difficulties were mediated to a lesser extent by difficulties using verbal organizational strategies than for OCD participants. Conclusions: Verbal episodic memory problems in individuals with bipolar I disorder and OCD are mediated to different degrees by difficulties using semantic clustering encoding strategies compared with control participants.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Deckersbach2004,
      author = {Deckersbach, T and Savage, CR and Reilly-Harrington, N and Clark, L and Sachs, G and Rauch, SL},
      title = {Episodic memory impairment in bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: the role of memory strategies},
      journal = {BIPOLAR DISORDERS},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {233-244}
    }
    
    Degl'Innocenti, A., Agren, H. & Backman, L. Executive deficits in major depression {1998} ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA
    Vol. {97}({3}), pp. {182-188} 
    article  
    Abstract: Clinically depressed patients and control subjects were examined by means of different tests to assess executive functions (the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Stroop Color Word Test and a test of verbal fluency). The results indicate that the depressed patients were generally slower than the controls, as reflected by longer retrieval times for both words and colours. Furthermore, the depressed patients showed impairment with regard to altering behaviour appropriately in response to feedback. However, there were no depression-related increases in perseverative responses, and the ability to inhibit irrelevant information was unaffected by depression. No relationship was found between specific depressive symptoms or the severity of depression and cognitive performance. The overall pattern of results suggests that depression may affect various executive functions in a differentiated manner.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Degl'Innocenti1998,
      author = {Degl'Innocenti, A and Agren, H and Backman, L},
      title = {Executive deficits in major depression},
      journal = {ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {97},
      number = {3},
      pages = {182-188}
    }
    
    DeLisi, L., Maurizio, A., Svetina, C., Ardekani, B., Szulc, K., Nierenberg, J., Leonard, J. & Harvey, P. Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) as a genetic model for psychotic disorders {2005} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS PART B-NEUROPSYCHIATRIC GENETICS
    Vol. {135B}({1}), pp. {15-23} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Males with an extra-X chromosome (Klinefelter's syndrome) frequently, although not always, have an increased prevalence of psychiatric disturbances that range from attention deficit disorder in childhood to schizophrenia or severe affective disorders during adulthood. In addition, they frequently have characteristic verbal deficits. Thus, examining brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of these individuals may yield clues to the influence of X chromosome genes on brain structural variation corresponding to psychiatric and cognitive disorders. Eleven adult XXY and II age matched XY male controls were examined with a structured psychiatric interview, battery of cognitive tests, and an MRI scan. Ten of eleven of the XXY men had some form of psychiatric disturbance, four of whom had auditory hallucinations compared with none of the XY controls. Significantly smaller frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and superior temporal gyrus (STG) cortical volumes were observed bilaterally in the XXY men. In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of white matter integrity resulted in four regions of reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in XXY men compared with controls, three in the left hemisphere, and one on the right. These correspond to the left posterior limb of the internal capsule, bilateral anterior cingulate, and left arcuate bundle. Specific cognitive deficits in executive functioning attributable to frontal lobe integrity and verbal comprehension were noted. Thus, excess expression of one or more X chromosome genes influences both gray and white matter development in frontal and temporal lobes, as well as white matter tracts leading to them, and may in this way contribute to the executive and language deficits observed in these adults. Future prospective studies are needed to determine which gene or genes are involved and whether their expression could be modified with appropriate treatments early in life. Brain expressed genes that are known to escape inactivation on extra-X chromosomes would be prime candidates. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DeLisi2005,
      author = {DeLisi, LE and Maurizio, AM and Svetina, C and Ardekani, B and Szulc, K and Nierenberg, J and Leonard, J and Harvey, PD},
      title = {Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) as a genetic model for psychotic disorders},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS PART B-NEUROPSYCHIATRIC GENETICS},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {135B},
      number = {1},
      pages = {15-23},
      doi = {{10.1002/ajmg.b.30163}}
    }
    
    Demakis, G. Frontal lobe damage and tests of executive processing: A meta-analysis of the category test, stroop test, and trail-making test {2004} JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {26}({3}), pp. {441-450} 
    article  
    Abstract: The Category Test, Trails B, and the interference task of the Stroop Test are among the most commonly administered measures of frontal lobe functioning and are thought to tap different cognitive functions mediated by these brain regions. Two meta-analyses were conducted on these tests to determine their sensitivity to frontal and lateralized frontal brain damage. Study 1 compared participants with frontal lobe damage to those with damage to posterior brain regions, whereas Study 2 compared participants with left and right frontal lobe damage. For each study, effect sizes based on performance differences between the above groups were calculated for the Category Test, Trail-Making Test Parts A and B, and the Stroop Test, including Word, Color, and Color-Word subtests. In Study 1 significant differences between groups were found for Trails A and all Stroop tasks, but in Study 2 the only difference between left and right frontal participants was on the Stroop Color-Word task. Potential reasons why Trails A and the Stroop Test are sensitive to frontal lobe datnage are discussed, such as novelty and processing speed, as are clinical implications of these findings. The challenges of research on assessment of frontal lobe functioning are discussed and new developments in this area are highlighted.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Demakis2004,
      author = {Demakis, GJ},
      title = {Frontal lobe damage and tests of executive processing: A meta-analysis of the category test, stroop test, and trail-making test},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {26},
      number = {3},
      pages = {441-450}
    }
    
    DEMB, J., DESMOND, J., WAGNER, A., VAIDYA, C., GLOVER, G. & GABRIELI, J. SEMANTIC ENCODING AND RETRIEVAL IN THE LEFT INFERIOR PREFRONTAL CORTEX - A FUNCTIONAL MRI STUDY OF TASK-DIFFICULTY AND PROCESS SPECIFICITY {1995} JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {15}({9}), pp. {5870-5878} 
    article  
    Abstract: Prefrontal cortical function was examined during semantic encoding and repetition priming using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a noninvasive technique for localizing regional changes in blood oxygenation, a correlate of neural activity. Words studied in a semantic (deep) encoding condition were better remembered than words studied in both easier and more difficult nonsemantic (shallow) encoding conditions, with difficulty indexed by response time. The left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPC) (Brodmann's areas 45, 46, 47) showed increased activation during semantic encoding relative to nonsemantic encoding regardless of the relative difficulty of the nonsemantic encoding task. Therefore, LIPC activation appears to be related to semantic encoding and not task difficulty. Semantic encoding decisions are performed faster the second time words are presented. This represents semantic repetition priming, a facilitation in semantic processing for previously encoded words that is not dependent on intentional recollection. The same LIPC area activated during semantic encoding showed decreased activation during repeated semantic encoding relative to initial semantic encoding of the same words. This decrease in activation during repeated encoding was process specific; it occurred when words were semantically reprocessed but not when words were nonsemantically reprocessed. The results were apparent in both individual and averaged functional maps. These findings suggest that the LIPC is part of a semantic executive system that contributes to the on-line retrieval of semantic information.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DEMB1995,
      author = {DEMB, JB and DESMOND, JE and WAGNER, AD and VAIDYA, CJ and GLOVER, GH and GABRIELI, JDE},
      title = {SEMANTIC ENCODING AND RETRIEVAL IN THE LEFT INFERIOR PREFRONTAL CORTEX - A FUNCTIONAL MRI STUDY OF TASK-DIFFICULTY AND PROCESS SPECIFICITY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {15},
      number = {9},
      pages = {5870-5878}
    }
    
    Denburg, N., Tranel, D. & Bechara, A. The ability to decide advantageously declines prematurely in some normal older persons {2005} NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA
    Vol. {43}({7}), pp. {1099-1106} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The prefrontal region of the brain, including the ventromedial sector which supports reasoning and decision-making, may undergo disproportionate aging in some older persons, but the empirical evidence is decidedly mixed. To help resolve this, we tested 80 neurologically and psychiatrically healthy Younger (aged 26-55) and Older (aged 56-85) adults on a ``Gambling Task'', which provides a close analog to real-world decision-making by factoring in reward, punishment, and unpredictability, yielding a sensitive index of ventromedial prefrontal function. A subset of the Older group manifested a decision-making impairment on the Gambling Task, in spite of otherwise intact cognitive functioning. This finding raises the possibility of disproportionate aging of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in these individuals. Our finding has important societal and public policy implications (e.g., choosing medical care, allocating personal wealth), and may also help explain why many older individuals are targeted by and susceptible to fraudulent advertising. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Denburg2005,
      author = {Denburg, NL and Tranel, D and Bechara, A},
      title = {The ability to decide advantageously declines prematurely in some normal older persons},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {43},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1099-1106},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neurosychologia.2004.09.012}}
    }
    
    DEsposito, M. & Grossman, M. The physiological basis of executive function and working memory {1996} NEUROSCIENTIST
    Vol. {2}({6}), pp. {345-352} 
    article  
    Abstract: The term `'executive function'' has been used to capture the highest order of cognitive abilities, including the planning, flexibility, organization and regulation necessary for the execution of an appropriate behavior. Executive function, although an elusive cognitive domain, may be highly dependent on working memory, which refers to the temporary storage and manipulation of information. The physiology of working memory is beginning to be mapped in both monkey and human studies at the neuroanatomical and neurochemical levels. Working memory is likely subserved by a distributed network of brain regions in which the prefrontal cortex is critical, subserving the process of maintaining representations across time. There is also a relationship between dopaminergic projections in the brain and working memory. Improved understanding of the physiological basis of executive functioning and working memory will provide a narrower view of prefrontal cortical function and may lead to new therapies in patients with cognitive dysfunction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DEsposito1996,
      author = {DEsposito, M and Grossman, M},
      title = {The physiological basis of executive function and working memory},
      journal = {NEUROSCIENTIST},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {2},
      number = {6},
      pages = {345-352}
    }
    
    Dickinson, D., Ramsey, M.E. & Gold, J.M. Overlooking the obvious - A meta-analytic comparison of digit symbol coding tasks and other cognitive measures in schizophrenia {2007} ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {64}({5}), pp. {532-542} 
    article  
    Abstract: Context: In focusing on potentially localizable cognitive impairments, the schizophrenia meta-analytic literature has overlooked the largest single impairment: on digit symbol coding tasks. Objective: To compare the magnitude of the schizophrenia impairment on coding tasks with impairments on other traditional neuropsychological instruments. Data Sources: MEDLINE and PsycINFO electronic databases and reference lists from identified articles. Study Selection: English-language studies from 1990 to present, comparing performance of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls on coding tasks and cognitive measures representing at least 2 other cognitive domains. Of 182 studies identified, 40 met all criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Data Extraction: Means, standard deviations, and sample sizes were extracted for digit symbol coding and 36 other cognitive variables. In addition, we recorded potential clinical moderator variables, including chronicity/severity, medication status, age, and education, and potential study design moderators, including coding task variant, matching, and study publication date. Data Synthesis: Main analyses synthesized data from 37 studies comprising 1961 patients with schizophrenia and 1444 comparison subjects. Combination of mean effect sizes across studies by means of a random effects model yielded a weighted mean effect for digit symbol coding of g=-1.57 (95% confidence interval, -1.66 to -1.48). This effect compared with a grand mean effect of g=-0.98 and was significantly larger than effects for widely used measures of episodic memory, executive functioning, and working memory. Moderator variable analyses indicated that clinical and study design differences between studies had little effect on the coding task effect. Comparison with previous meta-analyses suggested that current results were representative of the broader literature. Subsidiary analysis of data from relatives of patients with schizophrenia also suggested prominent coding task impairments in this group. Conclusion: The 5-minute digit symbol coding task, reliable and easy to administer, taps an information processing inefficiency that is a central feature of the cognitive deficit in schizophrenia and deserves systematic investigation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dickinson2007,
      author = {Dickinson, Dwight and Ramsey, Mary E. and Gold, James M.},
      title = {Overlooking the obvious - A meta-analytic comparison of digit symbol coding tasks and other cognitive measures in schizophrenia},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {64},
      number = {5},
      pages = {532-542}
    }
    
    Doniger, G., Foxe, J., Murray, M., Higgins, B. & Javitt, D. Impaired visual object recognition and Dorsal/Ventral stream interaction in schizophrenia {2002} ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {59}({11}), pp. {1011-1020} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Schizophrenia is associated with well-documented deficits in high-order cognitive processes such as attention and executive functioning. The integrity of sensory-level processing, however, has been evaluated only to a limited degree. Our study evaluated the ability of patients with schizophrenia to recognize complete objects based on fragmentary information, a process termed perceptual closure. Perceptual closure processes are indexed by closure negativity (N-cl), a recently defined event-related potential (ERP) component that is generated within the visual association cortex. This study assessed the neural integrity of perceptual closure processes in schizophrenia by examining N-cl generation. Generation of the preceding positive (P1) and negative (N1) ERP components was also examined. Methods: We evaluated 16 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 16 healthy comparison subjects. Successively less fragmented images were presented during high-density ERP recording, which permitted the monitoring of brain activity during perceptual closure processes prior to object recognition. Analyses were performed at parieto-occipital and occipitotemporal sites consistent with dorsal and ventral stream generators of P1, N1, and N-cl. Results: Patients with schizophrenia showed significant impairment in the ability to recognize fragmented objects, along with impaired generation of N-cl The amplitude of visual P1 was significantly reduced, particularly over dorsal stream sites. In contrast, the generation of visual N1 was intact. Conclusions: Patients with schizophrenia are profoundly impaired in perceptual closure as indicated by both impaired performance and impaired N-cl generation. The selective impairment in dorsal stream P1 is consistent with prior reports of impaired magnocellular processing in schizophrenia. By contrast, intact ventral N1 generation suggests that the initial stages of ventral stream processing are relatively preserved and that impaired magnocellular dorsal stream functioning in schizophrenia may lead to secondary dysregulation of ventral stream object recognition processing.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Doniger2002,
      author = {Doniger, GM and Foxe, JJ and Murray, MM and Higgins, BA and Javitt, DC},
      title = {Impaired visual object recognition and Dorsal/Ventral stream interaction in schizophrenia},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {59},
      number = {11},
      pages = {1011-1020},
      note = {8th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive-Neuroscience-Society, NEW YORK, NEW YORK, MAR 26, 2001}
    }
    
    Dowsett, S. & Livesey, D. The development of inhibitory control in preschool children: Effects of ``executive skills'' training {2000} DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOBIOLOGY
    Vol. {36}({2}), pp. {161-174} 
    article  
    Abstract: As one of several processes involved in the executive functioning of the cognitive system, inhibitory control plays a significant role in determining how various mental processes work together in the successful performance of a task. Studies of response inhibition have shown that although 3-year-old children have the cognitive capacity to learn the rules required for response control, indicated by the correct verbal response, developmental constraints prevent them from withholding the correct response (Bell & Livesey, 1985 Livesey & Morgan, 1991). Some argue that these abulic dissociations are relative to children's ability to reflect on the rules required for response control (Zelazo, Reznick, & Pinon, 1995). The current study showed that repeated exposure to tasks facilitating the acquisition of increasingly complex rule structures could improve inhibitory control (as measured by a go/no-go discrimination learning task), even in children aged 3 years. These tasks included a variant of Diamond and Boyer's (1989) modified version of the Wisconsin Card Sort Task and a simplification of the change paradigm (Logan & Burkell, 1986). It is argued that experience with these tasks increased the acquisition of complex rules by placing demands on executive processes. This includes response control and other executive functions, such as representational flexibility, the ability to maintain information in working memory, the selective control of attention, and proficiency at error correction. The role of experiential variables in the development of inhibitory control is discussed in terms of the interaction between neural development and appropriate executive task Experience in the early years. (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dowsett2000,
      author = {Dowsett, SM and Livesey, DJ},
      title = {The development of inhibitory control in preschool children: Effects of ``executive skills'' training},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOBIOLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {36},
      number = {2},
      pages = {161-174}
    }
    
    Doyle, A., Wilens, T., Kwon, A., Seidman, L., Faraone, S., Fried, R., Swezey, A., Snyder, L. & Biederman, J. Neuropsychological functioning in youth with bipolar disorder {2005} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {58}({7}), pp. {540-548} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background: Little is known about the neuropychological status of youth with, bipolar disorder (BPD) or whether cognitive deficits in this population are accounted for by comorbidity with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We compared neuropsychological and academic functioning of youth with and without DSM-IV BPD, controlling for effects of comorbid ADHD. Methods: Fifty-seven youth with BPD and 46 healthy control subjects were assessed on a battery of clinical neuropsychological measures including subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children and Adults (Third Editions), the Stroop, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Ret-Osterreith Complex Figure, an auditory working memory Continuous Performance Test, a measure of verbal learning, and the Wide Range Achievement Test-Third Edition. Results: Bipolar disorder was associated with impairments on subtests reflecting sustained attention, working memory, and processing speed after controlling for ADHD. Additionally, decrements of moderate effect sizes were ound,for measures of interference control, abstract problem solving, and verbal learning but did not meet criteria for statistical significance. Conclusions: After controlling for ADHD, youth with BPD show neuropsychological deficits similar to impairments found in adults with the disorder. Further studies are needed to understand the clinical implications of these impairments as well as their role in the underlying risk for pediatric BPD.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Doyle2005,
      author = {Doyle, AE and Wilens, TE and Kwon, A and Seidman, LJ and Faraone, SV and Fried, R and Swezey, A and Snyder, L and Biederman, J},
      title = {Neuropsychological functioning in youth with bipolar disorder},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {58},
      number = {7},
      pages = {540-548},
      note = {Conference on Pediatric Bipolar Disorder, Boston, MA, APR 02-03, 2004},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.07.019}}
    }
    
    Duke, L. & Kaszniak, A. Executive control functions in degenerative dementias: A comparative review {2000} NEUROPSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {10}({2}), pp. {75-99} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper reviews the Literature concerning executive control impairments in degenerative dementias. The construct of executive control functioning is examined, as is the neuroanatomy of frontal-subcortical networks, believed to underlie executive function (EF) impairments. The pattern of EF impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD) which affects temporal and parietal brain regions most severely is contrasted with observed executive dysfunctions in patients with dementias involving degeneration of primarily frontal and frontal-subcortical brain areas. EF impairments are present in each of these types of dementing illnesses. Although EF impairments are present in AD, they are less prominent than the memory disorder in the neuropsychological profile of the disease and tend to become more pronounced later in the course of the illness. In contrast, patients with frontal or frontal-subcortical dementia may demonstrate executive dysfunction, which occurs earlier in the disease progression and may be initially more severe.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Duke2000,
      author = {Duke, LM and Kaszniak, AW},
      title = {Executive control functions in degenerative dementias: A comparative review},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {10},
      number = {2},
      pages = {75-99}
    }
    
    Dunkin, J., Leuchter, A., Cook, I., Kasl-Godley, J., Abrams, M. & Rosenberg-Thompson, S. Executive dysfunction predicts nonresponse to fluoxetine in major depression {2000} JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS
    Vol. {60}({1}), pp. {13-23} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Functional brain imaging studies of major depression have consistently revealed hypometabolism or hypoperfusion in specific regions of the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia. Studies of cognitive functioning in major depression have suggested that some bur not all subjects exhibit cognitive deficits that are consistent with frontal-subcortical dysfunction, although the reasons for this heterogeneity are unclear. In this study, we explored this heterogeneity among depressed subjects by examining the relationship between cognitive functioning and treatment outcome. Method: Subjects with major depression were administered a complete neuropsychological test battery prior to treatment with fluoxetine. Results: There were no significant differences between responders and nonresponders to fluoxetine in terms of age, educational achievement, number of past episodes of depression, and estimated premorbid IQ. However, nonresponders performed significantly worse than responders on several pretreatment measures of executive functioning, after controlling for baseline group differences in depression severity, Limitations: The results are based on a small sample of primarily female subjects, resulting in low statistical power and less generalizability to samples of male subjects with depression. Conclusions: The findings suggest that subtle prefrontal dysfunction in subjects with major depression may be predictive of pool response with particular medications. Assessment of the executive functions may play a particular role in pretreatment identification of subjects likely to respond to specific medications. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dunkin2000,
      author = {Dunkin, JJ and Leuchter, AF and Cook, IA and Kasl-Godley, JE and Abrams, M and Rosenberg-Thompson, S},
      title = {Executive dysfunction predicts nonresponse to fluoxetine in major depression},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {60},
      number = {1},
      pages = {13-23},
      note = {26th Annual Meeting of the International-Neuropsychological-Society, HONOLULU, HAWAII, FEB 04-05, 1998}
    }
    
    Eastvold, A.D., Heaton, R.K. & Cadenhead, K.S. Neurocognitive deficits in the (putative) prodrome and first episode of psychosis {2007} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {93}({1-3}), pp. {266-277} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Objective: International research programs have contributed to the creation of operationally defined criteria to identify individuals at risk for schizophrenia. Although there has been substantial progress in the prospective study of the schizophrenia prodrome, the utility of current diagnostic criteria remains questionable because of the relatively low base rates of incident psychoses, the high false-positive rate and ethical concerns regarding the treatment of individuals at risk. The identification of brain based neurocognitive vulnerability markers for schizophrenia may contribute to the development of an at risk algorithm with greater predictive accuracy. Methods: Forty subjects at risk (AR) for schizophrenia, 15 in their first episode (FE) of schizophrenia, and 36 healthy comparison (HC) subjects were administered a neurocognitive battery that assessed the domains of processing speed, working memory, verbal episodic memory, executive functioning and general intelligence. Results: At baseline, AR subjects showed neurocognitive deficits across all domains compared to HC subjects that were less severe than those observed in the FE sample. In preliminary analyses, AR subjects who later converted to psychosis (N=5) had greater neurocognitive impairment at baseline evaluation compared to those individuals who remained ``at risk'' at follow-up. Conclusions: Neurocognitive deficits may be important in the pathogenesis of early psychosis and could help to define individuals at greatest risk for schizophrenia. Continued research in larger cohorts is needed to test the validity of this neurocognitive profile and its utility as a vulnerability marker. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eastvold2007,
      author = {Eastvold, A. D. and Heaton, R. K. and Cadenhead, K. S.},
      title = {Neurocognitive deficits in the (putative) prodrome and first episode of psychosis},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {93},
      number = {1-3},
      pages = {266-277},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.schres.2007.03.013}}
    }
    
    Elderkin-Thompson, V., Kumar, A., Bilker, W., Dunkin, J., Mintz, J., Moberg, P., Mesholam, R. & Gur, R. Neuropsychological deficits among patients with late-onset minor and major depression {2003} ARCHIVES OF CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {18}({5}), pp. {529-549} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Cognitive ability of minor depressed patients (N = 28), major depressed patients (N = 26) and healthy elderly (N = 38) was examined cross-sectionally to determine if cognitive abilities of patients with late-onset depression decrease with increasing severity of disease and if cognitive scores for minor depressed patients fall between those of healthy elderly and major depressed patients. A pooled within-group principal component analysis of cognitive test scores identified five components, three of which showed significant group differences. Verbal Recall and Maintenance of Set separated controls from major depressed patients and minor from major depressed patients. Executive Functioning separated controls from minor depressed patients, and Working Memory was borderline for separating controls from major depressed patients. The component representing Nonverbal Recognition was not statistically significant. Partial correlations controlling for age and education indicate that cognitive performance does decrease as severity of depression increases, and the magnitude of the change varies from a trend to a significant deficit depending on the cognitive domain. This decline in cognitive performance parallels a similar trend observed in neuroanatomical studies in which the volume of the frontal and temporal lobes decrease with increasing severity of depression. (C) 2003 National Academy of Neuropsychology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Elderkin-Thompson2003,
      author = {Elderkin-Thompson, V and Kumar, A and Bilker, WB and Dunkin, JJ and Mintz, J and Moberg, PJ and Mesholam, RI and Gur, RE},
      title = {Neuropsychological deficits among patients with late-onset minor and major depression},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {18},
      number = {5},
      pages = {529-549},
      doi = {{10.1016/S0887-6177(03)00022-2}}
    }
    
    Eldreth, D., Matochik, J., Cadet, J. & Bolla, K. Abnormal brain activity in prefrontal brain regions in abstinent marijuana users {2004} NEUROIMAGE
    Vol. {23}({3}), pp. {914-920} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We used PET 150 and a modified version of the Stroop task to determine if 25-day abstinent heavy marijuana (MJ) users have persistent deficits in executive cognitive functioning (ECF) and brain activity. Performance on a modified version of the Stroop task and brain activity was compared between 25-day abstinent, heavy marijuana users (n = 11), and a matched comparison group (n = 11). The 25-day abstinent marijuana users showed no deficits in performance on the modified version of the Stroop task when compared to the comparison group. Despite the lack of performance differences, the marijuana users showed hypoactivity in the left perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the left lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and hyperactivity in the hippocampus bilaterally, when compared to the comparison group. These results suggest that marijuana users display persistent metabolic alterations in brain regions responsible for ECF. It may be that marijuana users recruit an alternative neural network as a compensatory mechanism during performance on a modified version of the Stroop task. These differences in brain activity may be a common denominator in the evolution of maladaptive behaviors such as substance abuse and other neuropsychiatric disorders. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eldreth2004,
      author = {Eldreth, DA and Matochik, JA and Cadet, JL and Bolla, KI},
      title = {Abnormal brain activity in prefrontal brain regions in abstinent marijuana users},
      journal = {NEUROIMAGE},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {23},
      number = {3},
      pages = {914-920},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.07.032}}
    }
    
    Elias, M., Elias, P., Sullivan, L., Wolf, P. & D'Agostino, R. Lower cognitive function in the presence of obesity and hypertension: the Framingham heart study {2003} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
    Vol. {27}({2}), pp. {260-268} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the independent effects of obesity and hypertension on cognitive functioning. METHODS: Using a prospective design, male (n = 551) and female (n = 872) participants of the Framingham Heart Study were classified by presence or absence of obesity and hypertension based on data collected over an 18-y surveillance period. All subjects were free from dementia, stroke, and clinically diagnosed cardiovascular disease up to the time of cognitive testing. Statistical models were adjusted for age, education, occupation, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, total cholesterol, and a diagnosis of type 11 diabetes. Body mass index status (nonobese or obese) and blood pressure status (normotensive or hypertensive) were then related to cognitive performance (learning, memory, executive functioning, and abstract reasoning) on tests administered 4-6 y later. RESULTS: Adverse effects of obesity and hypertension on cognitive performance were observed for men only. Obese and hypertensive men performed more poorly than men classified as either obese or hypertensive, and the best performance was observed in nonobese, normotensive men. CONCLUSIONS: The adverse effects of obesity and hypertension in men are independent and cumulative with respect to cognitive deficit.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Elias2003,
      author = {Elias, MF and Elias, PK and Sullivan, LM and Wolf, PA and D'Agostino, RB},
      title = {Lower cognitive function in the presence of obesity and hypertension: the Framingham heart study},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {27},
      number = {2},
      pages = {260-268},
      doi = {{10.1038/sj.ijo.802225}}
    }
    
    Elliott, R. Executive functions and their disorders {2003} BRITISH MEDICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {65}, pp. {49-59} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The term executive function defines complex cognitive processing requiring the co-ordination of several subprocesses to achieve a particular goal. Neuropsychological evidence suggests that executive processing is intimately connected with the intact function of the frontal cortices. Executive dysfunction has been associated with a range of disorders, and is generally attributed to structural or functional frontal pathology. Neuroimaging, with PET and fMRI, has confirmed the relationship; however, attempts to link specific aspects of executive functioning to discrete prefrontal foci have been inconclusive. Instead, the emerging view suggests that executive function is mediated by dynamic and flexible networks, that can be characterised using functional integration and effective connectivity analyses. This view is compatible with the clinical presentation of executive dysfunction associated with a range of pathologies, and also with evidence that recovery of executive function can occur after traumatic brain injury, perhaps due to functional reorganisation within executive networks.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Elliott2003,
      author = {Elliott, R},
      title = {Executive functions and their disorders},
      journal = {BRITISH MEDICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {65},
      pages = {49-59},
      doi = {{10.1093/bmb/ldg65.049}}
    }
    
    Ergh, T., Rapport, L., Coleman, R. & Hanks, R. Predictors of Caregiver and family functioning following traumatic brain injury: Social support moderates caregiver distress {2002} JOURNAL OF HEAD TRAUMA REHABILITATION
    Vol. {17}({2}), pp. {155-174} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: This study examined predictors of family dysfunction and caregiver distress among 60 pairs of persons who sustained a traumatic brain injury and their caregivers. Design: A cross-sectional design that used hierarchical multiple regression analyses evaluated the relative influences of time since injury, awareness of deficit, and neurobehavioral and neuropsychological functioning of the person with injury, and caregiver perceived social support. Results: The predictor model accounted for 52% of the variance in family dysfunction and 39% in caregiver psychological distress. Neurobehavioral disturbance in the person with injury was the strongest predictor of caregiver distress. Social support showed a direct and linear relationship to family functioning, and it was the strongest predictor of family functioning. Social support was a powerful moderator of caregiver psychological distress. In the absence of adequate social support, caregiver distress increased with longer time after injury, cognitive dysfunction, and unawareness of deficit in care recipients, whereas these characteristics were not associated with distress among caregivers with adequate social support. Conclusions: Rehabilitation professionals should stress the importance of caregivers and families of persons with TBI seeking and obtaining adequate social support.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ergh2002,
      author = {Ergh, TC and Rapport, LJ and Coleman, RD and Hanks, RA},
      title = {Predictors of Caregiver and family functioning following traumatic brain injury: Social support moderates caregiver distress},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF HEAD TRAUMA REHABILITATION},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {17},
      number = {2},
      pages = {155-174}
    }
    
    Erixon-Lindroth, N., Farde, L., Wahlin, T., Sovago, J., Halldin, C. & Backman, L. The role of the striatal dopamine transporter in cognitive aging {2005} PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH-NEUROIMAGING
    Vol. {138}({1}), pp. {1-12} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We examined the relationship of age-related losses of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) density to age-related deficits in episodic memory and executive functioning in a group of subjects (n=12) ranging from 34 to 81 years of age. The radioligand [C-11]beta-CIT-FE was used to determine DAT binding in caudate and putamen. Results showed clear age-related losses of striatal DAT binding from early to late adulthood, and a marked deterioration in episodic memory (word and figure recall, face recognition) and executive functioning (visual working memory, verbal fluency) with advancing age. Most importantly, the age-related cognitive deficits were mediated by reductions in DAT binding, whereas DAT binding added systematic cognitive variance after controlling for age. Further, interindividual differences in DAT binding were related to performance in a test of crystallized intelligence (the Information subtest from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised) that showed no reliable age variation. These results suggest that DAT binding is a powerful mediator of age-related cognitive changes as well as of cognitive functioning in general. The findings were discussed relative to the view that the frontostriatal network is critically involved in multiple cognitive functions. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Erixon-Lindroth2005,
      author = {Erixon-Lindroth, N and Farde, L and Wahlin, TBR and Sovago, J and Halldin, C and Backman, L},
      title = {The role of the striatal dopamine transporter in cognitive aging},
      journal = {PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH-NEUROIMAGING},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {138},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-12},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.pscychresns.2004.09.005}}
    }
    
    Espy, K., Kaufmann, P., McDiarmid, M. & Glisky, M. Executive functioning in preschool children: Performance on A-not-B and other delayed response format tasks {1999} BRAIN AND COGNITION
    Vol. {41}({2}), pp. {178-199} 
    article  
    Abstract: The A-not-B (AB) task has been hypothesized to measure executive/frontal lobe function; however, the developmental and measurement characteristics of this task have not been investigated. Performance on AB and comparison tasks adapted from developmental and neuroscience literature was examined in 117 preschool children (ages 23-66 months). Age significantly predicted performance on AB, Delayed Alternation. Spatial Reversal, Color Reversal, and Self-Control tasks. A four-factor analytic model best fit task performance data. AB task indices loaded on two factors with measures from the Self-Control and Delayed Alternation tasks, respectively. AB indices did not load with those from the reversal tasks despite similarities in task administration and presumed cognitive demand (working memory). These results indicate that AB is sensitive to individual differences in age-related performance in preschool children and suggest that AB performance is related to both working memory and inhibition processes in this age range. (C) 1999 Academic Press.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Espy1999,
      author = {Espy, KA and Kaufmann, PM and McDiarmid, MD and Glisky, ML},
      title = {Executive functioning in preschool children: Performance on A-not-B and other delayed response format tasks},
      journal = {BRAIN AND COGNITION},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {41},
      number = {2},
      pages = {178-199}
    }
    
    Evans, J., Bond, G., Meyer, P., Kim, H., Lysaker, P., Gibson, P. & Tunis, S. Cognitive and clinical predictors of success in vocational rehabilitation in schizophrenia {2004} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {70}({2-3}), pp. {331-342} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Cognitive impairments in schizophrenia appear to be associated with social problem solving, social and vocational functioning, and psychosocial skill acquisition. The present study examined the relationship of cognitive functioning, as well as clinical symptoms, to vocational outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia. One hundred and twelve participants with DSM-IV schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses underwent a comprehensive neuropsychiatric evaluation after enrolling in one of several employment programs. The neuropsychological evaluation examined verbal learning and memory, attention, speed of information processing, and executive functioning. Clinical symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Vocational outcomes were assessed 4 months after baseline assessment and included both measures of employment outcome (e.g., earnings) and of work performance as assessed by the Work Behavior Inventory (WBI). Negative symptoms, learning and memory performance, processing speed, and executive functioning were related to hours, weeks, and wages earned on the job. Stepwise multiple regression analyses found that among baseline clinical and cognitive predictors, only verbal learning and memory and cognitive disorganization symptoms were significant predictors of work behaviors 4 months later. Learning and memory were the only significant predictors of integrated employment at 4 months. These results suggest specific aspects of cognition may be modestly predictive of vocational outcomes. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Evans2004,
      author = {Evans, JD and Bond, GR and Meyer, PS and Kim, HW and Lysaker, PH and Gibson, PJ and Tunis, S},
      title = {Cognitive and clinical predictors of success in vocational rehabilitation in schizophrenia},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {70},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {331-342},
      note = {30th Annual Meeting of the International-Neuropsychological-Society, TORONTO, CANADA, FEB 13-16, 2002},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.schres.2004.01.011}}
    }
    
    Evans, J., Chua, S., McKenna, P. & Wilson, B. Assessment of the dysexecutive syndrome in schizophrenia {1997} PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE
    Vol. {27}({3}), pp. {635-646} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background. Cognitive neuropsychological theories hypothesize a role for frontal lobe executive deficits in the aetiology of schizophrenic symptoms. The study examined the performance of a schizophrenic group on the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS; Wilson Et al. 1996), a test battery which assesses the `everyday' difficulties associated with the dysexecutive syndrome. Performance of the schizophrenics was contrasted with that of brain injured and healthy volunteer groups. Methods. Matched groups of 31 schizophrenic patients, 35 patients with brain injuries and 26 healthy volunteers were administered the BADS. Patients were also given tests of general intelligence and memory. Patients and their relatives/carers also completed a questionnaire rating day-to-day failures of executive functioning. Results. Schizophrenic and brain-injured patients showed impairment on the BADS, compared to healthy controls. There were no significant differences between the two patient groups. Significant impairment was found in a subgroup of 16 schizophrenics who showed otherwise intact general intellectual functioning, suggesting the existence of a specific executive deficit. Among the schizophrenic patient group there was evidence of a dissociation between executive and memory impairments. A significant correlation existed between performance on the BADS and relatives ratings of executive problems for the brain injured group, but not for the schizophrenic group. Conclusions. The BADS is a useful tool for identifying executive deficits in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, especially those who are otherwise generally intellectually intact. This is particularly important in the context of rehabilitation and community transition programmes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Evans1997,
      author = {Evans, JJ and Chua, SE and McKenna, PJ and Wilson, BA},
      title = {Assessment of the dysexecutive syndrome in schizophrenia},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {27},
      number = {3},
      pages = {635-646}
    }
    
    Evans, J., Emslie, H. & Wilson, B. External cueing systems in the rehabilitation of executive impairments of action {1998} JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY
    Vol. {4}({4}), pp. {399-408} 
    article  
    Abstract: The use of a mnemonic cueing system (NeuroPage(R)) and a paper and pencil checklist in the rehabilitation of executive problems in a 50-year-old woman are described. Following a CVA 7 years earlier, the patient, despite intact general intellectual and memory functioning, had specific executive impairments of attention, planning, realizing intended actions, and also exhibited behavioral routines similar in form to obsessive-compulsive rituals. In a series of ABAB single-case experimental designs, the efficacy of 2 external cueing systems in prompting appropriately timed action is demonstrated. It is argued that the combination of external control and increased sustained attention to action were critical to the success of NeuroPage with this patient. Furthermore it is hypothesized that the checklist was effective in facilitating the patient's ability to foresee and recognize the consequences of her actions, which in turn had an impact on the probability of her changing those same actions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Evans1998,
      author = {Evans, JJ and Emslie, H and Wilson, BA},
      title = {External cueing systems in the rehabilitation of executive impairments of action},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {4},
      number = {4},
      pages = {399-408},
      note = {19th Annual International-Neuropsychological-Society Mid-Year Conference, VELDHOVEN, NETHERLANDS, JUN 19-22, 1996}
    }
    
    EVANS, J., HEGGS, A., ANTOUN, N. & HODGES, J. PROGRESSIVE PROSOPAGNOSIA ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTIVE RIGHT TEMPORAL-LOBE ATROPHY - A NEW SYNDROME {1995} BRAIN
    Vol. {118}({Part 1}), pp. {1-13} 
    article  
    Abstract: V.H., a 68-year-old right-handed woman, presented with a progressive deterioration in her ability to recognize faces of familiar people, including friends and relatives. Neuropsychological testing on two occasions separated by 9 months indicated no deterioration in general intellectual ability from estimates of her pre-morbid IQ (in the high average range), and little or no change in memory, language, perceptual or executive functioning She is severely impaired on tests of face recognition and has shown some deterioration between testing occasions. In contrast, face perception skills, including emotional expression analysis, appear to be intact. Her knowledge of people from names was originally much better than from faces, but clearly declined on follow-up. This progression is discussed in the context of contemporary models of face processing: we suggest that her prosopagnosic deficit began as a modality-specific disorder which has progressed to a cross-modality loss of person-based semantic knowledge. In addition, she shows a striking dissociation between her ability to recognize faces and unique exemplars from other categories, such as buildings and flowers, which confirms the hypothesis that face processing is indeed special. Scanning by SPECT and MRI revealed selective hypoperfusion and atrophy, respectively, of the anterior part of the right temporal lobe. In recent years there have been a number of descriptions of progressive fluent aphasia resulting from atrophy of the left temporal lobe. This case appears to represent a corresponding degenerative process affecting the right temporal lobe.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EVANS1995,
      author = {EVANS, JJ and HEGGS, AJ and ANTOUN, N and HODGES, JR},
      title = {PROGRESSIVE PROSOPAGNOSIA ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTIVE RIGHT TEMPORAL-LOBE ATROPHY - A NEW SYNDROME},
      journal = {BRAIN},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {118},
      number = {Part 1},
      pages = {1-13}
    }
    
    Eysenck, M.W., Derakshan, N., Santos, R. & Calvo, M.G. Anxiety and cognitive performance: Attentional control theory {2007} EMOTION
    Vol. {7}({2}), pp. {336-353} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Attentional control theory is an approach to anxiety and cognition representing a major development of Eysenck and Calvo's (1992) processing efficiency theory. It is assumed that anxiety impairs efficient functioning of the goal-directed attentional system and increases the extent to which processing is influenced by the stimulus-driven attentional system. In addition to decreasing attentional control, anxiety increases attention to threat-related stimuli. Adverse effects of anxiety on processing efficiency depend on two central executive functions involving attentional control: inhibition and shifting. However, anxiety may not impair performance effectiveness (quality of performance) when it leads to the use of compensatory strategies (e.g., enhanced effort; increased use of processing resources). Directions for future research are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eysenck2007,
      author = {Eysenck, Michael W. and Derakshan, Nazanin and Santos, Rita and Calvo, Manuel G.},
      title = {Anxiety and cognitive performance: Attentional control theory},
      journal = {EMOTION},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {336-353},
      doi = {{10.1037/1528-3542.7.2.336}}
    }
    
    Faraone, S., Seidman, L., Kremen, W., Toomey, R., Pepple, J. & Tsuang, M. Neuropsychological functioning among the nonpsychotic relatives of schizophrenic patients: A 4-year follow-up study {1999} JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {108}({1}), pp. {176-181} 
    article  
    Abstract: In a prior study of 54 relatives of patients with schizophrenia and 72 control participants, 3 neuropsychological functions met the criteria for risk indicators of the schizophrenia genotype: executive functioning, memory, and auditory attention. In an assessment of the stability of these finding;, the sample was reexamined 4 year; after the initial assessment Three test scores were found to differ between groups (Immediate Verbal Memory, Delayed Verbal Memory, and Dichotic Listening Digits Detected) or to show a significant Group X Gender interaction (immediate and delayed verbal and visual memories). None of the test scores showed Group X Time interactions, suggesting that the discriminating power of the tests was stable over time. Evidence for deficits in working memory and rule learning on the object alternation test was also found. These results support the idea that neuropsychological dysfunction among relatives of patients with schizophrenia is a stable trait caused by the familial predisposition to schizophrenia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Faraone1999,
      author = {Faraone, SV and Seidman, LJ and Kremen, WS and Toomey, R and Pepple, JR and Tsuang, MT},
      title = {Neuropsychological functioning among the nonpsychotic relatives of schizophrenic patients: A 4-year follow-up study},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {108},
      number = {1},
      pages = {176-181}
    }
    
    Fastenau, P., Shen, J., Dunn, D., Perkins, S., Hermann, B. & Austin, J. Neuropsychological predictors of academic underachievement in pediatric epilepsy: Moderating roles of demographic, seizure, and psychosocial variables {2004} EPILEPSIA
    Vol. {45}({10}), pp. {1261-1272} 
    article  
    Abstract: Purpose: Academic underachievement is common in pediatric epilepsy. Attempts to identify seizure and psychosocial risk factors for underachievement have yielded inconsistent findings, raising the possibility that seizure and psychosocial variables play a complex role in combination with other variables such as neuropsychological functioning. This study cross-validated a neuropsychological measurement model for childhood epilepsy, examined the relation between neuropsychological functioning and academic achievement, and tested the degree to which demographic, seizure, and psychosocial variables moderate that relation. Methods: Children with chronic epilepsy (N = 173; ages 8 to 15 years; 49% girls; 91% white/non-Hispanic; 79% one seizure type; 79% taking one medication; 69% with active seizures) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Children diagnosed with mental retardation were excluded. Results: Structural equation modeling identified a three-factor measurement model of neuropsychological function: Verbal/Memory/Executive (VME), Rapid Naming/Working Memory (RN/WM), and Psychomotor (PM). VME and RN/WM were strongly related to reading, math, and writing; PM predicted writing only. Family environment moderated the impact of neuropsychological deficits on writing (p less than or equal to 0.01) and possibly for reading (p = 0.05); neuropsychological deficits had a smaller impact on achievement for children in supportive/organized homes compared with children in unsupportive/disorganized homes. Conclusions: These findings lend partial support for our theoretical model showing direct effects of neuropsychological function oil achievement and the moderating role of family factors. This study suggests that a subgroup of children with epilepsy (those who have not only neuropsychological deficits but also disorganized/Unsupportive home environments) are particularly at risk for adverse academic outcomes. Implications for intervention are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fastenau2004,
      author = {Fastenau, PS and Shen, JZ and Dunn, DW and Perkins, SM and Hermann, BP and Austin, JK},
      title = {Neuropsychological predictors of academic underachievement in pediatric epilepsy: Moderating roles of demographic, seizure, and psychosocial variables},
      journal = {EPILEPSIA},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {45},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1261-1272}
    }
    
    Fine, C., Lumsden, J. & Blair, R. Dissociation between `theory of mind' and executive functions in a patient with early left amygdala damage {2001} BRAIN
    Vol. {124}({Part 2}), pp. {287-298} 
    article  
    Abstract: There have been recent suggestions that the amygdala may be involved in the development or mediation of `theory of mind'. We report a patient, B,M,, with early or congenital left amygdala damage who, by adulthood, had received the psychiatric diagnoses of schizophrenia and Asperger's syndrome. We conducted a series of experimental investigations to determine B,M,'s cognitive functioning, In line with his diagnoses, B,M, was found to be severely impaired in his ability to represent mental states. Following this, we conducted a second series of studies to determine B,M,'s executive functioning. In the literature, there have been frequent claims that theory of mind is mediated by general executive functioning. B,M, showed no indication of executive function impairment, passing 16 tests assessing his ability to inhibit dominant responses, create and maintain goal-related behaviours, and temporally sequence behaviour. The findings are discussed with reference to models regarding the role of the amygdala in the development of theory of mind and the degree of dissociation between theory of mind and executive functioning. We conclude that theory of mind is not simply a function of more general executive functions, and that executive functions can develop and function on-line, independently of theory of mind. Moreover, we conclude that the amygdala may play some role in the development of the circuitry mediating theory of mind.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fine2001,
      author = {Fine, C and Lumsden, J and Blair, RJR},
      title = {Dissociation between `theory of mind' and executive functions in a patient with early left amygdala damage},
      journal = {BRAIN},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {124},
      number = {Part 2},
      pages = {287-298}
    }
    
    Fischer, M., Barkley, R., Smallish, L. & Fletcher, K. Executive functioning in hyperactive children as young adults: Attention, inhibition, response perseveration, and the impact of comorbidity {2005} DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {27}({1}), pp. {107-133} 
    article  
    Abstract: Tests of several executive functions (EFs) as well as direct observations of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during testing were collected at the young. adult follow-up (M = 20 years) on a large sample of hyperactive (H; N = 147) and community control (CC; N = 71) children. The EF tasks included tests of attention, inhibition, and response perseveration.. The H group was subdivided into those with and without ADHD (+ or w/o) at follow-up. The H+ADHD group made significantly more inhibition errors than the CC group on a Continuous Performance Test (CPT), and showed more. ADHD symptoms while performing the CPT. The H+ADHD group also displayed more ADHD symptoms during-a letter cancellation task than did both the hyperactive w/o ADHD and CC groups. Both H groups showed slower reaction times during a Card Playing Task. That subset of hyperactive probands with Conduct Disorder (CD) displayed significantly more perseverative responding on that task than did those without CD, but otherwise it did not differ on any other measures. Current level of anxiety contributed adversely to both CPT commission errors and ADHD behavior during the CPT. Comorbid depression did not contribute to any group differences on these tests. Although developmental improvements were found in both the H and the CC groups in their CPT inattention and inhibition scores since adolescence, the H groups remained distinguishable from the CC groups over this period. We conclude that formerly hyperactive children manifest greater EF deficits at follow-up in the areas of inattention, disinhibition, and slowed reaction time and greater ADHD behavior during testing, but these problems are mostly confined to those with current ADHD. Response perseveration, however, was limited to those hyperactive children with CD by follow-up, consistent with Quay's theory of these two disorders.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fischer2005,
      author = {Fischer, M and Barkley, RA and Smallish, L and Fletcher, K},
      title = {Executive functioning in hyperactive children as young adults: Attention, inhibition, response perseveration, and the impact of comorbidity},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {27},
      number = {1},
      pages = {107-133}
    }
    
    Fisk, J. & Sharp, C. Age-related impairment in executive functioning: Updating, inhibition, shifting, and access {2004} JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {26}({7}), pp. {874-890} 
    article  
    Abstract: Miyake, Friedman, Emerson, Witzki, Howerter and Wager (2000) have argued that the central executive is fractionated consisting of at least three separable component processes: updating, shifting, and inhibition. The Wisconsin Card Sort Test, random letter generation, Brooks spatial sequences, reading and computation span, word fluency, and a measure of dual task performance were administered to 95 individuals aged between 20 and 8 1, average age 41.89. The executive measures were factor analyzed, using the oblique rotation method, yielding four factors. The factor structure obtained was broadly consistent with Miyake et al's. However, an additional factor, the only one not to show a significant performance decline with age, was also obtained and was believed to reflect the efficiency of access to long-term memory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fisk2004,
      author = {Fisk, JE and Sharp, CA},
      title = {Age-related impairment in executive functioning: Updating, inhibition, shifting, and access},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {26},
      number = {7},
      pages = {874-890}
    }
    
    Fisk, J. & Warr, P. Age and working memory: The role of perceptual speed, the central executive, and the phonological loop {1996} PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING
    Vol. {11}({2}), pp. {316-323} 
    article  
    Abstract: In a study (N = 61) comparing older(age range = 60-80 years, M = 67) and younger (age range = 20-33 years, M = 25) people, age deficits were observed in working memory, perceptual speed, and central executive functioning but not in phonological loop functioning. Controlling for age differences in central executive performance removed over 50% of the age-related variance in working memory span. However, controlling for perceptual speed removed all of the age-related variance in working memory span. In addition, age differences in central executive functioning were largely eliminated after controlling for age deficits in perceptual speed. These findings suggest that age differences in central executive functioning are primarily attributable to a general slowdown in the rate at which information is activated within the working memory system and that no specific deficits in the central executive occur as a consequence of aging.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fisk1996,
      author = {Fisk, JE and Warr, P},
      title = {Age and working memory: The role of perceptual speed, the central executive, and the phonological loop},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {11},
      number = {2},
      pages = {316-323}
    }
    
    Fitzgerald, D., Lucas, S., Redoblado, M., Winter, V., Brennan, J., Anderson, J. & Harris, A. Cognitive functioning in young people with first episode psychosis: relationship to diagnosis and clinical characteristics {2004} AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {38}({7}), pp. {501-510} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To examine the extent and nature of neuropsychological deficits in adolescents and young people with first episode psychosis (FEP), and to determine whether the pattern and extent of neuropsychological deficits varied according to diagnosis. Method: A total of 83 FEP subjects aged 13-25 years, and 31 healthy controls completed a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests, grouped into 10 cognitive domains. First episode psychosis subjects were stratified into three diagnostic groups (schizophrenia, affective disorders, substance-induced psychosis) and differences in cognitive profiles were examined. The contribution of demographic and clinical characteristics to cognitive performance was also explored. Results: The schizophrenia group demonstrated significantly worse performance on tasks of verbal learning and memory than the affective disorders group. Compared to healthy controls, the schizophrenia group also demonstrated global impairment across the majority of cognitive domains. The substance-induced group's performance lay between that of the schizophrenia and affective disorders groups. Analyses of differential deficits revealed that verbal learning, verbal memory and current intellectual functioning were selectively impaired in the schizophrenia group, whereas the affective disorders group demonstrated a selective deficit in speeded processing. Premorbid intellectual functioning, negative symptomatology and medication levels were the strongest predictors of cognitive performance in FEP subjects. Conclusions: Verbal memory deficits differentiate individuals with schizophrenia from those with psychotic affective disorders. Although significant cognitive deficits are evident across all diagnostic FEP groups, individuals with schizophrenia appear to have more generalized impairment across a broad array of cognitive functions than other psychotic diagnoses. Lower premorbid intellectual functioning does not appear to contribute to greater cognitive deterioration following onset of psychosis, but severity of illness may be a more important factor than levels of mood disturbance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fitzgerald2004,
      author = {Fitzgerald, D and Lucas, S and Redoblado, MA and Winter, V and Brennan, J and Anderson, J and Harris, A},
      title = {Cognitive functioning in young people with first episode psychosis: relationship to diagnosis and clinical characteristics},
      journal = {AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {38},
      number = {7},
      pages = {501-510}
    }
    
    Fossati, P., Amar, G., Raoux, N., Ergis, A. & Allilaire, J. Executive functioning and verbal memory in young patients with unipolar depression and schizophrenia {1999} PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH
    Vol. {89}({3}), pp. {171-187} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although neuropsychological studies have consistently reported executive deficits in schizophrenia, studies of executive functions in depression have produced equivocal results. The aim of this study was to examine the profile and the specificity of the executive impairment and its association with memory performance in young patients with unipolar depression. We compared patients with depression to normal control subjects and schizophrenics. Twenty young inpatients with unipolar depression, 14 schizophrenics and 20 age-, education- and IQ-matched control subjects were assessed with a neuropsychological battery including: (1) verbal memory task; (2) frontal tasks (WCST, Cognitive Estimate, Verbal fluency, verbal and visuo-spatial span) and a new complex sorting test (Delis test). Depressed patients and schizophrenics exhibited executive deficits. Unlike schizophrenics, depressed patients did not show memory impairment. Deficits in several `higher-level' functions combined to produce executive impairments in patients with depression including complex integration for concept formation, spontaneous cognitive flexibility and initiation ability. Impaired functions in schizophrenia and in depressed patients were similar but were differently related to clinical variables. The pattern of memory failure in our schizophrenics is believed to reflect retrieval and encoding deficits. Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of skills grouped under the term `executive functions' that are vulnerable in depression or schizophrenia. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fossati1999,
      author = {Fossati, P and Amar, G and Raoux, N and Ergis, AM and Allilaire, JF},
      title = {Executive functioning and verbal memory in young patients with unipolar depression and schizophrenia},
      journal = {PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {89},
      number = {3},
      pages = {171-187}
    }
    
    Fossati, P., Coyette, F., Ergis, A. & Allilaire, J. Influence of age and executive functioning on verbal memory of inpatients with depression {2002} JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS
    Vol. {68}({2-3}), pp. {261-271} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Despite many studies demonstrating memory and executive impairments in young and old depressed patients, the relationships between age, executive functioning and memory have not been evaluated in depression. The aim of this study was to investigate if older patients were more vulnerable than younger patients to the impact of depression on memory and if the differences between young and old depressed could be related to executive functioning. Methods: Forty-nine inpatients, with unipolar and bipolar depression, ranging in age from 19 to 72 years were compared with 70 controls an a verbal memory task. Age cut-off of 45 years was used as a categorical variable to divide subjects into subgroups. A subset of patients (n = 41) was also evaluated with the modified version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and separated into a non-dysexecutive group and a group of patients with mild-executive impairment. Results: Depressed patients exhibited memory deficits with a pattern of memory failure - impaired free recall and normal cued recall and recognition - interpreted as a retrieval problem. Both age and executive function influenced memory performance in depression, however neither group X age interaction nor age X executive status interaction were significant. Multiple regression analysis showed that free recall scores were related to age and psychomotor retardation in depressed patients. Conclusion: Age and executive functioning have different influences on the memory performance of depressed patients. Our findings support an `executive memory decline hypothesis' in young as well as old depressed patients. The memory deficits in depression may be associated with both trait and state factors and raise questions about the long-term cognitive functioning of patients with recurrent affective disorders. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fossati2002,
      author = {Fossati, P and Coyette, F and Ergis, AM and Allilaire, JF},
      title = {Influence of age and executive functioning on verbal memory of inpatients with depression},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {68},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {261-271}
    }
    
    Fossati, P., Ergis, A. & Allilaire, J. Executive functioning in unipolar depression: a review {2002} ENCEPHALE-REVUE DE PSYCHIATRIE CLINIQUE BIOLOGIQUE ET THERAPEUTIQUE
    Vol. {28}({2}), pp. {97-107} 
    article  
    Abstract: While several neuropsychological studies have demonstrated that cognitive deficits are seen across a broad range of cognitive domains, executive deficits associated with frontal lobe dysfunction may be prominent in depression. Executive function refers to cognitive processes that control and integrate other cognitive activities such as episodic memory. These executive functions involve a set of cognitive behaviors which include : dealing with novelty, selecting strategies, inhibiting incorrect responses, monitoring performance and using feedback to adjust future responding. The measurement of executive function relies mainly on the use of neuropsychological tests known to be sensitive to frontal lobe damage such as the Wisconsin and California Card Sorting Tests, verbal fluency tests, Stroop-test, Tower of London Task and Trail Making Test. The present review focuses on studies investigating executive functions in primary unipolar depression with these neuropsychological tasks. Unipolar depressed patients mainly exhibit cognitive inhibition deficits, problem-solving impairments and planning deficits. Cognitive inhibition deficits in depressed patients have been related to a reduction of cognitive resources and psychomotor retardation. Inhibition disturbance could lead depressed patients to process irrelevant information and consequently reduce their capacity to control transient mood changes. Several studies have found evidence of problem solving impairments in depressed patients. Depressed subjects show with card sorting tests difficulties in hypothesis testing with a loss of spontaneous and reactive cognitive flexibility. The cognitive rigidity and hypothesis-testing associated with dorsolateral prefrontal dysfunction in depression may prevent patients to cope with life events and lead to a perpetuation of depressed mood by a continuation of stress exposure. Planning tasks, such as the Tower of London Test, also demonstrate that depressed patients fail to use negative feedback as a motivational boost to improve their performance. Both trait and state factors influence the executive level of depressed patients. Executive deficits have been reported in more severely depressed subjects with melancholic or psychotic features. Executive functioning also might predict a poorer outcome in depression. Thus initiation and perseveration scores-a measure of cognitive flexibility-is associated with relapse and recurrence of depression and residual depressive symptoms. Brain imaging studies show that reduced blood flow, particularly in medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex subserve executive impairments in depression. However neuroimaging studies underscore the importance of mood-cognitive interactions in depression. A recent working model of depression (Mayberg et al., 1999) implicates failure of the coordinated interactions of distributed cortical-limbic pathways in the neuropsychopathology of depression. According to this model, neocortical (prefrontal and parietal regions) and superior limbic elements (dorsal anterior cingulate) are postulated to mediate impaired attention and executive function, whereas ventral limbic regions (ventral anterior cingulate, subcortical structures) are postulated to mediate circadian and vegetative aspects of depression. Further studies are needed to validate this model at the neuropsychological level as well as the brain level and to elucidate the complex interactions between mood, cognitive resources and executive function in depression.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fossati2002a,
      author = {Fossati, P and Ergis, AM and Allilaire, JF},
      title = {Executive functioning in unipolar depression: a review},
      journal = {ENCEPHALE-REVUE DE PSYCHIATRIE CLINIQUE BIOLOGIQUE ET THERAPEUTIQUE},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {28},
      number = {2},
      pages = {97-107}
    }
    
    Fournet, N., Moreaud, O., Roulin, J., Naegele, B. & Pellat, J. Working memory functioning in medicated Parkinson's disease patients and the effect of withdrawal of dopaminergic medication {2000} NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {14}({2}), pp. {247-253} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Cognitive impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD) could be explained by a central executive (CE) deficit in A. D. Baddeley's (1986) working memory model. To test this hypothesis, verbal, spatial, and double span tasks were given to 12 medicated PD patients and control participants, with varying recall delays. The double span task was assigned to explore the coordinating and integrating function of the CE, and lengthening the recall delay was expected to implicate more attentional resources. PD patients had lower spans relative to controls in all tasks. However, the more specific implication of the CE was difficult to prove. One reason could be that PD patients were on dopaminergic treatment when tested. To control this effect, 12 PD patients on and off medication were studied in a second experiment using the same tasks. PD patients off medication had lower spans only in the double task; this result underlines the role of dopamine on working memory processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fournet2000,
      author = {Fournet, N and Moreaud, O and Roulin, JL and Naegele, B and Pellat, J},
      title = {Working memory functioning in medicated Parkinson's disease patients and the effect of withdrawal of dopaminergic medication},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {14},
      number = {2},
      pages = {247-253},
      doi = {{10.1037//1894-4105.14.2.247}}
    }
    
    de Frias, C., Annerbrink, K., Westberg, L., Eriksson, E., Adolfsson, R. & Nilsson, L. Catechol O-methyltransferase Val(158)Met polymorphism is associated with cognitive performance in nondemented adults {2005} JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {17}({7}), pp. {1018-1025} 
    article  
    Abstract: The catechol O-methyltransferase ( COMT) gene is essential in the metabolic degradation of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. In the present study, we examined the effect of a Val 158 Met polymorphism in the COMT gene on individual differences and changes in cognition ( executive functions and visuospatial ability) in adulthood and old age. The participants were 292 nondemented men ( initially aged 35-85 years) from a random sample of the population (i.e., the Betula study) tested at two occasions with a 5-year interval. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the underlying structure of three indicators of executive functions ( verbal fluency, working memory, and Tower of Hanoi). Associations between COMT, age, executive functioning, and visuospatial ( block design) tasks were examined using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Carriers of the Val allele ( with higher enzyme activity) compared with carriers of the Met/Met genotype ( with low enzyme activity) performed worse on executive functioning and visuospatial tasks. Individuals with the Val/Val genotype declined in executive functioning over the 5-year period, whereas carriers of the Met allele remained stable in performance. An Age x COMT interaction for visuospatial ability located the effect for middle-aged men only. This COMT polymorphism is a plausible candidate gene for executive functioning and fluid intelligence in nondemented middle-aged and older adults.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Frias2005,
      author = {de Frias, CM and Annerbrink, K and Westberg, L and Eriksson, E and Adolfsson, R and Nilsson, LR},
      title = {Catechol O-methyltransferase Val(158)Met polymorphism is associated with cognitive performance in nondemented adults},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {17},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1018-1025}
    }
    
    Fried, P. & Smith, A. A literature review of the consequences of prenatal marihuana exposure - An emerging theme of a deficiency in aspects of executive function {2001} NEUROTOXICOLOGY AND TERATOLOGY
    Vol. {23}({1}), pp. {1-11} 
    article  
    Abstract: In spite of marihuana being the most widely used illegal drug among women of reproductive age, there is a relative paucity of literature dealing with the neurobehavioral consequences in offspring - particularly the longer-term effects. However, there is a degree of consistency in the limited data, both across cross-sectional reports and longitudinally where offspring have been followed for a number of years. Two cohort studies fall into the latter category; one involving a low-risk sample and, the other, a high-risk sample. Global IQ is not impacted by prenatal marihuana exposure but aspects of executive function (EF) - in particular, attentional behavior and visual analysis/hypothesis testing - appear to be negatively associated with in utero cannabis exposure in children beyond the toddler stage. This hypothesized influence of prenatal marihuana on EF is examined and discussed relative to effects (or lack of effects) across different ages in the offspring, cannabinoid receptors, and the extant general marihuana and prefrontal literature. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fried2001,
      author = {Fried, PA and Smith, AR},
      title = {A literature review of the consequences of prenatal marihuana exposure - An emerging theme of a deficiency in aspects of executive function},
      journal = {NEUROTOXICOLOGY AND TERATOLOGY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {23},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-11}
    }
    
    Fried, P., Watkinson, B. & Gray, R. Differential effects on cognitive functioning in 13-to 16-year-olds prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marihuana {2003} NEUROTOXICOLOGY AND TERATOLOGY
    Vol. {25}({4}), pp. {427-436} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Cognitive performance was examined in 145 thirteen- to sixteen-year-old adolescents for whom prenatal exposure to marihuana and cigarettes had been ascertained. The subjects were from a low-risk, predominantly middle-class sample participating in an ongoing, longitudinal study. The assessment battery included tests of general intelligence, achievement, memory, and aspects of executive functioning (EF). Consistent with results obtained at earlier ages, the strongest relationship between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and cognitive variables was seen with overall intelligence and aspects of auditory functioning whereas prenatal exposure to marihuana was negatively associated with tasks that required visual memory, analysis, and integration. The interpretation of the results is discussed in terms of the differential observations related to in utero exposure to cigarettes and marihuana and the nature of the cognitive variables associated with the two drugs. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fried2003,
      author = {Fried, PA and Watkinson, B and Gray, R},
      title = {Differential effects on cognitive functioning in 13-to 16-year-olds prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marihuana},
      journal = {NEUROTOXICOLOGY AND TERATOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {25},
      number = {4},
      pages = {427-436},
      doi = {{10.1016/S0892-0362(03)00029-1}}
    }
    
    Fried, P., Watkinson, B. & Gray, R. Differential effects on cognitive functioning in 9- to 12-year olds prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marihuana {1998} NEUROTOXICOLOGY AND TERATOLOGY
    Vol. {20}({3}), pp. {293-306} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cognitive performance was examined in 131 9-12-year-old children for whom prenatal marihuana and cigarette exposure had been ascertained. The subjects, participants,in an ongoing longitudinal study, were from a low-risk, predominantly middle class sample. The tasks in eluded the WISC-III and a series of tests assessing aspects of cognition subsumed under the rubric of executive function. Consistent with results obtained at earlier ages, discriminant function analysis revealed a dose-dependent association, which remained after controlling for potential confounds (including secondhand smoke), between prenatal cigarette exposure and lower global intelligence scores with the verbal subtests of the WISC maximally discriminating among levels of in utero exposure. In contrast, prenatal marihuana exposure was not associated with global intelligence or the verbal subtests. Rather, this drug was negatively associated with the executive function tasks that require impulse control and visual analysis/hypothesis testing and with a number of WISC subtests requiring the same abilities. The interpretation of these results is discussed in terms of executive function and is related to earlier observations of this sample and to the extant prefrontal and general marihuana literature. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fried1998,
      author = {Fried, PA and Watkinson, B and Gray, R},
      title = {Differential effects on cognitive functioning in 9- to 12-year olds prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marihuana},
      journal = {NEUROTOXICOLOGY AND TERATOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {20},
      number = {3},
      pages = {293-306}
    }
    
    Frith, U. Emanuel Miller lecture: Confusions and controversies about Asperger Syndrome {2004} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {45}({4}), pp. {672-686} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Hans Asperger drew attention to individuals who show the core symptoms of autism in the presence of high verbal intelligence. Methods: A review of the literature explores current issues concerning the diagnosis and nature of Asperger syndrome. Results: The behavioural and neurophysiological evidence to date suggests that Asperger syndrome is a variant of autism typically occurring in high-functioning individuals, and not a separate disorder. One of the problems of diagnosis is that the typical impairment of social communication may be difficult to identify in early childhood, and can be camouflaged in adulthood by compensatory learning. The range and nature of the social impairments in Asperger syndrome are still in need of investigation, but appear to be less severe than in autism. Experimental evidence suggests that individuals with Asperger syndrome may lack an intuitive theory of mind (mentalising), but may be able to acquire an explicit theory of mind. Brain imaging studies pinpoint a network that links medial prefrontal and temporal cortex as the neural substrate of intuitive mentalising. This network shows reduced activation and poor connectivity in Asperger syndrome. While some individuals with Aspergcr syndrome have written eloquently about their lives, their ability to talk about their own emotions appears to be impaired (alexithymia). This impairment may be linked to depression and anxiety, which is common in adulthood. Little is as yet known about the often considerable cognitive strengths in Asperger syndrome, or about the difficulties observed in higher-level executive skills. Conclusions: Studies arc needed that define the developmental course of the disorder and the nature of the strengths and weaknesses in both social and non-social domains. This requires more sensitive assessment instruments than are currently available. Questions about the prevalence of Asperger syndrome, about associated and secondary features, and about optimal education and management, urgently call for such studies.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Frith2004,
      author = {Frith, U},
      title = {Emanuel Miller lecture: Confusions and controversies about Asperger Syndrome},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {45},
      number = {4},
      pages = {672-686}
    }
    
    van der Gaag, M., Kern, R., van den Bosch, R. & Liberman, R. A controlled trial of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia {2002} SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN
    Vol. {28}({1}), pp. {167-176} 
    article  
    Abstract: A randomized, controlled trial of a 3-month cognitive remediation program was examined for its efficacy at ameliorating deficits in social and emotion perception in 42 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Generalization of training effects to attention, memory, and executive functioning was also examined. The program included an eclectic mix of self-instruction, memory enhancement, inductive reasoning, and compensatory training procedures, while the control condition included participation in a leisure group that was matched to the experimental group for staff involvement time. Patient care management, including type and dose of antipsychotic medication, remained constant throughout the study period. The results indicated that the cognitive training program improved emotion perception, with some evidence of generalization to measures of executive functioning; other areas of neurocognitive functioning were largely unaffected. While cognitive training programs may improve targeted areas of neurocognitive processing, broad generalization effects to domains outside those targeted for intervention are not likely concomitants.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gaag2002,
      author = {van der Gaag, M and Kern, RS and van den Bosch, RJ and Liberman, RP},
      title = {A controlled trial of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {28},
      number = {1},
      pages = {167-176}
    }
    
    Gansler, D., Fucetola, R., Krengel, M., Stetson, S., Zimering, R. & Makary, C. Are there cognitive subtypes in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder? {1998} JOURNAL OF NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISEASE
    Vol. {186}({12}), pp. {776-781} 
    article  
    Abstract: There has been increasing knowledge of the treatment, diagnosis, and demographics of adults with residual attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, less is known about the neuropsychological functioning in adults with residual ADHD. In comparing the clinical neuropsychological test performance of a group of adult clinic patients with residual ADHD (N = 30) with that of normal controls (N = 10), we found the patients performed worse on the Trail Making Test, a visual continuous performance test, and the ``Brown-Peterson'' Auditory Consonant Trigrams Test, but not on any other neuropsychological measures. This pattern indicated a deficit in the area of executive control type functioning a functional deficit that could be linked to dysregulation of frontal lobe brain systems. Of equal interest was that patients diagnosed with ADHD/hyperactive impulsive type (ADHD+) and patients diagnosed with ADHD/inattentive type (ADHD-) had different types of executive system deficits. ADHD+ was associated with relative deficiency on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. ADHD- was associated with relative deficiency on the ``Brown-Peterson'' Auditory Consonant Trigrams Test, a measure of working memory, as well as less olfactory identification on a smell identification test The data are discussed in terms of recent localization theories of frontal lobe function. The preliminary data suggest that the different cognitive weaknesses of ADD subtypes may be linked to dysregulation of separate frontal brain regions and/or neurotransmitter systems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gansler1998,
      author = {Gansler, DA and Fucetola, R and Krengel, M and Stetson, S and Zimering, R and Makary, C},
      title = {Are there cognitive subtypes in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISEASE},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {186},
      number = {12},
      pages = {776-781}
    }
    
    Garavan, H., Ross, T., Li, S. & Stein, E. A parametric manipulation of central executive functioning {2000} CEREBRAL CORTEX
    Vol. {10}({6}), pp. {585-592} 
    article  
    Abstract: The central executive is both an important and poorly understood construct that is invoked in current theoretical medals of human cognition and in various dysexecutive clinical syndromes. We report a task designed to isolate one elementary executive function, namely the allocation of attentional resources within working memory. The frequency with which attention was switched between items in working memory was varied across different trials, while storage and rehearsal demands were held constant. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed widespread areas, both prefrontal and more posterior, that differentially activated as a function of a trial's executive demands. Furthermore, areas that differed as a function of executive demands tended to lie adjacent to areas that were activated during the task but that did not so differ. Together, these data suggest that a distributed neuroanatomy, rather than a specific and unique locus, underlies this attention switching executive function.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Garavan2000,
      author = {Garavan, H and Ross, TJ and Li, SJ and Stein, EA},
      title = {A parametric manipulation of central executive functioning},
      journal = {CEREBRAL CORTEX},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {10},
      number = {6},
      pages = {585-592}
    }
    
    Garner, J. & Mason, G. Evidence for a relationship between cage stereotypies and behavioural disinhibition in laboratory rodents {2002} BEHAVIOURAL BRAIN RESEARCH
    Vol. {136}({1}), pp. {83-92} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cage stereotypies-abnormal, repetitive, unvarying and apparently functionless behaviours-are common in many captive animals, sometimes resulting in self-injury or decreased reproductive success. However, a general mechanistic or neurophysiological understanding of cage stereotypies has proved elusive. In contrast, stereotypies in human mental disorder, or those induced by drugs or brain lesions, are well understood, and are thought to result from the disinhibition of behavioural selection by the basal ganglia. In this study, we found that the cage stereotypies of captive bank voles also correlate with signs of altered response selection by the basal ganglia. Stereotypic bar-mouthing in the caged voles correlated with inappropriate responding in extinction learning, impairments of response timing, evidence of a knowledge-action dissociation, increased rates of behavioural activation, and hyperactivity. Furthermore, all these signs intercorrelated, implicating a single underlying deficit consistent with striatal disinhibition of response selection. Bar-mouthing thus appears fundamentally similar to the stereotypies of autists, schizophrenics, and subjects treated with amphetamine or basal ganglial lesions. These results represent the first evidence for a neural substrate of cage stereotypy. They also suggest that stereotypic animals may experience novel forms of psychological distress, and that stereotypy might well represent a potential confound in many behavioural experiments. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Garner2002,
      author = {Garner, JP and Mason, GJ},
      title = {Evidence for a relationship between cage stereotypies and behavioural disinhibition in laboratory rodents},
      journal = {BEHAVIOURAL BRAIN RESEARCH},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {136},
      number = {1},
      pages = {83-92}
    }
    
    Geschwind, D., Boone, K., Miller, B. & Swerdloff, R. Neurobehavioral phenotype of Klinefelter syndrome {2000} MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES RESEARCH REVIEWS
    Vol. {6}({2}), pp. {107-116} 
    article  
    Abstract: A defined genetic syndrome with neurobehavioral components offers an unusual paradigm for the correlation of genetic defects with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The power of the combination of detailed behavioral, neuroanatomical, and genetic studies has been demonstrated in studies of other conditions involving the sex chromosomes, such as Fragile X syndrome (Mazzocco [2000] Ment Retard Develop Disabil Res Rev. 6:96-106) and Turner syndrome (Ross [2000] Ment Retard Develop Disabii Res Rev. 6.135-141). Although the behavioral and neurologic difficulties that have been identified in Klinefelter syndrome (KS) are in most cases milder than the consequences of many other genetic syndromes, the deficits in KS cause significant: morbidity, representing a more common, but poorly understood, subtype of those with learning disabilities. Both as children and as adults, KS subjects appear to offer a powerful genetic model for the study of language and language-based learning disabilities. Although it has been proposed that the language-based learning difficulties of KS boys are similar to those of nonaneuploidic dyslexics [Bender et al., 1986; Geschwind et al., 1998], this is not yet well established. The co-morbid frontal-executive dysfunction observed in KS is also a likely contributor to learning difficulties and, perhaps, social cognition, in many KS patients. it is also proposed that altered left-hemisphere functioning, whether causing, or due to, altered functional and anatomical cerebral dominance, is at the core of KS subjects' language problems. Although X chromosomal loci can provide only part of the picture, the study of KS subjects, a population with a relatively homogeneous etiology for dyslexia/dysphasia and frontal-executive dysfunction, offers many advantages over such a study in the general population, in which both dyslexia and attentional disorders are quite genetically heterogeneous [Decker and Bender, 1988; Pennington, 1990; Grigorenko et al., 1997; Geschwind et al., 1998]. Furthermore, the interaction of genetic factors and hormonal influences in the cognitive phenotypes described remains an unexplored area for future investigation. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Geschwind2000,
      author = {Geschwind, DH and Boone, KB and Miller, BL and Swerdloff, RS},
      title = {Neurobehavioral phenotype of Klinefelter syndrome},
      journal = {MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES RESEARCH REVIEWS},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {107-116}
    }
    
    Geurts, H., Verte, S., Oosterlaan, J., Roeyers, H. & Sergeant, J. ADHD subtypes: do they differ in their executive functioning profile? {2005} ARCHIVES OF CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {20}({4}), pp. {457-477} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder combined subtype (ADHD-C) have a generalized executive functioning (EF) [Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioural inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of AD/HD. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 65-94; Barkley, R. A. (1997). ADHD and the nature of self-control. New York: The Guilford Press]. We tested whether ADHD-C and ADHD inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) can be differentiated from each other on EF measures. We compared 16 normally developing boys with 16 boys with ADHD-C and 16 with ADHD-I on five EF domains. The boys were all matched on age, IQ, and the presence of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD). Despite carefully diagnosed groups and methodological controls, the results do not support the EF-hypothesis of ADHD-C. Children with ADHD-C differed from normal controls (NC) on tasks related to inhibition; they did not exhibit EF deficits on all EF tasks. Children with ADHD-C also exhibited deficits on non-EF tasks. Furthermore, the ADHD-C and ADHD-I subtypes did not differ from one another. Neuropsychological findings on the domains under study did not yield evidence for the distinctiveness of ADHD-C and ADHD-I subtypes. (c) 2004 National Academy of Neuropsychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Geurts2005,
      author = {Geurts, HM and Verte, S and Oosterlaan, J and Roeyers, H and Sergeant, JA},
      title = {ADHD subtypes: do they differ in their executive functioning profile?},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {20},
      number = {4},
      pages = {457-477},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.acn.2004.11.001}}
    }
    
    Geurts, H., Vertie, S., Oosterlaan, J., Roeyers, H. & Sergeant, J. How specific are executive functioning deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism? {2004} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {45}({4}), pp. {836-854} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: The objective of this study is to identify intact and deficient cognitive processes in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with high functioning autism (HFA). Method: Three rigorously diagnosed groups of children aged between 6 and 12 years (54 ADHD, 41 HFA, and 41 normal controls) were tested on a wide range of tasks related to five major domains of executive functioning (EF): inhibition, visual working memory, planning, cognitive flexibility, and verbal fluency. In addition, the role of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and comorbid conduct disorder (CD) in ADHD was investigated by directly comparing 20 children with ADHD and 34 children with comorbid ADHD + ODD/CD. Results: ADED was associated with EF deficits in inhibiting a prepotent response and verbal fluency. Children with HFA demonstrated deficits in all EF domains, except interference control and working memory. The HFA group showed more difficulties than the ADHD group with planning and cognitive flexibility. The comorbid ADHD + ODD/CD group did not show a distinctive pattern of performance on the EF tests compared to the ADHD group. Conclusion: The present study indicates that children with HFA exhibit more generalised and profound problems with EF tasks compared to children with ADHD.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Geurts2004,
      author = {Geurts, HM and Vertie, S and Oosterlaan, J and Roeyers, H and Sergeant, JA},
      title = {How specific are executive functioning deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {45},
      number = {4},
      pages = {836-854}
    }
    
    Giancola, P. Executive functioning: A conceptual framework for alcohol-related aggression {2000} EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
    Vol. {8}({4}), pp. {576-597} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The causal mechanisms underlying alcohol-related aggression are not well understood. This article presents a conceptual framework designed to guide thinking and generate new research in this area of study. According to the framework, executive functioning is both a mediator and a moderator of intoxicated aggression. Literatures describing associations between alcohol and aggression, executive functioning and aggression, and the acute effects of alcohol on executive functioning are reviewed. On the basis of these findings, it is proposed that (a) executive functioning mediates the alcohol-aggression relation in that acute alcohol intoxication disrupts executive functioning, which then heightens the probability of aggression, and (b) executive functioning moderates the alcohol-aggression relation in that acute alcohol consumption is more likely to facilitate aggressive behavior in persons with low, rather than high, executive functioning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Giancola2000,
      author = {Giancola, PR},
      title = {Executive functioning: A conceptual framework for alcohol-related aggression},
      journal = {EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {8},
      number = {4},
      pages = {576-597},
      doi = {{10.1037//1064-1297.8.4.576}}
    }
    
    Giancola, P., Martin, C., Tarter, R., Pelham, W. & Moss, H. Executive cognitive functioning and aggressive behavior in preadolescent boys at high risk for substance abuse/dependence {1996} JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL
    Vol. {57}({4}), pp. {352-359} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: This study had three purposes: (1) to assess the underlying factor structure of a battery of neuropsychological tests putatively measuring executive cognitive functioning (ECF) in a sample of boys at high and low risk for substance abuse/dependence; (2) to assess the relationship between ECF and aggressive behavior; and (3) to determine the interactive effects of ECF and a family history (FH) of substances dependence on aggressive behavior. Method: Multiple measures of ECF and aggressive behavior were used to test these relationships in a sample of 291 10-12 year old boys with and without a FH of substance dependence. Results: Analyses indicated that the measures of ECF loaded on one factor. ECF was related to aggressive behavior even when accounting for IQ and SES. The interaction between ECF and a FH of substance dependence was also associated with aggressive behavior. Conclusions: The central finding of this investigation indicates that ECF and its interaction with a FH of substance dependence are associated with aggressive behavior. These results suggest that violence prevention and treatment efforts in high risk groups should incorporate cognitive habilitation focusing on training in ECFs.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Giancola1996,
      author = {Giancola, PR and Martin, CS and Tarter, RE and Pelham, WE and Moss, HB},
      title = {Executive cognitive functioning and aggressive behavior in preadolescent boys at high risk for substance abuse/dependence},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {57},
      number = {4},
      pages = {352-359}
    }
    
    Giancola, P., Mezzich, A. & Tarter, R. Executive cognitive functioning, temperament, and antisocial behavior in conduct-disordered adolescent females {1998} JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {107}({4}), pp. {629-641} 
    article  
    Abstract: The authors assessed whether low executive cognitive functioning (ECF) and a difficult temperament are related to aggressive and nonaggressive forms of antisocial behavior (ASB) in 249, 14-18-year-old, conduct-disordered females and controls. ECF was measured using neuropsychological tests; temperament was measured using the Dimensions of Temperament Survey-Revised; and ASB was assessed using psychiatric symptom counts for conduct disorder. The conduct-disordered females exhibited lower ECF capacity and a greater difficult temperament compared with the controls. The combined influence of low ECF and difficult temperament was significantly related to both forms of ASB. In comparison with low ECE difficult temperament was more strongly related to nonaggressive ASB, whereas in comparison with difficult temperament, low ECF was more strongly related to aggressive ASB. Last, ECF mediated the relation between difficult temperament and aggressive ASB.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Giancola1998,
      author = {Giancola, PR and Mezzich, AC and Tarter, RE},
      title = {Executive cognitive functioning, temperament, and antisocial behavior in conduct-disordered adolescent females},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {107},
      number = {4},
      pages = {629-641}
    }
    
    Giancola, P., Mezzich, A. & Tarter, R. Disruptive, delinquent and aggressive behavior in female adolescents with a psychoactive substance use disorder: Relation to executive cognitive functioning {1998} JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL
    Vol. {59}({5}), pp. {560-567} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: This study had four objectives: (1) to determine whether female adolescents with a psychoactive substance use disorder are more impaired than controls on a battery of neuropsychological tests of Executive Cognitive Functioning (ECF); (2) to determine whether these individuals exhibit higher levels of disruptive, delinquent and aggressive behavior compared with controls; (3) to determine whether ECF is related to disruptive, delinquent and aggressive behavior in this population; and (4) to determine whether these relations are moderated by drug use. Method: Multiple indicators of ECF, and disruptive, delinquent and aggressive behavior, as well as drug use, were used to test these relations in a sample of 188 female adolescents who qualified for a DSM-III-R diagnosis of a psychoactive substance use disorder (PSUD) and 95 normal controls between the ages of 14-18 pears (N = 283). Results: Hierarchical multiple regression equations determined that ECF was related to disruptive, delinquent and aggressive behavior even when chronological age, SES and drug use were accounted for. The final regression models suggested that drug use was more strongly related to disruptive and delinquent behavior, whereas ECF was more strongly related to aggression. Drug use did not moderate any relation between ECF and the dependent measures. Conclusions: One implication of these results is that violence prevention and treatment outcomes may be ameliorated by incorporating cognitive habilitation of ECF as an integral component of multimodel interventions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Giancola1998a,
      author = {Giancola, PR and Mezzich, AC and Tarter, RE},
      title = {Disruptive, delinquent and aggressive behavior in female adolescents with a psychoactive substance use disorder: Relation to executive cognitive functioning},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {59},
      number = {5},
      pages = {560-567}
    }
    
    Giancola, P., Moss, H., Martin, C., Kirisci, L. & Tarter, R. Executive cognitive functioning predicts reactive aggression in boys at high risk for substance abuse: A prospective study {1996} ALCOHOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
    Vol. {20}({4}), pp. {740-744} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study assessed the ability of executive cognitive functioning (ECF) to predict reactive aggression in boys at high and low risk for substance abuse using a a-year prospective design. ECF is defined as the self-regulation of goal-directed behavior. Reactive aggression involves impulsive hostile reactions committed with little forethought. ECF was measured using five neuropsychological tests in 198 10- to 12-year-old boys with (SA+) and without (SA-) a paternal history of substance abuse/dependence. Reactive aggression was measured, 2 years later, using a composite index of items derived from two self-report measures. It was hypothesized that ECF would predict reactive aggression, and that this relation would be stronger for the SA+ compared with the SA- boys. SA+ subjects demonstrated lower EGF scores and higher reactive aggression scores, compared with SA- controls. ECF predicted reactive aggression in the SA+ group (beta = 0.37, p = 0,001), but not in the SA- group (beta = 0.09, p = NS). This suggests that compromised ECF may be a risk factor for reactive aggression in SA+ youth. The hypothesis that the relation between ECF and reactive aggression is a manifestation of a mild dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex is discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Giancola1996a,
      author = {Giancola, PR and Moss, HB and Martin, CS and Kirisci, L and Tarter, RE},
      title = {Executive cognitive functioning predicts reactive aggression in boys at high risk for substance abuse: A prospective study},
      journal = {ALCOHOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {20},
      number = {4},
      pages = {740-744}
    }
    
    Giancola, P. & Tarter, R. Executive cognitive functioning and risk for substance abuse {1999} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {10}({3}), pp. {203-205} 
    article  
    Abstract: Individuals with a substance use disorder (SUD) exhibit deficits in executive cognitive functioning (ECF). ECF is involved in the regulation of goal-directed behavior and includes abilities such as attentional control, strategic goal planning, organization, and cognitive flexibility. The prefrontal cortex is believed to be the primary cortical substrate that subserves ECE Children deemed at high risk for drug abuse because they have parents with SUD similarly demonstrate cognitive limitations suggesting an ECF deficit. High-risk children, as a group, also exhibit deviations in temperament, an attenuated amplitude of the P300 event-related potential, and heightened aggressivity compared with control groups. These latter characteristics are associated with low ECF capacity and are believed to reflect dysfunction within the prefrontal cortex. It is hypothesized that deviations on these traits form a core disorder of affective, cognitive, and behavioral dysregulation that serves as a general vulnerability factor for SUD.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Giancola1999,
      author = {Giancola, PR and Tarter, RE},
      title = {Executive cognitive functioning and risk for substance abuse},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {203-205},
      note = {Conference on Cognitive Sciences Research - More Than Thinking About Drug Abuse, BETHESDA, MARYLAND, MAY 23, 1997}
    }
    
    Gibbs, N. Nonclinical populations in research on obsessive-compulsive disorder: A critical review {1996} CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {16}({8}), pp. {729-773} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article provides a review of the literature on nonclinical obsessive-compulsives (NCOCs). The main areas of focus include: (a) prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in nonclinical populations, (b) symptom profile, (c) associated psychopathology, (d) personality and psychological characteristics, (e) cognitive dysfunction, and (f) coping styles. For all six areas, findings on NCOCs are compared with research on clinical samples. Results suggest that: (a) low-level obsessive compulsive symptoms, as well as OCD, occur frequently in the general population; (b) a comparison of the symptom profile of NCOCs and OCD patients reveals both similarities and differences; (c) levels of associated anxiety, depression, and personality traits are consistent across studies and indicate that the scores of NCOCs fall between those of normal controls and OCD patients, (d) basic research on personality and psychological aspects of NCOCs has identified potential etiological factors in the development of OCD, including inflated responsibility and guilt, obsessive-compulsive personality traits, excessive need for control over the environment, and exaggerated responsiveness to emotional provocation; (e) NCOCs perform significantly worse on measures of executive functioning, memory, and information processing in comparison to control subjects, but unlike their OCD counterparts, their scores lie within the normal range; (f) the most common types of strategies employed by NCOCs and OCD patients in an effort to cope with obsessive-compulsive symptoms are qualitatively similar but less effective for OCD patients. The nature of the relationship between nonclinical obsessive-compulsive symptomatology and OCD is discussed with these findings in mind. In addition, critical commentary regarding methodological issues, as well as unanswered research questions which await empirical research, are addressed. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gibbs1996,
      author = {Gibbs, NA},
      title = {Nonclinical populations in research on obsessive-compulsive disorder: A critical review},
      journal = {CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {16},
      number = {8},
      pages = {729-773}
    }
    
    Gilbertson, M., Gurvits, T., Lasko, N., Orr, S. & Pitman, R. Multivariate assessment of explicit memory function in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder {2001} JOURNAL OF TRAUMATIC STRESS
    Vol. {14}({2}), pp. {413-432} 
    article  
    Abstract: Declarative memory impairment is a frequent complaint of patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We assessed memory, attention, visual spatial skills. and executive function in Vietnam combat veterans with (n = 19) and without (n = 13) PTSD. Although PTSD subjects demonstrated a ``generalized impairment'' relative to non-PTSD subjects on a majority of tasks, only attention and memory provided unique and independent prediction of PTSD versus non-PTSD status. Our findings suggest that memory functioning represents a neurocognitive domain of specific relevance to the development of PTSD in trauma-exposed individuals, which can be distinguished from generalized attentional impairment as well as the effects of trauma exposure severity, IQ, comorbid depression, history of alcohol use, and history of developmental learning problems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gilbertson2001,
      author = {Gilbertson, MW and Gurvits, TV and Lasko, NB and Orr, SP and Pitman, RK},
      title = {Multivariate assessment of explicit memory function in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF TRAUMATIC STRESS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {14},
      number = {2},
      pages = {413-432}
    }
    
    Gioia, G. & Isquith, P. Ecological assessment of executive function in traumatic brain injury {2004} DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {25}({1-2}), pp. {135-158} 
    article  
    Abstract: Executive dysfunction is a common outcome in children who have sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI). Appropriate assessment of these complex interrelated regulatory functions is critical to plan for the necessary interventions yet present a challenge to our traditional methodologies. Ecological validity has become an increasingly important focus in neuropsychological assessment with particular relevance for the executive functions, which coordinate one's cognitive and behavioral capacities with real-world demand situations. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) was developed to capture the real-world behavioral manifestations of executive dysfunction. Its development and various forms of validity, including ecological validity, are described. Application of the BRIEF's methodology to the assessment of executive dysfunction in TBI is provided. We advocate a multilevel approach to understanding executive function outcome in TBI, including traditional test-based measures of executive function, real-world behavioral manifestation of executive dysfunction, and the environmental system factors that impact the child. In this model, ecologically valid assessment of executive dysfunction provides an important bridge toward understanding the impact of component-level (i.e., test-based) deficits on the child's everyday adaptive functioning, which can assist the definition of targets for intervention.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gioia2004,
      author = {Gioia, GA and Isquith, PK},
      title = {Ecological assessment of executive function in traumatic brain injury},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {25},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {135-158}
    }
    
    Gladsjo, J., Schuman, C., Evans, J., Peavy, G., Miller, S. & Heaton, R. Norms for letter and category fluency: Demographic corrections for age, education, and ethnicity {1999} ASSESSMENT
    Vol. {6}({2}), pp. {147+} 
    article  
    Abstract: Letter and category fluency tasks are used to assess semantic knowledge, retrieval ability, and executive functioning. They appear to be useful in detecting different types of dementia, but accurate detection of neuropsychological impairment relies on appropriate normative data. Multiple regression analysis was used to develop demographically corrected norms for letter and category fluency in 768 normal adults. T-score equations were developed on a base subsample of 403, and crossvalidated on a separate subsample (n = 365). Participants ranged in age from 20 Bears to 101 years; in educational level from 0 to 20 years; 55% were Caucasian and 45% were African American. Together, age, education, and ethnicity were significant predictors of letter and category fluency performance, accounting for 15% and 25% of variance, respectively. Formulas and tables for converting raw fluency scores to demographically corrected T scores are presented.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gladsjo1999,
      author = {Gladsjo, JA and Schuman, CC and Evans, JD and Peavy, GM and Miller, SW and Heaton, RK},
      title = {Norms for letter and category fluency: Demographic corrections for age, education, and ethnicity},
      journal = {ASSESSMENT},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {147+},
      note = {27th Annual Meeting of the International-Neuropsychologicsl-Society, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, FEB, 1999}
    }
    
    Glahn, D., Bearden, C., Niendam, T. & Escamilla, M. The feasibility of neuropsychological endophenotypes in the search for genes associated with bipolar affective disorder {2004} BIPOLAR DISORDERS
    Vol. {6}({3}), pp. {171-182} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: Efforts to identify genetic loci for bipolar disorder (BPD) have thus far proved elusive. The identification of processes mediating between genotype and phenotype (endophenotypes) may help resolve the carrier status of family members in genetic studies of polygenetic disorders with imperfect penetrance, such as BPD. We reviewed the literature to determine if neuropsychological Measures could be used as effective endophenotypes to aid molecular genetic studies searching for genes predisposing to BPD. Methods: Four prerequisites for endophenotypic markers are described, and a critical review of relevant literature was undertaken to determine if neurocognitive measures satisfy these four requirements in BPD. Results: We found evidence that executive functions and declarative memory may be candidate neurocognitive endophenotypes for BPD. However, we cannot exclude other areas of cognition as being affected by BPD susceptibility genes, given the limits of the current knowledge of the neuropsychology of BPD. In particular, the paucity Of Studies measuring cognition in healthy relatives of BPD patient limits conclusion regarding familial aggregation of particular neurocognitive deficits (i.e. attention). Furthermore, the effects or clinical state and/or medication usage on cognitive functioning in BPD probands should be further explored. Conclusions: Molecular genetic studies of BPD may benefit from the application of select neuropsychological measures as endophenotypic markers. The use of these markers, once defined, may improve power for detecting genes predisposing to BPD and may help to better define diagnostic criteria.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Glahn2004,
      author = {Glahn, DC and Bearden, CE and Niendam, TA and Escamilla, MA},
      title = {The feasibility of neuropsychological endophenotypes in the search for genes associated with bipolar affective disorder},
      journal = {BIPOLAR DISORDERS},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {171-182}
    }
    
    Glahn, D., Ragland, J., Abramoff, A., Barrett, J., Laird, A., Bearden, C. & Velligan, D. Beyond hypofrontality: A quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of working memory in schizophrenia {2005} HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING
    Vol. {25}({1}), pp. {60-69} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Although there is considerable evidence that patients with schizophrenia fail to activate the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to the degree seen in normal comparison subjects when performing working memory or executive tasks, hypofrontality may be coupled with relatively increased activity in other brain regions. However, most imaging studies of working memory in schizophrenia have focused on DLPFC activity. The goal of this work is to review functional neuroimaging studies that contrasted patients with schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects during a prototypical working memory task, the n-back paradigm, to highlight areas of hyper- and hypoactivation in schizophrenia. We utilize a quantitative meta-analysis method to review 12 imaging studies where patients with schizophrenia were contrasted with healthy comparison subjects while performing the n-back paradigm. Although we find clear support for hypofrontallity, we also document consistently increased activation in anterior cingulate and left frontal pole regions in patients with schizophrenia compared to that in controls. These data suggest that whereas reduced DLPFC activation is reported consistently in patients with schizophrenia relative to healthy subjects, abnormal activation patterns are not restricted to this region, raising questions as to whether the pathophysiological dysfunction in schizophrenia is specific to the DLPFC and about the relationship between impaired performance and aberrant activation patterns. The complex pattern of hyper- and hypoactivation consistently found across studies implies that rather than focusing on DLPFC dysregulation, researchers should consider the entire network of regions involved in a given task when making inferences about the biological mechanisms of schizophrenia. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss. Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Glahn2005,
      author = {Glahn, DC and Ragland, JD and Abramoff, A and Barrett, J and Laird, AR and Bearden, CE and Velligan, DI},
      title = {Beyond hypofrontality: A quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of working memory in schizophrenia},
      journal = {HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {25},
      number = {1},
      pages = {60-69},
      doi = {{10.1002/hbm.20138}}
    }
    
    Glahn, D.C., Bearden, C.E., Barguil, M., Barrett, J., Reichenberg, A., Bowden, C.L., Soares, J.C. & Velligan, D.I. The neurocognitive signature of psychotic bipolar disorder {2007} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {62}({8}), pp. {910-916} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background: Psychotic bipolar disorder may represent a neurobiologically distinct subgroup of bipolar affective illness. We sought to ascertain the profile of cognitive impairment in patients with bipolar disorder and to determine whether a distinct profile of cognitive deficits characterizes bipolar patients with a history of psychosis. Methods: Sixty-nine outpatients with bipolar I disorder (34 with a history of psychotic symptoms and 35 with no history of psychosis) and 35 healthy comparison subjects underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. All three groups were demographically matched. Results: Despite preserved general intellectual function, bipolar I patients overall showed moderate impairments on tests of episodic memory and specific executive measures (average effect size =.58), and moderate to severe deficits on attentional and processing speed tasks (average effect size =.82). Bipolar I patients with a history of psychosis were impaired on measures of executive functioning and spatial working memory compared with bipolar patients without history of psychosis. Conclusions: Psychotic bipolar disorder was associated with differential impairment on tasks requiring frontal/executive processing, suggesting that psychotic symptoms may have neural correlates that are at least partially independent of those associated with bipolar I disorder more generally. However, deficits in attention, psychomotor speed, and memory appear to be part of the broader disease phenotype in patients with bipolar disorder.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Glahn2007,
      author = {Glahn, David C. and Bearden, Carrie E. and Barguil, Marcela and Barrett, Jennifer and Reichenberg, Abraham and Bowden, Charles L. and Soares, Jair C. and Velligan, Dawn I.},
      title = {The neurocognitive signature of psychotic bipolar disorder},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {62},
      number = {8},
      pages = {910-916},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.02.001}}
    }
    
    Goldberg, M., Mostofsky, S., Cutting, L., Mahone, E., Astor, B., Denckla, M. & Landa, R. Subtle executive impairment in children with autism and children with ADHD {2005} JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
    Vol. {35}({3}), pp. {279-293} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background: The executive functions of inhibition, planning, flexible shifting of actions, and working memory are commonly reported to be impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. Method: We compared these abilities in children (8-12 years) with high functioning autism (HFA, n = 17), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n = 21) and healthy controls ( n = 32). Response inhibition was assessed using the Stroop Color and Word Test ( Golden, 1978). Problem solving, set- shifting, and nonverbal memory were assessed using three tasks, respectively, from the CANTAB (R) ( Cambridge Cognition, 1996): the Stockings of Cambridge task; the Intra-Dimensional/Extra-Dimensional set- shifting task; and the Spatial Working Memory task (SWM) with tokens hidden behind 3, 4, 6, and 8 boxes. Results: There were no group differences on the response inhibition, planning, or set- shifting tasks. On the SWM task, children with HFA made significantly more between-search errors compared with controls on both the most difficult problems (8-box) and on the mid-difficulty problems (6-box); however, children with ADHD made significantly more errors compared to controls on the most difficult (8-box) problems only. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that spatial working memory is impaired in both ADHD and HFA, and more severely in the latter. More detailed investigation is needed to examine the mechanisms that differentially impair spatial working memory, but on this set of tasks there appears to be sparing of other executive functions in these neuropsychiatric developmental disorders.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Goldberg2005,
      author = {Goldberg, MC and Mostofsky, SH and Cutting, LE and Mahone, EM and Astor, BC and Denckla, MB and Landa, RJ},
      title = {Subtle executive impairment in children with autism and children with ADHD},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {35},
      number = {3},
      pages = {279-293},
      doi = {{10.1007/s10803-005-3291-4}}
    }
    
    GOLDBERG, T., TORREY, E., GOLD, J., BIGELOW, L., RAGLAND, R., TAYLOR, E. & WEINBERGER, D. GENETIC RISK OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT IN SCHIZOPHRENIA - A STUDY OF MONOZYGOTIC TWINS DISCORDANT AND CONCORDANT FOR THE DISORDER {1995} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {17}({1}), pp. {77-84} 
    article  
    Abstract: We used a paradigm involving monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia (n=20) and concordant for schizophrenia (n=8), as well as normal MZ twin pairs (n=7) in order to study cognitive measures of genetic risk in schizophrenia. A comparison between the unaffected twins from the discordant sample and the normal twins indicated subtle attenuations in some aspects of memory and executive functioning in the unaffected group and thus provided evidence for cognitive markers of a genetic component in schizophrenia. A comparison of the affected twins from the discordant pairs and the concordant twins yielded virtually no differences, suggesting that a distinction between familial and sporadic cases is not valid in this sample. Large differences between unaffected and affected members of discordant pairs on a wide variety of variables, including IQ, attention, memory, and executive function, highlighted the magnitude of disease-specific factors.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GOLDBERG1995,
      author = {GOLDBERG, TE and TORREY, EF and GOLD, JM and BIGELOW, LB and RAGLAND, RD and TAYLOR, E and WEINBERGER, DR},
      title = {GENETIC RISK OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT IN SCHIZOPHRENIA - A STUDY OF MONOZYGOTIC TWINS DISCORDANT AND CONCORDANT FOR THE DISORDER},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {17},
      number = {1},
      pages = {77-84}
    }
    
    GOLDMAN, R., AXELROD, B. & TOMPKINS, L. EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL CUES ON SCHIZOPHRENIC-PATIENTS PERFORMANCE ON THE WISCONSIN CARD SORTING TEST {1992} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {149}({12}), pp. {1718-1722} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: Schizophrenic patients are particularly deficient on measures of executive functioning, notably the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of a cuing strategy in facilitating performance on this cognitive measure of the integrity of prefrontal brain structures and functioning. Method: Twenty-four schizophrenic inpatients and 24 demographically matched inpatients with mood disorders were administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test either with instructional cues at the beginning of the task or with the standard administration procedure. Results: There was a significant benefit of cues for the patients with affective disorders as well as for the schizophrenic patients. The schizophrenic subjects in the uncued condition maintained poor but stable performance throughout the course of the task. Conclusions: The study suggests that the deficit in executive functioning of schizophrenic patients may lie in the formation of concepts, not in their application.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GOLDMAN1992,
      author = {GOLDMAN, RS and AXELROD, BN and TOMPKINS, LM},
      title = {EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL CUES ON SCHIZOPHRENIC-PATIENTS PERFORMANCE ON THE WISCONSIN CARD SORTING TEST},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {149},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1718-1722}
    }
    
    GOLDSTEIN, F., LEVIN, H., PRESLEY, R., SEARCY, J., COLOHAN, A., EISENBERG, H., JANN, B. & BERTOLINOKUSNERIK, L. NEUROBEHAVIORAL CONSEQUENCES OF CLOSED-HEAD INJURY IN OLDER ADULTS {1994} JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {57}({8}), pp. {961-966} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study examined the neurobehavioural effects of closed head injury (CHI) in adults aged 50 years and older. Twenty two mild to moderate CHI patients who were within seven months of the injury were administered measures of language, memory, attention, and executive functioning, Compared with demographically similar normal controls, the patients exhibited significantly poorer functioning on the cognitive domains. Naming and word fluency under timed conditions, verbal and visual memory, and the ability to infer similarities were especially vulnerable. These initial findings indicate that CHI in older adults produces considerable cognitive deficits in the early stages of recovery. Future research should characterise long term outcome and the potential links between head injury and the development of progressive dementia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GOLDSTEIN1994,
      author = {GOLDSTEIN, FC and LEVIN, HS and PRESLEY, RM and SEARCY, J and COLOHAN, ART and EISENBERG, HM and JANN, B and BERTOLINOKUSNERIK, L},
      title = {NEUROBEHAVIORAL CONSEQUENCES OF CLOSED-HEAD INJURY IN OLDER ADULTS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {57},
      number = {8},
      pages = {961-966}
    }
    
    Goldstein, R., Leskovjan, A., Hoff, A., Hitzemann, R., Bashan, F., Khalsa, S., Wang, G., Fowler, J. & Volkow, N. Severity of neuropsychological impairment in cocaine and alcohol addiction: association with metabolism in the prefrontal cortex {2004} NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA
    Vol. {42}({11}), pp. {1447-1458} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We used exploratory and confirmatory statistical approaches to study the severity of neuropsychological (NP) impairment in 42 crack/cocaine addicted subjects and in 112 comparison subjects (40 alcoholics and 72 controls). Twenty neuropsychological test indices most reliably defining predetermined cognitive domains were submitted to exploratory factor analysis. A four-dimensional model of neurocognitive function was derived: Verbal Knowledge, Visual Memory, Verbal Memory, and Attention/Executive functioning accounted for 63% of the variance. We then examined this model's association with resting glucose metabolism in the brain reward circuit measured with 2-deoxy-2[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography. Results revealed that (1) cocaine addicted individuals had a generalized mild level of neurocognitive impairment (< 1 S.D. below control mean); and (2) controlling for age and education, relative metabolism in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex significantly predicted the Visual Memory and Verbal Memory factors and relative metabolism in the anterior cingulate gyrus significantly predicted the Attention/Executive factor. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined whether metabolic changes in these regions are associated with addiction. Our results also suggest that compared to cocaine, alcohol has a more detrimental effect on Attention/Executive functioning, as assessed with traditional NP measures. We conclude that relative to other psychopathological disorders (such as schizophrenia), the severity of neuropsychological impairment in cocaine addiction is modest, albeit not indicative of the absence of neurocognitive dysfunction. The impact of such small differences in performance on quality of life, and possibly on craving and relapse, may be substantial. Tasks that simulate real-life decision-making or that target specific putative cognitive-behavioral or motivational-emotional mechanisms might offer greater sensitivity in characterizing the changes that accompany addiction to drugs. Obtaining valid estimates of alcohol use in cocaine addicted subjects is essential in characterizing neurocognitive functioning in individuals addicted to drugs. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Goldstein2004,
      author = {Goldstein, RZ and Leskovjan, AC and Hoff, AL and Hitzemann, R and Bashan, F and Khalsa, SS and Wang, GJ and Fowler, JS and Volkow, ND},
      title = {Severity of neuropsychological impairment in cocaine and alcohol addiction: association with metabolism in the prefrontal cortex},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {42},
      number = {11},
      pages = {1447-1458},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2004.04.002}}
    }
    
    Gooding, D., Kwapil, T. & Tallent, K. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test deficits in schizotypic individuals {1999} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {40}({3}), pp. {201-209} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present study investigates executive functioning in schizotypic college students and control subjects using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Inhibitory control and working memory, two aspects of executive functioning, were examined in deviantly high scorers on the Perceptual Aberration and Magical Ideation Scales (n=97), high scorers on the revised Social Anhedonia Scale (n=58), and in control subjects (n=104). The schizotypic groups displayed significantly more perseverative errors and achieved fewer categories than the control group. The two schizotypic groups did not differ from each other. We identified a subset of schizotypic individuals who also produced clinically deviant WCST profiles. The findings support the hypothesis that executive function deficits may precede the onset of schizophrenia and related illnesses. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gooding1999,
      author = {Gooding, DC and Kwapil, TR and Tallent, KA},
      title = {Wisconsin Card Sorting Test deficits in schizotypic individuals},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {40},
      number = {3},
      pages = {201-209}
    }
    
    Goswami, U., Sharma, A., Khastigir, U., Ferrier, I., Young, A., Gallagher, P., Thompson, J. & Moore, P. Neuropsychological dysfunction, soft neurological signs and social disability in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder {2006} BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {188}, pp. {366-373} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background Neurocognitive deficits exist in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder, but relationships between symptoms, psychosocial and neurological factors remain uncertain. Aims To measure neurocognitive function in bipolar disorder and explore links to sub-syndromal mood symptoms, soft neurological signs and psychosocial impairment. Method Attention, memory and executive function were tested in 37 euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and 37 controls. Psychosocial functioning, soft neurological signs and residual mood symptoms were assessed. Results Performances on tests reflecting executive function and verbal memory (but not attention) were significantly poorer in the bipolar disorder group. Sub-syndromal mood symptoms produced small cognitive effects, predominantly on verbal memory. Soft neurological signs, especially frontal signs, were marked; some patients showed marked social disability which correlated strongly with soft neurological signs but weakly with executive dysfunction, which was linked to illness episodes. Conclusions Cognitive dysfunction, social dysfunction and soft signs occur in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and may represent trait deficits. Declaration of interest None. Funding detailed in Acknowledgements.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Goswami2006,
      author = {Goswami, U and Sharma, A and Khastigir, U and Ferrier, IN and Young, AH and Gallagher, P and Thompson, JM and Moore, PB},
      title = {Neuropsychological dysfunction, soft neurological signs and social disability in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {188},
      pages = {366-373}
    }
    
    Goudriaan, A., Oosterlaan, J., de Beurs, E. & van den Brink, W. Neurocognitive functions in pathological gambling: a comparison with alcohol dependence, Tourette syndrome and normal controls {2006} ADDICTION
    Vol. {101}({4}), pp. {534-547} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Aims Neurocognitive functions in pathological gambling have relevance for the aetiology and treatment of this disorder, yet are poorly understood. This study therefore investigated neurocognitive impairments of executive functions in a group of carefully screened Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version IV (DSM-IV-TR) pathological gamblers. Performance was compared to a group of normal control participants. To study the specificity of these neurocognitive deficits, a substance dependence group (alcohol dependence) and an impulse control disorder group (Tourette syndrome) were included. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Addiction and general mental health treatment centres. Participants Forty-nine pathological gamblers, 48 abstinent alcohol-dependent patients, 46 participants with Tourette syndrome and 49 normal control participants. Measurements A comprehensive neuropsychological battery measuring executive functions as well as basic cognitive functions. Findings Both the pathological gambling and the alcohol dependent groups were characterized by diminished performance on inhibition, time estimation, cognitive flexibility and planning tasks. The Tourette syndrome group showed deficits only on inhibition tasks. Basic cognitive functions were intact in all clinical groups. Comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, antisocial personality disorder and nicotine dependence influenced the impaired functions of the clinical groups only minimally. Conclusions Carefully screened groups of pathological gamblers and alcohol dependents were characterized by diminished executive functioning, suggesting a dysfunction of frontal lobe circuitry in these disorders. The resemblance between the pathological gambling group and the alcohol dependence group suggests a common neurocognitive aetiology for these disorders. Psychosocial treatment of these disorders could benefit from assessing and targeting deficits in executive functions, as they probably influence the course of these disorders negatively.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Goudriaan2006,
      author = {Goudriaan, AE and Oosterlaan, J and de Beurs, E and van den Brink, W},
      title = {Neurocognitive functions in pathological gambling: a comparison with alcohol dependence, Tourette syndrome and normal controls},
      journal = {ADDICTION},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {101},
      number = {4},
      pages = {534-547},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01380.x}}
    }
    
    Goudriaan, A., Oosterlaan, J., de Beurs, E. & Van den Brink, W. Pathological gambling: a comprehensive review of biobehavioral findings {2004} NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS
    Vol. {28}({2}), pp. {123-141} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In this review, findings of biobehavioral research into pathological gambling (PG) are discussed, focusing on neuropsychological, psychophysiological, neuroimaging, neurochemical and genetic studies. Neuropsychological studies indicate deficiencies in certain executive functions. Psychophysiological studies indicate that arousal in PG is of importance when reward is present. Neuroimaging studies point to abnormalities in brain functioning. Recent research into the neurochemistry of PG indicates that abnormalities exist in different neurotransmitter systems. Finally, genetic studies indicate the existence of abnormal dopamine receptor genes in PG. Methodological and theoretical factors that may explain discrepancies between studies include differences in screening and assessment, heterogeneity of gambling problems and different underlying cognitive or motivational mechanisms. Results from the PG studies fit in with recent theoretical models of addiction and PG, which stress the involvement of brain reward pathways, neurotransmitter abnormalities, the frontal cortex and the psychophysiological stress system. A framework for future studies is suggested, indicating the need for studies that integrate knowledge from different research areas, and that employ stricter diagnostic screening methods and inclusion of clinical control groups. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Goudriaan2004,
      author = {Goudriaan, AE and Oosterlaan, J and de Beurs, E and Van den Brink, W},
      title = {Pathological gambling: a comprehensive review of biobehavioral findings},
      journal = {NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {28},
      number = {2},
      pages = {123-141},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.03.001}}
    }
    
    Graham, N., Emery, T. & Hodges, J. Distinctive cognitive profiles in Alzheimer's disease and subcortical vascular dementia {2004} JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {75}({1}), pp. {61-71} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: There are inconsistencies in published reports regarding the profile of cognitive impairments in vascular dementia, and its differentiation from Alzheimer's disease. Objectives: To identify the overall profile of cognitive impairment in subcortical vascular dementia as compared with Alzheimer's disease; and the tests which best discriminate between these groups. Methods: 57 subjects participated: 19 with subcortical vascular dementia, 19 with Alzheimer's disease, and 19 controls. The dementia groups were matched for age, education, and general levels of cognitive and everyday functioning. Subcortical vascular dementia was defined by clinical features (prominent vascular risk factors plus a previous history of transient ischaemic events or focal neurological signs) and substantial white matter pathology on magnetic resonance imaging. All subjects were given a battery of 33 tests assessing episodic and semantic memory, executive/attentional functioning, and visuospatial and perceptual skills. Results: Despite a minimal degree of overall dementia, both patient groups had impairments in all cognitive domains. The Alzheimer patients were more impaired than those with vascular dementia on episodic memory, while the patients with vascular dementia were more impaired on semantic memory, executive/attentional functioning, and visuospatial and perceptual skills. Logistic regression analyses showed that the two groups could be discriminated with 89% accuracy on the basis of two tests, the WAIS logical memory-delayed recall test and a silhouette naming test. Conclusions: Subcortical vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease produce distinctive profiles of cognitive impairment which can act as an adjunct to diagnosis. Many of the neuropsychological deficits thought to characterise Alzheimer's disease are also found in subcortical vascular dementia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Graham2004,
      author = {Graham, NL and Emery, T and Hodges, JR},
      title = {Distinctive cognitive profiles in Alzheimer's disease and subcortical vascular dementia},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {75},
      number = {1},
      pages = {61-71}
    }
    
    Grant, M., Thase, M. & Sweeney, J. Cognitive disturbance in outpatient depressed younger adults: Evidence of modest impairment {2001} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {50}({1}), pp. {35-43} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Investigations of cognitive disturbances among patients with mood disorders have yielded inconsistent results. Although marked neuropsychologic deficits have been reported in elderly patients and in midlife patients with severe depression, the severity of cognitive impairments in medically healthy younger ambulatory adults with depression has not been well characterized. Methods: A comprehensive battery of standard neuropsychologic tests and experimental computerized measures of cognitive functioning were administered to unmedicated ambulatory younger adults with mild to moderate nonbipolar depression and to a group of age- and gender-equated healthy subjects. Results: Patients demonstrated a notable absence of widespread cognitive impairment. Deficits in executive functions were observed on the Wisconsin Card Sort Test but not on several other tests. Despite the absence of significant impairment on tests of attention, memory, and motor performance in the total sample, symptom severity and age of illness onset were correlated with poorer performance on some tests of cognitive functioning evert after correction for age. Conclusions: These findings, derived from a large sample of unmedicated depressed outpatients, indicate that major depressive disorder in healthy younger ambulatory adults does not cause appreciable impairment in cognitive functioning in the absence of clinical and course-of-illness features. Biol Psychiatry 2001;50:35-43 (C) 2001 Society of Biological Psychiatry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Grant2001,
      author = {Grant, MM and Thase, ME and Sweeney, JA},
      title = {Cognitive disturbance in outpatient depressed younger adults: Evidence of modest impairment},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {50},
      number = {1},
      pages = {35-43}
    }
    
    Green, M., Kern, R., Braff, D. & Mintz, J. Neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia: Are we measuring the ``right stuff''? {2000} SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN
    Vol. {26}({1}), pp. {119-136} 
    article  
    Abstract: There has been a surge of interest in the functional consequences of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The published literature in this area has doubled in the last few years. In this paper, we will attempt to confirm the conclusions from a previous review that certain neurocognitive domains (secondary verbal memory, immediate memory, executive functioning as measured by card sorting, and vigilance) are associated with functional outcome. In addition to surveying the number of replicated findings and tallying box scores of results, me will approach the review of the studies in a more thorough and empirical manner by applying a meta-analysis. Lastly, we mill discuss what we see as a key limitation of this literature, specifically, the relatively narrow selection of predictor measures. This limitation has constrained identification of mediating variables that may explain the mechanisms for these relationships.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Green2000,
      author = {Green, MF and Kern, RS and Braff, DL and Mintz, J},
      title = {Neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia: Are we measuring the ``right stuff''?},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {26},
      number = {1},
      pages = {119-136}
    }
    
    Greene, Y., Tariot, P., Wishart, H., Cox, C., Holt, C., Schwid, S. & Noviasky, J. A 12-week, open trial of donepezil hydrochloride in patients with multiple sclerosis and associated cognitive impairments {2000} JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
    Vol. {20}({3}), pp. {350-356} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cognitive dysfunction occurs in up to 65% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but there is no effective treatment for the symptoms. The authors conducted a 12-week, open-pilot study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of donepezil HCl administered in patients with RIS and cognitive impairment. Seventeen patients at a long-term care facility with Mini-Mental State Examination scores of less than or equal to 25 received 5 mg of donepezil HCl for a 4-week period, followed by 8 weeks of 10 mg of donepezil HCl. Cognitive, neurologic, functional, and behavioral assessments were conducted at baseline and at 4 and 12 weeks. Statistically significant improvement was observed in several cognitive domains including attention, memory, and executive functioning, as well as different aspects of behavior, These data suggest that donepezil HCl merits further study as a potentially viable treatment option for patients with cognitive impairment associated with MS.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Greene2000,
      author = {Greene, YM and Tariot, PN and Wishart, H and Cox, C and Holt, CJ and Schwid, S and Noviasky, J},
      title = {A 12-week, open trial of donepezil hydrochloride in patients with multiple sclerosis and associated cognitive impairments},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {20},
      number = {3},
      pages = {350-356}
    }
    
    Greisberg, S. & McKay, D. Neuropsychology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review and treatment implications {2003} CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {23}({1}), pp. {95-117} 
    article  
    Abstract: The existing literature examining neuropsychological features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is reviewed. The accumulated research points to a deficit in organizational strategies in general, suggesting problems in executive functioning. The available research is inconsistent in identifying memory deficits in OCD. However, memory problems are most evident when tests are used that require an implicit organizational strategy. While the majority of the research reviewed involves adult samples, there is emerging evidence that these deficits are present in children as well. It is suggested here that the interaction between organizational strategy deficits and the effort to recall unstructured information contributes to doubting, an important feature of OCD. Implications of this body of research for behavior therapy are considered. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Greisberg2003,
      author = {Greisberg, S and McKay, D},
      title = {Neuropsychology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review and treatment implications},
      journal = {CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {23},
      number = {1},
      pages = {95-117}
    }
    
    Grigsby, J., Kaye, K., Baxter, J., Shetterly, S. & Hamman, R. Executive cognitive abilities and functional status among community-dwelling older persons in the San Luis Valley health and aging study {1998} JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY
    Vol. {46}({5}), pp. {590-596} 
    article  
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of the executive cognitive functions to self-reported and observed performance of activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living. DESIGN: These data were collected as part of a cross-sectional survey of community-dwelling older persons, using statistical sampling, in a two-county area of southern Colorado. SETTING: Participants were interviewed and administered measures of general cognition, depression, executive functioning, and performance of self-care and instrumental activities, either in their homes or at the study clinic. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1158 community-dwelling persons between the ages of 60 and 99 participated. Of these, 657 were female, 501 were male, 637 were Hispanic, and 521 were non-Hispanic whites. MEASUREMENTS: Subjects were administered the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), a measure of executive functioning (the Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D), and the Structured Assessment of Independent Living Skills (SAILS, a measure of observed performance of daily tasks). They also were interviewed regarding their reported ADL and IADL status using measures from the Longitudinal Study on Aging. RESULTS: Both general mental status and executive functioning demonstrated statistically significant univariate associations with all seven functional status measures (both self-report and observed performance). In a series of ordinary least squares regression models, executive functioning was a predictor for self-reported ADLs and observed performance of complex IADL tasks such as managing money and medications. Mental status did not predict self-reported functioning but was a predictor of observed performance. Depression was a significant variable for self-report measures but not for observed performance. Executive functioning and general mental status demonstrated some degree of independence from one another. CONCLUSION: Executive functioning is an important determinant of functional status for both self-reported and observed ADLs and IADLs and should be assessed routinely when evaluating the mental status and functional abilities of older people. These results replicate and extend previous research on executive functioning among older persons by examining these factors in a large bi-ethnic community sample.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Grigsby1998,
      author = {Grigsby, J and Kaye, K and Baxter, J and Shetterly, SM and Hamman, RF},
      title = {Executive cognitive abilities and functional status among community-dwelling older persons in the San Luis Valley health and aging study},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {46},
      number = {5},
      pages = {590-596},
      note = {25th Meeting of the International-Neuropsychological-Society, ORLANDO, FLORIDA, FEB 05-08, 1997}
    }
    
    Gunning-Dixon, F. & Raz, N. The cognitive correlates of white matter abnormalities in normal aging: A quantitative review {2000} NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {14}({2}), pp. {224-232} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Cerebral white matter of asymptomatic people frequently exhibits circumscribed areas of hyperintensity on magnetic resonance (MR) images and hypodensity on computed tomography scans. However, behavioral implications of this phenomenon remain unclear. In this meta-analysis, the authors examine cumulative evidence regarding the cognitive sequelae of white matter abnormalities in adults without dementia. The influence of potential moderator variables, such as neuroimaging technique, location of the lesions, rating scale, and demographic characteristics of the sample on the association between the burden of white matter hyperintensities and cognitive performance was also examined. Results indicate that white matter abnormalities observed on MR images an associated with attenuated performance on tasks of processing speed, immediate and delayed memory, executive functions, and indices of global cognitive functioning. There was no significant link between the white matter hyperintensities and psychometric indices of intelligence or fine motor performance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gunning-Dixon2000,
      author = {Gunning-Dixon, FM and Raz, N},
      title = {The cognitive correlates of white matter abnormalities in normal aging: A quantitative review},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {14},
      number = {2},
      pages = {224-232},
      doi = {{10.1037//0894-4105.14.2.224}}
    }
    
    Gunstad, J., Paul, R.H., Cohen, R.A., Tate, D.F., Spitznagel, M.B. & Gordon, E. Elevated body mass index is associated with executive dysfunction in otherwise healthy adults {2007} COMPREHENSIVE PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {48}({1}), pp. {57-61} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: There is growing evidence that obesity is linked to adverse neurocognitive outcome, including reduced cognitive functioning and Alzheimer disease. However, no study to date has determined whether the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive performance varies as a function of age. We examined attention and executive function in a cross-section of 408 healthy persons across the adult life span (20-82 years). Bivariate correlation showed that BMI was inversely related to perfort-nance on all cognitive tests. After controlling for possible confounding factors, overweight and obese adults (BMI > 25) exhibited poorer executive function test performance than normal weight adults (BMI, 18.5-24.9). No differences emerged in attention test performance, and there was no evidence of a BMI X age interaction for either cognitive domain. These results provide further evidence for the relationship between elevated BMI and reduced cognitive performance and suggest that this relationship does not vary with age. Further research is needed to identify the etiology of these deficits and whether they resolve after weight loss. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gunstad2007,
      author = {Gunstad, John and Paul, Robert H. and Cohen, Ronald A. and Tate, David F. and Spitznagel, Mary Beth and Gordon, Evian},
      title = {Elevated body mass index is associated with executive dysfunction in otherwise healthy adults},
      journal = {COMPREHENSIVE PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {48},
      number = {1},
      pages = {57-61},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.comppsych.2006.05.001}}
    }
    
    Haberecht, M., Menon, V., Warsofsky, I., White, C., Dyer-Friedman, J., Glover, G., Neely, E. & Reiss, A. Functional neuroanatomy of visuo-spatial working memory in Turner syndrome {2001} HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING
    Vol. {14}({2}), pp. {96-107} 
    article  
    Abstract: Turner syndrome (TS), a genetic disorder characterized by the absence of an X chromosome in females, has been associated with cognitive and visuo-spatial processing impairments. We utilized functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate the neural substrates that underlie observed deficits in executive functioning and visuo-spatial processing. Eleven females with TS and 14 typically developing females (ages 7-20) underwent fMRI scanning while performing 1-back and 2-back versions of a standard visuo-spatial working memory (WM) task. On both tasks, TS subjects performed worse than control subjects. Compared with controls, TS subjects showed increased activation in the left and right supramarginal gyrus (SMG) during the 1-back task and decreased activation in these regions during the 2-back task. In addition, decreased activation in the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and caudate nucleus was observed during the 2-back task in TS subjects. Activation differences localized to the SMG, in the inferior parietal lobe, may reflect deficits in visuo-spatial encoding and WM storage mechanisms in TS. In addition, deficits in the DLPFC and caudate may be related to deficits in executive function during WM performance. Together these findings point to deficits in frontal-striatal and frontal-parietal circuits subserving multiple WM functions in TS.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Haberecht2001,
      author = {Haberecht, MF and Menon, V and Warsofsky, IS and White, CD and Dyer-Friedman, J and Glover, GH and Neely, EK and Reiss, AL},
      title = {Functional neuroanatomy of visuo-spatial working memory in Turner syndrome},
      journal = {HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {14},
      number = {2},
      pages = {96-107}
    }
    
    Hajcak, G. & Simons, R. Error-related brain activity in obsessive-compulsive undergraduates {2002} PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH
    Vol. {110}({1}), pp. {63-72} 
    article  
    Abstract: Error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) is a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) associated with monitoring action and detecting errors. It is a sharp negative deflection that generally occurs from 50 to 150 ms following response execution and has been associated with activity involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). An enhanced ERN has recently been observed in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We extended these findings by measuring the ERN in college undergraduates with OC characteristics as measured by the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI). Eighteen high-OC Subjects and 17 low-OC subjects performed a modified Stroop task with equal emphasis placed on speed and accuracy. Response-locked ERPs revealed a frontally maximal negativity associated with erroneous responses that was significantly larger in the high-OCI group. There were no performance differences between the two groups. Our results support the view that the characteristics associated with OCD are related to hyper-functioning error and action-monitoring processes. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hajcak2002,
      author = {Hajcak, G and Simons, RF},
      title = {Error-related brain activity in obsessive-compulsive undergraduates},
      journal = {PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {110},
      number = {1},
      pages = {63-72},
      note = {41st Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Psychophysiological-Research, MONTREAL, CANADA, OCT, 2001}
    }
    
    Hanks, R., Rapport, L., Millis, S. & Deshpande, S. Measures of executive functioning as predictors of functional ability and social integration in a rehabilitation sample {1999} ARCHIVES OF PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION
    Vol. {80}({9}), pp. {1030-1037} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To examine the utility of executive function tests in predicting rehabilitation outcome. Design: A prospective, descriptive study of the value of neuropsychologic and motor functioning measures in the prediction of functional outcome 6 months after acute rehabilitation. Setting: A Midwestern, urban, university-affiliate rehabilitation hospital. Patients: Ninety consecutive admissions to traumatic brain injury, orthopedic, and spinal cord injury units. Age of the participants ranged from 17 to 73. Main Outcome Measures: Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ), Disability Rating Scale (DRS), SF-36 Health Survey. Results: Canonical correlation analyses indicated that measures of executive functioning and verbal memory were strongly related to measures of functional outcome 6 months after rehabilitation, as measured by the DRS and the CIQ. In contrast, perceived health status as measured by the SF-36 was highly related to estimated premorbid IQ and:modestly related to visuospatial impairment. Conclusions: Executive functioning, verbal memory,:and estimated premorbid intelligence predict functional dependence after discharge from rehabilitation beyond information regarding basic sensory and motor skills. Moreover, there is a dissociation between measures of functional outcome, such that objective and behaviorally oriented measures of disability (CIQ and DRS) are strongly related to each other; however, they are not related to perceptions of general health status (SF-36). (C) 1994 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hanks1999,
      author = {Hanks, RA and Rapport, LJ and Millis, SR and Deshpande, SA},
      title = {Measures of executive functioning as predictors of functional ability and social integration in a rehabilitation sample},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {80},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1030-1037}
    }
    
    Hanson, K. & Luciana, M. Neurocognitive function in users of MDMA: the importance of clinically significant patterns of use {2004} PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE
    Vol. {34}({2}), pp. {229-246} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background. Use of MDMA (ecstasy), a serotonin neurotoxin, has been associated with memory impairment and psychological dysfunction. This Study examined cognitive functioning in abstinent MDMA users and MDMA-naive controls. Method. Participants completed measures of intelligence, motor function, attention, memory span, verbal fluency, immediate and delayed verbal memory, and working memory. They were also assessed for the presence of psychopathology. In addition to comparing cognitive function in MDMA users relative to controls, the possibility that clinically dysfunctional MDMA use increases the risk of cognitive impairment was examined. Results. MDMA users exhibited relative deficits in mnemonic and executive functions. Additionally, users that met DSM-IV substance use disorder criteria for lifetime MDMA abuse or dependence exhibited a number of additional deficits relative to those who did not meet these criteria. Conclusion. These findings suggest that clinically dysfunctional, rather than purely recreational, MDMA use is associated with cognitive impairment. Future research Studies of diverse samples of users may shed light on the mechanisms that underlie these differences.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hanson2004,
      author = {Hanson, KL and Luciana, M},
      title = {Neurocognitive function in users of MDMA: the importance of clinically significant patterns of use},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {34},
      number = {2},
      pages = {229-246},
      doi = {{10.1017/S0033291703001132}}
    }
    
    HAPPE, F. WECHSLER IQ PROFILE AND THEORY OF MIND IN AUTISM - A RESEARCH NOTE {1994} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {35}({8}), pp. {1461-1471} 
    article  
    Abstract: The unusually uneven intelligence test profile found in autism has been consistently replicated. However, few psychological theories of autism give prominence to this feature. Nor is it clear how currently influential theories, such as the theory of mind account or the executive function hypothesis, can explain the marked peaks and troughs found in the performance of both high- and low-functioning individuals with autism. The present study reports the pattern of Wechsler subtest results for subjects with autism who do or do not pass standard theory of mind tasks. The results suggest that while difficulty with the Comprehension subtest may reflect poor theory of mind, relative skill on the Block Design subtest is characteristic of subjects with autism regardless of theory of mind performance. Implications of this finding for the central coherence hypothesis are considered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HAPPE1994,
      author = {HAPPE, FGE},
      title = {WECHSLER IQ PROFILE AND THEORY OF MIND IN AUTISM - A RESEARCH NOTE},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {35},
      number = {8},
      pages = {1461-1471}
    }
    
    Happe, F. & Frith, U. The weak coherence account: Detail-focused cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders {2006} JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
    Vol. {36}({1}), pp. {5-25} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: ``Weak central coherence'' refers to the detail-focused processing style proposed to characterise autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The original suggestion of a core deficit in central processing resulting in failure to extract global form/meaning, has been challenged in three ways. First, it may represent an outcome of superiority in local processing. Second, it may be a processing bias, rather than deficit. Third, weak coherence may occur alongside, rather than explain, deficits in social cognition. A review of over 50 empirical studies of coherence suggests robust findings of local bias in ASD, with mixed findings regarding weak global processing. Local bias appears not to be a mere side-effect of executive dysfunction, and may be independent of theory of mind deficits. Possible computational and neural models are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Happe2006,
      author = {Happe, F and Frith, U},
      title = {The weak coherence account: Detail-focused cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {36},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5-25},
      doi = {{10.1007/s10803-005-0039-0}}
    }
    
    Harvey, P., Green, M., McGurk, S. & Meltzer, H. Changes in cognitive functioning with risperidone and olanzapine treatment: a large-scale, double-blind, randomized study {2003} PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
    Vol. {169}({3-4}), pp. {404-411} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Objective. The effects of risperidone and olanzapine on cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia were compared in a randomized, double-blind trial. Method. Three hundred and seventy-seven patients were randomly assigned to receive 2-6 mg/day of risperidone or 5-20 mg/day of olanzapine for 8 weeks. Cognitive function was assessed with a focused cognitive assessment battery; in addition, extrapyramidal symptoms were assessed using the extrapyramidal symptom rating scale (ESRS), and the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) was rated for all patients. Results. Treatment with these two atypical antipsychotic medications was associated with improved performance on the Wisconsin card sorting test, the trail-making test, the California verbal learning test, the continuous performance test, and some aspects of verbal fluency and spatial working memory. No differences in the effects of the drugs on any of the cognitive tests were noted. Correcting for the effects of anticholinergic treatment did not alter the magnitude of cognitive effects. Conclusions. Atypical antipsychotic treatment is associated with wide-ranging benefits on cognitive functioning. Previous reports of greater benefits of olanzapine over risperidone in a small-sample pilot study were not substantiated. These results are not due in general to changes in clinical symptoms or movement disorders, suggesting a direct effect of atypical antipsychotic medications on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Harvey2003,
      author = {Harvey, PD and Green, MF and McGurk, SR and Meltzer, HY},
      title = {Changes in cognitive functioning with risperidone and olanzapine treatment: a large-scale, double-blind, randomized study},
      journal = {PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {169},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {404-411},
      doi = {{10.1007/s00213-002-1342-5}}
    }
    
    Harvey, P., Meltzer, H., Simpson, G., Potkin, S., Loebel, A., Siu, C. & Romano, S. Improvement in cognitive function following a switch to ziprasidone from conventional antipsychotics, olanzapine, or risperidone in outpatients with schizophrenia {2004} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {66}({2-3}), pp. {101-113} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Objective: To assess changes in cognitive function in stable outpatients with schizophrenia switched to ziprasidone from conventional antipsychotics (n = 108), olanzapine (n = 104), or risperidone (n = 58) because of suboptimal efficacy or poor tolerability. Methods: In three separate 6-week trials, patients received ziprasidone 40 mg b.i.d. for 2 days, followed by 20-80 mg b.i.d. for the next 40 days. Before switching, and at endpoint, patients were evaluated with tests of working and secondary verbal memory, vigilance, visuomotor speed, verbal fluency, and executive functioning. Principal components factor analysis was performed to test for clustering of cognitive variables. Results: Significant improvements were seen at endpoint in secondary verbal memory (in all three groups), vigilance (in patients switched from conventional antipsychotics or risperidone), executive function (in patients switched from conventional antipsychotics or risperidone), and verbal fluency. Factor analysis on baseline scores suggested reduction of the cognitive variables to three factors: verbal skills, attention and short-term memory, and executive functioning. Analysis of z-transfonned mean change in factor scores showed significant improvement in verbal skills and global score following the switch from conventional antipsychotics, olanzapine, or risperidone. Conclusions: Patients requiring a change in antipsychotic therapy may exhibit cognitive improvement following a switch to ziprasidone. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Harvey2004,
      author = {Harvey, PD and Meltzer, H and Simpson, GM and Potkin, SG and Loebel, A and Siu, C and Romano, SJ},
      title = {Improvement in cognitive function following a switch to ziprasidone from conventional antipsychotics, olanzapine, or risperidone in outpatients with schizophrenia},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {66},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {101-113},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.schres.2003.07.009}}
    }
    
    Harvey, P., Napolitano, J., Mao, L. & Gharabawi, G. Comparative effects of risperidone and olanzapine on cognition in elderly patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder {2003} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {18}({9}), pp. {820-828} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Objective To examine the effects of risperidone and olanzapine on cognitive functioning in elderly patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Method One hundred seventy-six elderly inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled in this multicenter, double-blind trial. After their antipsychotic medications were tapered for 1 week, patients were randomly assigned to receive either risperidone 1 to 3 mg/day or olanzapine 5 to 20 mg/day for 8 weeks. Performance on the Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Serial Verbal Learning Test (SVLT), TMT (Trail Making Test) Parts A and B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and Verbal Fluency Examinations (VFE) was assessed at baseline and at end point. Results Patients in the risperidone group had improved scores on at least one test of attention, memory, executive function, and verbal fluency, and those in the olanzapine group had improved scores on at least one test of attention and memory function. Scores on the TMT Part B, WCST total errors (executive function domain), and the VFE improved significantly from baseline in the risperidone group but not in the olanzapine group. No significant differences in change scores between the two groups were found. Higher baseline scores on each test predicted more improvement at endpoint. Conclusions Low doses of risperidone and olanzapine improve cognitive function in elderly patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Consistent with research in younger populations, these improvements occur in aspects of cognitive functioning related to functional outcome. Copyright (C) 2003 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Harvey2003a,
      author = {Harvey, PD and Napolitano, JA and Mao, L and Gharabawi, G},
      title = {Comparative effects of risperidone and olanzapine on cognition in elderly patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {18},
      number = {9},
      pages = {820-828},
      doi = {{10.1002/gps.929}}
    }
    
    Harvey, P., Rabinowitz, J., Eerdekens, M. & Davidson, M. Treatment of cognitive impairment in early psychosis: A comparison of risperidone and haloperidol in a large long-term trial {2005} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {162}({10}), pp. {1888-1895} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: Cognitive impairment is a major determinant of functional outcome in schizophrenia. Treatment of cognitive impairment at the time of the first episode may have the potential to change functional outcomes of the illness. This study examined changes associated with treatment with risperidone compared with haloperidol in aspects of cognitive functioning known to be associated with functional outcomes. The study was conducted in a large group of patients experiencing their first episode of schizophrenia. Method: Cognitive assessments were conducted in 533 patients experiencing their first episode of schizophrenia or a related psychosis who had been randomly assigned to receive low doses of risperidone or haloperidol. The cognitive assessments were repeated at several different follow-up intervals; 359 patients were reexamined at the 3-month follow-up. The assessments included examinations of verbal and visuospatial episodic memory, vigilance, executive functioning, processing speed, and verbal fluency. Patients' clinical symptoms were also rated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Results: Improvements from baseline were found in the risperidone-treated patients for episodic memory, verbal fluency, vigilance, executive functioning, and visuo-motor speed. Haloperidol-treated patients also showed improvements from baseline in episodic memory, vigilance, and visuo-motor speed but not in executive functioning or verbal fluency. Comparison of differential treatment effects on a composite measure of cognitive functioning found that risperidone was significantly more beneficial than haloperidol after 3 months of treatment. Changes in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores were correlated overall with improvement in the haloperidol-treated patients but not in the risperidone-treated patients. Conclusions: Treatment with risperidone at the time of the first episode of schizophrenia is associated with wide-ranging improvements in cognitive functioning. Overall improvement is significantly greater with risperidone than with haloperidol. Further, cognitive improvement associated with treatment with risperidone was not influenced by changes in symptoms, but that relationship was significant in haloperidol-treated patients.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Harvey2005,
      author = {Harvey, PD and Rabinowitz, J and Eerdekens, M and Davidson, M},
      title = {Treatment of cognitive impairment in early psychosis: A comparison of risperidone and haloperidol in a large long-term trial},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {162},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1888-1895}
    }
    
    Harvey, P., Siu, C. & Romano, S. Randomized, controlled, double-blind, multicenter comparison of the cognitive effects of ziprasidone versus olanzapine in acutely ill inpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder {2004} PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
    Vol. {172}({3}), pp. {324-332} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background. Newer antipsychotic medications have been reported to enhance cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. Head to head studies with double-blind methods are still relatively few in number. Objectives. To compare the relative cognitive enhancing effects of ziprasidone and olanzapine in the treatment of acutely ill inpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Procedures. In this 6-week, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-designed trial, patients were randomized to ziprasidone or olanzapine. No patient who had ever received a complete treatment trial with either of these medications previously was entered into the study. Cognitive testing measuring attention, motor speed, memory, executive functioning, and verbal skills were performed on all patients at baseline and endpoint.Results. Treatment with either ziprasidone or olanzapine was associated with statistically significant improvements from baseline in attention, memory, working memory, motor speed, and executive functions. Treatment with olanzapine was also associated with a statistically significant improvement in verbal fluency. No statistically significant differences between these medications were found in the magnitude of improvement from baseline on any of the cognitive measures (other than verbal fluency in an exploratory analysis). Observed changes were not associated with changes in clinical symptoms measured using the PANSS or changes in movement disorders. Conclusions. During 6 weeks of treatment, ziprasidone and olanzapine demonstrated substantial and comparable cognitive-enhancing effects relative to previous treatment. These effects were noted in all aspects of cognitive functioning previously proven to predict functional outcome in schizophrenia. No overall differences were detected between the medications in terms of the extent of cognitive enhancement.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Harvey2004a,
      author = {Harvey, PD and Siu, CO and Romano, S},
      title = {Randomized, controlled, double-blind, multicenter comparison of the cognitive effects of ziprasidone versus olanzapine in acutely ill inpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder},
      journal = {PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {172},
      number = {3},
      pages = {324-332},
      doi = {{10.1007/s00213-003-1652-2}}
    }
    
    Haznedar, M., Buchsbaum, M., Hazlett, E., Shihabuddin, L., New, A. & Siever, L. Cingulate gyrus volume and metabolism in the schizophrenia spectrum {2004} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {71}({2-3}), pp. {249-262} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background: The cingulate gyrus, which is involved in affect, attention, memory and higher executive functions, has been implicated as a dysfunctional region in schizophrenia. Postmortem studies report cytoarchitectural changes in, the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) and functioning imaging studies show correlations between the degree of hypometabolism of the anterior cingulate and clinical symptoms in schizophrenia. Methods: Unmedicated patients with schizophrenia (n = 27) and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) (n = 13), as well as sex- and age-matched control subjects (n = 32), were studied with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As a control over mental activity, all subjects performed a verbal working memory task during the PET protocol. The cingulate gyrus was first outlined on the MFI scans and, after coregistration, the coordinates were applied to the PET scans to yield a three-dimensional metabolic map of the cingulate gyrus for each subject. A statistical resampling method was used to analyze the metabolic differences between groups. Results: Compared with controls, patients with schizophrenia had lower relative glucose metabolic rates in the left anterior cingulate and the right posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG) assessed by 3-D significance probability mapping. SPD patients had higher glucose metabolic rates (GMRs) in the left posterior cingulate than did controls. Furthermore, volumetric measurement with MRI showed the left anterior cingulate and Brodmann area 24' to be smaller in schizophrenic patients than controls. Conclusions: Compared with controls, patients with schizophrenia have metabolic and volumetric reductions in a cingulate gyrus area that is related to higher executive functions. Schizotypal patients rely more on sensory association areas to perform a cognitive task than do controls and seem to be a group that is partially distinct in its physiological and functional characteristics. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Haznedar2004,
      author = {Haznedar, MM and Buchsbaum, MS and Hazlett, EA and Shihabuddin, L and New, A and Siever, LJ},
      title = {Cingulate gyrus volume and metabolism in the schizophrenia spectrum},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {71},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {249-262},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.schres.2004.02.025}}
    }
    
    Heaton, R., Marcotte, T., Mindt, M., Sadek, J., Moore, D., Bentley, H., McCutchan, J., Reicks, C., Grant, I. & The HNRC Grp The impact of HIV-associated neuropsychological impairment on everyday functioning {2004} JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY
    Vol. {10}({3}), pp. {317-331} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: HIV-1 infection can be associated with neuropsychological (NP) deficits ranging from subtle to severe. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional, or ``real-world'' impact of HIV-associated NP impairment in a group of 267 HIV-infected participants. All participants received comprehensive NP, neuromedical, and standardized functional evaluations that included laboratory measures of shopping, cooking, financial management, medication management and vocational abilities. Compared to NP-normal participants, those with NP impairment performed significantly worse on all laboratory measures of everyday functioning. Multivariate analyses revealed that the NP ability domains of Abstraction/Executive Function, Learning, Attention/Working Memory and Verbal abilities most strongly and consistently predicted failures on the functional battery. Both NP impairment and impairment on the functional battery were significantly associated with subjective experiences of cognitive difficulties, as well as unemployment and increased dependence in activities of daily living; multivariate prediction models that also considered depressed mood and biological measures of disease progression revealed that impairment on the functional battery and depression were the only unique predictors of all three indicators of ``real-world'' functioning. The current results add to growing evidence concerning the clinical significance of HIV-associated NP impairment. Objective, laboratory based functional measures, such as those used here, may compliment NP testing in future studies directed at understanding the impact on life quality of central nervous system disorders and their treatments. Finally, there is a need for additional research investigating the apparently independent effect of depression on level of everyday functioning in HIV infected persons.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Heaton2004,
      author = {Heaton, RK and Marcotte, TD and Mindt, MR and Sadek, J and Moore, DJ and Bentley, H and McCutchan, JA and Reicks, C and Grant, I and The HNRC Grp},
      title = {The impact of HIV-associated neuropsychological impairment on everyday functioning},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {317-331},
      note = {Annual Meeting of the International-Neuropsychological-Society, Chicago, IL, FEB, 2001},
      doi = {{10.1017/S1355617704102130}}
    }
    
    Heavey, L., Phillips, W., Baron-Cohen, S. & Rutter, M. The Awkward Moments Test: A naturalistic measure of social understanding in autism {2000} JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
    Vol. {30}({3}), pp. {225-236} 
    article  
    Abstract: Details are given of a new advanced theory of mind task, developed to approximate che demands of real-life mentalizing in able individuals with autism. Excerpts of films showing characters in social situations were presented. with participants required to answer questions on characters' mental states and on control, nonsocial questions. When compared with control participants, adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome were most impaired in their ability to answer the questions requiring mind-reading ability. Although the present findings have implications for task modification, such naturalistic, dynamic stimuli are held to offer an important means of studying subtle difficulties in mentalistic understanding.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Heavey2000,
      author = {Heavey, L and Phillips, W and Baron-Cohen, S and Rutter, M},
      title = {The Awkward Moments Test: A naturalistic measure of social understanding in autism},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {30},
      number = {3},
      pages = {225-236}
    }
    
    Hechtman, L. Assessment and diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder {2000} CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA
    Vol. {9}({3}), pp. {481+} 
    article  
    Abstract: ADHD is a condition with a broad extensive diffential diagnosis, high rate of comorbidity, and widespread significant impairment in academic, occupational, social, and emotional functioning. Therefore, assessments for ADHD need to be comprehensive and should involve multiple domains, informants, methods, and settings. Thus, evaluation of various biological conditions, functional disorders, developmental status, situational, environmental, and family problems should all be explored. Since there is no diagnostically definitive test for ADHD, the clinical interview of the child and family is one of the cornerstones of the assessment process. A comprehensive medical history and examination, psyche-educational tests, school-related evaluations, and the child's social and emotional functioning are also crucial, however. Recent developments of tests of executive functioning neuroimaging, and genetics may provide more exact diagnostic guidelines in the future.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hechtman2000,
      author = {Hechtman, L},
      title = {Assessment and diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder},
      journal = {CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {481+}
    }
    
    Heinz, A. & Smolka, M.N. The effects of catechol O-methyltransferase genotype on brain activation elicited by affective stimuli and cognitive tasks {2006} REVIEWS IN THE NEUROSCIENCES
    Vol. {17}({3}), pp. {359-367} 
    article  
    Abstract: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) degrades the catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. A functional polymorphism in the COMT gene (val(158) met) accounts for a four-fold variation in enzyme activity. The low activity met(158) allele has been associated with improved working memory, executive functioning, and attentional control, but also with a higher risk of anxiety-related behaviors. In spite of the strong effect of the COMT genotype on enzyme activity, its effects on behavior are moderate, accounting for only 4% of variance in task performance. Studies of individuals with intermediate phenotypes during activities such as task-dependent brain activation, may more sensitively detect gene effects on the brain. A series of studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessed the effects of the COMT val(158)met genotype on central processing during working memory, attentional control, and emotional tasks. fMRI revealed a more focused response in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of met(158) allele carriers during a working memory task. A comparable effect during the performance of an attentional control task in the cingulate cortex was also observed. These data indicate that met(158) allele load is associated with improved processing efficiency in the PFC and cingulate, which might be due to lower prefrontal dopamine (DA) metabolism, higher DA concentrations, and an increased neuronal signal-to-noise ratio during information processing. During performance of an emotional task, reactivity to unpleasant visual stimuli Was positively correlated with the number of met(158) alleles in the amygdala, as well as in other limbic and paralimbic nodes. This increased limbic reactivity to unpleasant stimuli might be the underlying cause of the lower emotional resilience against negative mood states observed in individuals with a higher met(158) allele load. Thus the met(158) allele seems to be beneficial during the performance of working memory and attention-related tasks, whereas the val(158) allele appears to be advantageous during the processing of aversive emotional stimuli.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Heinz2006,
      author = {Heinz, Andreas and Smolka, Michael N.},
      title = {The effects of catechol O-methyltransferase genotype on brain activation elicited by affective stimuli and cognitive tasks},
      journal = {REVIEWS IN THE NEUROSCIENCES},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {17},
      number = {3},
      pages = {359-367}
    }
    
    Henry, J., van Amelsvoort, T., Morris, R., Owen, M., Murphy, D. & Murphy, K. An investigation of the neuropsychological profile in adults with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) {2002} NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA
    Vol. {40}({5}), pp. {471-478} 
    article  
    Abstract: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is associated with deletions on the long arm of chromosome 22, mild intellectual disability, poor social interaction and a high prevalence of psychosis. However, to date there have been no studies investigating the neuropsychological functioning of adults with VCFS. We compared 19 adults with VCFS with 19 age, gender and IQ matched controls using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Compared to controls, adults with VCFS had significant impairments in visuoperceptual ability (Visual Object and Space Perception Battery), problem solving and planning (Tower of London) and abstract and social thinking (Comprehension WAIS-R). It is likely that haploinsufficiency (reduced gene dosage) of a neurodevelopmental gene or genes mapping to chromosome 22q11 underlies the cognitive deficits observed in individuals with VCFS. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Henry2002,
      author = {Henry, JC and van Amelsvoort, T and Morris, RG and Owen, MJ and Murphy, DGM and Murphy, KC},
      title = {An investigation of the neuropsychological profile in adults with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS)},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {40},
      number = {5},
      pages = {471-478}
    }
    
    Henry, J., Crawford, J. & Phillips, L. Verbal fluency performance in dementia of the Alzheimer's type: a meta-analysis {2004} NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA
    Vol. {42}({9}), pp. {1212-1222} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: A meta-analysis of 153 studies with 15,990 participants was conducted to compare the magnitude of deficits upon tests of phonemic and semantic fluency for patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT) relative to healthy controls. As has been found for patients with focal temporal cortical lesions (but not for patients with focal frontal cortical lesions), DAT patients were significantly more impaired on tests of semantic relative to phonemic fluency (r = 0.73 and 0.57, respectively). Thus, since phonemic and semantic fluency are considered to impose comparable demands upon executive control processes such as effortful retrieval, but the latter is relatively more dependent upon the integrity of semantic memory, these results suggest that the semantic memory deficit in DAT reflects a degradation of the semantic store. Also supporting this conclusion, confrontation naming, a measure of semantic memory that imposes only minimal demands upon effortful retrieval, was significantly more impaired than phonemic fluency (r = 0.60 versus 0.55, respectively). However, since semantic fluency was also significantly more impaired than confrontation naming (r = 0.73 versus 0.61), deficits in semantic memory and effortful retrieval may be additive. Semantic, but not phonemic fluency, was significantly more impaired than measures of verbal intelligence and psychomotor speed. Thus, the semantic memory deficit in DAT qualifies as a differential deficit, but executive dysfunction as indexed by phonemic fluency does not constitute an additional isolated feature of the disorder. Dementia severity was not significantly related to the relative magnitude of deficits upon phonemic and semantic fluency. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Henry2004,
      author = {Henry, JD and Crawford, JR and Phillips, LH},
      title = {Verbal fluency performance in dementia of the Alzheimer's type: a meta-analysis},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {42},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1212-1222},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2004.02.001}}
    }
    
    Hernandez, M., Sauerwein, H., Jambaque, I., De Guise, E., Lussier, F., Lortie, A., Dulac, O. & Lassonde, M. Deficits in executive functions and motor coordination in children with frontal lobe epilepsy {2002} NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA
    Vol. {40}({4}), pp. {384-400} 
    article  
    Abstract: Frontal lobe dysfunction in adults has been associated with impairments of planning abilities. working memory, impulse control. attention and certain aspects of motor coordination. However. very few studies have attempted to assess these functions in children suffering from frontal lobe epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to determine whether some or all of the components of the frontal lobe syndrome are present in children with this disorder. For this purpose, a neuropsychological test battery was administered to 32 unresected epileptic children, aged 8-16 years: 16 with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), eight with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and eight with generalized epilepsy whose principal manifestations were typical absences (GEA). The performances of the three epileptic groups were further compared to normative data derived from 200 French-speaking. healthy children aged 7-16 years, except for standardized tests for which the norms provided in the manual were used. The three epilepsy groups did not differ with respect to conceptual shift and recency memory. However, the FLE children showed deficits in planning and impulse control. Furthermore, they had significantly more coordination problems and exhibited greater rigidity than the other epilepsy groups on the motor tests. These problems were more marked in younger FLE children (8 - 12 years). The latter were also more impaired on verbal fluency measures. No differences were observed with respect to gender, localization of the epileptic abnormality (unilateral versus bilateral) or medication (monotherapy versus polytherapy). The findings reveal similarities between the neuro psychological profiles of FLE children and adults with frontal lobe lesions. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hernandez2002,
      author = {Hernandez, MT and Sauerwein, HC and Jambaque, I and De Guise, E and Lussier, F and Lortie, A and Dulac, O and Lassonde, M},
      title = {Deficits in executive functions and motor coordination in children with frontal lobe epilepsy},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {40},
      number = {4},
      pages = {384-400}
    }
    
    Hervey, A., Epstein, J. & Curry, J. Neuropsychology of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analytic review {2004} NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {18}({3}), pp. {485-503} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: A comprehensive, empirically based review of the published studies addressing neuropsychological performance in adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was conducted to identify patterns of performance deficits. Findings from 33 published studies were submitted to a meta-analytic procedure producing sample-size-weighted mean effect sizes across test measures. Results suggest that neuropsychological deficits are expressed in adults with ADHD across multiple domains of functioning, with notable impairments in attention, behavioral inhibition, and memory, whereas normal performance is noted in simple reaction time. Theoretical and developmental considerations are discussed, including the role of behavioral inhibition and working memory impairment. Future directions for research based on these findings are highlighted, including further exploration of specific impairments and an emphasis on particular tests and testing conditions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hervey2004,
      author = {Hervey, AS and Epstein, JN and Curry, JF},
      title = {Neuropsychology of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analytic review},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {18},
      number = {3},
      pages = {485-503},
      doi = {{10.1037/0894-4105.18.3.485}}
    }
    
    Heydebrand, G., Weiser, M., Rabinowitz, J., Hoff, A., DeLisi, L. & Csernansky, J. Correlates of cognitive deficits in first episode schizophrenia {2004} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {68}({1}), pp. {1-9} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Objective: The presence of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia has been well documented, but questions remain about whether there are relationships between this dysfunction and clinical symptornatology. If present, such relationships should be most clearly observable in patients with first episode schizophrenia; that is, before the effects of chronic illness, institutionalization, or treatment might confound them. Method: 307 schizophrenia subjects in their first episode of illness were recruited to participate in a clinical trial comparing the long-term efficacy of haloperidol and risperidone. The psychopathology, cognitive functioning, early treatment history, and duration of untreated psychosis of these subjects were assessed prior to their assignment to randomized, double-blind treatment. Approximately two-thirds of the subjects were receiving antipsychotic treatment at the time of assessment; however, the duration of treatment was limited to 12 weeks or less. Results: The severity of negative symptoms at the time of assessment was associated with deficits in memory, verbal fluency, psycbomotor speed and executive function. Positive symptoms were not associated with cognitive deficits. Also, the duration of untreated illness (DUI) prior to assessment was not significantly associated with cognitive impairment. Conclusions: The results of this study of first episode schizophrenia patients suggest that a relationship exists between negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. However, that relationship accounts for only a minor portion of the variance (i.e., 10-15 in the severity of cognitive dysfunction after controlling for a number of potentially confounding factors. This finding provides support for the theory that the neurobiological processes that give rise to symptomatology and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia are partially overlapping. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Heydebrand2004,
      author = {Heydebrand, G and Weiser, M and Rabinowitz, J and Hoff, AL and DeLisi, LE and Csernansky, JG},
      title = {Correlates of cognitive deficits in first episode schizophrenia},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {68},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-9},
      doi = {{10.1016/S0920-9964(03)00097-5}}
    }
    
    Ho, B., Andreasen, N., Nopoulos, P., Arndt, S., Magnotta, V. & Flaum, M. Progressive structural brain abnormalities and their relationship to clinical outcome - A longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study early in schizophrenia {2003} ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {60}({6}), pp. {585-594} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Many studies have shown that structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia are already present by the time of index evaluation of first-episode patients. However, whether these abnormalities progressively worsen during the subsequent course of the disorder remains unresolved. Methods: To study the longitudinal progression of structural brain abnormalities, high-resolution multispectral magnetic resonance images obtained on 73 recent-onset schizophrenic patients and 23 controls were analyzed using state-of-the-art, well-validated, and highly reliable neuroimaging tools. The mean duration between initial and follow-up MRIs was 3 years. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance was carried out to determine (1) whether brain volume changes differed between patients and controls and (2) the significance of regional brain changes on functional outcome in schizophrenia. Results: We found accelerated enlargement in cortical sulcal cerebrospinal fluid spaces early in the course of schizophrenia. Instead of the-usual trajectory of volume enlargement, patients showed progressive reduction in frontal lobe white matter volume. A reciprocal increase in frontal lobe cerebrospinal fluid volume also occurred at a more rapid rate in patients than in controls. In keeping with most of our a priori hypotheses, patients with poor outcome had greater lateral ventricular enlargement over time than patients with good outcome. Progressive decrement in frontal lobe white matter volume and enlargement in frontal lobe cerebrospinal fluid volume were associated with greater negative symptom severity. Reductions in frontal lobe gray and white matter volumes correlated with poorer executive functioning. Conclusions: There are ongoing changes in the brains of schizophrenic patients during the initial years after diagnosis despite ongoing antipsychotic drug treatment. These progressive changes seem to be most evident in the frontal lobes and to correlate with functional impairment. Disruptions in neurodevelopment or neural plasticity may act alone or in combination to bring about these progressive brain deficits in schizophrenia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ho2003,
      author = {Ho, BC and Andreasen, NC and Nopoulos, P and Arndt, S and Magnotta, V and Flaum, M},
      title = {Progressive structural brain abnormalities and their relationship to clinical outcome - A longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study early in schizophrenia},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {60},
      number = {6},
      pages = {585-594},
      note = {11th Biennial Winter Workshop on Schizophrenia, DAVOS, SWITZERLAND, FEB 23, 2002}
    }
    
    Hoff, A., Riordan, H., Morris, L., Cestaro, V., Wieneke, M., Alpert, R., Wang, G. & Volkow, N. Effects of crack cocaine on neurocognitive function {1996} PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH
    Vol. {60}({2-3}), pp. {167-176} 
    article  
    Abstract: Because crack cocaine appears to have a preferential effect on the metabolic and electrophysiological activity of the frontal and temporal regions of the brain (Pascual-Leone ct al., 1991a, 1991b; Volkow, 1992), we hypothesized that cognitive measures of those regions would be impaired in crack cocaine users relative to measures in normal volunteers. We used logistic regression to determine the relationship of cocaine usage to neuropsychological test performance. We compared 38 patients with an average of 3.6 (SD = 2.5) years of crack cocaine use and 24.5 (SD = 28.1) days of abstinence to 54 normal volunteers on a battery of neuropsychological tests. Statistical. adjustments were made for the effects of age, education, socioeconomic class, and level of depression. Our findings were mixed with regard to purported measures of executive/frontal functioning, with worse performance associated with cocaine usage on the Booklet Categories Test, but better performance associated on others (number of categories on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Controlled Oral Word Association). Cocaine usage was associated with impairment on measures of spatial, but not verbal memory, confrontation naming, and Trail-making Test, Part B, a measure of perceptual-motor speed and cognitive flexibility. In summary, it appears that continuous crack cocaine use produces a dissociative pattern in neuropsychological test performance with improvement on some measures, but deterioration on others. The permanence of these effects remains to be determined with longitudinal studies.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hoff1996,
      author = {Hoff, AL and Riordan, H and Morris, L and Cestaro, V and Wieneke, M and Alpert, R and Wang, GJ and Volkow, N},
      title = {Effects of crack cocaine on neurocognitive function},
      journal = {PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {60},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {167-176}
    }
    
    HOFF, A., RIORDAN, H., ODONNELL, D., MORRIS, L. & DELISI, L. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING OF 1ST-EPISODE SCHIZOPHRENIFORM PATIENTS {1992} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {149}({7}), pp. {898-903} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective and Method. This study compared 32 consecutively admitted first-episode schizophreniform patients, 26 patients with chronic schizophrenia according to the DSM-III-R criteria, and 25 normal comparison subjects on a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests to determine the degree of cognitive impairment existing at the onset of schizophrenic illness. Patients were tested within 2 weeks of admission to the hospital, after their medication bad been stabilized. Results: With age and education controlled, the first-episode and chronic patients performed significantly worse than the normal subjects on neuropsychological summary measures of executive function, verbal memory, spatial memory, concentration/speed, and global cognitive function and on left and right hemisphere function scales. The first-episode patients were as cognitively impaired as the chronic patients on all summary scales and many of the individual tests. Both groups showed relatively greater left than right hemisphere dysfunction. Conclusions: These findings suggest that substantial cognitive deficits, comparable to those of chronic patients, are present early in the course of psychotic illness.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HOFF1992,
      author = {HOFF, AL and RIORDAN, H and ODONNELL, DW and MORRIS, L and DELISI, LE},
      title = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING OF 1ST-EPISODE SCHIZOPHRENIFORM PATIENTS},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {149},
      number = {7},
      pages = {898-903}
    }
    
    Holding, P., Stevenson, J., Peshu, N. & Marsh, K. Cognitive sequelae of severe malaria with impaired consciousness {1999} TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE
    Vol. {93}({5}), pp. {529-534} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although cerebral malaria is the most common acute encephalopathy arising in children in Africa little is known of its effect upon the longer-term cognitive development of survivors. In Kenya, we compared the performance of 87 survivors of severe malaria with impaired consciousness to matched community controls on a wide range of tasks, not less than 42 months post illness episode. The presence of cognitive impairment was then related to both the pattern of symptoms at the time of the acute illness and the presence of gross neurological impairment on discharge. Significant group differences were found in areas of cognitive functioning suggestive of widespread impairment in the development of the ability to initiate, plan and carry out tasks (the executive functions). On tasks of more discrete cognitive skills (information processing) there were no significant group differences, although impaired performance was found more frequently in the severe malaria group. The odds ratio associated with the development of cognitive impairment following severe malaria with impaired consciousness was found to be 4.48 (95% CI 1.22, 16.47). A combination of 4 signs (coma, hypoglycaemia, seizures, and absence of hyperpyrexia) proved to have greater accuracy than the presence of gross neurological sequelae in predicting cognitive impairment (95% vs 93% specificity, 67% vs 58% sensitivity).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Holding1999,
      author = {Holding, PA and Stevenson, J and Peshu, N and Marsh, K},
      title = {Cognitive sequelae of severe malaria with impaired consciousness},
      journal = {TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {93},
      number = {5},
      pages = {529-534}
    }
    
    HOLDNACK, J., MOBERG, P., ARNOLD, S., GUR, R. & GUR, R. SPEED OF PROCESSING AND VERBAL-LEARNING DEFICITS IN ADULTS DIAGNOSED WITH ATTENTION-DEFICIT DISORDER {1995} NEUROPSYCHIATRY NEUROPSYCHOLOGY AND BEHAVIORAL NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {8}({4}), pp. {282-292} 
    article  
    Abstract: While frontal lobe dysfunction has been hypothesized to account for the cognitive and behavioral symptoms characteristic of Attention Deficit Disorder(ADD), inconsistent neuropsychological findings have been reported in adults with residual ADD. Twenty-five ADD adults were compared to 30 gender-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls on measures of sustained attention, psychomotor speed and integration, executive functioning, and verbal learning. There were no group differences in accuracy on the Continuous Performance Task; however, ADD patients exhibited slower reaction time to targets. In addition, patients exhibited slowed psychomotor speed relative to controls. No group differences were observed in executive functioning. For memory, patients acquired less information and displayed inconsistent application of a semantic clustering strategy. Cuing memory with semantic prompts improved memory performance to a greater degree for patients than for controls. Patients were susceptible to retroactive interference and item recall inconsistency. The results indicate a selective pattern of deficits, revealing slowed cognitive processing and a significant list-learning deficit. Neurobehavioral deficits are discussed in relation to hypotheses of frontal lobe dysfunction in ADD.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HOLDNACK1995,
      author = {HOLDNACK, JA and MOBERG, PJ and ARNOLD, SE and GUR, RC and GUR, RE},
      title = {SPEED OF PROCESSING AND VERBAL-LEARNING DEFICITS IN ADULTS DIAGNOSED WITH ATTENTION-DEFICIT DISORDER},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHIATRY NEUROPSYCHOLOGY AND BEHAVIORAL NEUROLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {8},
      number = {4},
      pages = {282-292}
    }
    
    Holmes, A., MacDonald, A., Carter, C., Barch, D., Stenger, V. & Cohen, J. Prefrontal functioning during context processing in schizophrenia and major depression: An event-related fMRI study {2005} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {76}({2-3}), pp. {199-206} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Patients with schizophrenia frequently demonstrate hypofrontality in tasks that require executive processing; however questions still remain as to whether prefrontal cortex dysfunctions are specific to schizophrenia, or a general feature of major psychopathology. Context processing is conceptualized as an executive function associated with attention and working memory processes. Impairment in the ability of patients with schizophrenia to represent and maintain context information has been previously reported in a number of studies. To examine the question of the specificity of a context processing deficit to schizophrenia, we used functional MRI and an expectancy AX continuous performance task designed to assess context processing in a group of healthy controls (n=9), depressed patient controls (n=10), and patients with schizophrenia (n=7). The behavioral performance was consistent with a context processing deficit in patients with schizophrenia, but not those with depression. The imaging data replicate previous results in showing abnormal activity in the right middle frontal gyrus (BA9) in schizophrenia patients related to context processing. (c) 2005 Published by Elsevier B.V.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Holmes2005,
      author = {Holmes, AJ and MacDonald, A and Carter, CS and Barch, DM and Stenger, VA and Cohen, JD},
      title = {Prefrontal functioning during context processing in schizophrenia and major depression: An event-related fMRI study},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {76},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {199-206},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.schres.2005.01.021}}
    }
    
    Huang, C., Mattis, P., Tang, C., Perrine, K., Carbon, M. & Eidelberg, D. Metabolic brain networks associated with cognitive function in Parkinson's disease {2007} NEUROIMAGE
    Vol. {34}({2}), pp. {714-723} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been linked to an abnormal spatial covariance pattern involving basal ganglia thalamocortical pathways. By contrast, little is known about the functional networks that underlie cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. To identify such patterns, we studied 15 non-demented PD patients using FDG PET and a voxel-based network modeling approach. We detected a significant covariance pattern that correlated (p < 0.01) with performance on tests of memory and executive functioning. This PD-related cognitive pattern (PDCP) was characterized by metabolic reductions in frontal and parietal association areas and relative increases in the cerebellar vermis and dentate nuclei. To validate this pattern, we analyzed data from 32 subsequent PD patients of similar age, disease duration and severity. Prospective measurements of PDCP activity predicted memory performance (p < 0.005), visuospatial function (p < 0.01), and perceptual motor speed (p < 0.005) in this validation sample. PDCP scores additionally exhibited an excellent degree of test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC=0.89) in patients undergoing repeat FDG PET at an 8-week interval. Unlike the PD-related motor pattern, PDCP expression was not significantly altered by antiparkinsonian treatment with either intravenous levodopa or deep brain stimulation (DBS). These findings substantiate the PDCP as a reproducible imaging marker of cognitive function in PD. Because PDCP expression is not altered by routine antiparkinsonian treatment, this measure of network activity may prove useful in clinical trials targeting the progression of non-motor manifestations of this disorder. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Huang2007,
      author = {Huang, Chaorui and Mattis, Paul and Tang, Chengke and Perrine, Kenneth and Carbon, Maren and Eidelberg, David},
      title = {Metabolic brain networks associated with cognitive function in Parkinson's disease},
      journal = {NEUROIMAGE},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {34},
      number = {2},
      pages = {714-723},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.09.003}}
    }
    
    Huang-Pollock, C. & Nigg, J. Searching for the attention deficit in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The case of visuospatial orienting {2003} CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {23}({6}), pp. {801-830} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We review all 14 extant studies of covert visuospatial attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (total N = 248). Metaanalysis showed that intriguing but isolated findings of alerting or posterior disengage deficits were too small to reliably detect with the sample sizes typically employed. Posterior move and engage operations and the vigilance sustained attention process were normal in ADHD. For exogenous cues, effect sizes for group differences were homogeneously small across all repeated-measures conditions, as were calculations of cost, benefit, and validity effects. For endogenous cues, effect sizes were heterogeneous; however, calculations of cost, benefit, and validity effects were small and homogenous. The most parsimonious conclusion may be that ADHD is not characterized by significant visual orienting dysfunction, but questions remain about the extent of anterior lateralized effects in the combined subtype and about attentional functioning in the inattentive subtype. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Huang-Pollock2003,
      author = {Huang-Pollock, CL and Nigg, JT},
      title = {Searching for the attention deficit in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The case of visuospatial orienting},
      journal = {CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {23},
      number = {6},
      pages = {801-830},
      doi = {{10.1016/S0272-7358(03)00073-4}}
    }
    
    Hughes, C., Kumari, V., Soni, W., Das, M., Binneman, B., Drozd, S., O'Neil, S., Mathew, V. & Sharma, T. Longitudinal study of symptoms and cognitive function in chronic schizophrenia {2003} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {59}({2-3}), pp. {137-146} 
    article  
    Abstract: There is conflicting evidence of a relationship between changes in symptoms and cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. This study investigated longitudinal changes in psychopathology and cognitive functioning in chronic schizophrenia utilising three different dimensional models of symptomatology. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were examined on two occasions over a period of 6 months for symptom improvement, measured by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) [Kay et al., Schizophr. Bull. 13 (1987) 261]. Participants also completed a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tasks designed to assess attention, verbal and non-verbal memory, psychomotor processing and executive/frontal functioning on both occasions. Twenty-five control subjects were assessed for comparison purposes. Severity of negative symptoms predicted poor neuropsychological performance on IQ, verbal fluency and memory measures at occasion one. However, using regression analyses, significant improvements in symptom ratings over time using two-, three- or five-dimensional models did not predict improvements in any aspect of cognitive functioning measured, except motor speed. The results do not suggest a causal relationship between the course of symptoms and neuropsychological functioning in chronic schizophrenia. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hughes2003,
      author = {Hughes, C and Kumari, V and Soni, W and Das, M and Binneman, B and Drozd, S and O'Neil, S and Mathew, V and Sharma, T},
      title = {Longitudinal study of symptoms and cognitive function in chronic schizophrenia},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {59},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {137-146}
    }
    
    HUGHES, C., RUSSELL, J. & ROBBINS, T. EVIDENCE FOR EXECUTIVE DYSFUNCTION IN AUTISM {1994} NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA
    Vol. {32}({4}), pp. {477-492} 
    article  
    Abstract: A group of young people with autism (ranging in ability from high functioning to moderately learning disabled), and ability-matched control groups of (i) non-autistic individuals with moderate learning disabilities, and (ii) normally developing children, were presented with two tests of executive function: the Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional set-shifting task and the Tower of London planning task. These tests were graded in difficulty and included internal control measures. On each task, the autistic group was differentially impaired with respect to both control groups. Moreover, this impairment was specific to the stages of each task which placed greatest demands upon executive control. This evidence for executive dysfunction in autism is discussed in the context of Norman and Shallice's (Centre for Human Information Processing Technical Report 99, 198O) `'Supervisory Attentional System'' model of frontal function.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HUGHES1994,
      author = {HUGHES, C and RUSSELL, J and ROBBINS, TW},
      title = {EVIDENCE FOR EXECUTIVE DYSFUNCTION IN AUTISM},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {32},
      number = {4},
      pages = {477-492}
    }
    
    Hurria, A., Rosen, C., Hudis, C., Zuckerman, E., Panageas, K., Lachs, M., Witmer, M., van Gorp, W., Fornier, M., D'Andrea, G., Moasser, M., Dang, C., Van Poznak, C., Hurria, A. & Holland, J. Cognitive function of older patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: A pilot prospective longitudinal study {2006} JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY
    Vol. {54}({6}), pp. {925-931} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To report on the longitudinal cognitive functioning of older women receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. DESIGN: Neuropsychological and functional status testing were performed before chemotherapy and 6 months after chemotherapy. SETTING: Cancer center. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-one patients aged 65 and older with Stage I to III breast cancer. Of the 31 patients enrolled, three refused posttesting, and 28 were evaluable. MEASUREMENTS: The following domains of cognitive function were examined: attention; verbal memory; visual memory; and verbal, spatial, psychomotor, and executive functions. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 71 (range 65-84): 39% Stage I, 50% Stage II, and 11% Stage III. The number of scores 2 standard deviations (SDs) below the norm were calculated for each patient before and 6 months after chemotherapy; 14 (50 had no change, 11 (39 worsened, and three (11 improved (P=.05). Seven patients (25 experienced a decline in cognitive function, defined as a 1-SD decline from pre- to posttesting in two or more neuropsychological domains. Exploratory analyses revealed no significant difference between functional status, comorbidity, and depression scale scores and change in overall quality-of-life scores before and after chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: In this cohort of older women receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, a subset experienced a decline in cognitive function from before chemotherapy to 6 months after chemotherapy. Further prospective study is needed to confirm these observations and to identify the subgroup at special risk.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hurria2006,
      author = {Hurria, A and Rosen, C and Hudis, C and Zuckerman, E and Panageas, KS and Lachs, MS and Witmer, M and van Gorp, WG and Fornier, M and D'Andrea, G and Moasser, M and Dang, C and Van Poznak, C and Hurria, A and Holland, J},
      title = {Cognitive function of older patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: A pilot prospective longitudinal study},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {54},
      number = {6},
      pages = {925-931},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1532-5415.2006.00732.x}}
    }
    
    Hwang, M., Morgan, J. & Losconzcy, M. Clinical and neuropsychological profiles of obsessive-compulsive schizophrenia: A pilot study {2000} JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCES
    Vol. {12}({1}), pp. {91-94} 
    article  
    Abstract: This pilot study compared characteristics of obsessive-compulsive (OC) schizophrenic patients and a matched non-OC schizophrenic control group. The OC-schizophrenic group required more intensive clinical interventions and had a poorer clinical course, lower levels of functioning, and longer periods of hospitalization. They showed greater negative symptoms and move impaired executive functioning. These findings suggest OC-schizophrenic patients may have an atypical set of clinical and neuropsychiatric characteristics, perhaps constituting a subgroup within the schizophrenia spectrum. Pathophysiology and possible treatment implications require further study.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hwang2000,
      author = {Hwang, MY and Morgan, JE and Losconzcy, MF},
      title = {Clinical and neuropsychological profiles of obsessive-compulsive schizophrenia: A pilot study},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCES},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {12},
      number = {1},
      pages = {91-94}
    }
    
    Hyman, S., Shores, A. & North, K. The nature and frequency of cognitive deficits in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 {2005} NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {65}({7}), pp. {1037-1044} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To assess the frequency and severity of specific cognitive deficits in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in a large unbiased cohort. Methods: Extensive cognitive assessments were performed in 81 children with NF1 ages 8 to 16 years and their performance was compared with that of 49 unaffected sibling controls. Results: Eighty-one percent of the children with NF1 had moderate to severe impairment in one or more areas of cognitive functioning. Although 51% of children with NF1 performed poorly on tasks of reading, spelling, and mathematics, specific learning disabilities (as defined by IQ-achievement discrepancies) were present in only 20% of the children. Sustained attention difficulties were present in 63% of children with NF1, with 38% of children with NF1 fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. The NF1 neuropsychological profile is characterized by deficits in perceptual skills (visuospatial and visuoperceptual), executive functioning (planning and abstract concept formation), and attention (sustained and switching). Interestingly, both verbal and visual memory was unaffected in NF1 children, and their memory skills were in general stronger than their level of general intellectual function. Although both expressive and receptive language skills were significantly impaired in NF1 children, they appeared to be relatively better preserved than visuospatial abilities once IQ is taken into account. Conclusion: There is an extremely high frequency of cognitive problems in children with neurofibromatosis type 1, making cognitive dysfunction the most common complication to affect quality of life in these children.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hyman2005,
      author = {Hyman, SL and Shores, A and North, KN},
      title = {The nature and frequency of cognitive deficits in children with neurofibromatosis type 1},
      journal = {NEUROLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {65},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1037-1044}
    }
    
    Ihara, H., Berrios, G. & London, M. Group and case study of the dysexecutive syndrome in alcoholism without amnesia {2000} JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {68}({6}), pp. {731-737} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objectives-To test the dysexecutive syndrome (DES) hypothesis of chronic alcoholism by the neuropsychological group and case study approaches. Methods-A comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, including the ``behavioural assessment of dysexecutive syndrome'', a battery of tests recently designed to be ``ecologically valid'', was administered to 17 patients with chronic alcoholism without amnesia to examine executive functions, intelligence, and memory. In terms of each neuropsychological measure, reciprocal analyses of group means and individual case profiles were conducted: for the first contrasting the alcoholic patients with 17 age matched healthy subjects; and for the second making intersubject and intrasubject comparison of the patients, according to percentile basis impairment indices obtained from the control subjects. Results-Despite relatively unimpaired memory and intelligence, the patients as a whole had the impairment of a wide range of executive domains, extending to ``everyday'' problem solving as well as more elementary aspects of executive functions, such as visuospatial performance, mental set shifting, and the inhibition of habitual behaviour. The profile analysis divided individual patients into four groups: the representative DES characterised by a clear dissociation between impaired executive functions and preserved intelligence and memory; the group of a modified dysexecutive pattern in which memory as well as executive functions were impaired with intelligence preserved; the group of general cognitive deterioration; and the group of unimpaired cognitive functioning. About two thirds of the patients were categorised into either the first or the second type of DES. Conclusion-DES characterised by the even more pronounced impairment of executive functions than of intelligence and memory afflicts a considerable proportion of patients with chronic alcoholism. Due to its subtlety, this would be potentially left out, unless appropriate behavioural measures were administered. This condition may prevent patients with alcoholism from achieving full recovery and benefiting from rehabilitation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ihara2000,
      author = {Ihara, H and Berrios, GE and London, M},
      title = {Group and case study of the dysexecutive syndrome in alcoholism without amnesia},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {68},
      number = {6},
      pages = {731-737}
    }
    
    JAGUST, W., REED, B., MARTIN, E., EBERLING, J. & NELSONABBOTT, R. COGNITIVE FUNCTION AND REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD-FLOW IN PARKINSONS-DISEASE {1992} BRAIN
    Vol. {115}({Part 2}), pp. {521-537} 
    article  
    Abstract: In order to investigate relationships between cognition and regional brain function, we studied 20 non-demented patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), 21 mildly demented patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 24 control subjects using cognitive testing and single photon emission computerized tomographic (SPECT) measurements of relative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Neuro-psychological tests were grouped into clusters reflecting frontal lobe executive abilities, perseveration, memory and visuospatial ability, with a summary score summarizing performance in all four of these spheres. SPECT imaging utilized the tracer [I-123]N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine with a relative measure of regional tracer uptake normalized to occipital radiotracer uptake (rCBF ratios). Patients with PD performed more poorly than controls in all cognitive domains, and were intermediate to AD patients and controls in tests of memory and overall cognitive functioning. Those PD patients who performed most poorly on neuro-psychological testing showed lowest rCBF ratios in left and right temporal lobes, Using a stepwise multiple regression procedure, we examined patterns of correlations between cognitive clusters and predictor variables, including rCBF ratios, in the PD patients. We found that while patient age was a strong determinant of performance on the memory cluster and the summary score, dorsolateral frontal lobe perfusion and scores on a depression inventory accounted for a greater proportion of the variance of the frontal lobe and perseveration clusters than did age. These results imply that different neural mechanisms are responsible for the different aspects of cognitive decline seen in PD patients, with overall cognitive function closely related to age and temporal perfusion, while frontal lobe abilities are more linked to frontal perfusion and the presence of depression.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JAGUST1992,
      author = {JAGUST, WJ and REED, BR and MARTIN, EM and EBERLING, JL and NELSONABBOTT, RA},
      title = {COGNITIVE FUNCTION AND REGIONAL CEREBRAL BLOOD-FLOW IN PARKINSONS-DISEASE},
      journal = {BRAIN},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {115},
      number = {Part 2},
      pages = {521-537}
    }
    
    Jha, A.P., Krompinger, J. & Baime, M.J. Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention {2007} COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE & BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {7}({2}), pp. {109-119} 
    article  
    Abstract: Mindfulness is defined as paying attention in the present moment. We investigate the hypothesis that mindfulness training may alter or enhance specific aspects of attention. We examined three functionally and neuroanatomically distinct but overlapping attentional subsystems: alerting, orienting, and conflict monitoring. Functioning of each subsystem was indexed by performance on the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, & Posner, 2002). Two types of mindfulness training (MT) programs were examined, and behavioral testing was conducted on participants before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) training. One training group consisted of individuals naive to mindfulness techniques who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) course that emphasized the development of concentrative meditation skills. The other training group consisted of individuals experienced in concentrative meditation techniques who participated in a 1 -month intensive mindfulness retreat. Performance of these groups was compared with that of control participants who were meditation naive and received no MT. At Time 1, the participants in the retreat group demonstrated improved conflict monitoring performance relative to those in the MBSR and control groups. At Time 2, the participants in the MBSR course demonstrated significantly improved orienting in comparison with the control and retreat participants. In contrast, the participants in the retreat group demonstrated altered performance on the alerting component, with improvements in exogenous stimulus detection in comparison with the control and MBSR participants. The groups did not differ in conflict monitoring performance at Time 2. These results suggest that mindfulness training may improve attention-related behavioral responses by enhancing functioning of specific subcomponents of attention. Whereas participation in the MBSR course improved the ability to endogenously orient attention, retreat participation appeared to allow for the development and emergence of receptive attentional skills, which improved exogenous alerting-related process.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jha2007,
      author = {Jha, Amishi P. and Krompinger, Jason and Baime, Michael J.},
      title = {Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention},
      journal = {COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE & BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {109-119}
    }
    
    Joffe, H., Hall, J., Gruber, S., Sarmiento, I., Cohen, L., Yurgelun-Todd, D. & Martin, K. Estrogen therapy selectively enhances prefrontal cognitive processes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with functional magnetic resonance imaging in perimenopausal and recently postmenopausal women {2006} MENOPAUSE-THE JOURNAL OF THE NORTH AMERICAN MENOPAUSE SOCIETY
    Vol. {13}({3}), pp. {411-422} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Objective: Estrogen therapy (ET) seems to differentially effect cognitive processes in younger versus older postmenopausal women, suggesting a window of opportunity when ET is most beneficial. Cognitive improvement in younger postmenopausal women has been attributed to ET's influence on hot flushes and sleep, but empiric examination of the mediating role of menopause symptoms versus direct effects of ET on the brain is limited. The aim of this study was to determine which cognitive domains are influenced by ET and whether hot flushes and sleep play mediating roles in these effects. Design: In a double-blind trial, 52 women were randomly assigned to estradiol 0.05 mg/day (n=26) or placebo transdermal patches (n=26) for 12 weeks. Women completed tests of memory, learning, and executive functioning, and hot flush and sleep assessments at baseline and study end. A subset of women (five ET treated, six placebo treated) also underwent blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Results: Nondepressed perimenopausal and postmenopausal women were studied. The majority had hot flushes and sleep impairment. Compared with placebo, ET selectively reduced errors of perseveration during verbal recall (P=0.03), a frontal system-mediated function, but did not influence other cognitive processes. Women with baseline hot flushes had greater cognitive benefit with ET (P<0.05). Cognitive benefit was not associated with sleep problems or its improvement. Measures of fMRI BOLD activation during tests of verbal and spatial working memory showed significant increases in frontal system activity with ET (P<0.001). Conclusions: Estrogen therapy selectively improves executive functioning as demonstrated by reduced perseverative errors and prefrontal cortex activation during verbal recall tasks. Cognitive improvement with ET is associated with hot flushes, but not with sleep, suggesting that ET has a direct central nervous system effect, rather than an indirect effect mediated through improvement of sleep.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Joffe2006,
      author = {Joffe, H and Hall, JE and Gruber, S and Sarmiento, IA and Cohen, LS and Yurgelun-Todd, D and Martin, KA},
      title = {Estrogen therapy selectively enhances prefrontal cognitive processes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with functional magnetic resonance imaging in perimenopausal and recently postmenopausal women},
      journal = {MENOPAUSE-THE JOURNAL OF THE NORTH AMERICAN MENOPAUSE SOCIETY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {13},
      number = {3},
      pages = {411-422},
      doi = {{10.1097/01.gme.0000189618.48774.7b}}
    }
    
    Johnson-Selfridge, M. & Zalewski, C. Moderator variables of executive functioning in schizophrenia: Meta-analytic findings {2001} SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN
    Vol. {27}({2}), pp. {305-316} 
    article  
    Abstract: The literature regarding executive functioning in schizophrenia was examined to determine effect size differences between schizophrenic, normal control, and psychiatric groups. Effect sizes (n = 176) from 71 studies were cumulated across measures including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Halstead Category Test (HCT), verbal/design fluency, Trail Making B (TMB), and the Stroop Color-Word Test. Schizophrenic groups were impaired relative to controls (Delta = -1.45). Schizophrenic groups also performed 0.40 standard deviations lower than psychiatric groups. Within the schizophrenic versus normal control comparisons, the effect size based on complex measures, such as the WCST/HCT (Delta = -1.42), was similar to that based on less complex measures, such as TMB and the Stroop (Delta = -1.58). Chlorpromazine equivalents and illness duration were not significantly correlated with effect sizes (p > 0.05). Effect sizes and number of hospitalizations (p < 0.05) were related, Effect sizes and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) were not significantly correlated. Negative and positive symptoms were significantly correlated (p < 0.05). The results as they apply to research and clinical practice are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Johnson-Selfridge2001,
      author = {Johnson-Selfridge, M and Zalewski, C},
      title = {Moderator variables of executive functioning in schizophrenia: Meta-analytic findings},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {27},
      number = {2},
      pages = {305-316},
      note = {17th Annual Meeting of the National-Academy-of-Neuropsychology, LAS VEGAS, NEVADA, NOV 10-13, 1997}
    }
    
    Jorge, R., Robinson, R., Moser, D., Tateno, A., Crespo-Facorro, B. & Arndt, S. Major depression following traumatic brain injury {2004} ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {61}({1}), pp. {42-50} 
    article  
    Abstract: Backgroud: Major depression is a frequent psychiatric complication among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). To our knowledge, however, the clinical correlates of major depression have not been extensively studied. Objective: To determine the clinical, neuropsychological, and structural neuroimaging correlates of major depression occurring after TBI. Design: Prospective, case-controlled, surveillance study conducted during the first year after the traumatic episode occurred. Settings: University hospital level I trauma center and a specialized rehabilitation unit. Methods: The study group consisted of 91 patients with TBI. In addition, 27 patients with multiple traumas but without evidence of central nervous system injury constituted the control group. The patients' conditions were evaluated at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months after the traumatic episode. Psychiatric diagnosis was made using a structured clinical interview and DSM-IV criteria. Neuropsychological testing and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging were performed at the 3-month follow-up visit. Results: Major depressive disorder was observed in 30 (33 of 91 patients during the first year after sustaining a TBI. Major depressive disorder was significantly more frequent among patients with TBI than among the controls. Patients with TBI who had major depression were more likely to have a personal history of mood and anxiety disorders than patients who did not have major depression. Patients with major depression exhibited comorbid anxiety (76.7 and aggressive behavior (56.7. Patients with major depression had significantly greater impairment in executive functions than their nondepressed counterparts. Major depression was also associated with poorer social functioning at the 6-and 12-month follow-up, as well as significantly reduced left prefrontal gray matter volumes, particularly in the ventrolateral and dorsolateral regions. Conclusions: Major depression is a frequent complication of TBI that hinders a patient's recovery. It is associated with executive dysfunction, negative affect, and prominent anxiety symptoms. The neuropathological changes produced by TBI may lead to deactivation of lateral and dorsal prefrontal cortices and increased activation of ventral limbic and paralimbic structures including the amygdala.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jorge2004,
      author = {Jorge, RE and Robinson, RG and Moser, D and Tateno, A and Crespo-Facorro, B and Arndt, S},
      title = {Major depression following traumatic brain injury},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {61},
      number = {1},
      pages = {42-50}
    }
    
    Jovanovski, D., Erb, S. & Zakzanis, K. Neurocognitive deficits in cocaine users: A quantitative review of the evidence {2005} JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {27}({2}), pp. {189-204} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Studies on the neurocognitive effects of cocaine abuse are equivocal with respect to the specific types of deficits observed, although the vast majority of studies indicate that at least some deficits in certain broad junctions such as attention, learning and memory, executive functions, and response speed exist. All of these studies based their results on null hypothesis statistical significance testing (NHSST). It is argued that effect size analysis, which provides information about the magnitude of difference, offers a more valid index of cognitive impairments in a population when compared to NHSST Accordingly, the objective of the current study was to conduct an effect size analysis (or a meta-analysis in cases where the same test measure was utilized in more than one study) to determine the type and the magnitude of the specific cognitive deficits found as a result of cocaine use. Effect sizes were calculated for each test variable across 15 empirical studies that met inclusion criteria. The results from 481 cocaine users and 586 healthy normal controls revealed that cocaine use had the largest effect on several measures of attention (0.400.50) were also obtained on tests of visual memory and working memory. Minimal effect sizes (d<0.30) were obtained on tests of verbal fluency and other language functions and sensory-perceptual functions. Tests of executive functioning produced mixed findings and were interpreted in terms of degree rather than nature of impairment. The results are consistent with findings from neuroimaging and neurochemical studies that have found cocaine use to be associated with dysfunctions in the anterior cingulate gyrus and orbitofrontal cortex; these regions are highly implicated in the mediation of attentional and executive functions, respectively. Methodological limitations of the empirical studies included in the analysis are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jovanovski2005,
      author = {Jovanovski, D and Erb, S and Zakzanis, KK},
      title = {Neurocognitive deficits in cocaine users: A quantitative review of the evidence},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {27},
      number = {2},
      pages = {189-204},
      doi = {{10.1080/13803390490515694}}
    }
    
    Jurado, M.B. & Rosselli, M. The elusive nature of executive functions: A review of our current understanding {2007} NEUROPSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {17}({3}), pp. {213-233} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Executive functions include abilities of goal formation, planning, carrying out goal-directed plans, and effective performance. This article aims at reviewing some of the current knowledge surrounding executive functioning and presenting the contrasting views regarding this concept. The neural substrates of the executive system are examined as well as the evolution of executive functioning, from development to decline. There is clear evidence of the vulnerability of executive functions to the effects of age over lifespan. The first executive function to emerge in children is the ability to inhibit overlearned behavior and the last to appear is verbal fluency. Inhibition of irrelevant information seems to decline earlier than set shifting and verbal fluency during senescence. The sequential progression and decline of these functions has been paralleled with the anatomical changes of the frontal lobe and its connections with other brain areas. Generalization of the results presented here are limited due to methodological differences across studies. Analysis of these differences is presented and suggestions for future research are offered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jurado2007,
      author = {Jurado, Maria Beatriz and Rosselli, Monica},
      title = {The elusive nature of executive functions: A review of our current understanding},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {17},
      number = {3},
      pages = {213-233},
      doi = {{10.1007/s11065-007-9040-z}}
    }
    
    Just, M.A., Cherkassky, V.L., Keller, T.A., Kana, R.K. & Minshew, N.J. Functional and anatomical cortical underconnectivity in autism: Evidence from an fMRI study of an executive function task and corpus callosum morphometry {2007} CEREBRAL CORTEX
    Vol. {17}({4}), pp. {951-961} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The brain activation of a group of high-functioning autistic participants was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging during the performance of a Tower of London task, in comparison with a control group matched with respect to intelligent quotient, age, and gender. The 2 groups generally activated the same cortical areas to similar degrees. However, there were 3 indications of underconnectivity in the group with autism. First, the degree of synchronization (i.e., the functional connectivity or the correlation of the time series of the activation) between the frontal and parietal areas of activation was lower for the autistic than the control participants. Second, relevant parts of the corpus callosum, through which many of the bilaterally activated cortical areas communicate, were smaller in cross-sectional area in the autistic participants. Third, within the autism group but not within the control group, the size of the genu of the corpus callosum was correlated with frontal-parietal functional connectivity. These findings suggest that the neural basis of altered cognition in autism entails a lower degree of integration of information across certain cortical areas resulting from reduced intracortical connectivity. The results add support to a new theory of cortical underconnectivity in autism, which posits a deficit in integration of information at the neural and cognitive levels.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Just2007,
      author = {Just, Marcel Adam and Cherkassky, Vladimir L. and Keller, Timothy A. and Kana, Rajesh K. and Minshew, Nancy J.},
      title = {Functional and anatomical cortical underconnectivity in autism: Evidence from an fMRI study of an executive function task and corpus callosum morphometry},
      journal = {CEREBRAL CORTEX},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {17},
      number = {4},
      pages = {951-961},
      doi = {{10.1093/cercor/bhl006}}
    }
    
    Kana, R.K., Keller, T.A., Minshew, N.J. & Just, M.A. Inhibitory control in high-functioning autism: Decreased activation and underconnectivity in inhibition networks {2007} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {62}({3}), pp. {198-206} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background: Inhibiting prepotent responses is critical to optimal cognitive and behavioral function across many domains. Several behavioral studies have investigated response inhibition in autism, and the findings varied according to the components involved in inhibition. There has been only one published functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study so far on inhibition in autism, which found greater activation in participants with autism than control participants. Methods: This study investigated the neural basis of response inhibition in 12 high-functioning adults with autism and 12 age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched control participants during a simple response inhibition task and an inhibition task involving working memory. Results: In both inhibition tasks, the participants with autism showed less brain activation than control participants in areas often found to be active in response inhibition tasks, namely the anterior cingulate cortex. In the more demanding inhibition condition, involving working memory, the participants with autism showed more activation than control participants in the premotor areas. In addition to the activation differences, the participants with autism showed lower levels of synchronization between the inhibition network (anterior cingulate gyrus, middle cingulate gyrus, and insula) and the right middle and inferior frontal and right inferior parietal regions. Conclusions: The results indicate that the inhibition circuitry in the autism group is activated atypically and is less synchronized, leaving inhibition to be accomplished by strategic control rather than automatically. At the behavioral level, there was no difference between the groups.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kana2007,
      author = {Kana, Rajesh K. and Keller, Timothy A. and Minshew, Nancy J. and Just, Marcel Adam},
      title = {Inhibitory control in high-functioning autism: Decreased activation and underconnectivity in inhibition networks},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {62},
      number = {3},
      pages = {198-206},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.08.004}}
    }
    
    Keenan, P., Ezzat, W., Ginsburg, K. & Moore, G. Prefrontal cortex as the site of estrogen's effect on cognition {2001} PSYCHONEUROENDOCRINOLOGY
    Vol. {26}({6}), pp. {577-590} 
    article  
    Abstract: The hippocampus has long been presumed the primary site of action of estrogens on cognition; and explicit memory is considered the cognitive function most vulnerable to menopausal loss of estrogen. We hypothesize instead that the prefrontal cortex and its neural circuitry are prime mediators of estrogen's role in cognition. Vile also propose that previously reported menopausal cognitive decline, presumed to be hippocampally mediated, may be secondary to executive dysfunction. We used a cross sectional design to compare the performance of nine menopausal women on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and 10 menopausal women with no prior exposure to HRT on a battery of neuropsychological tests. The battery was comprised primarily of tests of memory and executive functioning. Executive functioning is mediated by the frontal lobes and encompasses working memory, directed attention, the inhibition of inappropriate responses, cognitive set switching, and behavioral monitoring. Unlike most previous studies, we used a memory measure that yields multiple scores reflecting various problem-solving strategies and error types, thus isolating spared and impaired cognitive processes. Results yielded both qualitative and quantitative evidence for disruption of cognitive processes subserved by the frontal lobes rather than the hippocampus: 1) despite intact free recall on a list-learning task (CVLT), untreated menopausal women were relatively impaired in correctly recognizing words previously learned and distinguishing them from items not on the list (discriminability), 2) untreated women also had difficulty inhibiting inappropriate responses in the form of perseverative errors, and 3) the non-HRT group consistently performed worse on the N-back test of working memory. The prefrontal cortex is critical for intact working memory and estrogen enhances performance on working memory tasks. In conclusion, this study provides preliminary evidence for executive dysfunction in untreated menopausal women as women with HRT outperformed women without HRT on tests requiring directed attention, inhibition of inappropriate responses, and cognitive sec switching. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Keenan2001,
      author = {Keenan, PA and Ezzat, WH and Ginsburg, K and Moore, GJ},
      title = {Prefrontal cortex as the site of estrogen's effect on cognition},
      journal = {PSYCHONEUROENDOCRINOLOGY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {26},
      number = {6},
      pages = {577-590}
    }
    
    Keilp, J., Sackeim, H., Brodsky, B., Oquendo, M., Malone, K. & Mann, J. Neuropsychological dysfunction in depressed suicide attempters {2001} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {158}({5}), pp. {735-741} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: Neuropsychological deficits in the context of psychiatric disease may be associated with suicide risk. In this study, neuropsychological performance was compared among depressed patients with at least one prior suicide attempt of high lethality, depressed patients with low-lethality prior attempts, depressed patients with no prior suicide attempts, and nonpatients. Method: Fifty unmedicated patients in a major depressive episode (21 with no history of suicide attempts and 14 and 15 patients with previous attempts of low and high lethality, respectively) and 22 nonpatients were assessed. Groups were comparable in age, education, occupational level, and estimated premorbid intelligence. The neuropsychological battery produced scores within five composite domains: general intellectual functioning (current), motor functioning, attention, memory, and executive functioning. Results: Patients whose prior suicide attempts were of high lethality performed significantly worse than all groups on tests of executive functioning and were the only group to perform significantly worse than nonpatients on tests of general intellectual Functioning, attention, and memory. A discriminant function analysis revealed two prominent dimensions in the data: one that discriminated high-lethality suicide attempters from all other groups (primarily associated with performance on tests of executive functioning) and another that discriminated all depressed patient groups from nonpatients (associated with performance on measures of attention and memory). For the patients with high-lethality prior suicide attempts, deficits did not appear to reflect diffuse brain damage from past attempts, since the results of tests commonly affected by diffuse injury were not selectively impaired. Conclusions: Neuropsychological deficits in depressed patients with high-lethality prior suicide attempts suggest impairment of executive functioning beyond that typically found in major depression. This more extensive neuropsychological jmpairment in the context of depression may be a risk factor for severe suicide attempts.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Keilp2001,
      author = {Keilp, JG and Sackeim, HA and Brodsky, BS and Oquendo, MA and Malone, KM and Mann, JJ},
      title = {Neuropsychological dysfunction in depressed suicide attempters},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {158},
      number = {5},
      pages = {735-741}
    }
    
    Kern, R.S., Green, M.F., Cornblatt, B.A., Owen, J.R., McQuade, R.D., Carson, W.H., Ali, M. & Marcus, R. The neurocognitive effects of aripiprazole: an open-label comparison with olanzapine {2006} PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
    Vol. {187}({3}), pp. {312-320} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Rationale Cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia. As a target of intervention, improvements in cognition may lead to improvements in functional outcome. Objectives The present paper is the first report, to our knowledge, on the neurocognitive effects of aripiprazole. Unlike other second-generation antipsychotics, aripiprazole is a D-2 and D-3 receptor partial agonist. It is unknown what effects this unusual pharmacological profile may yield on neurocognition. Materials and methods The present open-label study included data on 169 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were randomly treated with aripiprazole or olanzapine. Subjects received a neurocognitive battery at baseline, week 8, and 26. Results The aripiprazole group had a significantly greater dropout rate than the olanzapine group. Neurocognitive data were reduced through a principal components analysis that yielded a three-factor solution. The factors were general cognitive functioning, executive functioning, and verbal learning. For general cognitive functioning, both groups improved from baseline and the effects were relatively stable over the 26-week protocol. There were no differential treatment effects. For executive functioning, neither group improved significantly from baseline. For verbal learning, the aripiprazole group improved significantly from baseline to the 8th and 26th week of assessment, and there was a between-group effect favoring aripiprazole over olanzapine that was largely attributable to the differences in performance within the 8th week. Separate analyses were conducted for a measure of sustained attention (Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs). There were no differential treatment effects on this measure. Conclusions The findings from this open-label study suggest that the neurocognitive effects of aripiprazole are at least as good as those of olanzapine.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kern2006,
      author = {Kern, Robert S. and Green, Michael F. and Cornblatt, Barbara A. and Owen, J. Randall and McQuade, Robert D. and Carson, William H. and Ali, Mirza and Marcus, Ron},
      title = {The neurocognitive effects of aripiprazole: an open-label comparison with olanzapine},
      journal = {PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {187},
      number = {3},
      pages = {312-320},
      doi = {{10.1007/s00213-006-0428-x}}
    }
    
    Kerns, J. & Berenbaum, H. Cognitive impairments associated with formal thought disorder in people with schizophrenia {2002} JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {111}({2}), pp. {211-224} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Formal thought disorder (FTD), or disorganized speech, is one of the central signs of schizophrenia. Despite extensive research, the cognitive processes associated with FTD are still unclear. However, the authors' review of FTD theories and research indicates that considerable progress has been made in identifying possible cognitive impairments associated with FTD. Specifically, FTD is strongly associated with impaired executive functioning and with impaired processing of semantic information. Their review indicates that previous research has not yet supported an association between FTD and either an increase in spreading activation or an impairment within the language production system.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kerns2002,
      author = {Kerns, JG and Berenbaum, H},
      title = {Cognitive impairments associated with formal thought disorder in people with schizophrenia},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {111},
      number = {2},
      pages = {211-224},
      doi = {{10.1037//0021-843X.111.2.211}}
    }
    
    Keshavan, M., Rabinowitz, J., DeSmedt, G., Harvey, P. & Schooler, N. Correlates of insight in first episode psychosis {2004} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {70}({2-3}), pp. {187-194} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Impaired insight is common in schizophrenia and may be related to poor treatment adherence. Few studies have examined the clinical and neurocognitive correlates of insight in early schizophrenia. Early course schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and schizophreniform disorder patients (n = 535) were studied. The Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) was used to assess psychopathology, and a broad range of neuropsychological functions was assessed. Using hierarchical stepwise multiple regression analyses, we examined the association of clinical, neurocognitive, and premorbid measures with the level of insight. Impaired insight was associated with overall symptomatology, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology and with deficits in cognitive functioning. In descending order of robustness, the significant variables were PANSS general psychopathology (p < 0.0001), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (p < 0.0004), Clinical Global Impression (p < 0.005), PANSS positive (p < 0.007), and premorbid adjustment-general subscale (p = 0.02). Among the PANSS general psychopathology items, unusual thought content was most robustly associated with impaired insight (p < 0.00000). Insight impairment is very common in early schizophrenia, and appears to be associated with a broad range of psychopathology and deficits in multiple cognitive domains. These observations suggest that deficits in insight may be related to a generalized dysfunction of neural networks involved in memory, learning, and executive functions. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Keshavan2004,
      author = {Keshavan, MS and Rabinowitz, J and DeSmedt, G and Harvey, PD and Schooler, N},
      title = {Correlates of insight in first episode psychosis},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {70},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {187-194},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.schres.2003.11.007}}
    }
    
    Killaspy, H., Banerjee, S., King, M. & Lloyd, M. Prospective controlled study of psychiatric out-patient non-attendance - Characteristics and outcome {2000} BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {176}, pp. {160-165} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background Psychiatric clinics have high non-attendance rates and failure to attend may be a sign or deteriorating mental health. Aims To investigate why psychiatric out-patients rail to attend, and the outcome of attenders and non-attenders. Method Prospective cohort study of randomly selected attenders and nonattenders at general adult psychiatric out-patient clinics. Subjects were interviewed at recruitment and severity of mental disorder and degree of social adjustment were measured. Six and 12 months later their engagement with the clinic and any psychiatric admissions were ascertained. Results Of the 365 patients included in the study, 30 were untraceable and 22.4 consented to participate. Follow-up patients were more psychiatrically unwell than new patients. For follow-up patients, non-attenders had lower social functioning and more severe mental disorder than those who attended. At 12-month follow-up patients who missed their appointment were more likely to have been admitted than those who attended. Conclusions Those who miss psychiatric follow-up out-patient appointments are more unwell and more poorly socially functioning than those who attend. They have a greater chance of drop - out from clinic contact and subsequent admission. Declaration of interest Funding from the NHS Executive.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Killaspy2000,
      author = {Killaspy, H and Banerjee, S and King, M and Lloyd, M},
      title = {Prospective controlled study of psychiatric out-patient non-attendance - Characteristics and outcome},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {176},
      pages = {160-165}
    }
    
    Klein, M., Engelberts, N., van der Ploeg, H., Trenite, D., Aaronson, N., Taphoorn, M., Baaijen, H., Vandertop, W., Muller, M., Postma, T. & Heimans, J. Epilepsy in low-grade gliomas: The impact on cognitive function and quality of life {2003} ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {54}({4}), pp. {514-520} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Low-grade gliomas frequently are associated with epilepsy. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of epilepsy and antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment on cognitive functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in these patients. One hundred fifty-six patients without clinical or radiological signs of tumor recurrence for at least I year after histological diagnosis and with an epilepsy burden (based on seizure frequency and AED use) ranging from none to severe were compared with healthy controls. The association between epilepsy burden and cognition/HRQOL was also investigated. Eighty-six percent of the patients had epilepsy and 50% of those using AEDs actually were seizure-free. Compared with healthy controls, glioma patients had significant reductions in information processing speed, psychomotor function, attentional functioning, verbal and working memory, executive functioning, and HRQOL. The increase in epilepsy burden that was associated with significant reductions in all cognitive domains except for attentional and memory functioning could primarily be attributed to the use of AEDs, whereas the decline in HRQOL could be ascribed to the lack of complete seizure control. In conclusion, low-grade glioma patients suffer from a number of neuropsychological and psychological problems that are aggravated by the severity of epilepsy and by the intensity of the treatment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Klein2003,
      author = {Klein, M and Engelberts, NHJ and van der Ploeg, HM and Trenite, DGAKN and Aaronson, NK and Taphoorn, MJB and Baaijen, H and Vandertop, WP and Muller, M and Postma, TJ and Heimans, JJ},
      title = {Epilepsy in low-grade gliomas: The impact on cognitive function and quality of life},
      journal = {ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {54},
      number = {4},
      pages = {514-520},
      doi = {{10.1002/ana.10712}}
    }
    
    Klingberg, T., Fernell, E., Olesen, P., Johnson, M., Gustafsson, P., Dahlstrom, K., Gillberg, C., Forssberg, H. & Westerberg, H. Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD - A randomized, controlled trial {2005} JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {44}({2}), pp. {177-186} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: Deficits in executive functioning, including working memory (WM) deficits, have been suggested to be important in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). During 2002 to 2003, the authors conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial to investigate the effect of improving WM by computerized, systematic practice of WM tasks. Method: Included in the trial were 53 children with ADHD (9 girls; 15 of 53 inattentive subtype), aged 7 to 12 years, without stimulant medication. The compliance criterion (>20 days of training) was met by 44 subjects, 42 of whom were also evaluated at follow-up 3 months later. Participants were randomly assigned to use either the treatment computer program for training WM or a comparison program. The main outcome measure was the span-board task, a visuospatial WM task that was not part of the training program. Results: For the span-board task, there was a significant treatment effect both post-intervention and at follow-up. In addition, there were significant effects for secondary outcome tasks measuring verbal WM, response inhibition, and complex reasoning. Parent ratings showed significant reduction in symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, both post-intervention and at follow-up. Conclusions: This study shows that WM can be improved by training in children with ADHD. This training also improved response inhibition and reasoning and resulted in a reduction of the parent-rated inattentive symptoms of ADHD.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Klingberg2005,
      author = {Klingberg, T and Fernell, E and Olesen, PJ and Johnson, M and Gustafsson, P and Dahlstrom, K and Gillberg, CG and Forssberg, H and Westerberg, H},
      title = {Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD - A randomized, controlled trial},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {44},
      number = {2},
      pages = {177-186}
    }
    
    Klorman, R., Hazel-Fernandez, L., Shaywitz, S., Fletcher, J., Marchione, K., Holahan, J., Stuebing, K. & Shaywitz, B. Executive functioning deficits in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are independent of oppositional defiant or reading disorder {1999} JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {38}({9}), pp. {1148-1155} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To evaluate deficits of executive functions in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) classified by type (combined [CT] or predominantly inattentive [IT]) and comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and reading disorder (RD), Method: The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Tower of Hanoi (TOH) were administered to 28 community volunteers and 359 children (7.5-13.5 years old) divided into ADHD types, RD, and ODD. Results: ADHD/CT children solved fewer puzzles and violated more rules on the TOH than ADHD/IT or non-ADHD subjects. On the WCST there were no differences between diagnostic samples in perseverativeness, but ADHD/CT patients made more nonperseverative errors than ADHD/IT children. ODD was associated with moderately better TOH performance and RD with excessive rule breaks. Conclusions: Executive functioning deficits were found for only ADHD/CT children and were independent of comorbidity with RD or ODD.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Klorman1999,
      author = {Klorman, R and Hazel-Fernandez, LA and Shaywitz, SE and Fletcher, JM and Marchione, KE and Holahan, JM and Stuebing, KK and Shaywitz, BA},
      title = {Executive functioning deficits in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are independent of oppositional defiant or reading disorder},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {38},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1148-1155}
    }
    
    Kondo, H., Morishita, M., Osaka, N., Osaka, M., Fukuyama, H. & Shibasaki, H. Functional roles of the cingulo-frontal network in performance on working memory {2004} NEUROIMAGE
    Vol. {21}({1}), pp. {2-14} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We examined the relationship between brain activities and task performance on working memory. A large-scale study was initially administered to identify good and poor performers using the operation span and reading span tasks. On the basis of those span scores, we divided 20 consenting participants into high-and low-span groups. In an fMRI study, the participants performed verification of arithmetic problems and retention of target words either concurrently or separately. The behavioral results showed that performance was better in the high-span group than in the low-span group under a dual-task condition, but not under two single-task conditions. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left prefrontal cortex (PITC), left inferior frontal cortex, and bilateral parietal cortex were primarily activated for both span groups. We found that signal changes in the ACC were greater in the high-span group than in the low-span group under the dual-task condition, but not under the single-task conditions. Structural equation modeling indicated that an estimate of effective connectivity from the ACC to the left PFC was positive for the high-span group and negative for the-low span group, suggesting that closer cooperation between the two brain regions was strongly related to working memory performance. We conclude that central executive functioning for attention shifting is modulated by the cingulo-frontal network. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kondo2004,
      author = {Kondo, H and Morishita, M and Osaka, N and Osaka, M and Fukuyama, H and Shibasaki, H},
      title = {Functional roles of the cingulo-frontal network in performance on working memory},
      journal = {NEUROIMAGE},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {21},
      number = {1},
      pages = {2-14},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.09.046}}
    }
    
    Koren, D., Seidman, L., Harrison, R., Lyons, M., Kremen, W., Caplan, B., Goldstein, J., Faraone, S. & Tsuang, M. Factor structure of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Dimensions of deficit in schizophrenia {1998} NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {12}({2}), pp. {289-302} 
    article  
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to explore the factorial structure of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and to identify the dimensions of deficit in schizophrenia. WCST scores in patients with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-related psychosis (n = 292), Ist degree relatives of schizophrenic patients (n = 91), and normal controls (n = 141) were subjected to a principal factor analysis followed by orthogonal rotation. This led to 3 factors, perseveration, failure to maintain set, and idiosyncratic sorting. The detected factor structure was found to be invariant across the schizophrenic and control subsamples. Moreover, it replicated previous findings from 2 smaller samples. Only perseverations and, to a lesser degree, idiosyncratic sorting appeared to differentiate schizophrenic patients from comparisons. Only perseveration had good sensitivity and specificity. as well as the most robust significant correlations with estimates of IQ, attention, and other measures of executive functioning. Thus, perseveration appears to be the most diagnostically useful and characteristic WCST feature of schizophrenia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Koren1998,
      author = {Koren, D and Seidman, LJ and Harrison, RH and Lyons, MJ and Kremen, WS and Caplan, B and Goldstein, JM and Faraone, SV and Tsuang, MT},
      title = {Factor structure of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Dimensions of deficit in schizophrenia},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {12},
      number = {2},
      pages = {289-302}
    }
    
    Koshino, H., Kana, R.K., Keller, T.A., Cherkassky, V.L., Minshew, N.J. & Just, M.A. FMRI investigation of working memory for faces in autism: Visual coding and underconnectivity with frontal areas {2008} CEREBRAL CORTEX
    Vol. {18}({2}), pp. {289-300} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Brain activation and functional connectivity were investigated in high functioning autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging in an n-back working memory task involving photographic face stimuli. The autism group showed reliably lower activation compared with controls in the inferior left prefrontal area (involved in verbal processing and working memory maintenance) and the right posterior temporal area (associated with theory of mind processing). The participants with autism also showed activation in a somewhat different location in the fusiform area than the control participants. These results suggest that the neural circuitry of the brain for face processing in autism may be analyzing the features of the face more as objects and less in terms of their human significance. The functional connectivity results revealed that the abnormal fusiform activation was embedded in a larger context of smaller and less synchronized networks, particularly indicating lower functional connectivity with frontal areas. In contrast to the underconnectivity with frontal areas, the autism group showed no underconnectivity among posterior cortical regions. These results extend previous findings of abnormal face perception in autism by demonstrating that the abnormalities are embedded in an abnormal cortical network that manages to perform the working memory task proficiently, using a visually oriented, asocial processing style that minimizes reliance on prefrontal areas.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Koshino2008,
      author = {Koshino, Hideya and Kana, Rajesh K. and Keller, Timothy A. and Cherkassky, Vladimir L. and Minshew, Nancy J. and Just, Marcel Adam},
      title = {FMRI investigation of working memory for faces in autism: Visual coding and underconnectivity with frontal areas},
      journal = {CEREBRAL CORTEX},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {18},
      number = {2},
      pages = {289-300},
      doi = {{10.1093/cercor/bhm054}}
    }
    
    Krain, A.L. & Castellanos, F.X. Brain development and ADHD {2006} CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {26}({4}), pp. {433-444} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactiviiy'Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by excessive inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, either alone or in combination. Neuropsychological findings suggest that these behaviors result from underlying deficits in response inhibition, delay aversion, and executive functioning which, in turn, are presumed to be linked to dysfunction of frontal-striatal-cerebellar circuits. Over the past decade, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to examine anatomic differences in these regions between ADHD and control children. In addition to quantifying differences in total cerebral volume, specific areas of interest have been prefrontal. regions, basal ganglia, the corpus callosum, and cerebellum. Differences in gray and white matter have also been examined. The ultimate goal of this research is to determine the underlying neurophysiology of ADHD and how specific phenotypes may be related to alterations in brain structure. (c) 2006 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Krain2006,
      author = {Krain, Amy L. and Castellanos, F. Xavier},
      title = {Brain development and ADHD},
      journal = {CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {26},
      number = {4},
      pages = {433-444},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.cpr.2006.01.005}}
    }
    
    Kramer, J., Reed, B., Mungas, D., Weiner, M. & Chui, H. Executive dysfunction in subcortical ischaemic vascular disease {2002} JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {72}({2}), pp. {217-220} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Executive dysfunction has been reported in patients with subcortical-frontal pathology, even in the absence of dementia. Objective: This study was undertaken to determine if impairments in executive functioning could be found in non-demented patients with subcortical lacunes. Methods: Cross sectional comparison between older control subjects (n=27) and non-demented patients with one or more subcortical lacunes (n=12). All participants were administered a neuropsychological test battery incorporating three measures of executive functioning, the Stroop interference test, California card sorting test, and the initiation-perseveration subtest of the Mattis dementia rating scale. Results: No group differences were found on measures of recent verbal memory, language, or spatial ability. Normal controls performed better than patients with lacunes in visual memory. On the Stroop interference test, patients with lacunes performed as well as controls on the colour naming condition but slower on the interference condition. Patients with lacunes also generated fewer correct sorts on the California card sort test and achieved lower scores on the initiation-perseveration subtest. Executive measures were correlated with extent of white matter signal hyperintensity but not number of lacunes. Conclusion: Subcortical ischaemic vascular disease is associated with subtle declines in executive functioning and visual memory, even in non-demented patients. The pattern of cognitive impairment after subcortical lacunes is consistent with models of subcortical-frontal circuits.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kramer2002,
      author = {Kramer, JH and Reed, BR and Mungas, D and Weiner, MW and Chui, HC},
      title = {Executive dysfunction in subcortical ischaemic vascular disease},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {72},
      number = {2},
      pages = {217-220}
    }
    
    Kramer-Ginsberg, E., Greenwald, B., Krishnan, K., Christiansen, B., Hu, J., Ashtari, M., Patel, M. & Pollack, S. Neuropsychological functioning and MRI signal hyperintensities in geriatric depression {1999} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {156}({3}), pp. {438-444} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between signal hyperintensities-a probable marker of underlying pathology-on T-2-weighted magnetic resonance brain scans and neuropsychological test findings in elderly depressed and normal subjects. Method: Elderly subjects with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of major depression (N=41) and normal elderly comparison subjects (N=38) participated in a magnetic resonance imaging study (1.0-T) of signal hyperintensities in periventricular, deep white matter, and subcortical gray matter. Hard copies of scans were rated in random order by research psychiatrists blind to diagnosis; the modified Fazekas hyperintensity rating scale was used. Cognitive performance was independently assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Clinical and demographic differences between groups were assessed by t tests and chi-square analysis, Relationships between neuropsychological performance and diagnosis and hyperintensities and their interaction were analyzed by using analysis of covariance, with adjustment for age and education. Results: Elderly depressed subjects manifested poorer cognitive performance on several tests than normal comparison subjects. A significant interaction between hyperintensity location/severity and presence/absence of depression on cognitive performance was found: depressed patients with moderate-to-severe deep white matter hyperintensities demonstrated worse performance on general and delayed recall memory indices, executive functioning and language testing than depressed patients without such lesions and normal elderly subjects with or without deep white matter changes. Conclusions: Findings validate cognitive performance decrements in geriatric depression and suggest possible neuroanatomic vulnerabilities to developing particular neuropsychological dysfunction in depressed subjects.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kramer-Ginsberg1999,
      author = {Kramer-Ginsberg, E and Greenwald, BS and Krishnan, KRR and Christiansen, B and Hu, J and Ashtari, M and Patel, M and Pollack, S},
      title = {Neuropsychological functioning and MRI signal hyperintensities in geriatric depression},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {156},
      number = {3},
      pages = {438-444}
    }
    
    Kray, J., Eber, J. & Lindenberger, U. Age differences in executive functioning across the lifespan: The role of verbalization in task preparation {2004} ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA
    Vol. {115}({2-3}), pp. {143-165} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Age-related changes in executive functioning across the lifespan were assessed in children (mean age = 9.4 years), younger adults (mean age = 21.5 years), and older adults (mean age = 65.3 years). Executive functioning was investigated with a task-switching paradigm that permits the separation of two control components: to select and to switch between task sets. The specific aims of this study were (a) to determine developmental functions in both control components across the lifespan; and (b) to examine whether age-related changes in these components are influenced by verbal prompts during task preparation. The results revealed an inverted u-shaped developmental function for the ability to select between task sets but not for the ability to switch between task sets. In contrast to younger adults and children, older adults generally benefited from verbalizations during task preparation. Children, but not older adults, showed a facilitation of task execution when verbal prompts were task-compatible. Conversely, older adults, but not children, showed stronger interference when verbal prompts are task-incompatible. Our findings suggest that inner speech in an important modulator of developmental changes in executive functioning across the lifespan. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kray2004,
      author = {Kray, J and Eber, J and Lindenberger, U},
      title = {Age differences in executive functioning across the lifespan: The role of verbalization in task preparation},
      journal = {ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {115},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {143-165},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.actpsy.2003.12.001}}
    }
    
    Kray, J., Li, K. & Lindenberger, U. Age-related changes in task-switching components: The role of task uncertainty {2002} BRAIN AND COGNITION
    Vol. {49}({3}), pp. {363-381} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The present study examined age differences in executive functioning, using an externally cued task-switching paradigm, Two components of task switching were assessed: the ability to maintain and select among task sets (general switch costs) and the ability to switch between task sets (specific switch costs). In contrast to previous findings, we found large age-related differences in specific switch costs, especially when the number of potentially relevant task sets is increased from two to four. Age-related differences in general switch costs were absent when external task cues subserved executive processing in task switching. Generally, the findings suggest that age-related impairments in task-switching components vary as a function of task uncertainty, such as the presence of environmental prompts to behavior. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kray2002,
      author = {Kray, J and Li, KZH and Lindenberger, U},
      title = {Age-related changes in task-switching components: The role of task uncertainty},
      journal = {BRAIN AND COGNITION},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {49},
      number = {3},
      pages = {363-381},
      doi = {{10.1006/brcg.2001.1505}}
    }
    
    Kuelz, A., Hohagen, F. & Voderholzer, U. Neuropsychological performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a critical review {2004} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {65}({3}), pp. {185-236} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: dThere is growing evidence for neuropsychological dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) related to an underlying frontal lobe and/or basal ganglia dysfunction. The following paper is a systematical review of the existing literature on cognitive impairment in OCD patients. Fifty studies were surveyed with regard to methodological aspects and cognitive impairments found in OCD patients. In addition, the impact of confounding variables such as psychotropic medication, co-morbidity or severity of symptoms on neuropsychological functioning as well as effects of treatment are discussed. OCD is often related to memory dysfunction that seems to be associated with impaired organization of information at the stage of encoding. Several other executive functions are also commonly disturbed, though results are inconsistent. The results of our study suggest that some cognitive deficits seem to be common in OCD, but future studies should focus more on possible confounding variables such as co-morbidity or psychotropic medication. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kuelz2004,
      author = {Kuelz, AK and Hohagen, F and Voderholzer, U},
      title = {Neuropsychological performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a critical review},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {65},
      number = {3},
      pages = {185-236},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.biopsycho.2003.07.007}}
    }
    
    Landes, A., Sperry, S., Strauss, M. & Geldmacher, D. Apathy in Alzheimer's disease {2001} JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY
    Vol. {49}({12}), pp. {1700-1707} 
    article  
    Abstract: Apathy, or loss of motivation, is arguably the most common change in behavior in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but is underrecognized. Apathy represents a form of executive cognitive dysfunction. Patients with apathy suffer from decreased daily function and specific cognitive deficits and rely on families to provide more care, which results in increased stress for families. Apathy is one of the primary syndromes associated with frontal and subcortical pathology, and apathy in AD appears to have multiple neuroanatomical correlates that implicate components of frontal subcortical networks. Despite the profound effects of this common syndrome, only a few instruments have been designed to specifically assess apathy, and these instruments have not been directly compared. Assessment of apathy in AD requires clinicians to distinguish loss of motivation from loss of ability due to cognitive decline. Although apathy may be misdiagnosed as depression because of an overlap in symptoms, current research has shown apathy to be a discrete syndrome. Distinguishing apathy from depression has important treatment implications, because these disorders respond to different interventions. Further research is required to clarify the specific neuroanatomical and neuropsychological correlates of apathy and to determine how correct diagnosis and treatment of apathy may improve patient functioning and ease caregiver burden.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Landes2001,
      author = {Landes, AM and Sperry, SD and Strauss, ME and Geldmacher, DS},
      title = {Apathy in Alzheimer's disease},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {49},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1700-1707}
    }
    
    Lapteva, L., Nowak, M., Yarboro, C.H., Takada, K., Roebuck-Spencer, T., Weickert, T., Bleiberg, J., Rosenstein, D., Pao, M., Patronas, N., Steele, S., Manzano, M., van der Veen, J.W.C., Lipsky, P.E., Marenco, S., Wesley, R., Volpe, B., Diamond, B. & Illei, G.G. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies, cognitive dysfunction, and depression in systemic lupus erythematosus {2006} ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM
    Vol. {54}({8}), pp. {2505-2514} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Objective. To assess the association of cognitive dysfunction and depression with serum antibodies to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (anti-NR2) and analyze clinical and neuroimaging correlates in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods. Sixty patients underwent neurocognitive assessment, evaluation for depression with the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and psychiatric interview (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition [DSM-IV] criteria), brain magnetic resonance imaging, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (H-1-MRSI). Cognition was assessed in 5 domains: memory, attention/executive, visuospatial, motor, and psychomotor, and adjusted to each individual's best level of prior cognitive functioning estimated from the reading subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3). Serum anti-NR2 antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a pentapeptide from the human NMDA receptor. Results. Cognitive dysfunction was found in 28 of 60 patients (mild in 8, moderate in 20) before adjustment for WRAT-3 and in 35 of 60 patients (mild in 15, moderate in 11, and severe in 9) after adjustment for WRAT-3. The changes were most pronounced in the memory and visuospatial domains. There was no significant association between anti-NR2 antibody levels and cognition. On H-1-MRSI, patients with moderate or severe cognitive dysfunction had significantly higher choline:creatine ratios in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the white matter, compared with patients with mild or absent cognitive dysfunction. Anti-NR2 antibodies were significantly correlated with BDI scores; patients with BDI-II scores of >= 14 had higher serum levels of anti-NR2 antibodies (P = 0.005, 95% confidence interval 0.83, 4.31), and there was a trend toward higher anti-NR2 antibody levels among patients who fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for major depression. Conclusion. Serum anti-NR2 antibodies are associated with depressive mood but not with cognitive dysfunction in SLE at a given time point. Larger longitudinal studies are needed to address the possible association between anti-NR2 antibodies and depression in SLE.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lapteva2006,
      author = {Lapteva, Larissa and Nowak, Miroslawa and Yarboro, Cheryl H. and Takada, Kazuki and Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa and Weickert, Thomas and Bleiberg, Joseph and Rosenstein, Donald and Pao, Maryland and Patronas, Nicholas and Steele, Sonya and Manzano, Melissa and van der Veen, Jan Willem C. and Lipsky, Peter E. and Marenco, Stefano and Wesley, Robert and Volpe, Bruce and Diamond, Betty and Illei, Gabor G.},
      title = {Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies, cognitive dysfunction, and depression in systemic lupus erythematosus},
      journal = {ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {54},
      number = {8},
      pages = {2505-2514},
      doi = {{10.1002/art.22031}}
    }
    
    Laroi, F., Fannemel, M., Ronneberg, U., Flekkoy, K., Opjordsmoen, S., Dullerud, R. & Haakonsen, M. Unawareness of illness in chronic schizophrenia and its relationship to structural brain measures and neuropsychological tests {2000} PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH-NEUROIMAGING
    Vol. {100}({1}), pp. {49-58} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present study seeks to elucidate the relationship between unawareness of illness in schizophrenia and frontal lobe dysfunction, in addition to investigating the relationship between lack of insight and sociodemographic and clinical variables. Twenty-one medicated schizophrenic patients, recruited from in- and out-patient wards at Ulleval Hospital, underwent the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), neuropsychological testing, psychiatric symptom ratings and neuroimaging procedures (CT). Also, 21 matched normal controls were neuropsychologically tested. CT data were assessed blindly by two experienced neuroradiologists, according to the degree of Ventricular enlargement and/or sulcal widening, and an assessment of localisation of atrophy was made. Unawareness of illness was correlated with neuropsychological measures related to executive functioning, but not with other neuropsychological measures. Five patients showed slight frontal atrophy, while two showed moderate frontal atrophy. The remaining 13 patients did not show signs of frontal lobe atrophy. Frontal lobe atrophy documented by structural brain measures was associated with poor insight in schizophrenia. Furthermore, Anergia (BPRS), GAF score and undifferentiated' sub-diagnosis correlated with SUMD scores. Unawareness of illness in schizophrenia may be related to frontal lobe deficit. Also, awareness of illness may not be related to general psychopathology, but rather to specific aspects. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Laroi2000,
      author = {Laroi, F and Fannemel, M and Ronneberg, U and Flekkoy, K and Opjordsmoen, S and Dullerud, R and Haakonsen, M},
      title = {Unawareness of illness in chronic schizophrenia and its relationship to structural brain measures and neuropsychological tests},
      journal = {PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH-NEUROIMAGING},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {100},
      number = {1},
      pages = {49-58}
    }
    
    Laurent, A., Biloa-Tang, M., Bougerol, T., Duly, D., Anchisi, A., Bosson, J., Pellat, J., d'Amato, T. & Dalery, J. Executive/attentional performance and measures of schizotypy in patients with schizophrenia and in their nonpsychotic first-degree relatives {2000} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {46}({2-3}), pp. {269-283} 
    article  
    Abstract: Previous studies of executive/attentional functions have found impairments in nonpsychotic first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia. The aims of this study were. (1) to replicate these findings by three laboratory measures of attention/information processing - a continuous performance test (DS-CPT), a forced-choice span of apprehension task (SPAN), and a digit symbol substitution test (DSST), and by a series of neuropsychological tests sensitive to prefrontal cortical damage - Trail Making A and B, verbal fluency (VFT), Stroop Color and Word Test (Stroop), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST); (2) to investigate whether such executive/attentional deficits are associated with schizotypal traits assessed using the social anhedonia, physical anhedortia. perceptual aberration and magical ideation scales (Chapman, L.J., Chapman, J.P., Raulin, M.L. 1976. Scales for physical and social anhedonia. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 85, 374-382; Chapman, L.J., Chapman, J.P., Raulin, IM.L., 1978. Body-image aberration in schizophrenia. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 87, 399-407; Eckblad, M., Chapman, L.J., 1983. Magical ideation as an indicator of schizotypy. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 51, 215-225). In both patient and relative groups, performance was significantly poorer on the DSST, VFT and Trail B, and the reaction time on the SPAN was significantly longer. These neuropsychological impairments were present as much in siblings as in parents of schizophrenic patients: age did not appear to cancel differences between the relative and control groups. In the relative group, the four scores of schizotypy were at an intermediate level between those of patient and control groups, and the social anhedonia and perceptual aberration scores tended to be significantly different between the relative and the control groups. Only two significant correlations were found between the neuropsychological performance and the measures of schizotypy. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Laurent2000,
      author = {Laurent, A and Biloa-Tang, M and Bougerol, T and Duly, D and Anchisi, AM and Bosson, JL and Pellat, J and d'Amato, T and Dalery, J},
      title = {Executive/attentional performance and measures of schizotypy in patients with schizophrenia and in their nonpsychotic first-degree relatives},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {46},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {269-283}
    }
    
    Lehto, J., Juujarvi, P., Kooistra, L. & Pulkkinen, L. Dimensions of executive functioning: Evidence from children {2003} BRITISH JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {21}({Part 1}), pp. {59-80} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study investigated dimensions of executive functioning in 8- to 13-year-old children. Three tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), two tasks from the NEPSY battery and some additional executive function (EF) tests were administered to 108 children. In line with earlier work, modest correlations among EF measures were obtained (r < .4). Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded three interrelated factors, which resembled those obtained by Miyake et al. (2000) and which were-with some reservations-labelled Working Memory (WM), Inhibition and Shifting. Age correlated with performance on most individual EF measures as well as Shifting and WM. The present findings are in agreement with contemporary views as to the simultaneous unity and diversity of EFs.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lehto2003,
      author = {Lehto, JE and Juujarvi, P and Kooistra, L and Pulkkinen, L},
      title = {Dimensions of executive functioning: Evidence from children},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {21},
      number = {Part 1},
      pages = {59-80}
    }
    
    LeMarquand, D., Pihl, R., Young, S., Tremblay, R., Seguin, J., Palmour, R. & Benkelfat, C. Tryptophan depletion, executive functions, and disinhibition in aggressive, adolescent males {1998} NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
    Vol. {19}({4}), pp. {333-341} 
    article  
    Abstract: Low serotonin has been associated with aggressive behavior and impulsivity Executive functions (cognitive abilities involved in the initiation/maintenance of goal attainment) have also been related to aggression. We tested whether dietary depletion of tryptophan, the amino acid precursor of serotonin, would increase disinhibition (impulsivity) in aggressive male adolescents. Cognitive-neuropsychological variables predictive of disinhibition were explored. Stable aggressive and nonaggressive adolescent men received balanced and tryptophan-depleted amino acid mixtures separately (counterbalanced, double-blind), Commission errors on a go/no-go learning task (i.e.,failures to inhibit responding to stimuli associated with punishment/nonreward) measured disinhibition. Aggressive adolescent males made move commission errors as compared to nonaggressives. Lower executive functioning was significantly related to commission errors over and above con conventional memory abilities. Tryptophan depletion had no effect on commission errors in the aggressive adolescents, possibly because of a ceiling effect. (C) 1998 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Published by Elsevier Science Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LeMarquand1998,
      author = {LeMarquand, DG and Pihl, RO and Young, SN and Tremblay, RE and Seguin, JR and Palmour, RM and Benkelfat, C},
      title = {Tryptophan depletion, executive functions, and disinhibition in aggressive, adolescent males},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {19},
      number = {4},
      pages = {333-341},
      note = {Meeting of the Canadian-College-of-Neuropsychopharmacology, TORONTO, CANADA, JUN, 1996}
    }
    
    Lencz, T., Smith, C., McLaughlin, D., Auther, A., Nakayama, E., Hovey, L. & Cornblatt, B. Generalized and specific neurocognitive deficits in prodromal schizophrenia {2006} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {59}({9}), pp. {863-871} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background: Neurocognitive deficits are considered to be central to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and the neurodevelopmental model suggests That such deficits precede full-blown psychosis. The present study examined performance on a broad neuropsychological battery of young subjects considered to be at clinical high risk for schizophrenia, who were subsequently followed to determine clinical outcome. Methods: Subjects were 38 clinical high-risk patients (58% male patients; mean age =.16.5) and 39 sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects. At baseline, all high-risk patients bad attenuated (subpsychotic) schizophrenialike positive symptoms. Clinical follow-up data of at least 6 months duration was available on 33 patients, of whom 12 developed nonaffective psychotic disorders. Results: At baseline, clinical high-risk patients bad significantly impaired global cognitive performance relative to control subjects and to estimates of their own prior intellectual functioning. Measures of verbal memory and executive functioning/working memory showed significantly greater impairments; visuospatial functioning was relatively spared. Prodromal patients who later developed psychosis bad significantly lower verbal memory scores at baseline compared with, patients who remained nonpsychotic. Conclusions: Verbal memory deficits may be an important factor for the development of schizophrenia-spectrum psychotic disorders, possibly indicating the presence of a prefrontal-hippocampal neurodevelopmental abnormality. Generalized neurocognitive impairment may be a nonspecific vulnerability marker.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lencz2006,
      author = {Lencz, T and Smith, CW and McLaughlin, D and Auther, A and Nakayama, E and Hovey, L and Cornblatt, BA},
      title = {Generalized and specific neurocognitive deficits in prodromal schizophrenia},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {59},
      number = {9},
      pages = {863-871},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.09.005}}
    }
    
    Lenzenweger, M., Clarkin, J., Fertuck, E. & Kernberg, O. Executive neurocognitive functioning and neurobehavioral systems indicators in borderline personality disorder: A preliminary study {2004} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS
    Vol. {18}({5}), pp. {421-438} 
    article  
    Abstract: It is argued that borderline personality disorder (BPD) represents the interaction of underlying neurobehavioral systems that are reflected principally in the phenotypic constructs of positive emotion, negative emotion, and nonaffective constraint (Depue & Lenzenweger, 2001). This preliminary and exploratory study sought to examine predictions made from the Depue-Lenzenweger model with respect to controlled (effortful) information processing in BPD. It was hypothesized that (a) BPD subjects may display deficits on tasks that require controlled information processing (sustained attention, spatial working memory, and executive functioning), (b) they may reveal elevated negative emotion as well as decreased positive emotion and nonaffective constraint, and (c) nonaffective constraint should be substantially inversely associated with accurate performance on controlled information processing tasks. The results of this study, which examined 24 BPD diagnosed individuals and 68 normal adults, found support for each of these predictions in relation to performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The implications of these results for further experimental psychopathology investigations of BPD as well as further refinement of theoretical models of the disorder are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lenzenweger2004,
      author = {Lenzenweger, MF and Clarkin, JF and Fertuck, EA and Kernberg, OF},
      title = {Executive neurocognitive functioning and neurobehavioral systems indicators in borderline personality disorder: A preliminary study},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {18},
      number = {5},
      pages = {421-438}
    }
    
    Levin, H., Fletcher, J., Kufera, J., Harward, H., Lilly, M., Mendelsohn, D., Bruce, D. & Eisenberg, H. Dimensions of cognition measured by the Tower of London and other cognitive tasks in head-injured children and adolescents {1996} DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {12}({1}), pp. {17-34} 
    article  
    Abstract: To determine the factor structure of executive functioning in head-injured (n = 81) and normal children (n = 102), we administered tests of concept formation and problem solving, plus planning, verbal fluency, design fluency, memory (to evaluate semantic organization), and response modulation using a Go/No-Go task. The children who sustained closed head injury (CHI) were divided into subgroups who sustained severe (n = 39) and mild/moderate (n = 42) injury. The CHI groups and normal controls were also grouped according to age at the time of testing (6-8, 9-12, and 13-16). The principal components analysis disclosed a five-factor solution that accounted for 79% of the variance: Conceptual-Productivity (Factor 1), Planning (Factor 2), Schema (Factor 3), Cluster (Factor 4), and Inhibition (Factor 5). Age had a significant effect on Factors 1, 2, and 5, whereas severity of CHI affected Factors 1, 2, 4, and 5. Using hierarchial regression in which the Glasgow Coma Scale score, age, and their interaction were entered first, the volume of frontal lobe lesion contributed significantly to predicting Factors 1 (Conceptual-Productivity) and 2 (Planning), whereas the volume of left frontal lesions also predicted Factor 3 (Schema). The volume of extrafrontal lesions augmented the prediction of Factor 3, supporting the general relation of left hemisphere abnormality to the cognitive variables loading on this factor. Pending replication in a different sample of head-injured children, caution is advised in interpreting the findings due to potential instability of the factor structure.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levin1996,
      author = {Levin, HS and Fletcher, JM and Kufera, JA and Harward, H and Lilly, MA and Mendelsohn, D and Bruce, D and Eisenberg, HM},
      title = {Dimensions of cognition measured by the Tower of London and other cognitive tasks in head-injured children and adolescents},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {12},
      number = {1},
      pages = {17-34}
    }
    
    Levine, B., Robertson, I., Clare, L., Carter, G., Hong, J., Wilson, B., Duncan, J. & Stuss, D. Rehabilitation of executive functioning: An experimental-clinical validation of Goal Management Training {2000} JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY
    Vol. {6}({3}), pp. {299-312} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two studies assessed the effects of a training procedure (Goal Management Training, GMT), derived from Duncan's theory of goal neglect, on disorganized behavior following TBI. In Study 1, patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) were randomly assigned to brief trials of GMT or motor skills training. GMT, but not motor skills training, was associated with significant gains on everyday paper-and-pencil tasks designed to mimic tasks that are problematic for patients with goal neglect. In Study 2, GMT was applied in a postencephalitic patient seeking to improve her meal-preparation abilities. Both naturalistic observation and self-report measures revealed improved meal preparation performance following GMT. These studies provide both experimental and clinical support for the efficacy of GMT toward the treatment of executive functioning deficits that compromise independence in patients with brain damage.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levine2000,
      author = {Levine, B and Robertson, IH and Clare, L and Carter, G and Hong, J and Wilson, BA and Duncan, J and Stuss, DT},
      title = {Rehabilitation of executive functioning: An experimental-clinical validation of Goal Management Training},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {299-312}
    }
    
    Levine, B., Stuss, D., Milberg, W., Alexander, M., Schwartz, M. & MacDonald, R. The effects of focal and diffuse brain damage on strategy application: Evidence from focal lesions, traumatic brain injury and normal aging {1998} JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY
    Vol. {4}({3}), pp. {247-264} 
    article  
    Abstract: A new test of strategy application was designed to be relatively free of the constraints that limit the standard neuropsychological assessment of supervisory abilities. The validity of the test was assessed in 3 samples of participants with varying degrees of supervisory deficits and frontal systems dysfunction: focal frontal lesions, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and normal aging. Inefficient strategy application varied systematically across the 3 groups and was not due to extraneous factors such as forgetting the test instructions. Previous case studies have emphasized strategy application deficits in the face of normal neuropsychological test performance. In this study, it was shown that strategically impaired participants from a consecutive series can include those both with and without deficient neuropsychological test performance. When neuropsychological impairment was present, it was greatest on executive functioning tasks. Among participants with nonstrategic performance, there was evidence for a dissociation of knowledge from action. This finding was not specific to focal frontal lesions. A number of supervisory processes contributing to strategy application were identified. Exploratory analyses indicated differential effects of lesion location on these processes, especially inferior medial frontal and right hemisphere lesions. Overall, the results supported the use of unstructured tasks in the assessment of supervisory abilities.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levine1998,
      author = {Levine, B and Stuss, DT and Milberg, WP and Alexander, MP and Schwartz, M and MacDonald, R},
      title = {The effects of focal and diffuse brain damage on strategy application: Evidence from focal lesions, traumatic brain injury and normal aging},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {4},
      number = {3},
      pages = {247-264},
      note = {Annual Meeting of the American-Psychological-Association, TORONTO, CANADA, AUG 09-12, 1996}
    }
    
    Libon, D., Malamut, B., Swenson, R. & Sands, L. Further analyses of clock drawings among demented and nondemented older subjects {1996} ARCHIVES OF CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {11}({3}), pp. {193-205} 
    article  
    Abstract: In a previous article we described a 10-point scoring system (i.e., scale I) to grade clock drawings to command and copy with hands set for `'ten after 11'' among demented patients. Alzheimer's subjects (AD) improved from the command to copy conditions, whereas subjects with ischaemic vascular dementia (IVD) did not. To investigate the underlying cognitive deficits responsible for this profile, an additional scale was developed (scale 2) that tallied errors in graphomotor functioning, hand/number placement, and executive control. On an independent sample of subjects, AD subjects, again, made significant improvement on scale I from the command to copy condition, whereas no such improvement occurred among the IVD subjects. On scale 2, IVD subjects made more graphomotor errors in the command condition, and more executive control and more total errors in the copy conditions than AD subjects. A number of positive correlations were noted between tests of language and memory on scale 1. By contrast, scares on tests of executive control declined as scale 2 errors increased. In addition, a principal component analysis indicated that scale 2 test performance loaded on a factor with other tests related to executive control. These results suggest that impairment in frontal systems functioning may explain why IVD subjects do not improve from the command to copy conditions on scale 1. Such a pattern of performance in clock drawing may also be helpful in making a differential diagnosis between AD and IVD.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Libon1996,
      author = {Libon, DJ and Malamut, BL and Swenson, R and Sands, LP},
      title = {Further analyses of clock drawings among demented and nondemented older subjects},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {11},
      number = {3},
      pages = {193-205}
    }
    
    LIBON, D., SWENSON, R., BARNOSKI, E. & SANDS, L. CLOCK DRAWING AS AN ASSESSMENT-TOOL FOR DEMENTIA {1993} ARCHIVES OF CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {8}({5}), pp. {405-415} 
    article  
    Abstract: Clock drawing has recently been shown to be useful in differentiating Alzheimer's disease patients from normal controls. Our procedure for clock drawing differed from other published reports in that a copy condition was employed and patients were asked to set clock hands to read `'ten after eleven `'. We found both clock drawing procedures to be correlated with tests related to executive and visuospatial functioning. In both conditions, nondemented controls performed significantly better than demented patients. In the command condition there was no difference between Alzheimer patients and patients with cerebrovascular dementia. In the copy condition, patients with cerebrovascular dementia performed significantly worse than Alzheimer patients. The inclusion of a copy condition appears to greatly expand the utility of this test. Although our scoring system did not differentiate between various dementing disorders in the command condition, if clock drawing is used as a screening instrument, lack of improvement in the copy condition in comparison to the command condition may be a sign of a vascular involvement.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LIBON1993,
      author = {LIBON, DJ and SWENSON, RA and BARNOSKI, EJ and SANDS, LP},
      title = {CLOCK DRAWING AS AN ASSESSMENT-TOOL FOR DEMENTIA},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {8},
      number = {5},
      pages = {405-415}
    }
    
    Liss, M., Fein, D., Allen, D., Dunn, M., Feinstein, C., Morris, R., Waterhouse, L. & Rapin, I. Executive functioning in high-functioning children with autism {2001} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {42}({2}), pp. {261-270} 
    article  
    Abstract: Executive functioning was investigated in 34 children (24 boys and 10 girls) with developmental language disorder (DLD) and 21 children (18 boys and 3 girls) with high-functioning autistic disorder (HAD) matched on Full Scale IQ, Nonverbal IQ, age (mean age 9 year, 1 month), and SES. The DLD group had a Verbal IQ that was 10 points higher than the HAD group. These children were given the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Mazes subtest from the WISC-R, the Underlining test, and the Rapid Automatized Naming test. In addition, these children were given the Vineland Scales of Adaptive Functioning and the Wing Diagnostic Symptom Checklist in order to assess severity of autistic symptomatology. Results indicated that the only significant difference between the two groups on the cognitive tasks was perseverative errors on the WCST; there was no significant difference on total number of categories achieved or total number of errors on the WCST or on the other executive function measures. There was also significant overlap in the scores between the two groups and the difference in perseverative errors was no longer significant when Verbal IQ was partialled out. Executive functioning was strongly related to all IQ variables in the DLD group and particularly related to Verbal IQ in the HAD group. Although there was a relationship in the HAD group between executive functioning and adaptive functioning, as well as between executive functioning and autistic symptomatology, these relationships were generally no longer significant in the HAD group after the variance due to Verbal IQ was accounted for. The results are interpreted to indicate that although impaired executive functioning is a commonly associated feature of autism, it is not universal in autism and is unlikely to cause autistic behaviors or deficits in adaptive function.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Liss2001,
      author = {Liss, M and Fein, D and Allen, D and Dunn, M and Feinstein, C and Morris, R and Waterhouse, L and Rapin, I},
      title = {Executive functioning in high-functioning children with autism},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {42},
      number = {2},
      pages = {261-270}
    }
    
    Lockwood, K., Alexopoulos, G. & van Gorp, W. Executive dysfunction in geriatric depression {2002} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {159}({7}), pp. {1119-1126} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the neuropsychological presentation of geriatric depression and to determine whether depression-related executive dysfunction is more pronounced during advanced age. Method: The attention and executive functioning of 40 adults with major depression were compared with those of 40 healthy comparison subjects; 20 subjects were 20-60 years old, and 20 were 61 years. It was hypothesized that depressed subjects, regardless of age, would perform more poorly than comparison subjects on both attention and executive tasks but that the older depressed adults would evidence significantly greater impairment on executive measures. Results: A significant interaction between age and depressive status was noted for tasks of executive functioning, while no age-depression interaction was found for tasks of selective or sustained attention. older depressed adults demonstrated the slowest psychomotor speed and the poorest performance on tasks requiring set shifting, problem solving, and initiation of novel responses. Conclusions: Patients with late-life depression have significant impairment in executive functioning. These findings can guide the development of stimulated functional neuroimaging paradigms that may clarify the pathophysiology of geriatric depression, Timely identification of attentional and executive processes fundamental to the daily functioning of depressed older adults may lead to compensatory strategies that will improve the outcomes of late-life depression.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lockwood2002,
      author = {Lockwood, KA and Alexopoulos, GS and van Gorp, WG},
      title = {Executive dysfunction in geriatric depression},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {159},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1119-1126},
      note = {108th Annual Convention of the American-Psychological Association, WASHINGTON, D.C., AUG, 2000}
    }
    
    Loesch, D., Bui, Q., Grigsby, J., Butler, E., Epstein, J., Huggins, R., Taylor, A. & Hagerman, R. Effect of the fragile X status categories and the fragile X mental retardation protein levels on executive functioning in males and females with fragile X {2003} NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {17}({4}), pp. {646-657} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The effects of a fragile X disorder on executive function impairment were assessed in 144 extended families, which included individuals with fragile X premutation and full mutation and their relatives without fragile X. A modification of the maximum-likelihood estimators for pedigree data, as well as ordinal logistic regression, were used in data analysis. The most outstanding deficit, occurring especially in males, involved impaired capacity to use an intention to regulate purposeful behavior. This deficit occurred independently of general cognitive impairment but was related to depletion of fragile X mental retardation I gene protein product. The other executive function deficits were accounted for by the general cognitive impairment. Possible mechanisms of the effect of fragile X premutation on impairments of executive functioning are considered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Loesch2003,
      author = {Loesch, DZ and Bui, QM and Grigsby, J and Butler, E and Epstein, J and Huggins, RM and Taylor, AK and Hagerman, RJ},
      title = {Effect of the fragile X status categories and the fragile X mental retardation protein levels on executive functioning in males and females with fragile X},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {17},
      number = {4},
      pages = {646-657},
      doi = {{10.1037/0894-4105.17.4.646}}
    }
    
    Looi, J. & Sachdev, P. Differentiation of vascular dementia from AD on neuropsychological tests {1999} NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {53}({4}), pp. {670-678} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: The concept of vascular dementia (VaD) is currently in a state of evolution. Memory impairment is emphasized as a primary criterion, reflecting the influence of AD on the concept of dementia. We have systematically reviewed whether the nature of neuropsychological dysfunction is distinct in AD and VaD, and whether similar defining criteria for the concept of dementia in both disorders can be supported. Methods: We searched five bibliographic databases (Medline, Biological Abstracts, EMBASE, PsychINFO, PsychLIT) for research articles in which VaD and AD had been compared using neuropsychological tests and that met criteria for scientific merit. Results: Of the 45 studies, 18 were excluded because of inadequacies, and the remaining 27 were analyzed. There were a number of similarities of dysfunction between VaD and AD. However, when matched for age, education, and severity of dementia, VaD patients had relatively superior function in verbal long-term memory and more impairment in frontal executive functioning compared with AD patients. Interpretation of the results is Limited by uncertainty in diagnostic criteria for VaD, possible inclusion bias due to use of clinical diagnosis alone, possible overlap of AD and VaD, and the methodologic shortcomings of some studies. Conclusions: The neuropsychological differentiation of VaD from AD was consistent with the different neuroimaging findings in the two disorders, and argues for differential criteria for the definition of the syndromes. The simple application of Alzheimer's dementia criteria,to VaD, with the inclusion of cerebrovascular disease etiology, may not be sufficient to capture the uniqueness of VaD.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Looi1999,
      author = {Looi, JCL and Sachdev, PS},
      title = {Differentiation of vascular dementia from AD on neuropsychological tests},
      journal = {NEUROLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {53},
      number = {4},
      pages = {670-678}
    }
    
    Lough, S., Kipps, C., Treise, C., Watson, P., Blair, J. & Hodges, J. Social reasoning, emotion and empathy in frontotemporal dementia {2006} NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA
    Vol. {44}({6}), pp. {950-958} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Introduction: Social cognition is crucial for human interaction, and is markedly impaired in the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD). The relationship of various aspects of social functioning, however, remains controversial in this group. Methods: Patients with fvFTD (n = 18), and matched controls (n = 13), were tested using tasks designed to assess their Theory of Mind (ToM), moral reasoning, emotion recognition and executive function. Caregivers documented changes in empathy compared to premorbid functioning. Results: We found marked impairments in the abilities of fvFTD patients, relative to controls, in ability to mentalise (ToM), which was evident on a cartoon test, but not on a story-based ToM task. Knowledge of social rules was intact, but moral reasoning was defective, and was due, in part, to an inability to rate the seriousness of moral and conventional transgressions appropriately. Executive function was impaired in this group, and compromised aspects of moral reasoning, but ToM performance was independent of this. Emotion recognition was globally impaired in fvFTD, but was particularly so for anger and disgust which may partly explain the difficulty these patients have with identifying social violations. Empathy, as rated by carers, was also shown to be abnormal. Conclusion: It appears that social reasoning is disrupted in a number of ways in fvFTD, and the findings provide a basis for the understanding and further study of abnormal behaviour in this disease. The results are discussed in light of neuroimaging findings in studies of social cognition and the locus of pathology in fvFTD. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lough2006,
      author = {Lough, S and Kipps, CM and Treise, C and Watson, P and Blair, JR and Hodges, JR},
      title = {Social reasoning, emotion and empathy in frontotemporal dementia},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {44},
      number = {6},
      pages = {950-958},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.08.009}}
    }
    
    Lovejoy, D., Ball, J., Keats, M., Stutts, M., Spain, E., Janda, L. & Janusz, J. Neuropsychological performance of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Diagnostic classification estimates for measures of frontal lobe/executive functioning {1999} JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY
    Vol. {5}({3}), pp. {222-233} 
    article  
    Abstract: ADHD adults (N = 26) were compared to normal controls (N = 26) on 6 neuropsychological measures believed sensitive to frontal lobe-executive functioning. MANOVA analyses and subsequent univariate tests indicated that most of the neuropsychological measures discriminated between the two groups. To address clinical significance, diagnostic classification rates were also generated for each measure individually, and for the battery as a whole. Levels of positive predictive power (PPP) for each of the 6 measures (83-100 indicated that abnormal scores on these tests were good predictors of ADHD. However, estimates of negative predictive power (NPP) suggested that normal scores poorly predicted the absence of ADHD. When classification rates were calculated for the overall battery classification accuracy improved substantially. Thus, neuropsychological tests can differentiate adults suffering from ADHD from adults without ADHD, while also providing good classification accuracy. Finally, the pattern of neurobehavioral impairments exemplified through the Summary Index scores was interpreted as consistent with conceptualizations of ADHD depicting mild neurologic dysfunction in networks associated with the frontal lobes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lovejoy1999,
      author = {Lovejoy, DW and Ball, JD and Keats, M and Stutts, ML and Spain, EH and Janda, L and Janusz, J},
      title = {Neuropsychological performance of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Diagnostic classification estimates for measures of frontal lobe/executive functioning},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {5},
      number = {3},
      pages = {222-233}
    }
    
    Macrae, C., Bodenhausen, G., Schloerscheidt, A. & Milne, A. Tales of the unexpected: Executive function and person perception {1999} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {76}({2}), pp. {200-213} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present research investigated the role of executive functioning in person perception. Given the assumption that perceivers' recollective preference For unexpected material relies on the operation of an executive cognitive process fie., inconsistency resolution), it was anticipated that only under dual-task conditions in which executive functioning is impaired would one expect inconsistency resolution to be impaired and perceivers' memory bias for unexpected material to be eliminated. When concurrent mental activity impairs the operation of nonexecutive cognitive operations, inconsistency resolution and the related process of individuation were not expected to be impaired. The results of 2 experiments using different memory measures (e,g., free recall and source identification) supported these predictions. The findings are considered in the context of contemporary issues in person perception and executive functioning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Macrae1999,
      author = {Macrae, CN and Bodenhausen, GV and Schloerscheidt, AM and Milne, AB},
      title = {Tales of the unexpected: Executive function and person perception},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {76},
      number = {2},
      pages = {200-213}
    }
    
    Madigan, N., DeLuca, J., Diamond, B., Tramontano, G. & Averill, A. Speed of information processing in traumatic brain injury: Modality-specific factors {2000} JOURNAL OF HEAD TRAUMA REHABILITATION
    Vol. {15}({3}), pp. {943-956} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To assess speed of information processing by two serial addition tests (one visual, one auditory) in individuals with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and in a healthy, normal control group (NC). The tasks were designed to equate and control for accuracy of performance across the TBI and NC groups, thus allowing for quantification of information processing speed. Design: Performance across groups and tasks were compared using 2 x 2 repeated measure analyses of variance (AOVAs). In addition, each individual's processing speed was used to adjust rate of stimulus presentation on a subsequent ``rehabilitation'' trial to determine further whether this adjustment equated accuracy of performance. setting: Rehabilitation hospital. Patients: 22 outpatients with moderate-to-severe TBI (6 women, 16 men; mean age = 34.6 years; duration of loss of consciousness = 22.6 days) and 20 age- and education-matched healthy controls. Results: Processing speed was slower in TBI subjects, relative to controls and was significantly related to measures of executive functioning for those with TBI. Relative to controls, speed of processing in the TBI group was disproportionately slower when information was presented in the auditor relative to the visual, modality. Conclusions: Speed of information processing is a major impairment in those with TBI when unconfounded by performance accuracy. The modality-specific impairment observed in the TBI group may, in part, be due to a greater within-modality interference effect created by the auditory version of the task. By manipulating information at a pace customized for an individual through compensatory strategies and environmental environmental modifications, information-processing performance of TBI participants can be enhanced significantly.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Madigan2000,
      author = {Madigan, NK and DeLuca, J and Diamond, BJ and Tramontano, G and Averill, A},
      title = {Speed of information processing in traumatic brain injury: Modality-specific factors},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF HEAD TRAUMA REHABILITATION},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {15},
      number = {3},
      pages = {943-956},
      note = {Annual Meeting of the American-Psychological-Society, WASHINGTON, D.C., MAY, 1998}
    }
    
    Mahurin, R., Velligan, D. & Miller, A. Executive-frontal lobe cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia: A symptom subtype analysis {1998} PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH
    Vol. {79}({2}), pp. {139-149} 
    article  
    Abstract: Impairment of executive-frontal lobe functioning, affecting the planning, initiation and regulation of goal-directed behavior, is a common cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear if deficits in these frontal-lobe-mediated abilities are differentially expressed across clinical subgroups. We analyzed executive-frontal abilities in relation to symptom expression in 53 hospitalized schizophrenic patients. Patients were assigned to one of three subgroups based on rank order analysis of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale factors: Withdrawal-Retardation, Reality Distortion and Conceptual Disorganization. Executive-frontal tests included Visual Search, Verbal Fluency, Verbal Series Attention, Trail Making - Part B, Symbol Digit, Hopkins Verbal Learning, Digit Span, Wisconsin Card Sorting, Stroop Color-Word and Attentional Capacity. The schizophrenia group showed significant deficits relative to healthy control subjects (n = 20) on all tests. Exploratory factor analysis of test scores revealed three factors: (i) Verbal Processing/Memory; (ii) Cognitive Flexibility/Attention; and (iii) Psychomotor Speed/Visual Scanning. The three symptom subgroups were differentially impaired on executive-frontal abilities: Withdrawal-Retardation on psychomotor speed, verbal fluency, working memory, visual search and cognitive flexibility; Conceptual Disorganization on attention; Reality Distortion on verbal memory. The results have implications for syndrome definition, pharmacological intervention and prediction of outcome in schizophrenia. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mahurin1998,
      author = {Mahurin, RK and Velligan, DI and Miller, AL},
      title = {Executive-frontal lobe cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia: A symptom subtype analysis},
      journal = {PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {79},
      number = {2},
      pages = {139-149}
    }
    
    Malhi, G.S., Ivanovski, B., Hadzi-Pavlovic, D., Mitchell, P.B., Vieta, E. & Sachdev, P. Neuropsychological deficits and functional impairment in bipolar depression, hypomania and euthymia {2007} BIPOLAR DISORDERS
    Vol. {9}({1-2}), pp. {114-125} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To examine whether patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have subtle neuropsychological deficits that manifest clinically as cognitive and functional compromise, and this study attempted to determine the pattern of such cognitive deficits and their functional impact across all three phases of BD. We hypothesised that euthymia does not equate with normal neuropsychological function and that each phase has a characteristic pattern of deficits, with disturbance in attention and memory being common across all phases of the illness: (i) bipolar depression - psychomotor slowing and impairment of memory; (ii) hypomania by frontal-executive deficits and (iii) euthymia - a mild disturbance of attention, memory and executive function. Methods: Twenty-five patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder underwent neuropsychological testing over a period of 30 months in the natural course of their illness while hypomanic and/or depressed and/or euthymic. The results from these assessments were compared with findings from neuropsychological tests conducted on 25 healthy controls matched for age, sex, education and handedness. Results: Initial analyses revealed modest impairment in executive functioning, memory and attention in both hypomanic and depressed bipolar patients, with additional fine motor skills impairment in the latter. Memory deficits, also noted in euthymic patients, were non-significant after controlling for confounding variables, although bipolar depressed patients remained significantly impaired on tests of verbal recall. Bipolar depressed and hypomanic patients differed with respect to the nature of their memory impairment. Depressed patients were more impaired as compared with euthymic patients on tests of verbal recall and fine motor skills. Psychosocial functioning was impaired across all three patient groups, but only in depressed and hypomanic patients did this correlate significantly with neuropsychological performance. Conclusions: The mood-state-related cognitive deficits in both bipolar depression and hypomania compromise psychosocial function when patients are unwell. In euthymic patients, subtle impairments in attention and memory suggest that an absence of symptoms does not necessarily equate to `recovery'. The possibility of persistent cognitive deficits in BD is an issue of profound clinical and research interest that warrants further investigation; however, future research needs to adopt more sophisticated neuropsychological probes that are able to better define state and trait deficits and determine their functional impact.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Malhi2007,
      author = {Malhi, Gin S. and Ivanovski, Belinda and Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan and Mitchell, Philip B. and Vieta, Eduard and Sachdev, Perminder},
      title = {Neuropsychological deficits and functional impairment in bipolar depression, hypomania and euthymia},
      journal = {BIPOLAR DISORDERS},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {114-125}
    }
    
    Mariani, M. & Barkley, R. Neuropsychological and academic functioning in preschool boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder {1997} DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {13}({1}), pp. {111-129} 
    article  
    Abstract: We compared 34 preschool boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to 30 community comparison boys without behavioral problems on a battery of neuropsychological and academic achievement tests along with behavioral observations. The battery of 25 measures was reduced to 4 dimensions through dimensional (factor) analysis. Comparison of the 2 groups revealed that boys with ADHD performed more poorly than comparison boys on 2 of the 4 dimensions, these being motor control and working memory-persistence. No differences were found on the dimensions of verbal learning-memory or picture identification-factual knowledge. The results suggest that achievement problems are evident early in development in clinic-referred children with ADHD and may be related to deficiencies in more fundamental neuropsychological functions. These early deficits in motor control and working memory seem to be an inherent part of ADHD, supporting both the neuromaturational nature of the disorder and current efforts to more broadly conceptualize it as involving deficits in executive functions beyond the core problems in behavioral inhibition and sustained attention.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mariani1997,
      author = {Mariani, MA and Barkley, RA},
      title = {Neuropsychological and academic functioning in preschool boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {111-129},
      note = {Meeting of the Society-for-Research-in-Child-and-Adolescent-Psychopathology, LONDON, ENGLAND, JUN 25-28, 1994}
    }
    
    Marks, K., Fastenau, P., Lysaker, P. & Bond, G. Self-Appraisal of Illness Questionnaire (SAIQ): relationship to researcher-rated insight and neuropsychological function in schizophrenia {2000} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {45}({3}), pp. {203-211} 
    article  
    Abstract: The Self-Appraisal of Illness Questionnaire (SAIQ) is a self-report instrument designed to assess attitudes toward mental illness among persons receiving psychiatric treatment. This instrument was developed for use in community settings, adapted closely from the Patient's Experience of Hospitalization questionnaire. In order to examine the validity of the SAIQ, a factor analysis was first conducted on the items of this instrument in a sample of 59 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective illness. Three factors emerged: Need for Treatment, Worry, and Presence/Outcome of Illness. Next, to examine the concurrent validity of these three SAIQ subscales, they were correlated with researcher rated insight scales and neuropsychological tests. Results indicated that the Need for Treatment and Presence/Outcome subscales were significantly correlated with both researcher-rated insight scales and with neuropsychological tests of executive functioning. The Worry subscale was not associated with either researcher-rated insight scales or neuropsychological tests. It was concluded that the Need for Treatment and Presence/Outcome subscales may be used in combination as a brief screening instrument for clients with schizophrenia receiving outpatient psychiatric treatment who may be at risk for treatment non-compliance due to a lack of insight into illness. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Marks2000,
      author = {Marks, KA and Fastenau, PS and Lysaker, PH and Bond, GR},
      title = {Self-Appraisal of Illness Questionnaire (SAIQ): relationship to researcher-rated insight and neuropsychological function in schizophrenia},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {45},
      number = {3},
      pages = {203-211},
      note = {Annual Meeting of the American-Psychological-Association, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, AUG 18-24, 1999}
    }
    
    Martin, I. & McDonald, S. Weak coherence, no theory of mind, or executive dysfunction? Solving the puzzle of pragmatic language disorders {2003} BRAIN AND LANGUAGE
    Vol. {85}({3}), pp. {451-466} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Deficits in pragmatic language ability are common to a number of clinical populations, for example, right-hemisphere damage (RHD), Autism and traumatic brain injury (TBI). In these individuals the basic structural components of language may be intact, but the ability to use language to engage socially is impaired. Despite the nature of these difficulties being well documented, exactly what causes these difficulties is less clear. Furthermore, the current status of causal explanations for pragmatic difficulties across these populations is divergent and sometimes contradictory. This paper explores the empirical validity of three theories that attempt to explain pragmatic language impairment. It is recommended that a new, more convergent approach to investigating the causes of pragmatic language disability be adopted. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Martin2003,
      author = {Martin, I and McDonald, S},
      title = {Weak coherence, no theory of mind, or executive dysfunction? Solving the puzzle of pragmatic language disorders},
      journal = {BRAIN AND LANGUAGE},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {85},
      number = {3},
      pages = {451-466},
      doi = {{10.1016/S0093-934X(03)00070-1}}
    }
    
    Martinez-Aran, A., Penades, R., Vieta, E., Colom, F., Reinares, M., Benabarre, A., Salamero, M. & Gasto, C. Executive function in patients with remitted bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and its relationship with functional outcome {2002} PSYCHOTHERAPY AND PSYCHOSOMATICS
    Vol. {71}({1}), pp. {39-46} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background. Recent studies have reported that differences in cognitive performance between schizophrenic and bipolar patients seem to be smaller than expected. Patients with schizophrenia have consistently shown frontal executive dysfunctions, but studies regarding executive abilities in bipolar patients are scarce and discrepant. As executive function has been associated with psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia, we wanted to investigate if such a relationship is also present in bipolar disorder and the differences between the two groups. Methods: Executive function was assessed in 49 euthymic (at least 6 months in remission, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale :5 8 and Young Mania Rating Scale :5 6) bipolar and in 49 schizophrenic, residual-type (with at least 1 year without acute exacerbation and predominant negative symptomatology) patients, by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), FAS Test (COWAT) and Trail Making Test. Baseline clinical and psychosocial variables were controlled and psychopathology evaluated by means of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results: The two groups showed a similar pattern of cognitive deficits in tests of executive function, except for the number of categories achieved in the WCST, which was significantly lower in the schizophrenic group (F = 7.26; p = 0.009). Functional outcome was predicted by the negative syndrome (PANSSN) and perseverative errors (WCST) in schizophrenic patients, and general psychopathology (PANSSG) was the best predictor of functional outcome in the bipolar group. Conclusion: Executive function was a good predictor of functional outcome in the schizophrenic group, whereas clinical variables were more predictive of the bipolar one. Patterns of cognitive disturbances in tasks of executive function are similar in both groups but quantitatively more marked in schizophrenia. Copyright (C) 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Martinez-Aran2002,
      author = {Martinez-Aran, A and Penades, R and Vieta, E and Colom, F and Reinares, M and Benabarre, A and Salamero, M and Gasto, C},
      title = {Executive function in patients with remitted bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and its relationship with functional outcome},
      journal = {PSYCHOTHERAPY AND PSYCHOSOMATICS},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {71},
      number = {1},
      pages = {39-46}
    }
    
    Martinez-Aran, A., Vieta, E., Colom, F., Reinares, M., Benabarre, A., Gasto, C. & Salamero, M. Cognitive dysfunctions in bipolar disorder: Evidence of neuropsychological disturbances {2000} PSYCHOTHERAPY AND PSYCHOSOMATICS
    Vol. {69}({1}), pp. {2-18} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although cognitive dysfunctions in psychosis have classically been associated with schizophrenia, there is clinical evidence that some bipolar patients show cognitive disturbances either during acute phases or in remission periods. The authors critically review the data on cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder. The main computerized databases (Medline, Psychological Abstracts, Current Contents) have been consulted crossing the terms `cognitive deficits', `neuropsychology', `intellectual impairment', `mania', `depression' and `bipolar disorder'. Changes in the fluency of thought and speech, learning and memory impairment, and disturbances in associational patterns and attentional processes are as fundamental to depression and mania as are changes in mood and behavior. Moreover, a significant number of bipolar patients show persistent cognitive deficits during remission from affective symptoms. However, there are several methodological pitfalls in most studies such as unclear remission criteria, diagnostic heterogeneity, small sample sizes, absence of longitudinal assessment, practice effect and poor control of the influence of pharmacological treatment. Most studies point at the presence of diffuse cognitive dysfunction during the acute phases of bipolar illness. Most of these deficits seem to remit during periods of euthymia, but some of them may persist in approximately one third of bipolar patients. Methodological limitations warrant further research in order to clear up the relationship between neuropsychological functioning and clinical, demographic and treatment variables in bipolar disorder. Copyright(C)2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Martinez-Aran2000,
      author = {Martinez-Aran, A and Vieta, E and Colom, F and Reinares, M and Benabarre, A and Gasto, C and Salamero, M},
      title = {Cognitive dysfunctions in bipolar disorder: Evidence of neuropsychological disturbances},
      journal = {PSYCHOTHERAPY AND PSYCHOSOMATICS},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {69},
      number = {1},
      pages = {2-18}
    }
    
    Martinez-Aran, A., Vieta, E., Colom, F., Torrent, C., Reinares, M., Goikolea, J., Benabarre, A., Comes, M. & Sanchez-Moreno, J. Do cognitive complaints in euthymic bipolar patients reflect objective cognitive impairment? {2005} PSYCHOTHERAPY AND PSYCHOSOMATICS
    Vol. {74}({5}), pp. {295-302} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background. In clinical practice, bipolar patients complain of cognitive deficits such as attentional or memory disturbances. The main aim of this study was to determine whether subjective cognitive complaints were associated with objective neuropsychological impairments. Method. Sixty euthymic bipolar patients were assessed through a neuropsychological battery. A structured clinical interview was used to determine subjective cognitive complaints in patients. Thirty healthy controls were also included in the study in order to compare the neuropsychological performance among groups. Results: Bipolar patients with a higher number of episodes, especially the number of mixed episodes, longer duration of the illness and the onset of the illness at an earlier age showed more subjective complaints. Furthermore, bipolar patients with subjective complaints showed lower scores in several cognitive measures related to attention, memory and executive function compared with the control group. Nevertheless, patients without complaints also performed less well than controls in some neuropsychological measures. Conclusion: Bipolar patients who were aware of cognitive deficits were more chronic, had presented more previous episodes, especially mixed type, and their illness had started at an earlier age compared with patients who did not complain about cognitive problems. Moreover, patients with good cognitive insight also had a poorer social and occupational functioning as well as a poorer neuropsychological performance. However, the bipolar group without complaints also obtained lower scores in several tests compared with healthy controls. Cognitive status of bipolar patients should be routinely assessed, regardless of the patients awareness about their cognitive deficits. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Martinez-Aran2005,
      author = {Martinez-Aran, A and Vieta, E and Colom, F and Torrent, C and Reinares, M and Goikolea, JM and Benabarre, A and Comes, M and Sanchez-Moreno, J},
      title = {Do cognitive complaints in euthymic bipolar patients reflect objective cognitive impairment?},
      journal = {PSYCHOTHERAPY AND PSYCHOSOMATICS},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {74},
      number = {5},
      pages = {295-302},
      doi = {{10.1159/000086320}}
    }
    
    Martinez-Aran, A., Vieta, E., Colom, F., Torrent, C., Sanchez-Moreno, J., Reinares, M., Benabarre, A., Goikolea, J., Brugue, E., Daban, C. & Salamero, M. Cognitive impairment in euthymic bioplar patients: implications for clinical and functional outcome {2004} BIPOLAR DISORDERS
    Vol. {6}({3}), pp. {224-232} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: Cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder may be a stable characteristic of the illness, although discrepancies have emerged with regard to what dysfunctions remain during remission periods. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether euthymic bipolar patients would show impairment in verbal learning and memory and in executive functions compared with healthy controls. Secondly, to establish if there was a relationship between clinical data and neuropsychological performance. Methods: Forty euthymic bipolar patients were compared with 30 healthy controls through a battery of neuropsychological tests assessing estimated premorbid IQ, attention. verbal learning and memory, and frontal executive functioning. The effect of subsyndromal symptomatology was controlled. Results: Remitted bipolar patients performed worse than controls in several measures of memory and executive function, after controlling for the effect of subclinical symptomatology. age and premorbid IQ. Verbal memory impairment was related to global assessment of function scores, as well as to a longer duration of illness, a higher number of manic episodes, and prior psychotic symptoms. Conclusions: Results provide evidence of neuropsychological impairment in euthymic bipolar patients, after controlling for the effect of subsyndromal depressive symptoms. suggesting verbal memory and executive dysfunctions. Cognitive impairment seems to be related to a worse clinical course and poor functional outcome.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Martinez-Aran2004a,
      author = {Martinez-Aran, A and Vieta, E and Colom, F and Torrent, C and Sanchez-Moreno, J and Reinares, M and Benabarre, A and Goikolea, JM and Brugue, E and Daban, C and Salamero, M},
      title = {Cognitive impairment in euthymic bioplar patients: implications for clinical and functional outcome},
      journal = {BIPOLAR DISORDERS},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {224-232}
    }
    
    Martinez-Aran, A., Vieta, E., Reinares, M., Colom, F., Torrent, C., Sanchez-Moreno, J., Benabarre, A., Goikolea, J., Comes, M. & Salamero, M. Cognitive function across manic or hypomanic, depressed, and euthymic states in bipolar disorder {2004} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {161}({2}), pp. {262-270} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: The study aims were to address neuropsychological functioning across different states of bipolar illness and to determine relationships among clinical features, neuropsychological performance, and psychosocial functioning. Method: Several domains of cognitive function were examined in 30 depressed bipolar patients (DSM-IV criteria for major depression, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score greater than or equal to17), 34 manic or hypomanic bipolar patients (DSM-IV criteria for manic or hypomanic episode, Young Mania Rating Scale score greater than or equal to12), and 44 euthymic bipolar patients (6 months of remission, Hamilton depression scale score less than or equal to 8, and Young Mania Rating Scale score less than or equal to 6). The comparison group consisted of 30 healthy subjects without history of neurological or psychiatric disorders. A neuropsychological battery assessed executive function, attention, and verbal and visual memory. Results: The three groups showed cognitive dysfunction in verbal memory and frontal executive tasks in relation to the comparison group. Low neuropsychological performance was associated with poor functional outcome. impairment of verbal memory was related to the duration of illness and the numbers of previous manic episodes, hospitalizations, and suicide attempts. Conclusions: A poorer performance was observed in all bipolar groups regarding executive function and verbal memory in relation to the healthy comparison subjects. These cognitive difficulties, especially related to verbal memory, may help explain the impairment regarding daily functioning, even during remission. Further studies should focus on testing, whether optimizing prophylactic pharmacological treatment and psychoeducation might reduce cognitive impairment, and whether bipolar patients would benefit from neuropsychological rehabilitation in order to reduce the impact of cognitive impairment in their overall functioning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Martinez-Aran2004,
      author = {Martinez-Aran, A and Vieta, E and Reinares, M and Colom, F and Torrent, C and Sanchez-Moreno, J and Benabarre, A and Goikolea, JM and Comes, M and Salamero, M},
      title = {Cognitive function across manic or hypomanic, depressed, and euthymic states in bipolar disorder},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {161},
      number = {2},
      pages = {262-270}
    }
    
    Martinez-Aran, A., Vieta, E., Torrent, C., Sanchez-Moreno, J., Goikolea, J.M., Salamero, M., Malhi, G.S., Gonzalez-Pinto, A., Daban, C., Alvarez-Grandi, S., Fountoulakis, K., Kaprinis, G., Tabares-Seisdedos, R. & Ayuso-Mateos, J.L. Functional outcome in bipolar disorder: the role of clinical and cognitive factors {2007} BIPOLAR DISORDERS
    Vol. {9}({1-2}), pp. {103-113} 
    article  
    Abstract: Introduction: Few studies have examined the clinical, neuropsychological and pharmacological factors involved in the functional outcome of bipolar disorder despite the gap between clinical and functional recovery. Methods: A sample of 77 euthymic bipolar patients were included in the study. Using an a priori definition of low versus good functional outcome, based on the psychosocial items of the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF, DSM-IV), and taking also into account their occupational adaptation, the patients were divided into two groups: good or low occupational functioning. Patients with high (n = 46) and low (n = 31) functioning were compared on several clinical, neuropsychological and pharmacological variables and the two patient groups were contrasted with healthy controls (n = 35) on cognitive performance. Results: High- and low-functioning groups did not differ with respect to clinical variables. However, bipolar patients in general showed poorer cognitive performance than healthy controls. This was most evident in low-functioning patients and in particular on verbal memory and executive function measures. Conclusions: Low-functioning patients were cognitively more impaired than highly functioning patients on verbal recall and executive functions. The variable that best predicted psychosocial functioning in bipolar patients was verbal memory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Martinez-Aran2007,
      author = {Martinez-Aran, A. and Vieta, E. and Torrent, C. and Sanchez-Moreno, J. and Goikolea, J. M. and Salamero, M. and Malhi, G. S. and Gonzalez-Pinto, A. and Daban, C. and Alvarez-Grandi, S. and Fountoulakis, K. and Kaprinis, G. and Tabares-Seisdedos, R. and Ayuso-Mateos, J. L.},
      title = {Functional outcome in bipolar disorder: the role of clinical and cognitive factors},
      journal = {BIPOLAR DISORDERS},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {103-113}
    }
    
    Mataix-Cols, D., Alonso, P., Pifarre, J., Menchon, J. & Vallejo, J. Neuropsychological performance in medicated vs. unmedicated patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder {2002} PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH
    Vol. {109}({3}), pp. {255-264} 
    article  
    Abstract: To date, there have been no formal investigations of neuropsychological performance in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) taking psychotropic medications. The purpose of this study was to determine whether medicated and unmedicated patients with OCD demonstrate differences in neuropsychological functioning. Fifty-two patients with a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD participated in the study; 28 were taking serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), and 24 were treatment-naive (n = 8) or had finished a washout period prior to their inclusion in other studies (n = 16). The groups were well matched with regard to demographic and clinical variables, including symptom severity. Each group was administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to assess general intelligence, attention, verbal and non-verbal working memory, declarative and procedural learning, visuo-constructive skills, and executive functions. SRI-medicated did not differ from SRI-free patients on any neuropsychological measure. Benzodiazepines seemed to improve the patients' functioning on a semantic verbal fluency test. In addition, there were significant interactions between SRIs and benzodiazepines on the perseverative errors of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and on reaction times. SRI-medicated patients with OCD are able to perform on cognitive functioning tests at a comparable level with that of SRI-free patients, and these results have positive implications for OCD patients who respond to SRIs. The interactions between SRIs and benzodiazepines and their effect on cognition in OCD are likely to be complex and deserve further study. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mataix-Cols2002,
      author = {Mataix-Cols, D and Alonso, P and Pifarre, J and Menchon, JM and Vallejo, J},
      title = {Neuropsychological performance in medicated vs. unmedicated patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder},
      journal = {PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {109},
      number = {3},
      pages = {255-264}
    }
    
    Mataix-Cols, D., Junque, C., Sanchez-Turet, M., Vallejo, J., Verger, K. & Barrios, M. Neuropsychological functioning in a subclinical obsessive-compulsive sample {1999} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {45}({7}), pp. {898-904} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Previous neuropsychological research has suggested that the study of psychometrically defined subclinical samples might be a valid approach to understand the underlying pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This approach has the potential benefit of overcoming some of the methodological problems linked to the use of clinical samples. Methods: A group of subclinical obsessive-compulsive (OC) subjects (n = 35), selected on the basis of their scores on the Padua Inventory, and a control group were assessed on executive functioning tasks and other neuropsychological tests which have been demonstrated to be impaired in clinical OCD patients and/or in those with several basal ganglia disorders. Results: Subclinical OC subjects needed significantly more moves than controls to reach the solution criteria on the Tower of Hanoi puzzle, and performance on this test was positively correlated with total score and the Checking factor of the Padua Inventory. There were no between-group differences on the other frontal lobe tests. Conclusions: The results suggest that deficits in manipulating spatial information might be basic in OCD, and are congruent with the involvement of the frontostriatal circuits in the disorder. Biol Psychiatry 1999;45:898-904 (C) 1999 Society of Biological Psychiatry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mataix-Cols1999,
      author = {Mataix-Cols, D and Junque, C and Sanchez-Turet, M and Vallejo, J and Verger, K and Barrios, M},
      title = {Neuropsychological functioning in a subclinical obsessive-compulsive sample},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {45},
      number = {7},
      pages = {898-904}
    }
    
    Mattson, S., Goodman, A., Caine, C., Delis, D. & Riley, E. Executive functioning in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure {1999} ALCOHOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
    Vol. {23}({11}), pp. {1808-1815} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure have well documented deficits in overall cognitive ability. Recently, attention has turned to the executive function (EF) domain in this population. Until recently, comprehensive measures of EF have not been available within one test battery. This study used a battery of tests to assess four domains of EF in alcohol-exposed children. Methods: The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function Scale was used to evaluate EF in 18 children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, with and without a diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), and 10 nonexposed controls. Children ranged in age from 8 to 15 years. Measures from four domains of executive functioning were analyzed: planning ability, cognitive flexibility, selective inhibition, and concept formation and reasoning. Tasks consisted of primary EF measures as well as measures of secondary component skills. Results: Alcohol-exposed children were deficient on EF measures compared with nonexposed controls. Furthermore. in most cases, children with and without the FAS diagnosis did not differ from one another. These deficits were not entirely explainable by concomitant deficits on component skills. Specific impairments were identified within the domains of planning and response inhibition, with additional deficits in abstract thinking and flexibility. Conclusions: Deficits in executive functioning were observed in alcohol-exposed children with or without the diagnosis of FAS and in the absence of mental retardation. Performance on these EF tasks provides insight into the cognitive processes driving overall performance and has implications for adaptive and daily functions. These results are consistent with anecdotal and empirical reports of deficits in behavioral control and with neuroanatomical evidence of volumetric reductions in structures within the frontal-subcortical system in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mattson1999,
      author = {Mattson, SN and Goodman, AM and Caine, C and Delis, DC and Riley, EP},
      title = {Executive functioning in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure},
      journal = {ALCOHOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {23},
      number = {11},
      pages = {1808-1815}
    }
    
    Mattson, S., Schoenfeld, A. & Riley, E. Teratogenic effects of alcohol on brain and behavior {2001} ALCOHOL RESEARCH & HEALTH
    Vol. {25}({3}), pp. {185-191} 
    article  
    Abstract: Children prenatally exposed to alcohol can suffer from serious cognitive deficits and behavioral problems as well as from alcohol-related changes in brain structure. Neuropsychological studies have identified deficits in learning and memory as well as in executive functioning both in children with fetal alcohol syndrome and in children with less severe impairments. Both groups of children also exhibit problem behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use, hyperactivity, impulsivity,, and poor socialization and communication skills. Brain imaging studies have identified structural changes in various brain regions of these children-including the basal ganglia, corpus callosum, cerebellum, and hippocampus-that may account for the cognitive deficits. Functional brain imaging studies also have detected changes in alcohol-exposed children indicative of deficits in information [Processing and memory tasks.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mattson2001,
      author = {Mattson, SN and Schoenfeld, AM and Riley, EP},
      title = {Teratogenic effects of alcohol on brain and behavior},
      journal = {ALCOHOL RESEARCH & HEALTH},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {25},
      number = {3},
      pages = {185-191}
    }
    
    Mayes, L. A behavioral teratogenic model of the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on arousal regulatory systems {2002} NEUROTOXICOLOGY AND TERATOLOGY
    Vol. {24}({3}), pp. {385-395} 
    article  
    Abstract: Studies of both preclinical and human models of prenatal cocaine exposure suggest that one mechanism for the impact of cocaine on developing neural systems may be through functional alterations in monoaminergically regulated arousal systems. Conceptually, arousal regulation refers to a set of multimodal central nervous system mechanisms underlying cortical activation in response to internal and/or external stimulation. The emerging capacity for moment-to-moment regulation of states of arousal influences attentional states (e.g., posterior cortex) and executive functions (prefontal cortex) and thus information processing and learning as well as socialization. Furthermore, as a gating mechanism for response to novel and/or stressful conditions, arousal regulation is also a central construct for understanding stress reactivity and response to acute chronic trauma. In this paper, we review the findings of prenatal cocaine exposure in both preclinical and human studies with a particular focus on studies of neurobehavioral, neurocognitive functioning. A theoretical model of interactive arousal systems is presented as one possibility for integrating the profile of apparent cocaine-related neurobehavioral impairments in infants and young children prenatally exposed to cocaine. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mayes2002,
      author = {Mayes, LC},
      title = {A behavioral teratogenic model of the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on arousal regulatory systems},
      journal = {NEUROTOXICOLOGY AND TERATOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {24},
      number = {3},
      pages = {385-395},
      note = {12th International Conference on Infant Studies, BRIGHTON, ENGLAND, JUL 16-20, 2000}
    }
    
    McGurk, S. & Meltzer, H. The role of cognition in vocational functioning in schizophrenia {2000} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {45}({3}), pp. {175-184} 
    article  
    Abstract: Schizophrenia is associated with long-term unemployment. Cognitive dysfunction, rather than clinical symptoms, may be the most important factor in the ability to work for patients with this disorder. To evaluate the relationship of clinical symptoms and cognitive functioning to work status, thirty patients with schizophrenia, who were participants in a vocational rehabilitation program, were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and assessment of psychopathology. Subjects were classified as being in stable full-time, part-time or unemployed work status for at least a year. Univariate analysis indicated that patients who were working full-time were significantly better educated, more likely to be treatment-resistant, more likely to be treated with an atypical antipsychotic medication, had more positive symptoms, and were engaged in work tasks which were more cognitively complex than the part-time employed and unemployed work groups. An ANCOVA controlling for education demonstrated that the full-time employed group performed significantly better than the unemployed group on measures of executive functioning, working memory and vigilance; and significantly better than the part-time group on measures of vigilance and executive functioning. Although negative symptoms did not significantly relate to work status in the univariate analysis, a multiple regression indicated that negative symptoms, level of education, and executive functioning differentiated the work groups. These results suggest that poor premorbid function, negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction are significantly associated with unemployment in schizophrenia. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McGurk2000,
      author = {McGurk, SR and Meltzer, HY},
      title = {The role of cognition in vocational functioning in schizophrenia},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {45},
      number = {3},
      pages = {175-184}
    }
    
    McGurk, S., Mueser, K., Harvey, P., LaPuglia, R. & Marder, J. Cognitive and sympton predictors of work outcomes for clients with schizophrenia in support employment {2003} PSYCHIATRIC SERVICES
    Vol. {54}({8}), pp. {1129-1135} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objectives: This study examined the relationships of measures of cognitive functioning and psychiatric symptoms with work outcomes and use of vocational services for clients with schizophrenia in a supported employment program. Methods: Thirty clients who were newly enrolled in a supported employment program were evaluated with cognitive and Symptom. measures at program entry and two years later. The clients' on-job support, and contact amounts of competitive work, wages earned with employment specialists during the two-year follow-up period were documented. Results: Predictors of clients' work outcomes included previous work history, amount of government entitlement income received, severity of negative. symptoms involvement in sheltered work activity at baseline, and level of cognitive functioning, including scores on measures of executive functioning and verbal learning and memory. The amounts of on-job support and contact with employment specialists were predicted by the cognitive domains of executive functioning, verbal learning, attention, and psychomotor speed as well as by the severity of psychotic symptoms. Conclusions: Clients with schizophrenia who have higher levels of cognitive impairment may require greater amounts of vocational support than those with lower levels of impairment. A variety of rehabilitation strategies may be required to improve vocational outcomes and reduce the amount of supported employment services needed by clients with schizophrenia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McGurk2003,
      author = {McGurk, SR and Mueser, KT and Harvey, PD and LaPuglia, R and Marder, J},
      title = {Cognitive and sympton predictors of work outcomes for clients with schizophrenia in support employment},
      journal = {PSYCHIATRIC SERVICES},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {54},
      number = {8},
      pages = {1129-1135}
    }
    
    Medalia, A., Revheim, N. & Casey, M. The remediation of problem-solving skills in schizophrenia {2001} SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN
    Vol. {27}({2}), pp. {259-267} 
    article  
    Abstract: Efforts to remediate the problem-solving deficits of patients with schizophrenia have met with circumscribed success. This could be viewed as a sign of the immutability of the deficit or, alternatively, as a reflection of the inefficacy of the training techniques used. This study examined the feasibility of using problem-solving teaching techniques developed within educational psychology for remediating the problem-solving deficits of inpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. These techniques rely on intrinsic motivation and task engagement, which are promoted through contextualization, personalization, and control of learning activities. A sample of 54 patients who demonstrated problem-solving and memory deficits on psychometric testing were randomly assigned to a problem-solving group, a memory training group, or a control group. Patients who received ten sessions of problem-solving remediation showed significantly more improvement on the outcome measure that assessed problem-solving skills required for independent living. Patients who received ten sessions of memory training did not improve on problem-solving measures. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders are responsive to problem-solving training techniques that promote intrinsic motivation and task engagement.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Medalia2001,
      author = {Medalia, A and Revheim, N and Casey, M},
      title = {The remediation of problem-solving skills in schizophrenia},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {27},
      number = {2},
      pages = {259-267}
    }
    
    Mehta, M., Goodyer, I. & Sahakian, B. Methylphenidate improves working memory and set-shifting in AD/HD: relationships to baseline memory capacity {2004} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {45}({2}), pp. {293-305} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: Catecholamine stimulant drugs are highly efficacious treatments for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD). Catecholamine modulation in humans influences performance of numerous cognitive tasks, including tests of attention and working memory (WM). Clear delineation of the effects of methylphenidate upon such cognitive functions in AD/HD would enhance understanding of the effects of drug treatment. Method: Here we present a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the cognitive effects of an acute dose of methylphenidate (c. .5 mg/kg) in 14 boys aged 10.86 (+/-1.19) years meeting criteria for DSM-IV AD/HD. Current behaviour was ascertained using Conners' teacher and parent self-report questionnaires and IQ was tested using sub-tests from WISC-III-UK. Tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were selected to assess visuo-spatial recognition memory, spatial WM, planning, visual-search and attentional-set shifting. Results: Methylphenidate improved spatial WM, attentional-set shifting and visual-search task performance. Correlational analyses suggested possible relationships between WM capacity and spatial WM performance improvement. Also, poor performance on the attentional-set shifting task on placebo was associated with increased errors on the spatial WM task on placebo. Conclusions: Methylphenidate may selectively improve both underlying cognitive difficulties in tasks dependent on intact fronto-striatal structures, and clinical symptoms of AD/HD. Pre-treatment measures may have some predictive value in determining individual differences in drug response.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mehta2004,
      author = {Mehta, MA and Goodyer, IM and Sahakian, BJ},
      title = {Methylphenidate improves working memory and set-shifting in AD/HD: relationships to baseline memory capacity},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {45},
      number = {2},
      pages = {293-305}
    }
    
    Meltzer, H. & McGurk, S. The effects of clozapine, risperidone, and olanzapine on cognitive function in schizophrenia {1999} SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN
    Vol. {25}({2}), pp. {233-255} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cognitive function is markedly impaired in most patients with schizophrenia. Antecedents of this impairment are evident in childhood. The cognitive disability is nearly fully developed at the first episode of psychosis in most patients, The contribution of cognitive impairment to outcome in schizophrenia, especially work function, has been established. Preliminary results indicate that cognitive function, along with disorganization symptoms, discriminate schizophrenia patients who are able to work full-time from those who are not. Typical neuroleptic drugs lack the ability to improve the various domains of cognitive function impaired in schizophrenia. Atypical antipsychotic drugs pharmacologically related to clozapine-quetiapine, olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole, and ziprasidone-share the ability to produce fewer extrapyramidal symptoms than typical neuroleptic drugs and more potent antagonism of serotonin(2a) relative to dopamine(2) receptors. However, they have a number of different clinical effects. We have identified all the studies of clozapine, olanzapine, and risperidone that provide data on their effects on cognition in schizophrenia. Data for each drug are reviewed separately in order to identify differences among them in their effects on cognition. Twelve studies that report cognitive effects of clozapine are reviewed. These studies provide (1) strong evidence that clozapine improves attention and verbal fluency and (2) moderate evidence that clozapine improves some types of executive function. However, results of the effects of clozapine on working memory and secondary verbal and spatial memory were inconclusive. Risperidone has relatively consistent positive effects on working memory, executive functioning, and attention, whereas improvement in verbal learning and memory was inconsistent. Preliminary evidence presented here suggests that olanzapine improves verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency, and executive function, but not attention, working memory, or visual learning and memory. Thus, atypical antipsychotic drugs as a group appear to be superior to typical neuroleptics with regard to cognitive function. However, available data suggest that these drugs produce significant differences in specific cognitive functions. These differences may be valuable adjunctive guides for their use in clinical practice if cognitive improvements reach clinical significance. The effects of the atypical antipsychotic drugs on cholinergic and 5-HT2a-mediated neurotransmission as the possible basis for their ability to improve cognition are discussed. It is suggested that the development of drugs for schizophrenia should focus on improving the key cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: executive function, verbal fluency, working memory, verbal and visual learning and memory, and attention.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Meltzer1999,
      author = {Meltzer, HY and McGurk, SR},
      title = {The effects of clozapine, risperidone, and olanzapine on cognitive function in schizophrenia},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {25},
      number = {2},
      pages = {233-255}
    }
    
    Meltzer, H., Thompson, P., Lee, M. & Ranjan, R. Neuropsychologic deficits in schizophrenia - Relation to social function and effect of antipsychotic drug treatment {1996} NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
    Vol. {14}({3, Suppl. S}), pp. {S27-S33} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cognitive impairment is present in the majority of schizophrenic patients, even at the onset of psychosis. It is a relatively stable characteristic in most patients, usually with little progression over the course of illness, but sometimes progresses to severe dementia. The results of studies of the effects of typical neuroleptic drugs on cognitive functioning in schizophrenia are conflicting. Clozapine, which has superior antipsychotic effects compared to typical neuroleptic drugs, has been reported to improve executive function, verbal fluency, attention, and recall memory in two of three studies. Cognitive measures predict work function and overall outcome on clozapine as assessed by the Global Assessment Scale and Quality-of-Life Scale in neuroleptic-resistant schizophrenia. Improvement in cognitive function by clozapine may be a major reason for expanding its currently limited utilization.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Meltzer1996,
      author = {Meltzer, HY and Thompson, PA and Lee, MA and Ranjan, R},
      title = {Neuropsychologic deficits in schizophrenia - Relation to social function and effect of antipsychotic drug treatment},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {14},
      number = {3, Suppl. S},
      pages = {S27-S33},
      note = {Symposium on A New Understanding - Neurological Basis and Long-Term Outcome of Schizophrenia, at the CINP Congress, WASHINGTON, DC, JUN 28, 1994}
    }
    
    MEYERS, C., BYRNE, K. & KOMAKI, R. COGNITIVE DEFICITS IN PATIENTS WITH SMALL-CELL LUNG-CANCER BEFORE AND AFTER CHEMOTHERAPY {1995} LUNG CANCER
    Vol. {12}({3}), pp. {231-235} 
    article  
    Abstract: We conducted a prospective study of cognitive function in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). A previous study had shown SCLC patients to have deficits in memory, frontal lobe executive functioning, and motor skills before they received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). This study was performed to determine whether these deficits were related to chemoradiation treatment. We evaluated two groups of patients: one newly diagnosed and untreated, the other post-chemoradiation and before PCI. Strict eligibility criteria were used to minimize any preexisting factors that might influence cognitive functioning. Results showed that patients with SCLC have cognitive deficits before receiving chemoradiation, specifically on tests of verbal memory, frontal lobe executive functions, and motor coordination. There was no difference between the treated and untreated patients on any test. Etiologic considerations currently under study include paraneoplastic phenomena.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MEYERS1995a,
      author = {MEYERS, CA and BYRNE, KS and KOMAKI, R},
      title = {COGNITIVE DEFICITS IN PATIENTS WITH SMALL-CELL LUNG-CANCER BEFORE AND AFTER CHEMOTHERAPY},
      journal = {LUNG CANCER},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {12},
      number = {3},
      pages = {231-235}
    }
    
    Meyers, C., Smith, J., Bezjak, A., Mehta, M., Liebmann, J., Illidge, T., Kunkler, I., Caudrelier, J., Eisenberg, P., Meerwaldt, J., Siemers, R., Carrie, C., Gaspar, L., Curran, W., Phan, S., Miller, R. & Renschler, M. Neurocognitive function and progression in patients with brain metastases treated with whole-brain radiation and motexafin gadolinium: Results of a randomized phase III trial {2004} JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY
    Vol. {22}({1}), pp. {157-165} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Purpose To report the neurocognitive findings in a phase III randomized trial evaluating survival and neurologic and neurocognitive function in patients with brain metastases from solid tumors receiving whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) with or without motexafin gadolinium (MGd). Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned to receive WBRT30 Gy in 10 fractions with or without MGd 5 mg/kg/d. Monthly neurocognitive testing for memory, executive function, and tine motor skill was performed. Results Four hundred one patients were enrolled (251 with non-small-cell lung cancer, 75 with breast cancer, and 75 with other cancers); 90.5% patients had impairment of one or more neurocognitive tests at baseline. Neurocognitive test scores of memory, fine motor speed, executive function, and global neurocognitive impairment at baseline were correlated with brain tumor volume and predictive of survival. There was no statistically significant difference between treatment arms in time to neurocognitive progression. Patients with lung cancer (but not other types of cancer) who were treated with MGd tended to have improved memory and executive function (P =.062) and improved neurologic function as assessed by a blinded events review committee (P=.048). Conclusion Neurocognitive tests are a relatively sensitive measure of brain functioning; a combination of tumor prognostic variables and brain function assessments seems to predict survival better than tumor variables alone. Although the addition of MGd to WBRT did not produce a significant overall improvement between treatment arms, MGd may improve memory and executive function and prolong time to neurocognitive and neurologic progression in patients with brain metastases from lung cancer.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Meyers2004,
      author = {Meyers, CA and Smith, JA and Bezjak, A and Mehta, MP and Liebmann, J and Illidge, T and Kunkler, I and Caudrelier, JM and Eisenberg, PD and Meerwaldt, J and Siemers, R and Carrie, C and Gaspar, LE and Curran, W and Phan, SC and Miller, RA and Renschler, MF},
      title = {Neurocognitive function and progression in patients with brain metastases treated with whole-brain radiation and motexafin gadolinium: Results of a randomized phase III trial},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {22},
      number = {1},
      pages = {157-165},
      note = {7th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Neuro-Oncology, SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA, NOV 21-24, 2002},
      doi = {{10.1200/JCO.2004.05.128}}
    }
    
    MEYERS, C. & VALENTINE, A. NEUROLOGICAL AND PSYCHIATRIC ADVERSE-EFFECTS OF IMMUNOLOGICAL THERAPY {1995} CNS DRUGS
    Vol. {3}({1}), pp. {56-68} 
    article  
    Abstract: Immunological therapy with cytokines can cause acute, subacute, delayed and, occasionally, irreversible toxicity to the CNS. Neurotoxic adverse effects are manifested by changes in cognitive, motor and emotional functioning. Although these changes are sometimes global in nature, most subacute neurotoxic symptoms attributable to interferon-a, interleukin-2 and tumour necrosis factor are specific to frontal-subcortical dysfunction and involve specific neuroanatomical and neurochemical systems. The symptoms observed typically include memory deficits, difficulties with motivation and flexible thinking (frontal lobe executive function) and motor coordination. Reasoning, language functions and visual perception are generally not affected. Depression and other psychiatric presentations are common and appear to be due to the biochemical changes induced by cytokines rather than psychological reactions to the illness for which the agents are administered. The mechanism of action of cytokines on brain function may include alterations in neurotransmitter function (mostly involving opioid and dopaminergic systems), induction of the release of neuroendocrine hormones and of other cytokines. Improved understanding of the mechanism of cytokine action in the brain is guiding the development of treatment interventions to reduce or eliminate CNS toxicity without sacrificing therapeutic efficacy. In addition, studies of cytokine neurotoxicity have advanced our knowledge of the normal role of these agents in the CNS.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MEYERS1995,
      author = {MEYERS, CA and VALENTINE, AD},
      title = {NEUROLOGICAL AND PSYCHIATRIC ADVERSE-EFFECTS OF IMMUNOLOGICAL THERAPY},
      journal = {CNS DRUGS},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {56-68}
    }
    
    Milisen, K., Foreman, M., Abraham, I., De Geest, S., Godderis, J., Vandermeulen, E., Fischler, B., Delooz, H., Spiessens, B. & Broos, P. A nurse-led interdisciplinary intervention program for delirium in elderly hip-fracture patients {2001} JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY
    Vol. {49}({5}), pp. {523-532} 
    article  
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To develop and test the effect of a nurse-led interdisciplinary intervention program for delirium on the incidence and course (severity and duration) of delirium, cognitive functioning, functional rehabilitation, mortality, and length of stay in older hip-fracture patients. DESIGN: Longitudinal prospective before/after design (sequential design). SETTING: The emergency room and two traumatological units of an academic medical center located in an urban area in Belgium. PARTICIPANTS: 60 patients in an intervention cohort (81.7% females, median age = 82, interquartile range (IQR) = 13) and another 60 patients in a usual care/non-intervention cohort (80% females, median age = 80, IQR = 12). INTERVENTION: (1) Education of nursing staff, (2) systematic cognitive screening, (3) consultative services by a delirium resource nurse, a geriatric nurse specialist, or a psychogeriatrician, and (4) use of a scheduled pain protocol. MEASUREMENTS: All patients were monitored for signs of delirium, as measured by the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). Severity of delirium was assessed using a variant of the CAM. Cognitive and functional status were measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (including subscales of memory, linguistic ability, concentration, and psychomotor executive skills) and the Katz Index of activities of daily living (ADLs), respectively. RESULTS: Although there was no significant effect on the incidence of delirium (23.3% in the control vs 20.0% in the intervention cohort; P = .82), duration of delirium was shorter (P = .03) and severity of delirium was less (P = .0049) in the intervention cohort. Further, clinically higher cognitive functioning was observed for the delirious patients in the intervention cohort compared with the nonintervention cohort. Additionally, a trend toward decreased length of stay postoperatively was noted for the delirious patients in the intervention cohort. Despite these positive intervention effects, no effect on ADL rehabilitation was found. Results for risk of mortality were inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the beneficial effects of an intervention program focusing on early recognition and treatment of delirium in older hip-fracture patients and confirms the reversibility of the syndrome in view of the delirium's duration and severity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Milisen2001,
      author = {Milisen, K and Foreman, MD and Abraham, IL and De Geest, S and Godderis, J and Vandermeulen, E and Fischler, B and Delooz, HH and Spiessens, B and Broos, PLO},
      title = {A nurse-led interdisciplinary intervention program for delirium in elderly hip-fracture patients},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {49},
      number = {5},
      pages = {523-532}
    }
    
    Mill, J., Caspi, A., Williams, B., Craig, I., Taylor, A., Polo-Tomas, M., Berridge, C., Poulton, R. & Moffitt, T. Prediction of heterogeneity in intelligence and adult prognosis by genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine system among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - Evidence from 2 birth cohorts {2006} ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {63}({4}), pp. {462-469} 
    article  
    Abstract: Context: The study and treatment of psychiatric disorders is made difficult by the fact that patients with identical symptoms often differ markedly in their clinical features and presumably in their etiology. A principal aim of genetic research is to provide new information that can resolve such clinical heterogeneity and that can be incorporated into diagnostic practice. Objective: To test the hypothesis that the DRD4 seven-repeat allele and DAT1 ten-repeat allele would prove useful in identifying a subset of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have compromised intellectual functions. Design: Longitudinal epidemiologic investigation of 2 independent birth cohorts. Setting: Britain and New Zealand. Participants: The first cohort was born in Britain in 1994-1995 and includes 2232 children; the second cohort was born in New Zealand in 1972-1973 and includes 1037 children. Main Outcome Measures: Evaluation of ADHD, IQ, and adult psychosocial adjustment. Results: We present replicated evidence that polymorphisms in the DRD4 and DAT1 genes were associated with variation in intellectual functioning among children diagnosed as having ADHD, apart from severity of their symptoms. We further show longitudinal evidence that these polymorphisms predicted which children with ADHD were at greatest risk for poor adult prognosis. Conclusion: The findings indicate that genetic information of this nature may prove useful for etiology-based psychiatric nosologies.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mill2006,
      author = {Mill, J and Caspi, A and Williams, BS and Craig, I and Taylor, A and Polo-Tomas, M and Berridge, CW and Poulton, R and Moffitt, TE},
      title = {Prediction of heterogeneity in intelligence and adult prognosis by genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine system among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - Evidence from 2 birth cohorts},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {63},
      number = {4},
      pages = {462-469}
    }
    
    Miller, J. & Ozonoff, S. The external validity of Asperger disorder: Lack of evidence from the domain of neuropsychology {2000} JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {109}({2}), pp. {227-238} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present study compared individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger disorder (AD) in intellectual, motor, visuospatial, and executive function domains. Participants with AD demonstrated significantly higher Verbal and Full Scale IQ scores, significantly larger Verbal-Performance IQ discrepancies, and significantly better visual-perceptual skills than those with HFA. Once the superior intellectual abilities of the AD group were controlled (both statistically through analysis of covariance and by examining IQ-matched subgroups of HFA and AD participants), no significant group differences in motor, visuospatial, or executive functions were evident, save a marginally significant trend toward poorer fine motor performance in the AD group. This suggests that AD may simply be ``high-IQ autism'' and that separate names for the disorders may not be warranted. The relation of these findings to theories of autism and AD are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Miller2000,
      author = {Miller, JN and Ozonoff, S},
      title = {The external validity of Asperger disorder: Lack of evidence from the domain of neuropsychology},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {109},
      number = {2},
      pages = {227-238}
    }
    
    Miyake, A., Friedman, N., Rettinger, D., Shah, P. & Hegarty, P. How are visuospatial working memory, executive functioning, and spatial abilities related? A latent-variable analysis {2001} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL
    Vol. {130}({4}), pp. {621-640} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study examined the relationships among visuospatial working memory (WM) executive functioning, and spatial abilities. One hundred sixty-seven participants performed visuospatial short-term memory (STM) and WM span tasks, executive functioning tasks, and a set of paper-and-pencil tests of spatial abilities that load on 3 correlated but distinguishable factors (Spatial Visualization, Spatial Relations, and Perceptual Speed). Confirmatory factor analysis results indicated that, in the visuospatial domain, processing-and-storage WM tasks and storage-oriented STM tasks equally implicate executive functioning and are not clearly distinguishable. These results provide a contrast with existing evidence from the verbal domain and support the proposal that the visuospatial sketchpad may be closely tied to the central executive. Further, structural equation modeling results supported the prediction that, whereas they all implicate some degree of visuospatial storage, the 3 spatial ability factors differ in the degree of executive involvement (highest for Spatial Visualization and lowest for Perceptual Speed). Such results highlight the usefulness of a WM perspective in characterizing the nature of cognitive abilities and, more generally, human intelligence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Miyake2001,
      author = {Miyake, A and Friedman, NP and Rettinger, DA and Shah, P and Hegarty, P},
      title = {How are visuospatial working memory, executive functioning, and spatial abilities related? A latent-variable analysis},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {130},
      number = {4},
      pages = {621-640}
    }
    
    Mohamed, S., Fleming, S., Penn, D. & Spaulding, W. Insight in schizophrenia: Its relationship to measures of executive functions {1999} JOURNAL OF NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISEASE
    Vol. {187}({9}), pp. {525-531} 
    article  
    Abstract: Lack of awareness of specific symptoms among persons with schizophrenia has not been adequately studied in the context of neuropsychological function. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether poor insight as measured by the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder is empirically related to performance measures having a known association with executive functions in a group of individuals with chronic schizophrenia. The results showed that unawareness and misattribution of negative symptoms are significantly associated with deficits in some aspects of executive functioning even after a test of general intelligence had been partialed from the analyses. We conclude that unawareness of negative symptoms is associated with executive functioning in individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Unawareness of other symptoms (i.e., positive symptoms) may reflect dysfunction in other types of neuropsychological processes, or it may reflect motivation to deceive oneself or others.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mohamed1999,
      author = {Mohamed, S and Fleming, S and Penn, DL and Spaulding, W},
      title = {Insight in schizophrenia: Its relationship to measures of executive functions},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISEASE},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {187},
      number = {9},
      pages = {525-531}
    }
    
    Montoya, A., Price, B., Menear, M. & Lepage, M. Brain imaging and cognitive dysfunctions in Huntington's disease {2006} JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY & NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {31}({1}), pp. {21-29} 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent decades have seen tremendous growth in our understanding of the cognitive dysfunctions observed in Huntington's disease (HD). Advances in neuroimaging have contributed greatly to this growth. We reviewed the role that structural and functional neuroimaging techniques have played in elucidating the cerebral bases of the cognitive deficits associated with HD. We conducted a computer-based search using PubMed and PsycINFO databases to retrieve studies of patients with HD published between 1965 and December 2004 that reported measures on cognitive tasks and used neuroimaging techniques. Structural neuroimaging has provided important evidence of morphological brain changes in HD. Striatal and cortical atrophy are the most common findings, and they correlate with cognitive deficits in attention, working memory and executive functions. Functional studies have also demonstrated correlations between striatal dysfunction and cognitive performance. Striatal hypoperfusion and decreased glucose utilization correlate with executive dysfunction. Hypometabolism also occurs throughout the cerebral cortex and correlates with performance on recognition memory, language and perceptual tests. Measures of presynaptic and postsynaptic dopamine biochemistry have also correlated with measurements of episodic memory, speed of processing and executive functioning. Aided by the results of numerous neuroimaging studies, it is becoming increasingly clear that cognitive deficits in HD involve abnormal connectivity between the basal ganglia and cortical areas. In the future, neuroimaging techniques may shed the most light on the pathophysiology of HD by defining neurodegenerative disease phenotypes as a valuable tool for knowing when patients become ``symptomatic,'' having been in a gene-positive presymptomatic state, and as a biomarker in following the disease, thereby providing a prospect for improved patient care.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Montoya2006,
      author = {Montoya, A and Price, BH and Menear, M and Lepage, M},
      title = {Brain imaging and cognitive dysfunctions in Huntington's disease},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY & NEUROSCIENCE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {31},
      number = {1},
      pages = {21-29}
    }
    
    Moore, C., Daly, E., Schmitz, N., Tassone, F., Tysoe, C., Hagerman, R., Hagerman, P., Morris, R., Murphy, K. & Murphy, D. A neuropsychological investigation of male premutation carriers of fragile X syndrome {2004} NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA
    Vol. {42}({14}), pp. {1934-1947} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: It is currently thought that fragile X syndrome (FraX; the most common inherited form of learning disability) results from having more than 200 cytosine-guanine-guanine (CGG) trinucleotide repeats, with consequent methylation of the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene and loss of FMR1 protein (FMRP). It was also considered that premutation carriers (with 55-200 CGG repeats) are unaffected, although a tremor/ataxia syndrome has recently been described in older adult male carriers. We reported that premutation expansion of CGG trinucleotide repeats affects brain anatomy, which, together with other studies, indicates that the molecular model for FraX needs modification. However, there are few studies on the cognitive ability of adult male premutation carriers. Thus, we selected 20 male premutation carriers on the basis of their genetic phenotype, and compared them to 20 male controls matched on age, IQ and handedness. We investigated intellectual functioning, executive function, memory, attention, visual and spatial perception, and language and pragmatics. The premutation carriers had significant impairments on tests of executive function (Verbal Fluency, Trail Making Test and Tower of London) and memory (Names sub-test of the Doors and People, Verbal Paired Associates Immediate Recall and Visual Paired Associates Delayed Recall sub-tests of the WMS-R, and Category Fluency Test for natural kinds). We therefore suggest that CGG trinucleotide repeats in the premutation range affect specific neuronal circuits that are concordant with specific neuropsychological deficits; and that these deficits reflect an emerging neuropsychological phenotype of premutation FraX. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Moore2004,
      author = {Moore, CJ and Daly, EM and Schmitz, N and Tassone, F and Tysoe, C and Hagerman, RJ and Hagerman, PJ and Morris, RG and Murphy, KC and Murphy, DGM},
      title = {A neuropsychological investigation of male premutation carriers of fragile X syndrome},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {42},
      number = {14},
      pages = {1934-1947},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neuropsycholgia.2004.05.002}}
    }
    
    Moore, C., Jarrold, C., Russell, J., Lumb, A., Sapp, F. & MacCallum, F. Conflicting desire and the child's theory of mind {1995} COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {10}({4}), pp. {467-482} 
    article  
    Abstract: We contrast the standard representational theory-of-mind approach to the understanding of mental states with an alternative view that theory-of-mind tasks require executive functioning or the inhibition of more `'cognitively salient'' information. Two experiments test the hypothesis that 3-year-olds' apparent problems on theory-of-mind tasks are not due to an inability to represent the mental contents of another, but rather lie in the informational structure of the task. In Experiment 1, 3- to 5-year-olds were tested on their understanding of desire in others either when they themselves held a strong and conflicting desire or when they had no strong desire. Results showed that under the condition of having a strong and conflicting desire, only 5-year-olds were able to recognize that another person may desire something different. in contrast, when the children themselves held no strong desire, even 3-year-olds were able to judge another's desire correctly. Experiment 2 compared 3-year-olds' performance on a standard false-belief task with an equivalently structured desire task in which participants had again to inhibit their own strong and conflicting desire. Results showed similar performance on the traditional false-belief task and the new conflicting-desire task.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Moore1995,
      author = {Moore, C and Jarrold, C and Russell, J and Lumb, A and Sapp, F and MacCallum, F},
      title = {Conflicting desire and the child's theory of mind},
      journal = {COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {467-482}
    }
    
    Morgan, A. & Lilienfeld, S. A meta-analytic review of the relation between antisocial behavior and neuropsychological measures of executive function {2000} CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {20}({1}), pp. {113-136} 
    article  
    Abstract: Previous narrative reviews of the relation between antisocial behavior (ASB) and neuropsychological tests of executive functioning (EF) have raised numerous methodological concerns and produced equivocal conclusions. By using meta-analytic procedures, this study attempts to remedy many of these concerns and quantifies the relation between ASB and performance on six reasonably well validated measures of EF. Thirty-nine studies yielding a total of 4,589 participants were included in the analysis. Overall, antisocial groups performed. 62 standard deviations worse on EF tests than comparison groups,. this effect size is in the medium to large range. Significant variation within this effect size estimate was found, some of which was accounted for by differences in the operationalizations of ASB (e.g., psychopathy vs. criminality) and measures of EF. Evidence for the specificity of EF deficits relative to deficits on other neuropsychological tasks was inconsistent. Unresolved conceptual problems regarding the association between ASB and EF tests, including the problem of localizing EF tests to specific brain regions, are discussed. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Morgan2000,
      author = {Morgan, AB and Lilienfeld, SO},
      title = {A meta-analytic review of the relation between antisocial behavior and neuropsychological measures of executive function},
      journal = {CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {20},
      number = {1},
      pages = {113-136}
    }
    
    Morgan, C., Mofeez, A., Brandner, B., Bromley, L. & Curran, H. Acute effects of ketamine on memory systems and psychotic symptoms in healthy volunteers {2004} NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
    Vol. {29}({1}), pp. {208-218} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists have been demonstrated to induce schizophrenia-like symptoms and cognitive impairment in humans. The NMDA receptor has been strongly implicated in memory, but research to date on the effects of NMDA antagonists has examined only some aspects of human memory functions. This study used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, independent groups design with 54 healthy volunteers to examine the effects of infusions of two doses (0.4, 0.8 mg/kg) of the NMDA antagonist ketamine upon the five human memory systems, aspects of executive functioning and schizophrenia-like and dissociative symptoms. Ketamine produced a dose-dependent impairment to episodic and working memory and a slowing of semantic processing. Ketamine also impaired recognition memory and procedural learning. Attention, perceptual priming and executive functioning were not affected following the drug. In addition, ketamine induced schizophrenia-like and dissociative symptoms, which were not correlated with the cognitive measures. These data suggest that, in humans, ketamine produces a selective pattern of impairments to working, episodic, and procedural memory but not to perceptual priming, attention or aspects of executive functioning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Morgan2004,
      author = {Morgan, CJA and Mofeez, A and Brandner, B and Bromley, L and Curran, HV},
      title = {Acute effects of ketamine on memory systems and psychotic symptoms in healthy volunteers},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {29},
      number = {1},
      pages = {208-218},
      doi = {{10.1038/sj.npp.1300342}}
    }
    
    Morice, R. & Delahunty, A. Frontal executive impairments in schizophrenia {1996} SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN
    Vol. {22}({1}), pp. {125-137} 
    article  
    Abstract: A study of frontal/executive impairments in schizophrenia is reported. Schizophrenia patients and controls were not significantly different with respect to age, sex, and premorbid IQ. The schizophrenia group demonstrated significant impairments in cognitive flexibility and forward planning, replicating results from a 1990 study by Morice. Impairment prevalence figures of 65 and 76 percent for cognitive flexibility and forward planning, respectively, were demonstrated. Several tests for short-term memory were administered. Schizophrenia patients were not found to be impaired on tests of simple, or primary, short-term memory as measured by Digits Span Forward and Words Span Forward, but they were found to be significantly impaired compared with controls on two tests of working memory, Alphabet Span and Sentence Span. Using a cutoff derived from the mean score for the controls, 65 percent of schizophrenia patients proved to be impaired on Sentence Span. A total of 16 (94 were impaired on one or more of the three tests of executive functioning used. The effects of IQ on test results were examined, and impairment of cognitive flexibility and forward planning seemed to occur regardless of whether premorbid IQ had been preserved or had deteriorated. However, working memory impairments occurred in the subgroup of schizophrenia patients demonstrating a substantial fall in IQ from premorbid levels. The ability to process increasingly complex information was addressed by a more detailed examination of the Tower of London results. There were no differences in performance between groups for the first three levels of complexity (1-3 moves), but significant, and increasing, differences emerged for the last three levels (4-6 moves). These results were taken to support the hypothesis that schizophrenia represents a loss of, or a failure to acquire, the ability to process complex information. Impairments of executive functions that could affect complex information processing could have implications for schizophrenia rehabilitation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Morice1996,
      author = {Morice, R and Delahunty, A},
      title = {Frontal executive impairments in schizophrenia},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {22},
      number = {1},
      pages = {125-137}
    }
    
    Moritz, S., Birkner, C., Kloss, M., Jahn, H., Hand, I., Haasen, C. & Krausz, M. Executive functioning in obsessive-compulsive disorder, unipolar depression, and schizophrenia {2002} ARCHIVES OF CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {17}({5}), pp. {477-483} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present study investigated whether schizophrenic, unipolar depressive, and obsessive-compulsive psychiatric patients show a distinguishable profile in tasks considered sensitive to frontal lobe functioning. Three psychiatric samples, each comprising 25 patients with little symptomatic overlap, were compared to 70 healthy controls. Participants completed several executive tasks (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), verbal fluency, digit span, Stroop, and Trail-Making). Except for age, which was entered as a covariate, subjects did not differ in any sociodemographic background variable. Healthy controls showed superior performance relative to depressive and schizophrenic patients who exhibited comparable deficits in all tasks. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients revealed dysfunctions in the Trail-Making Tests A and B and in the fluency task. Dysfunctions in the domains of working memory, verbal fluency, distractibility, and concept formation were not confined to a specific psychiatric population. (C) 2002 National Academy of Neuropsychology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Moritz2002,
      author = {Moritz, S and Birkner, C and Kloss, M and Jahn, H and Hand, I and Haasen, C and Krausz, M},
      title = {Executive functioning in obsessive-compulsive disorder, unipolar depression, and schizophrenia},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {17},
      number = {5},
      pages = {477-483}
    }
    
    Morris, M., Williams, R., Allen, J. & Avila, R. Correlates of success in family business transitions {1997} JOURNAL OF BUSINESS VENTURING
    Vol. {12}({5}), pp. {385-401} 
    article  
    Abstract: Fundamental differences are identified between the nature and functioning of family-owned and -managed business and those that are not family-controlled. These difference include the time horizons of management, the implications of business failure, the degree of job security, the centralization of decision-making, accountability for decision-making, and the impact of the family system on the business system, among others. It is argued that the most significant of these differences concerns the way in which executive succession occurs, and specifically, unique aspects of the process of intergenerational transfer within family-owned businesses. Based on an initial round of interviews with second- and third-generation family business owners, and a detailed review of the extant literature, a model is proposed consisting of three sets of determinants of successful family business transitions: the preparation level of the heirs, the nature of relationships among family members, and the types of planning and control activities engaged in by the management of the family business. Successful transitions are further hypothesized to influence subsequent company performance. Much of the research to data on family business transitions has tended to be qualitative, case-oriented, and/or anecdotal in nature. The result has been a number of rich insights into the complexities and dynamics of the family enterprise, but limited in terms of the generalizability of the findings. Considerably less attention has been devoted to quantitative studies that employ larger samples and provide empirical tests of relationships between key variables. This lack of attention is traced to inherent measurement difficulties int he family business field, and to the relatively young status of the field itself as a distinct area receiving academic attention. The current study attempts to bridge this gap. The study provides a quantitative assessment of the proposed model using two cross-sectional subsamples consisting of 209 second- and third-generation family-owned business. Both regression and structural equations (LISREL) analyses are employed. The results indicate support for the proposed model. Family business transitions do occur more smoothly when heirs are better prepared, when relationships among family members are more trust-based and affable, and when family businesses engage in more planning for taxation and wealth-transfer purposes. Of these factors, relationships within the family has the single greatest impact on successful transition. At the same time, smoother transitions do no necessarily result in better post-transition performance by the enterprise. This linkage to performance appears to be more complex. One possibility is that some level of conflict or strife is a prerequisite for the transition to have a significant impact on subsequent performance. Based on these results, family business owners are encouraged to devote relatively more attention to relationship issues, nad relatively less to estate and tax planning. It is suggested that a `'relationship charter'' be developed as a vehicle for strategically managing relationships within the family, much as relationships must be managed with suppliers or customers. Suggestions are also made for further research, and the study's limitations are denoted. Researchers are encouraged to devote efforts to exploring relationships among the exogenous variables in the research model, such as that between preparation levels of heirs and family relationships. Further, the issue of success and failure in second- and third-generation businesses warrants greater attention, including identification of key failure and success factors as well as determination of differences in failure rates for family- versus non-family-owned businesses and isolation of the reasons for such differences. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Morris1997,
      author = {Morris, MH and Williams, RO and Allen, JA and Avila, RA},
      title = {Correlates of success in family business transitions},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF BUSINESS VENTURING},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {12},
      number = {5},
      pages = {385-401}
    }
    
    Moser, D., Jorge, R., Manes, F., Paradiso, S., Benjamin, M. & Robinson, R. Improved executive functioning following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation {2002} NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {58}({8}), pp. {1288-1290} 
    article  
    Abstract: The cognitive effects of active and sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) were examined in 19 middle-aged and elderly patients with refractory depression. Patients received either active (n = 9) or sham (n = 10) rTAMS targeted at the anterior portion of the left middle frontal gyrus Patients in the active rTMS group improved significantly on a test of cognitive flexibility and conceptual tracking (Trail Making Test-B).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Moser2002,
      author = {Moser, DJ and Jorge, RE and Manes, F and Paradiso, S and Benjamin, ML and Robinson, RG},
      title = {Improved executive functioning following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation},
      journal = {NEUROLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {58},
      number = {8},
      pages = {1288-1290},
      note = {20th Annual Meeting of the National-Academy-of-Neuropsychology, ORLANDO, FLORIDA, 2000}
    }
    
    Mottron, L., Peretz, I. & Menard, E. Local and global processing of music in high-functioning persons with autism: Beyond central coherence? {2000} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {41}({8}), pp. {1057-1065} 
    article  
    Abstract: A multi-modal abnormality in the integration of parts and whole has been proposed to account for a bias toward local stimuli in individuals with autism (Frith, 1989; Mottron & Belleville, 1993). In the current experiment, we examined the utility of hierarchical models in characterising musical information processing in autistic individuals. Participants were 13 high-functioning individuals with autism and 13 individuals of normal intelligence matched on chronological age, nonverbal IQ, and laterality, and without musical experience. The task consisted of same-different judgements of pairs of melodies. Differential local and global processing was assessed by manipulating the level, local or global, at which modifications occurred. No deficit was found in the two measures of global processing. In contrast, the clinical group performed better than the comparison group in the detection of change in nontransposed, contour-preserved melodies that tap local processing. These findings confirm the existence of a ``local bias'' in music perception in individuals with autism, but challenge the notion that it is accounted for by a deficit in global music processing. The present study suggests that enhanced processing of elementary physical properties of incoming stimuli, as found previously in the visual modality, may also exist in the auditory modality.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mottron2000,
      author = {Mottron, L and Peretz, I and Menard, E},
      title = {Local and global processing of music in high-functioning persons with autism: Beyond central coherence?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {41},
      number = {8},
      pages = {1057-1065}
    }
    
    van Mourik, R., Oosterlaan, J. & Sergeant, J. The Stroop revisited: a meta-analysis of interference control in AD/HD {2005} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {46}({2}), pp. {150-165} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background: An inhibition deficit, including poor interference control, has been implicated as one of the core deficits in AD/HD. Interference control is clinically measured by the Stroop Colour-Word Task. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the strength of an interference deficit in AD/HD as measured by the Stroop Colour-Word Task and to assess the role of moderating variables that could explain the results. These moderating variables included: methods of calculating the interference score, comorbid reading and psychiatric disorders, AD/HD-subtypes, gender, age, intellectual functioning, medication, and sample size. Methods: Seventeen independent studies were located including 1395 children, adolescents, and young adults, in the age range of 6-27 years. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect sizes for the scores on the word and the colour card as well as the interference score. Results: Children with AD/HD performed more poorly on all three dependent variables. The effect sizes for word reading (d = .49) and colour naming (d = .58) were larger and more homogeneous than the effect size for the interference score (d = .35). The method used to calculate the interference score strongly influenced the findings for this measure. When interference control was calculated as the difference between the score on the colour card minus the score on the colour-word card, no differences were found between AD/HD groups and normal control groups. Discussion: The Stroop Colour-Word Task, in standard form, does not provide strong evidence for a deficit in interference control in AD/HD. However, the Stroop Colour-Word Task may not be a valid measure of interference control in AD/HD and alternative methodologies may be needed to test this aspect of the inhibitory deficit model in AD/HD.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mourik2005,
      author = {van Mourik, R and Oosterlaan, J and Sergeant, JA},
      title = {The Stroop revisited: a meta-analysis of interference control in AD/HD},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {46},
      number = {2},
      pages = {150-165},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00345.x}}
    }
    
    Mozley, L., Gur, R., Mozley, P. & Gur, R. Striatal dopamine transporters and cognitive functioning in healthy men and women {2001} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {158}({9}), pp. {1492-1499} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: There is growing interest in distinguishing the biological bases of sex differences in behavior from environmental influences. Sex hormone levels seem to be related to some cognitive abilities, particularly memory, and the dopaminergic system participates in the mediation of memory. The dopamine transporter is the primary indicator of dopaminergic tone. This study investigated the relationship between cognition and dopamine transporter availability in healthy men and women. Method: Dopamine transporter levels were measured with a technetium-99m radiolabeled analog of cocaine, TRODAT-1, in 66 healthy volunteers (30 men and 36 women). A neuropsychological battery designed to target functions associated with dopaminergic activity was administered during the uptake interval between the radiopharmaceutical injection and image acquisition, Results: Women and younger participants had higher dopamine availability in the caudate nucleus, and these groups also performed better on verbal learning tasks. Furthermore, dopamine transporter availability was correlated with learning performance within groups. Relationships between dopamine availability in the caudate and putamen and executive and motor functioning were observed in women, but not in men. Conclusions: The results provide further evidence for age effects and sex differences in the neuromodulatory influences of dopamine on behavior in humans.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mozley2001,
      author = {Mozley, LH and Gur, RC and Mozley, PD and Gur, RE},
      title = {Striatal dopamine transporters and cognitive functioning in healthy men and women},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {158},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1492-1499}
    }
    
    Muller, M., Aleman, A., Grobbee, D., de Haan, E. & van der Schouw, Y. Endogenous sex hormone levels and cognitive function in aging men - Is there an optimal level? {2005} NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {64}({5}), pp. {866-871} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To determine whether endogenous sex hormone levels are associated with cognitive functioning in men. Methods: Cognitive performance was assessed in 400 independently living men between ages 40 and 80 in a population-based cross-sectional study. Compound scores were calculated for memory function, processing capacity/speed, and executive function. The Mini-Mental State Examination was used as a measure of global cognitive function. The adjusted association of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E-2) (total, bioavailable) with neuropsychological test scores in the total group and in subgroups was assessed by linear and logistic regression analysis. Results: Curvilinear associations were observed between T and memory performance and processing capacity/speed, suggesting optimal sex hormone levels. No association between E-2 and cognitive functioning was found. After the population was subdivided into four age decades, a linear association of T with cognitive functioning in the oldest age category remained. No association was found in the other age decades. Lower bioavailable T levels were associated with lower scores on processing capacity/speed and executive function; beta (95% CI) values were 0.36 (0.07 to 0.66) and 0.17 (-0.01 to 0.35). Similar results were observed for total T. Conclusions: Higher testosterone (T) levels are associated with better cognitive performance in the oldest age category. Apparent curvilinear associations between T and certain cognitive functions in men suggest an optimal hormone level for particular cognitive tasks and are explained by linear associations in the oldest age category.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Muller2005,
      author = {Muller, M and Aleman, A and Grobbee, DE and de Haan, EHF and van der Schouw, YT},
      title = {Endogenous sex hormone levels and cognitive function in aging men - Is there an optimal level?},
      journal = {NEUROLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {64},
      number = {5},
      pages = {866-871}
    }
    
    Muller, U., Wachter, T., Barthel, H., Reuter, M. & von Cramon, D. Striatal [I-123]beta-CIT SPECT and prefrontal cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease {2000} JOURNAL OF NEURAL TRANSMISSION
    Vol. {107}({3}), pp. {303-319} 
    article  
    Abstract: Twenty non-demented patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with [I-123]beta-CIT to further investigate the contribution of nigrostriatal dysfunction to cognitive and motor deficits. Compared to matched controls PD patients showed normal verbal intelligence, short-term memory and phasic alertness. There were significant (p < 0.05) deficits in tests of verbal working memory (digit ordering, reading span), strategic memory (story recall) and executive functions (card sorting), indicating a ``prefrontal'' cognitive deficit. Significant (p < 0.05) correlations were observed between dopamine transporter (DAT) density in the putamen and motor deficits as well as between DAT density in both striatal compartments (head of the caudate nucleus and putamen) and prefrontal functioning. Age was a major contributing factor to both cognitive status and nigrostriatal integrity as measured by [I-123]beta-CIT SPECT. These results support the view that the striatum is part of a neuronal network that is mediating prefrontal cognitive functions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Muller2000,
      author = {Muller, U and Wachter, T and Barthel, H and Reuter, M and von Cramon, DY},
      title = {Striatal [I-123]beta-CIT SPECT and prefrontal cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NEURAL TRANSMISSION},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {107},
      number = {3},
      pages = {303-319}
    }
    
    Munakata, Y. Graded representations in behavioral dissociations {2001} TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES
    Vol. {5}({7}), pp. {309-315} 
    article  
    Abstract: Why do people sometimes seem to know things when they are tested in one way, while seeming unaware of this information when tested in a different way? Such task-dependent behaviors, or dissociations, often occur in infants and children, and in adults following brain damage. To explain these dissociations, researchers have posited separable knowledge systems that are differentially tapped by various tasks, develop at different rates and can be selectively impaired. There is an alternative account in which knowledge is viewed as graded in nature. Certain tasks tap weaker representations, while other tasks require stronger representations, leading to dissociations in behavior. The graded representations approach addresses dissociations observed in perception, attention, memory, executive functioning and language, and has implications for the organization, development and impairment of our cognitive systems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Munakata2001,
      author = {Munakata, Y},
      title = {Graded representations in behavioral dissociations},
      journal = {TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {5},
      number = {7},
      pages = {309-315}
    }
    
    Munir, F., Cornish, K. & Wilding, J. A neuropsychological profile of attention deficits in young males with fragile X syndrome {2000} NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA
    Vol. {38}({9}), pp. {1261-1270} 
    article  
    Abstract: Different processes of attention were examined in a group of 25 fragile X boys with FMR-1 full mutation and compared with three control groups: a learning disabled comparison group comprising 25 boys with Down's syndrome, matched to the fragile X boys on verbal mental age; and 50 mainstream school boys (controls) matched to the fragile X boys on verbal mental age. The controls were further divided into those matched on ``poor attention'' to the fragile X boys and a ``good'' attention group, as rated by the ACTeRS questionnaire. Four categories of attention tasks were employed: selective attention, divided attention, sustained attention and executive functioning. The main findings of the study indicate that fragile X boys display an attention deficit at higher levels of attention function/executive functioning and that this profile is different from the profile identified in Down's syndrome boys and more extreme than the profile identified in the poor attention control group, These findings are discussed in the context of functional neuroimaging and brain-behaviour correlates in fragile X syndrome. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Munir2000,
      author = {Munir, F and Cornish, KM and Wilding, J},
      title = {A neuropsychological profile of attention deficits in young males with fragile X syndrome},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {38},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1261-1270}
    }
    
    Munro, C., Saxton, J. & Butters, M. The neuropsychological consequences of abstinence among older alcoholics: A cross-sectional study {2000} ALCOHOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
    Vol. {24}({10}), pp. {1510-1516} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: The older alcoholic has been distinguished from the younger alcoholic with regard to both the acute effects of alcohol and also the recovery of functioning with abstinence. Few studies, however, have included samples of exclusively older subjects. in this investigation we examined the recovery of functioning in an older cohort of recovering alcoholics (age range 55-83) to determine which neuropsychological functions improve and which remain impaired with abstinence. Methods: We used a cross-sectional design, comparing three demographically matched groups on a battery of neuropsychological tests: (a) older alcoholics who had been abstinent for greater than 6 months, (b) older alcoholics who had been abstinent for less than 6 months, and (c) a control group of older subjects without alcohol abuse histories. Results: In almost all tasks, the alcoholics who were abstinent for less than 6 months performed worse than the control group. rn contrast, the alcoholics who had been abstinent for more than 6 months differed from the control group on learning and recall of a word list, immediate and delayed recall of a complex figure, initial letter fluency, and crock drawing. Conclusions: Memory and executive skills appear to be resistant to recovery or at least slower to recover with abstinence in the older alcoholic. The impairment with visuospatial skills reported in prior investigations of alcoholics may be related to compromised executive functions, which interfere with the encoding of more complex visuospatial information and thus affect recall of such information. Studies that involve larger samples of older alcoholics are needed to understand their ability to recover cognitive functioning with abstinence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Munro2000,
      author = {Munro, CA and Saxton, J and Butters, MA},
      title = {The neuropsychological consequences of abstinence among older alcoholics: A cross-sectional study},
      journal = {ALCOHOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {24},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1510-1516}
    }
    
    Mur, M., Portella, M.J., Martinez-Aran, A., Pifarre, J. & Vieta, E. Persistent neuropsychological deficit in euthymic bipolar patients: Executive function as a core deficit {2007} JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {68}({7}), pp. {1078-1086} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To characterize neuropsychological deficits during the euthymic phase in a sample of bipolar outpatients treated with lithium as the principal mood-stabilizer medication. We sought to determine cognitive functioning of typical bipolar outpatients treated in clinical settings. Method: Forty-four stable outpatients, fulfilling criteria of bipolar disorder (DSM-IV), were consecutively recruited from a defined catchment area and compared with 46 healthy matched controls in 2003. Patients were remitted for at least 3 months and euthymic (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score < 8 and Young Mania Rating Scale score < 6 for at least 3 months). They were receiving lithium as monotherapy (45.5 or combined with other psychotropic medication (54.5. Neuropsychological assessment was performed by means of a neuropsychological test battery tapping into the main cognitive domains (executive function, attention, processing speed, verbal memory, and visual memory). Results: Multivariate analysis of variance showed that euthymic bipolar patients performed significantly worse than controls in measures of executive function (F = 2.57, df = 4,82; p =.04) and inhibition (F = 3.83, df = 2,84; p =.03), after controlling for subclinical symptomatology, years of education, and premorbid intelligence quotient. Processing speed also differed significantly between groups (F = 3.73, df = 2,84; p =.03). The subgroup of patients on lithium monotherapy (45.5 differed significantly from healthy matched controls on tasks of lack of inhibition (F = 5.8, df = 2,36; p =.007). Executive tasks showed between-subject effects. Conclusions: These results suggest that impaired executive function and loss of inhibition might be an important feature of bipolar disorder regardless of the severity of the disease or the effects of medication. Also, these executive-type cognitive traits may constitute an endophenotype for further studies on the etiology of bipolar disorder.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mur2007,
      author = {Mur, Maria and Portella, Maria J. and Martinez-Aran, Anabel and Pifarre, Josep and Vieta, Eduard},
      title = {Persistent neuropsychological deficit in euthymic bipolar patients: Executive function as a core deficit},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {68},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1078-1086}
    }
    
    Murphy, F., Rubinsztein, J., Michael, A., Rogers, R., Robbins, T., Paykel, E. & Sahakian, B. Decision-making cognition in mania and depression {2001} PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE
    Vol. {31}({4}), pp. {679-693} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background. Despite markedly different clinical presentations, few studies have reported differences in neuropsychological functioning between mania and depression. Recent work has suggested that differences may emerge on cognitive tasks requiring affective processing, such as decision-making. The present study sought to compare decision-making cognition in mania and depression in order to clarify the current profiles of impairment for these disorders and to contribute to our more general understanding of the relationship between mood and cognition. Methods. Medicated manic patients, depressed patients, and normal healthy controls completed a computerized decision-making task. All subjects were asked to win as many points as possible by choosing outcomes based on variably-weighted probabilities and by placing `bets' on each decision. Results. Both patient groups were impaired on this task, as evidenced by slower deliberation times, a failure to accumulate as many points as controls and suboptimal betting strategies. Manic, but not depressed, patients made suboptimal decisions - an impairment that correlated with the severity of their illness. Conclusions. These findings are consistent with a growing consensus that manic and depressed patients are characterized by significant impairments in cognitive and particularly executive, functioning. Furthermore, the distinct patterns of observed impairment in manic and depressed patients suggests that the nature and extent of cognitive impairment differ between these two groups. Viewed in the context of other recent studies, these findings are consistent with a role for the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in mediating mood-cognition relationships.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Murphy2001,
      author = {Murphy, FC and Rubinsztein, JS and Michael, A and Rogers, RD and Robbins, TW and Paykel, ES and Sahakian, BJ},
      title = {Decision-making cognition in mania and depression},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {31},
      number = {4},
      pages = {679-693}
    }
    
    Murphy, K., Barkley, R. & Bush, T. Executive functioning and olfactory identification in young adults with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder {2001} NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {15}({2}), pp. {211-220} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Young adults with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 105) were compared with a control group (N = 64) on 14 measures of executive function and olfactory identification using a 2 (group) X 2 (sex) design. The ADHD group performed significantly worse on 11 measures. No Group X Sex interaction was found on any measures. No differences were found in the ADHD group as a function of ADHD subtype or comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. Comorbid depression influenced the results of only I test (Digit Symbol). After IQ was controlled for, some group differences in verbal working memory, attention, and odor identification were no longer significant, whereas those in inhibition, interference control, nonverbal working memory, and other facets of attention remained so. Executive function deficits found in childhood ADHD exist in young adults with ADHD and are largely not influenced by comorbidity but may be partly a function of low intelligence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Murphy2001a,
      author = {Murphy, KR and Barkley, RA and Bush, T},
      title = {Executive functioning and olfactory identification in young adults with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {15},
      number = {2},
      pages = {211-220},
      doi = {{10.1037//0894-4105.15.2.211}}
    }
    
    Murray, K. & Kochanska, G. Effortful control: Factor structure and relation to externalizing and internalizing behaviors {2002} JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {30}({5}), pp. {503-514} 
    article  
    Abstract: Effortful control, a temperamentally based ability to inhibit a dominant response and activate a subdominant response, was assessed on 3 occasions using a comprehensive, age-appropriate behavioral battery in this 4-year longitudinal study of children (N = 103) from toddlerhood to early school age. The focus was twofold: to explore the structure of effortful control in a normally developing sample and to examine the relations between effortful control and adaptive functioning. Exploratory factor analyses supported the contention that effortful control is a complex, multidimensional construct with longitudinally stable factors. Effortful control was also significantly associated with mother-reported total behavior problems in a nonlinear fashion, with lower and higher levels of effortful control contributing to higher total problem scores. These findings have implications for the assessment of temperament in children and, most importantly, for the study of nonlinear contributions of temperament to early childhood behaviors.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Murray2002,
      author = {Murray, KT and Kochanska, G},
      title = {Effortful control: Factor structure and relation to externalizing and internalizing behaviors},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {30},
      number = {5},
      pages = {503-514}
    }
    
    Nestor, P., Kubicki, M., Gurrera, R., Niznikiewicz, M., Frumin, M., McCarley, R. & Shenton, M. Neuropsychological correlates of diffusion tensor imaging in schizophrenia {2004} NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {18}({4}), pp. {629-637} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Patients with schizophrenia (n = 41) and healthy comparison participants (n = 46) completed neuropsychological measures of intelligence, memory, and executive function. A subset of each group also completed magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies (fractional anisotropy and cross-sectional area) of the uncinate fasciculus (UF) and cingulate bundle (CB). Patients with schizophrenia showed reduced levels of functioning across all neuropsychological measures. In addition, selective neuropsychological-DTI relationships emerged. Among patients but not controls, lower levels of declarative-episodic verbal memory correlated with reduced left UF, whereas executive function errors related to performance monitoring correlated with reduced left CB. The data suggested abnormal DTI patterns linking declarative-episodic verbal memory deficits to the left OF and executive function deficits to the left CB among patients with schizophrenia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nestor2004,
      author = {Nestor, PG and Kubicki, M and Gurrera, RJ and Niznikiewicz, M and Frumin, M and McCarley, RW and Shenton, ME},
      title = {Neuropsychological correlates of diffusion tensor imaging in schizophrenia},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {18},
      number = {4},
      pages = {629-637},
      doi = {{10.1037/0894-4105.18.4.629}}
    }
    
    Nieuwenstein, M., Aleman, A. & de Haan, E. Relationship between symptom dimensions and neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of WCST and CPT studies {2001} JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH
    Vol. {35}({2}), pp. {119-125} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cognitive deficits have been hypothesized to be differentially related to the negative, positive and disorganization dimensions of schizophrenia symptoms. In this article, we quantitatively review the published literature on the relationships between symptom dimensions in schizophrenia and performance on the two most widely applied tests of executive functioning and sustained attention, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Meta-analyses were conducted on studies that reported correlational data for the relations between performance on these tests and scales of positive and negative symptoms. The more recent distinction between disorganization and reality distortion was also taken into account. The results showed statistically significant relationships of negative symptoms with worse performance on the WCST and the CPT. Disorganization symptoms showed a significant positive correlation with perseverations on the WCST, but not with CPT performance. in contrast, reality distortion symptoms and general scores for all positive symptoms did not correlate with either measure. Although some correlations were statistically significant, the observed associations between psychiatric symptoms and cognitive performance were typically weak, suggesting relative independence of these disease processes. (C) 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nieuwenstein2001,
      author = {Nieuwenstein, MR and Aleman, A and de Haan, EHF},
      title = {Relationship between symptom dimensions and neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of WCST and CPT studies},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {35},
      number = {2},
      pages = {119-125}
    }
    
    Nigg, J., Blaskey, L., Huang-Pollock, C. & Rappley, M. Neuropsychological executive functions and DSM-IV ADHD subtypes {2002} JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {41}({1}), pp. {59-66} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To evaluate and compare a focused set of component neuropsychological executive functions in the DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive (ADHD-I) subtypes. Method: The Stop task, Tower of London, Stroop task, Trailmaking Test, and output speed measures were completed by 105 boys and girls aged 7-12 classified as either DSM-IV ADHD-C (n = 46), ADHD-I (n = 18), or community control (n = 41). Results: Both subtypes had deficits on output speed. A group x gender interaction was observed on the Stop task: boys with ADHD-C were impaired versus boys with ADHD-I, whereas girls in the two subtypes did not differ. The ADHD-C type had a deficit in planning. Neither ADHD group had a deficit in interference control per se, although they were slower than controls on the Stroop tasks. Conclusions: ADHD-I shares neuropsychological deficits with ADHD-C in the domain of output speed; on most domains the subtypes did not differ. Neuropsychological distinctions between these ADHD subtypes may be few, depending on which domain of executive functioning is assessed, and these distinctions differ by gender. In the case of boys, the two subtypes may be distinguished by the specificity, of motor inhibition deficits to ADHD-C.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nigg2002,
      author = {Nigg, JT and Blaskey, LG and Huang-Pollock, CL and Rappley, MD},
      title = {Neuropsychological executive functions and DSM-IV ADHD subtypes},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {41},
      number = {1},
      pages = {59-66}
    }
    
    Nigg, J., Goldsmith, H. & Sachek, J. Temperament and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The development of a multiple pathway model {2004} JOURNAL OF CLINICAL CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {33}({1}), pp. {42-53} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article outlines the parallels between major theories of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and relevant temperament domains, summarizing recent research from our laboratories on (a) child temperament and (b) adult personality traits related to ADHD symptoms. These data are convergent in suggesting a role of effortful control and regulation in the core symptoms of ADHD. Negative approach and anger is also associated with ADHD, but this may be due to the overlap of ADHD and antisocial behavior. Positive approach may be involved in an alternate pathway to ADHD. The involvement of effortful control is congruent with experimental findings of executive functioning deficits in children with ADHD. We hypothesize that, whereas regulation problems may occur in most children with ADHD, a subgroup also may be characterized by positive approach problems and another subgroup by negative approach problems. We conclude with a theorized multiple process developmental model outlining alternate pathways to ADHD that warrant empirical investigation to better resolve etiological heterogeneity in ADHD.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nigg2004,
      author = {Nigg, JT and Goldsmith, HH and Sachek, J},
      title = {Temperament and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The development of a multiple pathway model},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {33},
      number = {1},
      pages = {42-53}
    }
    
    Nigg, J., Stavro, G., Ettenhofer, M., Hambrick, D., Miller, T. & Henderson, J. Executive functions and ADHD in adults: Evidence for selective effects on ADHD symptom domains {2005} JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {114}({4}), pp. {706-717} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Dual-process models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that both executive functioning and regulatory functions (e.g., processing speed) are involved and that executive function weaknesses may be associated specifically with symptoms of inattention-disorganization but not hyperactivity-impulsivity. Adults aged 18-37 (105 with ADHD, 90 controls) completed a neuropsychological battery. The ADHD group had weaker performance than did the control group (p<.01) on both executive and speed measures. Symptoms of inattention-disorganization were uniquely related to executive functioning with hyperactivity-impulsivity controlled. Inattention was associated with slower response speed, and hyperactivity-impulsivity with faster output speed. Results were not accounted for by IQ, age, gender, education level, or comorbid disorders. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental and dual-process models of ADHD leading into adulthood.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nigg2005a,
      author = {Nigg, JT and Stavro, G and Ettenhofer, M and Hambrick, DZ and Miller, T and Henderson, JM},
      title = {Executive functions and ADHD in adults: Evidence for selective effects on ADHD symptom domains},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {114},
      number = {4},
      pages = {706-717},
      doi = {{10.1037/0021-843X.114.3.706}}
    }
    
    Nigg, J., Willcutt, E., Doyle, A. & Sonuga-Barke, E. Causal heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Do we need neuropsychologically impaired subtypes? {2005} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {57}({11}), pp. {1224-1230} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Before assigning full etiologic validity to a psycopathologic disorder, disease theory in a mechanism within the affect individuals must be identified. Existing theories on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest such dysfunctions in cognitive, neuropsychological, or motivational processes in the child. To date, researchers have tested these theories by comparing groups with DSM-defined ADHD to children without ADHD. Using executive functioning as an illustration of an issue that exists across all such, theories, this article describes substantial overlaps in the group performance data. Thus only a subgroup may have executive deficits. Noted are other supportive data suggesting multiple pathways to ADHD. The article explores implications and recommends that future theory and research give more consideration to the probability that only a subset of behaviorally defined children will have a deficit in a given neurocognitive mechanism believed to contribute to the disorder. Creation of a provisional set of criteria in DSM-V for defining an ``executive deficit type'' could stimulate research to validate the first etiologic subtype of ADHD and spur the development of more sophisticated causal models, which in the longer term may give clinicians ways to target and tailor treatments.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nigg2005,
      author = {Nigg, JT and Willcutt, EG and Doyle, AE and Sonuga-Barke, EJS},
      title = {Causal heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Do we need neuropsychologically impaired subtypes?},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {57},
      number = {11},
      pages = {1224-1230},
      note = {Conference on Advancing the Neuroscience of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Boston, MA, FEB 28, 2004},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.08.025}}
    }
    
    Nilsson, J., Soderstrom, M., Karlsson, A., Lekander, M., Akerstedt, T., Lindroth, N. & Axelsson, J. Less effective executive functioning after one night's sleep deprivation {2005} JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH
    Vol. {14}({1}), pp. {1-6} 
    article  
    Abstract: The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is affected negatively by sleep deprivation (SD) and executive functioning is largely dependent on activity in the PFC. Earlier studies have focused on subsystems of executive functioning, and tests of executive functioning have shown both low reliability and low validity. In the present study, 11 healthy volunteers were sleep deprived and compared with 11 healthy controls in a study on effects of one night's SD on integrative executive functioning. Following SD, the performance of subjects on an ecologically valid test, the modified Six Elements Test, was significantly impaired. There were no group differences on psychomotor vigilance, verbal or visuo-spatial working memory. This extends previous knowledge of performance effects of SD, and may be of special importance for individuals with cognitive work tasks.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nilsson2005,
      author = {Nilsson, JP and Soderstrom, M and Karlsson, AU and Lekander, M and Akerstedt, T and Lindroth, NE and Axelsson, J},
      title = {Less effective executive functioning after one night's sleep deprivation},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {14},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-6}
    }
    
    Noble, K., Norman, M. & Farah, M. Neurocognitive correlates of socioeconomic status in kindergarten children {2005} DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {8}({1}), pp. {74-87} 
    article  
    Abstract: Socioeconomic status (SES) is strongly associated with cognitive ability and achievement during childhood and beyond. Little is known about the developmental relationships between SES and specific brain systems or their associated cognitive functions. In this study we assessed neurocognitive functioning of kindergarteners from different socioeconomic backgrounds, using tasks drawn from the cognitive neuroscience literature in order to determine how childhood SES predicts the normal variance in performance across different neurocognitive systems. Five neurocognitive systems were examined: the occipitotemporal/visual cognition system, the parietal/spatial cognition system, the medial temporal/memory system, the left perisylvianl/anguage system, and the prefrontal/executive system. SES was disproportionately associated with the last two, with low SES children performing worse than middle SES children on most measures of these systems. Relations among language, executive function, SES and specific aspects of early childhood experience were explored, revealing intercorrelations and a seemingly predominant role of individual differences in language ability involved in SES associations with executive function.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Noble2005,
      author = {Noble, KG and Norman, MF and Farah, MJ},
      title = {Neurocognitive correlates of socioeconomic status in kindergarten children},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {8},
      number = {1},
      pages = {74-87}
    }
    
    Noel, X., Van der Linden, M., Schmidt, N., Sferrazza, R., Hanak, C., Le Bon, O., De Mol, J., Kornreich, C., Pelc, I. & Verbanck, P. Supervisory attentional system in nonamnesic alcoholic men {2001} ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {58}({12}), pp. {1152-1158} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Many studies have shown that recently detoxified alcoholic persons perform poorly on tasks thought to be sensitive to frontal lobe damage, supporting the hypothesis that the frontal lobes are highly vulnerable to chronic alcohol consumption. However, it appeared that most of the executive tasks used in these studies also involved nonexecutive components, and these tasks had been shown to be impaired as a result of nonfrontal lobe lesions. In this study, we examined further the ``frontal lobe vulnerability'' hypothesis using executive tasks, proved to be associated with frontal lobe functioning, that allowed us to distinguish the relative importance of executive and nonexecutive processes. Method: Thirty recently detoxified asymptomatic male alcoholic inpatients and 30 control subjects were tested for planning, inhibition, rule detection, and coordination of dual task, as well as the speed of processing and nonexecutive functions (such as Short-term memory storage). Results: Alcoholics performed worse than controls in almost all tasks assessing executive functions. However, they were not slower than the controls and showed normal results for nonexecutive functions. Conclusions: Chronic alcohol consumption seems to be associated with severe executive function deficits, which are still present after a protracted period of alcohol abstinence. These data support the idea that the cognitive deficits in recently detoxified sober alcoholic subjects are due, at least partly, to frontal lobe dysfunctioning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Noel2001,
      author = {Noel, X and Van der Linden, M and Schmidt, N and Sferrazza, R and Hanak, C and Le Bon, O and De Mol, J and Kornreich, C and Pelc, I and Verbanck, P},
      title = {Supervisory attentional system in nonamnesic alcoholic men},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {58},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1152-1158}
    }
    
    Nordlund, A., Rolstad, S., Hellstrom, P., Sjogren, M., Hansen, S. & Wallin, A. The Goteborg MCI study: mild cognitive impairment is a heterogeneous condition {2005} JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {76}({11}), pp. {1485-1490} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been considered a transitional state between normal aging and dementia, characterised by memory impairment but normal general cognitive functioning. Recently other cognitive deficits have been reported. This has led to a modification of MCI criteria. Objective: To examine which neuropsychological tests most clearly distinguish MCI subjects from normal controls. Methods: 112 consecutive MCI subjects and 35 controls were included in the study. The diagnosis of MCI was based on an objective history of cognitive decline and a neuropsychiatric examination, comprising instruments STEP, I-Flex, MMSE, and CDR. Participants were examined with 21 neuropsychological tests in the cognitive domains speed/attention, memory and learning, visuospatial function, language, and executive function. Results: Controls were significantly older. No differences were found in education or general intellectual capacity. Controls performed significantly better than MCI on tests within all five cognitive domains. The clearest differences were seen on language tests, followed by executive function, and learning and memory. Only two subjects (1.8 were purely amnestic; 17% showed no impairment compared with controls, with a cut off of 1.5 SD below age mean. These subjects were better educated and performed significantly better on measures of general cognitive capacity. Conclusions: The results illustrate the heterogeneity of MCI, with a significant degree of impairment in all five cognitive domains. When examined with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, very few subjects had an isolated memory impairment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nordlund2005,
      author = {Nordlund, A and Rolstad, S and Hellstrom, P and Sjogren, M and Hansen, S and Wallin, A},
      title = {The Goteborg MCI study: mild cognitive impairment is a heterogeneous condition},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {76},
      number = {11},
      pages = {1485-1490},
      doi = {{10.1136/jnnp.2004.050385}}
    }
    
    Norris, G. & Tate, R. The Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS): Ecological, concurrent and construct validity {2000} NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION
    Vol. {10}({1}), pp. {33-45} 
    article  
    Abstract: Issues of validity, and in particular ecological validity, are a current concern for tests examining disorders of executive abilities related to frontal systems dysfunction. The Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS, Wilson ct al., 1996) was developed in response to the need for better neuropsychological tests in this area. The present study examines the validity of the BADS, along with six other commonly used tests of executive ability in two groups of participants with either neurological disorder (n = 36) or without brain damage (n = 37). The BADS and most of its subtests correlate significantly with the standard executive tests indicating that it possesses adequate concurrent validity. In terms of construct validity, it is comparable to standard executive tests in discriminating between neurological and non-brain-damaged participants. The ecological validity of the BADS is superior to standard executive tests in terms of predicting competency in role functioning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Norris2000,
      author = {Norris, G and Tate, RL},
      title = {The Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS): Ecological, concurrent and construct validity},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {33-45}
    }
    
    Nys, G., van Zandvoort, M., de Kort, P., van der Worp, H., Jansen, B., Algra, A., de Haan, E. & Kappelle, L. The prognostic value of domain-specific cognitive abilities in acute first-ever stroke {2005} NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {64}({5}), pp. {821-827} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the prognostic value of domain-specific cognitive abilities in acute stroke with respect to long-term cognitive and functional outcome in addition to neurologic and demographic predictors. Methods: The authors evaluated 168 patients within the first 3 weeks after first-ever stroke. The prevalence of neuropsychological impairment was calculated vs 75 matched healthy controls. The authors also recorded demographic data, vascular risk factors, lesion characteristics, and clinical factors at admission. Independent predictor variables associated with long-term cognitive impairment (assessed with a follow-up neuropsychological examination) and functional impairment (assessed with the modified Barthel Index and the Frenchay Activities Index) were identified with stepwise multiple logistic regression. Areas under receiver operator characteristic curves were used to compare the predictive value of three models, i.e., a standard medical model, a purely cognitive model, and a model consisting of both medical and cognitive predictors. Results: Thirty-one percent of patients showed long-term cognitive impairment. Basic and instrumental ADL disturbances remained present in 19% and 24% of patients. Domain-specific cognitive functioning predicted cognitive and functional outcome better than any other variable. Moreover, the prediction of instrumental ADL functioning improved when cognitive predictors were added to the standard medical model (p < 0.05). Impairments in abstract reasoning and executive functioning were independent predictors of long-term cognitive impairment. Inattention and perceptual disorders were more important in predicting long-term functional impairment. Conclusion: Domain-specific cognitive abilities in the early phase of stroke are excellent independent predictors of long-term cognitive and functional outcome.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nys2005,
      author = {Nys, GMS and van Zandvoort, MJE and de Kort, PLM and van der Worp, HB and Jansen, BPW and Algra, A and de Haan, EHF and Kappelle, LJ},
      title = {The prognostic value of domain-specific cognitive abilities in acute first-ever stroke},
      journal = {NEUROLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {64},
      number = {5},
      pages = {821-827}
    }
    
    O'Brien, J., Erkinjuntti, T., Reisberg, B., Roman, G., Sawada, T., Pantoni, L., Bowler, J., Ballard, C., DeCarli, C., Gorelick, P., Rockwood, K., Burns, A., Gauthier, S. & DeKosky, S. Vascular cognitive impairment {2003} LANCET NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {2}({2}), pp. {89-98} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cerebrovascular disease is the second most common cause of acquired cognitive impairment and dementia and contributes to cognitive decline in the neurodegenerative dementias. The current narrow definitions of vascular dementia should be broadened to recognise the important part cerebrovascular disease plays in several cognitive disorders, including the hereditary vascular dementias, multi-infarct dementia, post-stroke dementia, subcortical ischaemic vascular disease and dementia, mild cognitive impairment, and degenerative dementias (including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies). Here we review the current state of scientific knowledge on the subject of vascular brain burden. Important non-cognitive features include depression, apathy, and psychosis. We propose use of the term vascular cognitive impairment, which is characterised by a specific cognitive profile involving preserved memory with impairments in attentional and executive functioning. Diagnostic criteria have been proposed for some subtypes of vascular cognitive impairment, and there is a pressing need to validate and further refine these. Clinical trials in vascular cognitive impairment are in their infancy but support the value of therapeutic interventions for symptomatic treatment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{O'Brien2003,
      author = {O'Brien, JT and Erkinjuntti, T and Reisberg, B and Roman, G and Sawada, T and Pantoni, L and Bowler, JV and Ballard, C and DeCarli, C and Gorelick, PB and Rockwood, K and Burns, A and Gauthier, S and DeKosky, ST},
      title = {Vascular cognitive impairment},
      journal = {LANCET NEUROLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {2},
      number = {2},
      pages = {89-98}
    }
    
    Olds, D., Robinson, J., Pettitt, L., Luckey, D., Holmberg, J., Ng, R., Isacks, K., Sheff, K. & Henderson, C. Effects of home visits by paraprofessionals and by nurses: Age 4 follow-up results of a randomized trial {2004} PEDIATRICS
    Vol. {114}({6}), pp. {1560-1568} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Objective. To examine the effects of prenatal and infancy home visiting by paraprofessionals and by nurses from child age 2 through age 4 years. Methods. We conducted, in public and private care settings in Denver, Colorado, a randomized, controlled trial with 3 arms, ie, control, paraprofessional visits, and nurse visits. Home visits were provided from pregnancy through child age 2 years. We invited 1178 consecutive, low-income, pregnant women with no previous live births to participate, and we randomized 735; 85% were unmarried, 47% Mexican American, 35% white non-Mexican American, 15% black, and 3% American Indian/Asian. Outcomes consisted of maternal reports of subsequent pregnancies, participation in education and work, use of welfare, marriage, cohabitation, experience of domestic violence, mental health, substance use, and sense of mastery; observations of mother-child interaction and the home environment; tests of children's language and executive functioning; and mothers' reports of children's externalizing behavior problems. Results. Two years after the program ended, women who were visited by paraprofessionals, compared with control subjects, were less likely to be married (32.2% vs 44.0 and to live with the biological father of the child (32.7% vs 43.1 but worked more (15.13 months vs 13.38 months) and reported a greater sense of mastery and better mental health (standardized scores [mean = 100, SD = 10] of 101.25 vs 99.31 and 101.21 vs 99.16, respectively). Paraprofessional- visited women had fewer subsequent miscarriages (6.6% vs 12.3 and low birth weight newborns (2.8% vs 7.7. Mothers and children who were visited by paraprofessionals, compared with control subjects, displayed greater sensitivity and responsiveness toward one another (standardized score [mean = 100, SD = 10] of 100.92 vs 98.66) and, in cases in which the mothers had low levels of psychologic resources at registration, had home environments that were more supportive of children's early learning (score of 24.63 vs 23.35). Nurse-visited women reported greater intervals between the births of their first and second children (24.51 months vs 20.39 months) and less domestic violence (6.9% vs 13.6 and enrolled their children less frequently in preschool, Head Start, or licensed day care than did control subjects. Nurse-visited children whose mothers had low levels of psychologic resources at registration, compared with control group counterparts, demonstrated home environments that were more supportive of children's early learning (score of 24.61 vs 23.35), more advanced language (score of 91.39 vs 86.73), superior executive functioning (score of 100.16 vs 95.48), and better behavioral adaptation during testing (score of 100.41 vs 96.66). There were no statistically significant effects of either nurse or paraprofessional visits on the number of subsequent pregnancies, women's educational achievement, use of substances, use of welfare, or children's externalizing behavior problems. Conclusions. Paraprofessional- visited mothers began to experience benefits from the program 2 years after the program ended at child age 2 years, but their first-born children were not statistically distinguishable from their control group counterparts. Nurse-visited mothers and children continued to benefit from the program 2 years after it ended. The impact of the nurse-delivered program on children was concentrated on children born to mothers with low levels of psychologic resources.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Olds2004,
      author = {Olds, DL and Robinson, J and Pettitt, L and Luckey, DW and Holmberg, J and Ng, RK and Isacks, K and Sheff, K and Henderson, CR},
      title = {Effects of home visits by paraprofessionals and by nurses: Age 4 follow-up results of a randomized trial},
      journal = {PEDIATRICS},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {114},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1560-1568},
      doi = {{10.1542/peds.2004-096}}
    }
    
    Oosterlaan, J., Scheres, A. & Sergeant, J. Which executive functioning deficits are associated with AD/HD, ODD/CD and comorbid AD/HD plus ODD/CD? {2005} JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {33}({1}), pp. {69-85} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This study investigated(1) whether attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is associated with executive functioning (EF) deficits while controlling for oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), (2) whether ODD/CD is associated with EF deficits while controlling for AD/HD, and (3) whether a combination of AD/HD and ODD/CD is associated with EF deficits (and the possibility that there is no association between EF deficits and AD/HD or ODD/CD in isolation). Subjects were 99 children ages 6-12 years. Three putative domains of EF were investigated using well-validated tests: verbal fluency, working memory, and planning. Independent of ODD/CD, AD/HD was associated with deficits in planning and working memory, but not in verbal fluency. Only teacher rated AD/HD, but not parent rated AD/HD, significantly contributed to the prediction of EF task performance. No EF deficits were associated with ODD/CD. The presence of comorbid AD/HD accounts for the EF deficits in children with comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD. These results suggest that EF deficits are unique to AD/HD and support the model proposed by R. A. Barkley (1997).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Oosterlaan2005,
      author = {Oosterlaan, J and Scheres, A and Sergeant, JA},
      title = {Which executive functioning deficits are associated with AD/HD, ODD/CD and comorbid AD/HD plus ODD/CD?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {33},
      number = {1},
      pages = {69-85},
      doi = {{10.1007/s10802-005-0935-y}}
    }
    
    Oosterlaan, J. & Sergeant, J. Response inhibition and response re-engagement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, disruptive, anxious and normal children {1998} BEHAVIOURAL BRAIN RESEARCH
    Vol. {94}({1}), pp. {33-43} 
    article  
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is uniquely related to impairments in two aspects of executive functioning: (1) response inhibition; and (2) response re-engagement. AD/HD (n = 10), disruptive (n = 11): anxious (n = 11) and normal children (n = 21) were compared on the change task. Children were in the age range of 8-12 years. Il;he psychopathological groups were recruited from special educational services. Parent, teacher and child questionnaires were used to select children with pervasive disorders. Controls attended normal classes and scored low on all questionnaires. Compared with normal children, both AD/HD and disruptive children showed poor response inhibition, but only AD/HD children exhibited a deficit in the underlying inhibitory process. Some evidence was found for enhanced response inhibition in anxious children. Both AD/HD and disruptive children demonstrated higher variability in the speed of the response re-engagement process and were less accurate. The results suggest that AD/HD involves a more pervasive impairment in cognitive functioning, rather than a deficit restricted to the powers of response inhibition. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Oosterlaan1998,
      author = {Oosterlaan, J and Sergeant, JA},
      title = {Response inhibition and response re-engagement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, disruptive, anxious and normal children},
      journal = {BEHAVIOURAL BRAIN RESEARCH},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {94},
      number = {1},
      pages = {33-43}
    }
    
    Ownsworth, T. & McKenna, K. Investigation of factors related to employment outcome following traumatic brain injury: a critical review and conceptual model {2004} DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION
    Vol. {26}({13}), pp. {765-784} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Purpose : The purpose of this article is to critically review the literature to examine factors that are most consistently related to employment outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI), with a particular focus on metacognitive skills. It also aims to develop a conceptual model of factors related to employment outcome. Method : The first stage of the review considered 85 studies published between 1980 and December 2003 which investigated factors associated with employment outcome following TBI. English-language studies were identified through searches of Medline and PsycINFO, as well as manual searches of journals and reference lists. The studies were evaluated and rated by two independent raters (Kappa = 0.835) according to the quality of their methodology based upon nine criteria. Fifty studies met the criteria for inclusion in the second stage of the review, which examined the relationship between a broad range of variables and employment outcome. Results : The factors most consistently associated with employment outcome included pre-injury occupational status, functional status at discharge, global cognitive functioning, perceptual ability, executive functioning, involvement in vocational rehabilitation services and emotional status. Conclusions : A conceptual model is presented which emphasises the importance of metacognitive, emotional and social environment factors for improving employment outcome.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ownsworth2004,
      author = {Ownsworth, T and McKenna, K},
      title = {Investigation of factors related to employment outcome following traumatic brain injury: a critical review and conceptual model},
      journal = {DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {26},
      number = {13},
      pages = {765-784},
      doi = {{10.1080/09638280410001696700}}
    }
    
    OZONOFF, S. & MCEVOY, R. A LONGITUDINAL-STUDY OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTION AND THEORY OF MIND DEVELOPMENT IN AUTISM {1994} DEVELOPMENT AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
    Vol. {6}({3}), pp. {415-431} 
    article  
    Abstract: Both executive function and theory of mind impairment have been suggested as primary deficits of autism. One test of the primacy of a deficit is its persistence and stability throughout development. This longitudinal study examined development of executive function and theory of mind abilities over a 3-year time period, comparing nonretarded autistic adolescents with learning-disabled controls matched on age, IQ, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). Results indicate that both executive function and theory of mind abilities are seriously deficient in autistic individuals, improve little with development, may never reach normal functioning levels, and appear to eventually hit a developmental ceiling. Developmental variables showed little relationship to overall task performance or improvement in either cognitive domain. The similar developmental trajectories of executive function and theory of mind performance found in this investigation suggest that these skills may be related and interdependent, rather than independent modules of cognitive function. Implications for the neurological basis of autism and intervention are also discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{OZONOFF1994,
      author = {OZONOFF, S and MCEVOY, RE},
      title = {A LONGITUDINAL-STUDY OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTION AND THEORY OF MIND DEVELOPMENT IN AUTISM},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENT AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {415-431}
    }
    
    OZONOFF, S., PENNINGTON, B. & ROGERS, S. EXECUTIVE FUNCTION DEFICITS IN HIGH-FUNCTIONING AUTISTIC INDIVIDUALS - RELATIONSHIP TO THEORY OF MIND {1991} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {32}({7}), pp. {1081-1105} 
    article  
    Abstract: A group of high-functioning autistic individuals was compared to a clinical control group matched on VIQ, age, sex and SES. Significant group differences were found on executive function, theory of mind, emotion perception and verbal memory tests, but not on spatial or other control measures. Second-order theory of mind and executive function deficits were widespread among the autistic group, while first-order theory of mind deficits were found in only a subset of the sample. The relationship of executive function and theory of mind deficits to each other, and their primacy to autism, are discussed
    BibTeX:
    @article{OZONOFF1991,
      author = {OZONOFF, S and PENNINGTON, BF and ROGERS, SJ},
      title = {EXECUTIVE FUNCTION DEFICITS IN HIGH-FUNCTIONING AUTISTIC INDIVIDUALS - RELATIONSHIP TO THEORY OF MIND},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {32},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1081-1105}
    }
    
    OZONOFF, S., ROGERS, S. & PENNINGTON, B. ASPERGERS SYNDROME - EVIDENCE OF AN EMPIRICAL DISTINCTION FROM HIGH-FUNCTIONING AUTISM {1991} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {32}({7}), pp. {1107-1122} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study compared the neuropsychological profiles of individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS). In comparison with matched controls, both groups were impaired on executive function tests. Only the HFA group demonstrated deficits in theory of mind and verbal memory, performing more poorly than both controls and AS subjects. These results suggest that: (1) HFA and AS are empirically distinguishable on measures independent of diagnostic criteria, and (2) impairment on theory of mind measures is not universally found among individuals with autistic spectrum conditions. The primacy of executive function and theory of mind deficits to autism is discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{OZONOFF1991a,
      author = {OZONOFF, S and ROGERS, SJ and PENNINGTON, BF},
      title = {ASPERGERS SYNDROME - EVIDENCE OF AN EMPIRICAL DISTINCTION FROM HIGH-FUNCTIONING AUTISM},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {32},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1107-1122}
    }
    
    Ozonoff, S. & Strayer, D. Further evidence of intact working memory in autism {2001} JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
    Vol. {31}({3}), pp. {257-263} 
    article  
    Abstract: Earlier investigations have found mixed evidence of working memory impairment in autism. The present study examined working memory in a high-functioning autistic sample, relative to both a clinical control group diagnosed with Tourette Syndrome and a typically developing control group. No group differences were found across three tasks and five dependent measures of working memory. Performance was significantly correlated with both age and IQ. It is concluded that working memory is not one of the executive functions that is seriously impaired in autism. We also suggest that the format of administration of working memory tasks may be important in determining whether or not performance falls in the impaired range.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ozonoff2001,
      author = {Ozonoff, S and Strayer, DL},
      title = {Further evidence of intact working memory in autism},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {31},
      number = {3},
      pages = {257-263}
    }
    
    Padovani, A., DiPiero, V., Bragoni, M., Iacoboni, M. & Gualdi, G. Patterns of neuropsychological impairment in mild dementia: A comparison between Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia {1995} ACTA NEUROLOGICA SCANDINAVICA
    Vol. {92}({6}), pp. {433-442} 
    article  
    Abstract: The objective was to investigate the clinical and psychometric differences between patients with dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) and patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID), matched for age, sex, education, and severity. Sixteen patients with DAT, 16 patients with MID, and 30 healthy individuals, were drawn from a longitudinal study on aging and dementia. Subjects with medical or previous mental disorders were excluded. DAT and controls with focal brain abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were excluded. Diagnosis of dementia was carried out according to DSM-III-R criteria. Dementia severity was staged using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, and only patients with a score of 0.5-1 on CDR were studied. The main outcome measures were quantitative clinical scales of the assessment of global mental status, depression and anxiety, as well as a wide battery of neuropsychological tests for the evaluation of executive/conceptual functions and memory, as well as attention verbal ability, and visuospatial skill functions. The performance of demented patients compared to normal controls was affected on all measurements except for depression and anxiety. DAT patients showed compared to MID patients a greater extent of impairment on tasks assessing verbal comprehension and memory while MID patients were more significantly impaired on measures of frontal lobe functioning. Clinically matched DAT and MID patients show a differential pattern of neuropsychological impairment when studied in an early stage of dementia and with a mild degree of severity. Such patterns might be of value for the development of clinical diagnostic criteria.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Padovani1995,
      author = {Padovani, A and DiPiero, V and Bragoni, M and Iacoboni, M and Gualdi, GF},
      title = {Patterns of neuropsychological impairment in mild dementia: A comparison between Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia},
      journal = {ACTA NEUROLOGICA SCANDINAVICA},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {92},
      number = {6},
      pages = {433-442}
    }
    
    Pantelis, C., Barnes, T., Nelson, H., Tanner, S., Weatherley, L., Owen, A. & Robbins, T. Frontal-striatal cognitive deficits in patients with chronic schizophrenia {1997} BRAIN
    Vol. {120}({Part 10}), pp. {1823-1843} 
    article  
    Abstract: Spatial working memory and planning abilities were assessed in 36 hospitalized patients with chronic schizophrenia, using the computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), and compared with those of normal subjects and patients with neurological disorders (frontal lobe lesions; temporal lobe and amygdalo-hippocampal lesions; Parkinson's disease), matched for age, sex and National Adult Reading Test IQ. The patients in the group with temporal lobe lesions were unimpaired in their performance on these tasks. Patients with schizophrenia were impaired on visuo-spatial memory span compared with all the other groups, while severity of Parkinson's disease was correlated with the degree of impairment on this task. The patients with schizophrenia and those with frontal lobe lesions were impaired on a `spatial working memory' task, with increased `between-search errors'. Patients with Parkinson's disease performed this task poorly compared with the younger control subjects. Patients with schizophrenia were unable to develop a systematic strategy to complete this task, relying instead on a limited visuo-spatial memory span. Higher level planning ability was investigated using the CANTAB `Tower of London'. All groups were equally able to complete the task. However; the groups of patients with schizophrenia and frontal lobe lesions made fewer perfect solutions and required more moves for completion. Movement times were significantly slower in the schizophrenia group, suggesting impairment in the sensorimotor requirements of the task. The patients with schizophrenia were not impaired in their `initial thinking' (planning) latencies, but had significantly prolonged `subsequent thinking' (execution) latencies. This pattern resembled that of the group with frontal lobe lesions and contrasted with the prolonged `initial thinking' time seen in Parkinson's disease. The results of this study are indicative of an overall deficit of executive functioning in schizophrenia, even greater than that seen in patients with frontal lobe lesions. However the pattern of results in schizophrenia resembled that seen in patients with lesions of the frontal lobe or with basal ganglia dysfunction, providing support for the notion of a disturbance of frontostriatal circuits in schizophrenia. Our findings also indicate that there is a loss of the normal relationships between different domains of executive function in schizophrenia, with implications for impaired functional connectivity between different regions of the neocortex.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pantelis1997,
      author = {Pantelis, C and Barnes, TRE and Nelson, HE and Tanner, S and Weatherley, L and Owen, AM and Robbins, TW},
      title = {Frontal-striatal cognitive deficits in patients with chronic schizophrenia},
      journal = {BRAIN},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {120},
      number = {Part 10},
      pages = {1823-1843}
    }
    
    Pantelis, C., Harvey, C., Plant, G., Fossey, E., Maruff, P., Stuart, G., Brewer, W., Nelson, H., Robbins, T. & Barnes, T. Relationship of behavioural and symptomatic syndromes in schizophrenia to spatial working memory and attentional set-shifting ability {2004} PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE
    Vol. {34}({4}), pp. {693-703} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background. Behavioural syndromes (thought disturbance, social withdrawal, depressed behaviour and antisocial behaviour) offer a different perspective from that of symptomatic syndromes on the disability that may be associated with schizophrenia. Few studies have assessed their relationship with neuropsychological deficits. We hypothesized that these syndromes may represent behavioural manifestations of frontal-subcortical impairments, previously described in schizophrenia. Method. Long-stay inpatients (n = 54) and community patients (n = 43) with enduring schizophrenia were assessed, using measures of symptoms and behaviour and tests of executive functioning. The relationship between syndromes and neuropsychological function was assessed using multiple regression and logistic regression analyses. Results. Significant associations were found between performance on the spatial working memory task and the psychomotor poverty symptomatic syndrome, and between attentional set-shifting ability and both disorganization symptoms and the thought disturbance behavioural syndrome. These results were not explained by the effect of premorbid IQ, geographical location, length of illness or antipsychotic medication. Length of illness was an independent predictor of attentional set-shifting ability but not of working memory performance. Conclusion. The specific relationship between negative symptoms and spatial working memory is consistent with involvement of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The associations between difficulty with set-shifting ability and both disorganization symptoms and behaviours may reflect inability to generalize a rule that had been learned and impaired ability to respond flexibly. The specific relationship of illness duration to set-shifting ability may suggest progressive impairment on some executive tasks. The nature of these relationships and their neurobiological and rehabilitation implications are considered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pantelis2004,
      author = {Pantelis, C and Harvey, CA and Plant, G and Fossey, E and Maruff, P and Stuart, GW and Brewer, WJ and Nelson, HE and Robbins, TW and Barnes, TRE},
      title = {Relationship of behavioural and symptomatic syndromes in schizophrenia to spatial working memory and attentional set-shifting ability},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {34},
      number = {4},
      pages = {693-703}
    }
    
    Paradiso, S., Hermann, B., Blumer, D., Davies, K. & Robinson, R. Impact of depressed mood on neuropsychological status in temporal lobe epilepsy {2001} JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {70}({2}), pp. {180-185} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objectives-Depression is a common psychiatric complication of temporal lobe epilepsy. This study examined the effect of depressed mood on neuropsychological performance among patients with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods-Seventy consecutive surgery candidates for medication resistant complex partial seizures of unilateral temporal lobe origin were assessed for psychiatric symptoms and underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Results-Standardised psychiatric interview disclosed that 34% of the patient sample exhibited significant depression. Controlling for seizure frequency, patients with comorbid depression at the time of neuropsychological assessment exhibited significantly poorer performance on measures of intelligence, language, visuoperceptual ability, memory, and executive function. Within lateralised temporal lobe epilepsy groups, the adverse effects of depression on cognitive function were greater in patients with left temporal lobe compared with those with right temporal lobe epilepsy. In addition, depression seemed to be underrecognised and undertreated as none of the patients with epilepsy and comorbid depression were treated for their psychiatric condition at the time of admission for monitoring. Conclusions-Depression, a common psychiatric comorbidity among patients with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy, seems to be undertreated and to have adverse effects on cognitive functioning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Paradiso2001,
      author = {Paradiso, S and Hermann, BP and Blumer, D and Davies, K and Robinson, RG},
      title = {Impact of depressed mood on neuropsychological status in temporal lobe epilepsy},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {70},
      number = {2},
      pages = {180-185}
    }
    
    Paradiso, S., Lamberty, G., Garvey, M. & Robinson, R. Cognitive impairment in the euthymic phase of chronic unipolar depression {1997} JOURNAL OF NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISEASE
    Vol. {185}({12}), pp. {748-754} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cognitive functioning in the nonsymptomatic phase and the long-term cognitive outcome of patients with mood disorders ate both heuristic and important clinical issues in the study of mood disorders. Literature findings are inconsistent because of design confounds. We tried to address these issues while controlling for several confounds including age, education, gender differences in neurobehavioral functioning, and diagnosis. Nonsymptomatic patients with a history of chronic unipolar depression and bipolar affective disorder and healthy male individuals were administered neuropsychological tests to assess attention, visual-motor tracking, executive abilities, and immediate verbal memory. Subjects had comparable depression scores at: the time of testing. Disease duration was 7.5 yeats (SD 5.1) for unipolar and 11 years (SD 7.3) for bipolar patients. Unipolar patients were more impaired than healthy normal comparison subjects on measures of visual-motor sequencing (Trail Making Test A, p <.05), executive function Cr-rail Making Test B, Stroop Test Color/Word Trial, p <.05), and immediate memory and attention (CERAD Ist trial, WATS Digit Symbol subtest, p <.05). Differences between bipolar patients and normal comparison subjects did not reach significance in any of the selected measures. Male patients with a history of chronic unipolar disorder are at risk for cognitive impairment in the nonsymptomatic phase of their disease. Cognitive disturbance is the type seen with prefrontal dysfunction and may be assessed with standard neuropsychological assessments.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Paradiso1997,
      author = {Paradiso, S and Lamberty, GJ and Garvey, MJ and Robinson, RG},
      title = {Cognitive impairment in the euthymic phase of chronic unipolar depression},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISEASE},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {185},
      number = {12},
      pages = {748-754},
      note = {24th Annual Meeting of the International-Neuropsychological-Society, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, FEB 14-17, 1996}
    }
    
    Pavuluri, M., Schenkel, L., Aryal, S., Harral, E., Hill, S., Herbener, E. & Sweeney, J. Neurocognitive function in unmedicated manic and medicated euthymic pediatric bipolar patients {2006} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {163}({2}), pp. {286-293} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: A systematic evaluation of neuropsychological functioning in individuals with pediatric bipolar disorder is necessary to clarify the types of cognitive deficits that are associated with acutely ill and euthymic phases of the disorder and the effects of medication on these deficits. Method: Unmedicated (N=28) and medicated (N=28) pediatric bipolar patients and healthy individuals (N=28) (mean age=11.74 years, SD=2.99) completed cognitive testing. Groups were matched on age, sex, race, parental socioeconomic status, general intelligence, and single-word reading ability. A computerized neurocognitive battery and standardized neuropsychological tests were administered to assess attention, executive function, working memory, verbal memory, visual memory, visuospatial perception, and motor skills. Results: Subjects with pediatric bipolar disorder, regardless of medication and illness status, showed impairments in the domains of attention, executive functioning, working memory, and verbal learning compared to healthy individuals. Also, bipolar subjects with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) performed worse on tasks assessing attention and executive function than patients with bipolar disorder alone. Conclusions: The absence of differences in the deficits of neurocognitive profiles between acutely ill unmedicated patients and euthymic medicated patients suggests that these impairments are trait-like characteristics of pediatric bipolar disorder. The cognitive deficits found in individuals with pediatric bipolar disorder suggest significant involvement of frontal lobe systems supporting working memory and mesial temporal lobe systems supporting verbal memory, regardless of ADHD comorbidity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pavuluri2006,
      author = {Pavuluri, MN and Schenkel, LS and Aryal, S and Harral, EM and Hill, SK and Herbener, ES and Sweeney, JA},
      title = {Neurocognitive function in unmedicated manic and medicated euthymic pediatric bipolar patients},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {163},
      number = {2},
      pages = {286-293}
    }
    
    Payne, B. Conceptualizing control in social cognition: How executive functioning modulates the expression of automatic stereotyping {2005} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {89}({4}), pp. {488-503} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Two studies investigated the role of executive control in moderating the relationship between automatic stereotype activation and behavioral responses. Race bias in weapon identification was used to measure stereotyping, and a process dissociation procedure was used to measure automatic and controlled components of performance. In Experiment 1, the controlled component was shown to correlate with general attention control and race-specific motivations to control prejudice. Across multiple measures, automatic race bias was more likely to be expressed as behavioral discrimination among individuals with poor executive control. Experiment 2 found the same relationship between automatic and controlled components of behavior when predicting impressions of a Black individual. Executive control is discussed in the context of other control strategies in influential dual-process models of stereotyping.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Payne2005,
      author = {Payne, BK},
      title = {Conceptualizing control in social cognition: How executive functioning modulates the expression of automatic stereotyping},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {89},
      number = {4},
      pages = {488-503},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-3514.89.4.488}}
    }
    
    Perlstein, W., Cole, M., Demery, J., Seignourel, P., Dixit, N., Larson, M. & Briggs, R. Parametric manipulation of working memory load in traumatic brain injury: Behavioral and neural correlates {2004} JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY
    Vol. {10}({5}), pp. {724-741} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often associated with enduring impairments in high-level cognitive functioning, including working memory (WM). We examined WM function in predominantly chronic patients with mild, moderate and severe TBI and healthy comparison subjects behaviorally and, in a small subset of moderate-to-severe TBI patients, with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), using a visual n-back task that parametrically varied WM load. TBI patients showed severity-dependent and load-related WM deficits in performance accuracy, but not reaction time. Performance of mild TBI patients did not differ from controls; patients with moderate and severe TBI were impaired, relative to controls and mild TBI patients, but only at higher WM-load levels. fMRI results show that TBI patients exhibit altered patterns of activation in a number of WM-related brain regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and Broca's area. Examination of the pattern of behavioral responding and the temporal course of activations suggests that WM deficits in moderate-to-severe TBI are due to associative or strategic aspects of WM, and not impairments in active maintenance of stimulus representations. Overall, results demonstrate that individuals with moderate-to-severe TBI exhibit WM deficits that are associated with dysfunction within a distributed network of brain regions that support verbally mediated WM.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Perlstein2004,
      author = {Perlstein, WM and Cole, MA and Demery, JA and Seignourel, PJ and Dixit, NK and Larson, MJ and Briggs, RW},
      title = {Parametric manipulation of working memory load in traumatic brain injury: Behavioral and neural correlates},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {10},
      number = {5},
      pages = {724-741},
      note = {32nd Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Neuroscience, ORLANDO, FL, NOV 02-07, 2002},
      doi = {{10.1017/S1355617704105110}}
    }
    
    Perry, W., Heaton, R., Potterat, E., Roebuck, T., Minassian, A. & Braff, D. Working memory in schizophrenia: Transient ``online'' storage versus executive functioning {2001} SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN
    Vol. {27}({1}), pp. {157-176} 
    article  
    Abstract: Working memory has been described as the temporary ``online'' storage and the subsequent manipulation and retrieval of information. It has been suggested that the prefrontal cortex is a primary site of working memory. Schizophrenia patients, who are thought to have prefrontal cortical dysfunction, have demonstrated inconsistent deficits on a variety of verbal and spatial working memory tests. This has led to questions about how to define and measure working memory, whether these deficits are distinct to one cognitive domain, and what role factors such as intelligence and symptoms play in working memory performance. We compared schizophrenia patients to normal comparison subjects in four separate studies. Based upon the results we recommend that working memory tests be characterized as either transient ``online'' storage and retrieval tasks (where short-term storage and retrieval of information is required) or executive-functioning working memory tasks (where storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information is required). The importance of clearly identifying which distinct aspects of working memory are assessed is discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Perry2001,
      author = {Perry, W and Heaton, RK and Potterat, E and Roebuck, T and Minassian, A and Braff, DL},
      title = {Working memory in schizophrenia: Transient ``online'' storage versus executive functioning},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {27},
      number = {1},
      pages = {157-176}
    }
    
    Perry, W., Minassian, A., Lopez, B., Maron, L. & Lincoln, A. Sensorimotor gating deficits in adults with autism {2007} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {61}({4}), pp. {482-486} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is an operational measure of sensorimotor gating and is impaired in a family of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by abnormalities of inhibitory function. Adults with autistic disorder (AD) exhibit clinical features of inhibitory deficits, such as restrictive and repetitive behaviors, that may be explained by deficits in sensorimotor gating. Methods: Acoustic startle reactivity, habituation, and PPI (30-, 60-, 120-msec interstimulus intervals) were assessed in 14 adult men diagnosed with AD and 16 typically developing normal comparison (NC) participants. All participants were administered measures of intelligence and frontal-executive functioning. Results: Adults with AD exhibited significantly less PPI in the 60-msec condition than NC participants, which was correlated with increased ratings of restricted and repetitive behaviors. The groups did not differ on measures of startle amplitude or overall,effect. Furthermore, PPI was not related to intelligence but habituation. There was, however, a significant group-by-block habituation effect was moderately associated with performance on a measure of frontal-executive functioning. Conclusions. Adults with AD have sensorimotor gating deficits similar to other neurodevelopmental disorders, implicating a failure of normal inhibitory regulation of sensory motor. and attentional mechanisms. thus, PPI deficits may be indirectly linked to one of the ballmark features of AD.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Perry2007,
      author = {Perry, William and Minassian, Arpi and Lopez, Brian and Maron, Leeza and Lincoln, Alan},
      title = {Sensorimotor gating deficits in adults with autism},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {61},
      number = {4},
      pages = {482-486}
    }
    
    Perugini, E., Harvey, E., Lovejoy, D., Sandstrom, K. & Webb, A. The predictive power of combined neuropsychological measures for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children {2000} CHILD NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {6}({2}), pp. {101-114} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present study explores the predictive power of seven neuropsychological assessment tools used in combination in classifying children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty-one ADHD boys and 22 community control children participated. Group differences were significant on the continuous performance test only; however, battery analysis did increase overall predictive power, which was moderate. This study highlights the difficulty in identifying consistent mean differences on tests of frontal/executive functioning across studies, as well as the need to assess the predictive validity of these tests in classifying children with ADHD. The study suggests that these tests may provide greater predictive validity when used in combination. Inconsistencies in the literature are discussed, with consideration of research methodology, the heterogeneity of the ADHD population, and comorbid diagnoses.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Perugini2000,
      author = {Perugini, EM and Harvey, EA and Lovejoy, DW and Sandstrom, K and Webb, AH},
      title = {The predictive power of combined neuropsychological measures for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children},
      journal = {CHILD NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {101-114}
    }
    
    Pluck, G. & Brown, R. Apathy in Parkinson's disease {2002} JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {73}({6}), pp. {636-642} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To assess apathy in patients with Parkinson's disease and its relation to disability, mood, personality, and cognition. Methods: Levels of apathy in 45 patients with Parkinson's disease were compared with a group of 17 similarly disabled patients with osteoarthritis. Additional neuropsychiatric data were collected concerning levels of depression, anxiety, and hedonic tone. Personality was assessed with the tridimensional personality questionnaire. Cognitive testing included the mini-mental state examination, the Cambridge examination of cognition in the elderly, and specific tests of executive functioning. Results: Patients with Parkinson's disease had significantly higher levels of apathy than equally disabled osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, within the Parkinson sample, levels of apathy appear to be unrelated to disease progression. The patients with Parkinson's disease with the highest levels of apathy where not more likely to be depressed or anxious than those with the lowest levels of apathy, though they did show reduced hedonic tone. No differences in personality traits were detected in comparisons between patients with Parkinson's disease and osteoarthritis, or between patients in the Parkinson group with high or low levels of apathy. As a group, the patients with Parkinson's disease tended not to differ significantly from the osteoarthritic group in terms of cognitive skills. However within the Parkinson's disease sample, the high apathy patients performed significantly below the level of the low apathy patients. This was particularly evident on tests of executive functioning. Conclusions: Apathy in Parkinson's disease is more likely to be a direct consequence of disease related physiological changes than a psychological reaction or adaptation to disability. Apathy in Parkinson's disease can be distinguished from other psychiatric symptoms and personality features that are associated with the disease, and it is closely associated with cognitive impairment. These findings point to a possible role of cognitive mechanisms in the expression of apathy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pluck2002,
      author = {Pluck, GC and Brown, RG},
      title = {Apathy in Parkinson's disease},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {73},
      number = {6},
      pages = {636-642}
    }
    
    Pope, H. & YurgelunTodd, D. The residual cognitive effects of heavy marijuana use in college students {1996} JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
    Vol. {275}({7}), pp. {521-527} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective.-To assess whether frequent marijuana use is associated with residual neuropsychological effects. Design.-Single-blind comparison of regular users vs infrequent users of marijuana. Participants.-Two samples of college undergraduates: 65 heavy users, who had smoked marijuana a median of 29 days in the past 30 days (range, 22 to 30 days) and who also displayed cannabinoids in their urine, and 64 light users, who had smoked a median of 1 day in the last 30 days (range, 0 to 9 days) and who displayed no urinary cannabinoids. Intervention.-Subjects arrived at 2 PM On day 1 of their study visit, then remained at our center overnight under supervision. Neuropsychological tests were administered to all subjects starting at 9 AM On day 2. Thus, all subjects were abstinent from marijuana and other drugs for a minimum of 19 hours before testing. Main Outcome Measures.-Subjects received a battery of standard neuropsychological tests to assess general intellectual functioning, abstraction ability, sustained attention, verbal fluency, and ability to learn and recall new verbal and visuospatial information. Results.-Heavy users displayed significantly greater impairment than light users on attentional/executive functions, as evidenced particularly by greater perseverations on card sorting and reduced learning of word lists. These differences remained after controlling for potential confounding variables, such as estimated levels of premorbid cognitive functioning, and for use of alcohol and other substances in the two groups. Conclusions.-Heavy marijuana use is associated with residual neuropsychological effects even after a day of supervised abstinence from the drug. However, the question remains open as to whether this impairment is due to a residue of drug in the brain, a withdrawal effect from the drug, or af rank neurotoxic effect of the drug.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pope1996,
      author = {Pope, HG and YurgelunTodd, D},
      title = {The residual cognitive effects of heavy marijuana use in college students},
      journal = {JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {275},
      number = {7},
      pages = {521-527}
    }
    
    Port, A., Willmott, C. & Charlton, J. Self-awareness following traumatic brain injury and implications for rehabilitation {2002} BRAIN INJURY
    Vol. {16}({4}), pp. {277-289} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Primary objective: Many studies investigating self-awareness following traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been conducted more than 2 years post-injury, thereby providing limited information regarding the implications of insight for rehabilitation. The present study aimed to investigate awareness of deficits in a group of patients who were less than 2 years post-injury and still involved in rehabilitation. Research design: Thirty patients with a history of moderate or severe TBI and their significant other (SO) were studied in a cross-sectional analysis. A sub-group also participated in an interdisciplinary Memory Group at the Bethesda Rehabilitation Centre. Methods and procedures: Level of insight was measured by the degree of agreement between self and significant other (SO) report on the Awareness of Deficit questionnaire (ADQ), assessing various domains of daily functioning. Results: There was substantial agreement between patients and their SO, although the patients with TBI were less likely to acknowledge executive problems. Interestingly, both groups reported only low-to-moderate levels of difficulty. Conclusions: The data indicate that SO's awareness may also be limited in the early recovery stages. A sub-group of the patients obtained benefit from participation in the Memory Group in a rehabilitation setting.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Port2002,
      author = {Port, A and Willmott, C and Charlton, J},
      title = {Self-awareness following traumatic brain injury and implications for rehabilitation},
      journal = {BRAIN INJURY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {16},
      number = {4},
      pages = {277-289},
      doi = {{10.1080/02699050110103274}}
    }
    
    Purcell, R., Maruff, P., Kyrios, M. & Pantelis, C. Cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder on tests of frontal-striatal function {1998} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {43}({5}), pp. {348-357} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: although neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have implicated the frontal cortex and subcortical structures in the pathophysiology of the disorder, few studies have examined cognitive function in patients with OCD on tasks validated in the assessment of frontal lobe and subcortical dysfunction. Methods: The accuracy and latency of executive and visual memory function was assessed in 23 nondepressed OCD patients and 23 normal healthy controls matched for age, sex, education, and estimated IQ. Results: The patients with OCD performed within the normal range on tasks of short-term memory capacity, delay dependent visual memory, pattern recognition, attentional shifting, and planning ability; however, specific cognitive deficits related to spatial working memory, spatial recognition, and motor initiation and execution were observed in the patient group. These deficits were not correlated with aspects of the patients' intellectual functioning or comorbid psychological symptoms, suggesting that the impairments were related to the specific clinical features of OCD. Conclusions: Patients with OCD showed specific cognitive deficits on tasks of executive and visual memory function. The pattern of impaired performance in these patients was qualitatively similar to the performance of patients with frontal lobe excisions and subcortical pathology on the same test battery, suggesting that the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder could best be conceptualized as reflecting dysfunction of frontal-striatal systems. (C) 1998 Society of Biological Psychiatry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Purcell1998,
      author = {Purcell, R and Maruff, P and Kyrios, M and Pantelis, C},
      title = {Cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder on tests of frontal-striatal function},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {43},
      number = {5},
      pages = {348-357}
    }
    
    Rabin, L., Barr, W. & Burton, L. Assessment practices of clinical neuropsychologists in the United States and Canada: A survey of INS, NAN, and APA Division 40 members {2005} ARCHIVES OF CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {20}({1}), pp. {33-65} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The present study surveyed assessment practices and test usage patterns among clinical neuropsychologists. Respondents were 747 North American, doctorate-level psychologists (40% usable response rate) affiliated with Division 40 of the American Psychological Association (APA), the National Academy of Neuropsychology (NAN), or the International Neuropsychological Society (INS). Respondents first provided basic demographic and practice-related information and reported their most frequently utilized instruments. Overall, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales and Wechsler Memory Scales were most frequently used, followed by the Trail Making Test, California Verbal Learning Test, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Respondents also reviewed a vignette about a traumatic brain injury patient, and then reported the instruments they would use to assess this patient's specific cognitive symptomatology, general cognitive ability, and capacity to return to work. Particular attention was paid to the areas of memory, attention, and executive functioning. The current study represents the largest and most comprehensive test usage survey conducted to date within the field of clinical neuropsychology. Survey results update and greatly expand knowledge about neuropsychologists' assessment practices. Following a review of findings, results are compared to those obtained in prior surveys and implications for the field of neuropsychology are discussed. (C) 2004 National Academy of Neuropsychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rabin2005,
      author = {Rabin, LA and Barr, WB and Burton, LA},
      title = {Assessment practices of clinical neuropsychologists in the United States and Canada: A survey of INS, NAN, and APA Division 40 members},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {20},
      number = {1},
      pages = {33-65},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.acn.2004.02.005}}
    }
    
    Raine, A. Annotation: The role of prefrontal deficits, low autonomic arousal, and early health factors in the development of antisocial and aggressive behavior in children {2002} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {43}({4}), pp. {417-434} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: This article selectively reviews the biological bases of antisocial and aggressive behavior in children with a focus on low autonomic functioning, prefrontal deficits, and early health factors. Results: Low resting heart rate is thought to be the best-replicated biological correlate of antisocial and aggressive behavior in child and adolescent populations and may reflect reduced noradrenergic functioning and a fearless, stimulation-seeking temperament. Evidence from neuropsychological, neurological, and brain imaging studies converges on the conclusion that prefrontal structural and functional deficits are related to antisocial, aggressive behavior throughout the lifespan. A prefrontal dysfunction theory of antisocial behavior is advanced. This argues that social and executive function demands of late adolescence overload the late developing prefrontal cortex, giving rise to prefrontal dysfunction and a lack of inhibitory control over antisocial, violent behavior that peaks at this age. Birth complications and minor physical anomalies are selectively associated with later violent behavior, especially when combined with adverse psychosocial risk factors for violence. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy may increase the risk for antisocial and violent behavior in later life by disrupting noradrenergic functioning and enhancement of cholinergic receptors that inhibit cardiac functioning. Malnutrition during pregnancy is associated with later antisocial behavior and may be mediated by protein deficiency. Conclusions: It is argued that early health intervention and prevention studies may provide the most effective way of reversing biological deficits that predispose to antisocial and aggressive behavior in children and adults.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Raine2002,
      author = {Raine, A},
      title = {Annotation: The role of prefrontal deficits, low autonomic arousal, and early health factors in the development of antisocial and aggressive behavior in children},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {43},
      number = {4},
      pages = {417-434}
    }
    
    Rapp, M., Dahlman, K., Sano, M., Grossman, H., Haroutunian, V. & Gorman, J. Neuropsychological differences between late-onset and recurrent geriatric major depression {2005} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {162}({4}), pp. {691-698} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: Executive dysfunction, possibly related to vascular pathology, has been well documented in patients with a first episode of major depressive disorder in later life ( late-onset geriatric major depression). However, it is unclear whether the neuropsychological presentation differs in patients with a lifetime history of major depressive disorder ( recurrent geriatric major depressive disorder). The purpose of this study was to explore differences in neuropsychological function, symptoms, and cardiovascular comorbidity between patients with late-onset and recurrent geriatric major depression. Method: The study used a two-by-two factorial design in which one factor was current major depressive disorder ( present versus absent) and the second factor was lifetime history of depression ( present versus absent). Neuropsychological measures of executive functioning and episodic memory, as well as psychopathological symptoms and comorbid medical illness, were examined in a total of 116 older adults. Results: Patients with late-onset major depressive disorder showed specific deficits in attention and executive function, whereas patients with recurrent major depressive disorder exhibited deficits in episodic memory. The rates of anhedonia and comorbid cardiovascular illness were higher in patients with late-onset geriatric major depressive disorder. Conclusions: In contrast to recurrent geriatric major depressive disorder, lateonset major depressive disorder is characterized by specific deficits in tasks of attention and executive function, consistent with increased anhedonia and cardiovascular comorbidity. These findings, if confirmed, suggest that recurrent and lateonset geriatric major depressive disorder may represent distinct phenomenological entities. Such phenomenological differences as a function of lifetime history of major depression can guide research in the neurophysiology, prevention, and treatment of geriatric major depressive disorder.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rapp2005,
      author = {Rapp, MA and Dahlman, K and Sano, M and Grossman, HT and Haroutunian, V and Gorman, JM},
      title = {Neuropsychological differences between late-onset and recurrent geriatric major depression},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {162},
      number = {4},
      pages = {691-698}
    }
    
    Rasmussen, C. Executive functioning and working memory in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder {2005} ALCOHOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
    Vol. {29}({8}), pp. {1359-1367} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The goal of this report is to critically review research on executive functioning (EF) and working memory in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Individuals with FASD exhibit EF deficits in the areas of cognitive flexibility, planning and strategy use, verbal reasoning, some aspects of inhibition, set shifting, fluency, working memory, and, recently, on tests of emotion-related or hot EF. Some researchers have linked prenatal alcohol exposure to abnormalities in the development of the frontal cortex of affected individuals or animals. One common finding is that these EF deficits persist regardless of whether the individual has facial dysmorphology. Furthermore, EF deficits are not simply due to a low IQ in these individuals. More research with larger sample sizes, smaller age ranges, and consistent measurement tools is needed in this area to ameliorate some inconsistencies in the literature. Furthermore, researchers should now focus on studying the pattern of weakness in EF in individuals with FASD as well as relations among working memory and EF, which will help to identify specific areas of weakness, to enhance diagnosis, and to improve treatment. There is limited research on the development of EF in individuals with FASD, which can have important implications for understanding of how these deficits unfold from childhood through adulthood.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rasmussen2005,
      author = {Rasmussen, C},
      title = {Executive functioning and working memory in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder},
      journal = {ALCOHOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {29},
      number = {8},
      pages = {1359-1367},
      doi = {{10.1097/01.alc.0000175040.91007.d0}}
    }
    
    Ratti, M., Bo, P., Giardini, A. & Soragna, D. Chronic alcoholism and the frontal lobe: which executive functions are impaired? {2002} ACTA NEUROLOGICA SCANDINAVICA
    Vol. {105}({4}), pp. {276-281} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective - Over the last decade, various hypotheses have been advanced concerning the cognitive functions affected by chronic alcoholism. The aim of this study was to identify the pattern of executive function impairment in chronic alcoholism, shedding light on possible differences between specific functions related to the frontal lobe. Methods - Twenty-two male alcoholics and 22 controls, matched for age, educational level and IQ, were enrolled in the study. MMPI and a battery of neuropsychological tests [i.e. digit symbol. trail making test, Stroop test, digit cancellation test, Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), simple and choice reaction times] for assessing frontal lobe functioning were administered. Results - The alcoholics were found to be impaired in a wide range of executive domains. with the exception of the Stroop test, which nevertheless showed a trend towards statistically significant differences between patients and controls. Conclusion - With the exception of aggression - our subjects did not have high aggression scale scores - the `frontal lobe hypothesis', according to which alcoholic patients are impaired on function tests related to the frontal lobe, was therefore confirmed in our sample.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ratti2002,
      author = {Ratti, MT and Bo, P and Giardini, A and Soragna, D},
      title = {Chronic alcoholism and the frontal lobe: which executive functions are impaired?},
      journal = {ACTA NEUROLOGICA SCANDINAVICA},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {105},
      number = {4},
      pages = {276-281}
    }
    
    READER, M., HARRIS, E., SCHUERHOLZ, L. & DENCKLA, M. ATTENTION-DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER AND EXECUTIVE DYSFUNCTION {1994} DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {10}({4}), pp. {493-512} 
    article  
    Abstract: To evaluate the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and executive functioning (EF) a sample of ADHD children (N = 48) with above average IQs (median = 117.5) was administered a battery of standardized norm-referenced tests sensitive to EF. Below average performance was found on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and continuous performance test (Test of Variables of Attention, TOVA) but not on Word Fluency or the Rey Complex Figure. Significant intraindividual discrepancies were found for a selected pair of content-matched tests that differed in EF task demands. Pennington, Groisser, and Welsh's (1993) `'double dissociation'' of ADHD and reading disability (RD) was tested by examining the EF performance of ADHD with and without RD. No significant differences between ADHD/No-RD and ADHD/RD were found on any of the EF measures.
    BibTeX:
    @article{READER1994,
      author = {READER, MJ and HARRIS, EL and SCHUERHOLZ, LJ and DENCKLA, MB},
      title = {ATTENTION-DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER AND EXECUTIVE DYSFUNCTION},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {493-512}
    }
    
    Redline, S., Strauss, M., Adams, N., Winters, M., Roebuck, T., Spry, K., Rosenberg, C. & Adams, K. Neuropsychological function in mild sleep-disordered breathing {1997} SLEEP
    Vol. {20}({2}), pp. {160-167} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although a broad range of neuropsychological deficits has been reported in patients with severe sleep disordered breathing (SDB), little is known about the impact of mild SDB on neuropsychological performance. In this study, we compared neuropsychological test performance in two groups of carefully screened volunteers who differed clearly according to the respiratory disturbance index (RDI). Controls (n = 20) were identified on the basis of an RDI < 5: cases (n = 32) had an RDI in the range of 10-30. Cases and controls were well matched with regard to IQ, age, and sex. Cases had significantly more self-reported snorting and apneas and a higher body mass index than controls but did not differ according to sleepiness as measured by either the multiple sleep latency test or the Epworth sleepiness scale. An extensive battery of neuropsychological and performance tests was administered after an overnight sleep study. Cases performed significantly more poorly on a visual vigilance task (perceptual sensitivity, d':2.24 +/- 0.64 vs. 2.70 +/- 0.53, p = 0.01, for cases and controls, respectively) and a. test of working memory, the Wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised digits backwards test (6.12 +/- 2.20 vs. 7.55 +/- 2.22, p = 0.02), than controls. The groups did not differ in their performance on other tests of memory. information processing. and executive functioning. In summary, subjects with mild SDB may manifest a vigilance deficit in the absence of substantial sleepiness. subjects with a mildly elevated RDI (10-30) without sleepiness do not appear to suffer appreciable deficits in more complex neuropsychological processes (e.g. executive functions).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Redline1997,
      author = {Redline, S and Strauss, ME and Adams, N and Winters, M and Roebuck, T and Spry, K and Rosenberg, C and Adams, K},
      title = {Neuropsychological function in mild sleep-disordered breathing},
      journal = {SLEEP},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {20},
      number = {2},
      pages = {160-167}
    }
    
    Reger, M., Welsh, R., Razani, J., Martin, D. & Boone, K. A meta-analysis of the neuropsychological sequelae of HIV infection {2002} JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY
    Vol. {8}({3}), pp. {410-424} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This meta-analysis summarizes the broad spectrum of neuropsychological research on HIV disease across a sample of 41 primary studies and an aggregate of 8,616 participants for 10 major neuropsychological ability areas. Analyses of the course of cognitive decline within and across Centers for Disease Control classifications reveals statistically significant cognitive deficits from asymptomatic HIV to AIDS. Effect sizes (Cohen, 1988) were calculated to reflect between-group fasymptomatic, symptomatic, AIDS) differences in each neuropsychological domain. Relatively small effect sizes were obtained for the asymptomatic (0.05-0.21.) patients, and generally small to moderate effect sizes were obtained for symptomatic (0.18-0.65) HIV + patients, with motor functioning exhibiting the greatest effects, in this later disease stage. The most notable deficits in cognitive functioning were found in the AIDS group with moderate (attention and concentration) to large (motor functioning) effect sizes with values ranging from 0.42-0.82. Comparison of cognitive functioning as a function of disease progression revealed that motor functioning, executive skills, and information processing speed were among the cognitive domains showing the greatest decline from early to later stages of HIV. These findings indicate that cognitive deficits in the early stages of HIV are small and increase in the later phases of the illness, and that specific patterns of cognitive deficits can be detected with disease progression. These results and their clinical utility are further discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Reger2002,
      author = {Reger, M and Welsh, R and Razani, J and Martin, DJ and Boone, KB},
      title = {A meta-analysis of the neuropsychological sequelae of HIV infection},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {410-424},
      doi = {{10.1017/S1355617701020215}}
    }
    
    Reid, W., Broe, G., Creasey, H., Grayson, D., McCusker, E., Bennett, H., Longley, W. & Sulway, M. Age at onset and pattern of neuropsychological impairment in mild early-stage Alzheimer disease - A study of a community-based population {1996} ARCHIVES OF NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {53}({10}), pp. {1056-1061} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objectives: To examine the effects of age at onset on neuropsychological functioning in a group of patients with probable Alzheimer disease (AD) and, within this group, to scrutinize further those patients with mild early-onset-disease as it was hypothesized that within this group specific patterns of cognitive impairment could he identified that correlated with neuropathological staging of the disease. Design: Each patient underwent an extensive neuropsychological test battery to examine a wide range of cognitive processes to provide information to identify subtypes of dementia. Setting: The Memory Clinic in the Department of Geriatric Medicine, Concord Hospital, Concord, New South Wales, Australia. Patients: One hundred forty-five community-residing case patients with probable AD were studied; within this group, 51 case patients with mild AD and a Mini-Mental Slate Examination score greater than 19 were further examined; 36 similarly aged control patients who were part of a larger case-control study of AD in an urban population were also examined. A diagnosis of probable and possible AD was made if the case patient had evidence of memory impairment and met criteria according to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. Outcome Measures: Individual neuropsychological test scores were compared. The tests were then grouped into 7 cognitive domains. Patterns oi early cognitive impairment were derived from these comparisons. Results: With an earlier age at onset, significantly more impairment on tests of digit span and praxis was seen, while the duration of disease had no independent effect once the age at onset was fixed. Patients with mild early-onset dementia and a Mini-Mental State Examination score greater than 19 showed significant impairment in tests of attention, memory, frontal/executive functions, visuospatial ability, praxis, and visual agnosia compared with that shown by control patients, In this group, further analyses revealed that impairment in memory and frontal/executive functions were the earliest signs of cognitive impairment. Conclusions: These data showed that when the duration of disease was adjusted for, case patients with an earlier age at onset of AD demonstrated significantly more impairment on tests of attention span and working memory (digit span), graphomotor function (copy loops), and apraxia than those: with an alder age at onset. Our findings support the view that the hippocampus and its connections are affected in the early stages of AD. The deficits in the frontal/executive functions also suggest that a disruption of cortical pathways to the frontal lobes and the pathological changes in this region occur early in the disease.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Reid1996,
      author = {Reid, W and Broe, G and Creasey, H and Grayson, D and McCusker, E and Bennett, H and Longley, W and Sulway, MR},
      title = {Age at onset and pattern of neuropsychological impairment in mild early-stage Alzheimer disease - A study of a community-based population},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF NEUROLOGY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {53},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1056-1061}
    }
    
    Rempfer, M., Hamera, E., Brown, C. & Cromwell, R. The relations between cognition and the independent living skill of shopping in people with schizophrenia {2003} PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH
    Vol. {117}({2}), pp. {103-112} 
    article  
    Abstract: A great deal of interest has developed regarding the impact of cognitive deficits on the everyday functioning of people with schizophrenia. This study examined the relationships between cognitive functioning and the performance of a specific independent living skill (grocery shopping) in a sample of 73 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Cognitive variables included tests of verbal memory, executive functioning, verbal fluency, sustained attention and visual motor skill. Functional outcome was measured with the Test of Grocery Shopping Skills, which is an ecologically based performance measure that requires participants to shop for 10 items within an actual grocery store. Accuracy on the shopping task was significantly associated with fewer perseverative responses on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, better verbal memory and faster processing speed. Shopping efficiency (i.e. less redundancy) was associated with better performance on several cognitive tasks, including verbal memory, verbal fluency, sustained attention and executive functioning. Results of this study extend previous research by examining the relation between cognition and the actual performance of daily living skills under natural circumstances. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rempfer2003,
      author = {Rempfer, MV and Hamera, EK and Brown, CE and Cromwell, RL},
      title = {The relations between cognition and the independent living skill of shopping in people with schizophrenia},
      journal = {PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {117},
      number = {2},
      pages = {103-112}
    }
    
    Rentz, D., Huh, T., Faust, R., Budson, A., Scinto, L., Sperling, R. & Daffner, K. Use of IQ-adjusted norms to predict progressive cognitive decline in highly intelligent older individuals {2004} NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {18}({1}), pp. {38-49} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Identifying high-functioning older individuals in preclinical phases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) may require more sensitive methods than the standard approach. The authors explored the utility of adjusting for premorbid intelligence to predict progressive cognitive decline or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in 42 highly intelligent older individuals. When scores were adjusted for baseline IQ, 9 participants had executive impairments, I I had memory impairments, and 22 scored in the normal range. None were impaired according to standard age norms. Three and a half years later, 9 participants with IQ-adjusted memory impairment declined in naming, visuospatial functioning, and memory; 6 converted to MCI. Three participants with normal memory declined. Implications for using IQ-adjusted norms to predict preclinical AD are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rentz2004,
      author = {Rentz, DM and Huh, TJ and Faust, RR and Budson, AE and Scinto, LFM and Sperling, RA and Daffner, KR},
      title = {Use of IQ-adjusted norms to predict progressive cognitive decline in highly intelligent older individuals},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {18},
      number = {1},
      pages = {38-49},
      note = {53rd Annual Meeting of the American-Academy-of-Neurology, PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, MAY 05-12, 2001},
      doi = {{10.1037/0894-4105.18.1.38}}
    }
    
    Rhinewine, J., Lencz, T., Thaden, E., Cervellione, K., Burdick, K., Henderson, I., Bhaskar, S., Keehlisen, L., Kane, J., Kohn, N., Fisch, G., Bilder, R. & Kumra, S. Neurocognitive profile in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia: Clinical correlates {2005} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {58}({9}), pp. {705-712} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background: Neurocognitive impairments have been documented in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS; onset by age 18) and are important treatment targets. Information concerning the severity pattern, and clinical correlates of these deficits in EOS remains limited. Methods: Tests assessing motor skills, attention, memory, visuospatial abilities and executive/functioning were administered to 54 clinically stabilized adolescents with EOS and 52 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Childhood-onset patients (onset by age 13) were compared to those with an adolescent onset of illness. Patients' neurocognitive profiles were compared to those of controls. Relationships between neurocognitive deficits and demographic and clinical characteristics were explored. Results. Neurocognitive profiles did not differ between childhood- and adolescent-onset participants. Patients showed a generalized neurocognitive deficit of 2.0 SDs compared to controls, with relative deficit in executive functioning and relative sparing of language and visuospatial abilities. Degree of generalized neurocognitive impairment was associated with premorbid adjustment and negative symptom severity (Adjusted R-2 = .39). Conclusions. Results document both a significant generalized de,licit and a relative deficit of executive functioning in adolescents with EOS. The overall pattern is similar to that observed in severely ill first-episode adult patients. The impairments across multiple neurocognitive domains suggest widespread brain dysfunction in EOS.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rhinewine2005,
      author = {Rhinewine, JP and Lencz, T and Thaden, EP and Cervellione, KL and Burdick, KE and Henderson, I and Bhaskar, S and Keehlisen, L and Kane, J and Kohn, N and Fisch, GS and Bilder, RM and Kumra, S},
      title = {Neurocognitive profile in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia: Clinical correlates},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {58},
      number = {9},
      pages = {705-712},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.04.031}}
    }
    
    Richeson, J. & Shelton, J. When prejudice does not pay: Effects of interracial contact on executive function {2003} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {14}({3}), pp. {287-290} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study examined the influence of interracial interaction on the cognitive functioning of members of a dominant racial group. White participants had a brief interaction with either a White or a Black confederate, and then completed an ostensibly unrelated Stroop color-naming test. Prior to the interaction, participants' racial attitudes regarding Whites and Blacks were measured via the Implicit Association Test. Racial attitudes were predictive of impairment on the Stroop test for individuals who participated in interracial interactions, but not for those who participated in same-race interactions. The results are consistent with recently proposed resource models of self-regulation and executive control in that interracial interaction, a particularly taxing exercise of self-regulation for highly prejudiced individuals, negatively affected performance on a subsequent, yet unrelated, test of executive function.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Richeson2003,
      author = {Richeson, JA and Shelton, JN},
      title = {When prejudice does not pay: Effects of interracial contact on executive function},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {14},
      number = {3},
      pages = {287-290}
    }
    
    Richeson, J. & Trawalter, S. Why do interracial interactions impair executive function? A resource depletion account {2005} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {88}({6}), pp. {934-947} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Three studies investigated the veracity of a resource depletion account of the impairment of inhibitory task performance after interracial contact. White individuals engaged in either an interracial or same-race interaction, then completed an ostensibly unrelated Stroop color-naming test. In each study, the self-regulatory demands of the interaction were either increased (Study 1) or decreased (Studies 2 and 3). Results revealed that increasing the self-regulatory demands of an interracial interaction led to greater Stroop interference compared with control, whereas reducing self-regulatory demands led to less Stroop interference. Manipulating self-regulatory demands did not affect Stroop performance after same-race interactions. Taken together, the present studies point to resource depletion as the likely mechanism underlying the impairment of cognitive functioning after interracial dyadic interactions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Richeson2005,
      author = {Richeson, JA and Trawalter, S},
      title = {Why do interracial interactions impair executive function? A resource depletion account},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {88},
      number = {6},
      pages = {934-947},
      note = {112th Annual Convention of the American-Psychological-Association, Honolulu, HI, JUL 28-AUG 01, 2004},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-3514.88.6.934}}
    }
    
    Riggs, N., Greenberg, M., Kusche, C. & Pentz, M. The mediational role of neurocognition in the behavioral outcomes of a social-emotional prevention program in elementary school students: Effects of the PATHS curriculum {2006} PREVENTION SCIENCE
    Vol. {7}({1}), pp. {91-102} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Neuropsychology is one field that holds promise in the construction of comprehensive, developmental models for the promotion of social competence and prevention of problem behavior. Neuropsychological models of behavior suggest that children's neurological functioning affects the regulation of strong emotions, as well as performance in social, cognitive, and behavioral spheres. The current study examines the underlying neurocognitive conceptual theory of action of one social-emotional development program. Hypothesized was that inhibitory control and verbal fluency would mediate the relationship between program condition and teacher-reported externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. Participants were 318 regular education students enrolled in the second or third grade. A series of regression analyses provided empirical support for ( a) the effectiveness of the PATHS Curriculum in promoting inhibitory control and verbal fluency and (b) a partial mediating role for inhibitory control in the relation between prevention condition and behavioral outcomes. Implications are that programs designed to promote social and emotional development should consider comprehensive models that attend to neurocognitive functioning and development. Lack of consideration of neurocognitive pathways to the promotion of social competence may ignore important mechanisms through which prevention affects youth outcomes. Furthermore, the findings suggest that developers of social-emotional preventions should design curricula to explicitly promote the developmental integration of executive functioning, verbal processing, and emotional awareness. Doing so may enhance prevention outcomes particularly if those preventions are implemented during a time of peak neurocognitive development.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Riggs2006,
      author = {Riggs, NR and Greenberg, MT and Kusche, CA and Pentz, MA},
      title = {The mediational role of neurocognition in the behavioral outcomes of a social-emotional prevention program in elementary school students: Effects of the PATHS curriculum},
      journal = {PREVENTION SCIENCE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {91-102},
      doi = {{10.1007/s11121-005-0022-1}}
    }
    
    Riley, E. & McGee, C. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: An overview with emphasis on changes in brain and behavior {2005} EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
    Vol. {230}({6}), pp. {357-365} 
    article  
    Abstract: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders constitute a major public health problem. This article presents an overview of important issues that surround these disorders and emphasizes the structural and neurobehavioral consequences associated with prenatal exposure to alcohol. Diagnostic criteria are discussed, and possible moderating factors for the range of outcomes are mentioned. In addition, the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders is described, and estimates of the financial impact of these disorders are given. Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can severely affect the physical and neurobehavioral development of a child. Autopsy and brain imaging studies indicate reductions and abnormalities in overall brain size and shape, specifically in structures such as the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and corpus callosum. A wide range of neuropsychological deficits have been found in children prenatally exposed to alcohol, including deficits in visuospatial functioning, verbal and nonverbal learning, attention, and executive functioning. These children also exhibit a variety of behavioral problems that can further affect their daily functioning. Children exposed to alcohol prenatally, with and without the physical features of fetal alcohol syndrome, display qualitatively similar deficits. Determining the behavioral phenotypes that result from heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is critical, because the identification of these children is crucial for early interventions. In addition, knowing which brain areas are involved might enable the development of better intervention strategies. However, intervention needs to go beyond the affected individual to prevent future cases. As evidenced by the staggering financial impact these disorders have on society, prevention efforts need to be aimed at high-risk groups, and this issue needs to be made a high priority in terms of public health.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Riley2005,
      author = {Riley, EP and McGee, CL},
      title = {Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: An overview with emphasis on changes in brain and behavior},
      journal = {EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {230},
      number = {6},
      pages = {357-365},
      note = {Symposium on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Maui, HI, JAN 21, 2005}
    }
    
    Riley, E., McGovern, D., Mockler, D., Doku, V., OCeallaigh, S., Fannon, D., Tennakoon, L., Santamaria, M., Soni, W., Morris, R. & Sharma, T. Neuropsychological functioning in first-episode psychosis - evidence of specific deficits {2000} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {43}({1}), pp. {47-55} 
    article  
    Abstract: Neuropsychological impairment is ubiquitous in schizophrenia even at the first presentation of psychotic symptoms. We sought to elucidate the nature of the neuropsychological profile at the onset of the illness by examining the neuropsychological functioning of 40 patients experiencing their first episode of psychosis and 22 matched controls. All participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tasks designed to assess attention, verbal learning/memory, non-verbal memory, spatial ability, psychomotor speed, and executive function. First-episode patients showed significant impairment on tasks of executive function, including those requiring the ability to form and initiate a strategy, to inhibit prepotent responses, and to shift cognitive set, and also on tasks of verbal fluency. Memory impairments were seen on verbal learning and delayed non-verbal memory only, impairment on tasks of psychomotor speed suggests that there may be a significant amount of cognitive slowing even at the first onset of psychosis. We suggest that our patients may be experiencing difficulty in specific aspects of executive functions, including the ability to form and execute a strategy, and these difficulties may be mediating the deficits observed on tasks of verbal learning. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Riley2000,
      author = {Riley, EM and McGovern, D and Mockler, D and Doku, VCK and OCeallaigh, S and Fannon, DG and Tennakoon, L and Santamaria, M and Soni, W and Morris, RG and Sharma, T},
      title = {Neuropsychological functioning in first-episode psychosis - evidence of specific deficits},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {43},
      number = {1},
      pages = {47-55},
      note = {4th Biennial MT Sinai Conference on Cognition in Schizophrenia, SANTA FE, NEW MEXICO, APR 16-17, 1999}
    }
    
    Rinehart, N., Bradshaw, J., Moss, S., Brereton, A. & Tonge, B. A deficit in shifting attention present in high-functioning autism but not Asperger's disorder {2001} AUTISM
    Vol. {5}({1}), pp. {67-80} 
    article  
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine executive functioning, in particular, attentional set-shifting deficits in high-functioning autism (n = 12) and Asperger's disorder (n = 12). A large or global digit composed of smaller or local digits was presented during each trial. The participants indicated the presence of 1s or 2s by pressing the appropriate button. These targets could appear globally or locally. Relative to IQ, sex and age matched controls, reaction time to global targets in individuals with autism was retarded when the previous target appeared locally. This deficiency in shifting from local to global processing, however, was not observed in individuals with Asperger's disorder. The theoretical and neurobiological significance of this dissociation in executive functioning in these clinically related disorders was explored.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rinehart2001,
      author = {Rinehart, NJ and Bradshaw, JL and Moss, SA and Brereton, AV and Tonge, BJ},
      title = {A deficit in shifting attention present in high-functioning autism but not Asperger's disorder},
      journal = {AUTISM},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {67-80}
    }
    
    Rinehart, N., Bradshaw, J., Moss, S., Brereton, A. & Tonge, B. Atypical interference of local detail on global processing in high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder {2000} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {41}({6}), pp. {769-778} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study explored the claim that individuals with autism and Asperger's disorder lend to process locally rather than holistically. Participants observed a large or ``global'' number composed of smaller or ``local'' numbers. The response was contingent upon the identification or either the large stimulus or the small stimuli. Relative to age, sex, and IQ matched controls, global processing in children and adolescents with autism (N = 12) and Asperger's disorder (N = 12) was more vulnerable when the local stimuli were incongruent. The autism group made more global errors than their matched control group, regardless of whether there was local incongruence. In contrast, the Asperger's disorder group made a similar number of global errors as their respective control group. These results were discussed in relation to an `` absence of global precedence `` notion, `` weak central coherence `` theory, and right-hemisphere dysfunction. The neurobiological significance of these findings were discussed in the context of a fronto-striatal model of dysfunction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rinehart2000,
      author = {Rinehart, NJ and Bradshaw, JL and Moss, SA and Brereton, AV and Tonge, BJ},
      title = {Atypical interference of local detail on global processing in high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {41},
      number = {6},
      pages = {769-778}
    }
    
    Rinne, J., Portin, R., Ruottinen, H., Nurmi, E., Bergman, J., Haaparanta, M. & Solin, O. Cognitive impairment and the brain dopaminergic system in Parkinson disease - [F-18]fluorodopa positron emission tomographic study {2000} ARCHIVES OF NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {57}({4}), pp. {470-475} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To investigate the role of the brain dopaminergic system in cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Design: We studied 28 patients with PD and 16 age-matched healthy control subjects using [F-18]fluorodopa (fluorodopa F 18) positron emission tomography. Patients with PD showed a variable degree of cognitive impairment, which was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and detailed neuropsychologic assessment, including tests sensitive for frontal lobe function. Results: [F-18]Fluorodopa uptake was reduced in the putamen ito 36% of the control mean: P < .001), the caudate nucleus (to 61% of the control mean: P < .001), and the frontal cortex (to 45% of the control mean: P < .001) in patients with PD compared with controls. There was no significant association between the degree of overall cognitive impairment of patients and [F-18] fluorodopa uptake values. The influx constant (K-l(occ)) in the caudate nucleus had a negative association with performance in the attention-demanding Stroop interference task, especially with the interference time. The K-l(occ) in the frontal cortex had a positive correlation with performance in the digit span (backwards) verbal fluency, and verbal immediate recall tests. Thus, the better the patient performed in tasks demanding immediate and working memory and executive strategies, the better the [F-18]fluorodopa uptake in the frontalcortfs. In the putamen, no significant correlation was seen between the k(l)(occ) value and any of the cognitive tests. The severity of the motor symptoms of PD and [F-18]fluorodopa uptake show ed a negative correlation in the putamen (r = -0.38; P = .04), and in the caudate nucleus a similar trend was seen (r = -0.36; P = .06), Conclusions: Reduced [F-18]fluorodopa uptake in PD in the caudate nucleus (and frontal cortex) is related to impairment in neuropsychologic tests measuring verbal fluency, working memory, and attentional functioning reflecting frontal lobe function. This indicates that dysfunction of the dopamine system has an impact on the cognitive impairment of patients with PD. However, our results do not exclude the possibility of more generalized cognitive impairment in PD, the pathophysiology of which is probably different and more generalized.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rinne2000,
      author = {Rinne, JO and Portin, R and Ruottinen, H and Nurmi, E and Bergman, J and Haaparanta, M and Solin, O},
      title = {Cognitive impairment and the brain dopaminergic system in Parkinson disease - [F-18]fluorodopa positron emission tomographic study},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF NEUROLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {57},
      number = {4},
      pages = {470-475}
    }
    
    Robbins, T., James, M., Owen, A., Sahakian, B., Lawrence, A., McInnes, L. & Rabbitt, P. A study of performance on tests from the CANTAB battery sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction in a large sample of normal volunteers: Implications for theories of executive functioning and cognitive aging {1998} JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY
    Vol. {4}({5}), pp. {474-490} 
    article  
    Abstract: Several tests from the CANTAB neuropsychological test battery previously shown to be sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction were administered to a large group of normal volunteers (N = 341) ranging in age from 21 to 79 years. The main tests included a computerized form of the Tower of London test of planning, a self-ordered spatial working memory task, and a test of attentional set formation and shifting. A computerized form of the Corsi spatial span task was also given. Age-related graded declines in performance were seen, sometimes in a discontinuous manner, especially for the attentional set shifting task (at the extradimensional shift stage). Patterns of deficits reminiscent of frontal lobe or basal ganglia damage were observed in the oldest age group (74-79). However, overall the data were only partially consistent with the hypothesis that frontal lobe functions are the most sensitive to effects of aging. Factor analyses showed that performance in the executive tests was not simply related to a measure of fluid intelligence, and their performance had a factor loading structure distinct from that for the CANTAB tests of visual memory and learning previously administered to the same sample. Finally, only limited support was found for the hypothesis that cognitive aging depends on slowed information processing.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Robbins1998,
      author = {Robbins, TW and James, M and Owen, AM and Sahakian, BJ and Lawrence, AD and McInnes, L and Rabbitt, PMA},
      title = {A study of performance on tests from the CANTAB battery sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction in a large sample of normal volunteers: Implications for theories of executive functioning and cognitive aging},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {4},
      number = {5},
      pages = {474-490}
    }
    
    Robinson, D., Woerner, M., Alvir, J., Bilder, R., Hinrichsen, G. & Lieberman, J. Predictors of medication discontinuation by patients with first-episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder {2002} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {57}({2-3}), pp. {209-219} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Enhancing medication adherence early in the course of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder may substantially improve long-term course. Although extensively studied in multi-episode patients, little data exist on medication adherence by first-episode patients. Method: Medication adherence was assessed during the first year of treatment and following recovery from the first relapse in patients treated by a standardized medication algorithm. Results: During the first year of treatment, patients with poorer premorbid cognitive functioning were more likely to stop antipsychotics (t = -2.54, df= 75, p = 0.01). Parkinsonian side effects increased the likelihood (hazard ratio=41.22; 95% CI= 2.30, 737.89; p=0.01), and better executive function decreased the likelihood (hazard ratio = 0.40; 95% Cl = 0.18, 0.88; p = 0.02) that patients discontinued maintenance medication after a first relapse. Conclusion: Interventions to ameliorate cognitive deficits and Parkinsonian side effects may enhance treatment adherence. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Robinson2002,
      author = {Robinson, DG and Woerner, MG and Alvir, JMJ and Bilder, RM and Hinrichsen, GA and Lieberman, JA},
      title = {Predictors of medication discontinuation by patients with first-episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {57},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {209-219}
    }
    
    Robinson, G., Blair, J. & Cipolotti, L. Dynamic aphasia: an inability to select between competing verbal responses? {1998} BRAIN
    Vol. {121}({Part 1}), pp. {77-89} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this study we report a patient (A.N.G.) who, following a malignant left frontal meningioma impinging upon Brodmann area 45, presented a `pure' dynamic aphasia. Her spontaneous speech was markedly reduced in the absence of any syntactical impairment. Her naming, repetition and reading skills were completely normal. Two experimental investigations were carried out. The first investigation found that A.N.G. had a profound impairment in phrase and sentence generation tasks given a verbal context. However, her verbal generative skills were normal when she was asked to describe pictorial scenes and complex actions. Moreover, it was found that A.N.G. had no difficulty ordering the constituent words of a sentence. Thus, it was concluded that her verbal planning skills were intact. The second investigation tested a hypothesis that dynamic aphasia is due to an inability to select a verbal response option whenever the stimulus activates many competing verbal responses. Predictions based upon this hypothesis were confirmed on three different verbal generation tasks. It was found that our patients grave verbal generative impairment was present for tasks involving stimuli which activate many potential responses. However, it was absent for tasks involving stimuli which activate few or only a single `prepotent' response. The findings are discussed with reference to traditional interpretations of dynamic aphasia and more general interpretations of prefrontal cortex functioning. On the basis of a computational model of prefrontal cortex functioning, we propose that pure dynamic aphasia may be caused by damage to a `context' module containing units responsible for selection of verbal response options. Moreover it is suggested that our findings support the view that Brodmann area 45 is involved in verbal response generation to stimuli which activate many potential response options.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Robinson1998,
      author = {Robinson, G and Blair, J and Cipolotti, L},
      title = {Dynamic aphasia: an inability to select between competing verbal responses?},
      journal = {BRAIN},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {121},
      number = {Part 1},
      pages = {77-89}
    }
    
    Robinson, L. & Ferrier, I. Evolution of cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder: a systematic review of cross-sectional evidence {2006} BIPOLAR DISORDERS
    Vol. {8}({2}), pp. {103-116} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objectives: The notion that sufferers of bipolar disorder achieve complete syndromal and functional recovery between illness episodes has been brought into question by evidence that a large proportion of patients fail to regain premorbid levels of functioning after the resolution of major affective symptoms. A growing body of evidence suggests that bipolar patients exhibit neuropsychological impairment that persists even during the euthymic state, which may be a contributory factor to poor psychosocial outcome. However, the aetiology of such impairment and its relation to progression of illness are not well understood. This review aims to consider evidence from studies investigating both the relationship between cognitive impairment and clinical outcome and studies of neurocognitive function in unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs) of bipolar sufferers to address issues of the temporal evolution of cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder. Methods: Systematic literature review. results: The weight of evidence suggests that greater neuropsychological dysfunction in bipolar disorder is associated with a worse prior course of illness, particularly the number of manic episodes, hospitalizations and length of illness. The most consistent finding was a negative relationship between the number of manic episodes and verbal declarative memory performance. Impairment in unaffected FDRs was reported in verbal declarative memory and some facets of executive function. Conclusions: Cognitive impairment may be a trait vulnerability factor for bipolar disorder that is present before illness onset and worsens as the illness progresses. Further investigation into the causal relationship between cognitive impairment and illness course is essential.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Robinson2006,
      author = {Robinson, LJ and Ferrier, IN},
      title = {Evolution of cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder: a systematic review of cross-sectional evidence},
      journal = {BIPOLAR DISORDERS},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {103-116}
    }
    
    Rogers, S., Bennetto, L., McEvoy, R. & Pennington, B. Imitation and pantomime in high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders {1996} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {67}({5}), pp. {2060-2073} 
    article  
    Abstract: A study was designed to test 2 alternative hypotheses-a symbolic hypothesis and an executive function hypothesis-for the imitation and pantomime deficits found in previous studies of autism. The subjects were 17 adolescent high-functioning subjects with autism spectrum disorders and 15 clinical comparison subjects who were matched on chronological age and verbal IQ. Meaning and sequence were manipulated in facial and manual imitation tasks. Sequence was manipulated in the pantomime and control tasks. Recognition memory and motor control tasks were matched to the experimental tasks. The results provided no support for the symbolic deficit hypothesis; meaning aided rather than hindered the performance of the group with autism. Partial support for the executive deficit hypothesis was found. There were no group differences on motor control tasks, and few on the memory control tasks, arguing against deficits in motor initiation, basic motor coordination, or visual recognition memory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rogers1996,
      author = {Rogers, SJ and Bennetto, L and McEvoy, R and Pennington, BF},
      title = {Imitation and pantomime in high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {67},
      number = {5},
      pages = {2060-2073}
    }
    
    Roman, G., Sachdev, P., Royall, D., Bullock, R., Orgogozo, J., Lopez-Pousa, S., Arizaga, R. & Wallin, A. Vascular cognitive disorder: a new diagnostic category updating vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia {2004} JOURNAL OF THE NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES
    Vol. {226}({1-2}), pp. {81-87} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) was proposed as an umbrella term to include subjects affected with any degree of cognitive impairment resulting from cerebrovascular disease (CVD), ranging from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to vascular dementia. VCI may or may not exclude the host of ``focal'' circumscribed impairments of specialized functions such as language (aphasia), intentional gesture (apraxia), or categorical recognition (agnosia), among others, that may result from a stroke. Therefore, there are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria for VCI. We conclude that this concept could be more useful if it were to be limited to cases of vascular MCI without dementia, by analogy with the concept of amnestic MCI, currently considered the earliest clinically diagnosable stage of Alzheimer disease (AD). In agreement with our view, the Canadian Study on Health and Aging successfully implemented a restricted definition of VCI, excluding cases of dementia (i.e., vascular cognitive impairment no dementia, VCI-ND). The Canadian definition and diagnostic criteria could be utilized for future studies of VCI. This definition excludes isolated impairments of specialized cognitive functions. Vascular dementia (VaD): The main problem of this diagnostic category stems from the currently accepted definition of dementia that requires memory loss as the sine qua non for the diagnosis. This may result in over-sampling of patients with AD worsened by stroke (AD+CVD). This problem was minimized in controlled clinical trials of VaD by excluding patients with a prior diagnosis of AD, those with pre-existing memory loss before the index stroke, and those with amnestic MCI. We propose a definition of dementia in VaD based on presence of abnormal executive control function, severe enough to interfere with social or occupational functioning. Vascular cognitive disorder (VCD): This term, proposed by Sachdev [P. Sachdev, Vascular cognitive disorder. Int J Geriat Psychiatry 14 (1999) 402-403.] would become the global diagnostic category for cognitive impairment of vascular origin, ranging from VCI to VaD. It would include specific disease entities such as post-stroke VCI, post-stroke VaD, CADASIL, Binswanger disease, and AD plus CVD. This category explicitly excludes isolated cognitive dysfunctions such as those mentioned above. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Roman2004,
      author = {Roman, GC and Sachdev, P and Royall, DR and Bullock, RA and Orgogozo, JM and Lopez-Pousa, S and Arizaga, R and Wallin, A},
      title = {Vascular cognitive disorder: a new diagnostic category updating vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {226},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {81-87},
      note = {1st Congress of the International-Society-for-Vascular-Behavioural-and-Cognitive-Disorders (VAS-COG 2003), Goteborg, SWEDEN, AUG 28-31, 2003},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jns.2004.09.016}}
    }
    
    Ross, J., Zinn, A. & McCauley, E. Neurodevelopmental and psychosocial aspects of Turner syndrome {2000} MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES RESEARCH REVIEWS
    Vol. {6}({2}), pp. {135-141} 
    article  
    Abstract: Turner syndrome (TS) is the complex phenotype of human females with complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome, or monosomy X. A characteristic neurocognitive and psychosocial profile has also been described in TS females, Typically, specific deficits in visual-spatial/ perceptual abilities, nonverbal memory function, motor function, executive function, and attentional abilities occur in TS children and adults of varying races and socioeconomic status. TS-associated psychosocial difficulties occur in the areas of maturity and social skills. We hypothesize that a subset of the neurocognitive deficits (visual-spatial/perceptual abilities) are genetically determined and result from abnormal expression of one or more X chromosome genes. In addition, a different subset of these neurocognitive deficits (memory, reaction time, and speeded motor function) result from estrogen deficiency and are at least somewhat reversible with estrogen treatment. The TS-associated psychosocial problems are most likely linked to these core neurocognitive deficits and do not reflect a separate and independent component of the syndrome. Turner syndrome research has progressed significantly over the last decade. The field has moved from descriptive reports based on single individuals or small clinical samples to the use of experimental designs with larger, more diverse and representative samples. This degree of variability among individuals with Turner syndrome in ail domains (karyotype or genetic constitution, physical attributes, neurocognitive and social functioning) suggests the need to identify risk and protective factors contributing to the heterogeneity in the phenotype. Active education about TS and participation in patient advocacy groups such as the Turner Syndrome Society of the United States (http://www. Turner-syndrome-us.org/) has provided new information for TS adults and families as well as a supportive peer group. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ross2000,
      author = {Ross, J and Zinn, A and McCauley, E},
      title = {Neurodevelopmental and psychosocial aspects of Turner syndrome},
      journal = {MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES RESEARCH REVIEWS},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {135-141}
    }
    
    Rowe, A., Bullock, P., Polkey, C. & Morris, R. `Theory of mind' impairments and their relationship to executive functioning following frontal lobe excisions {2001} BRAIN
    Vol. {124}({Part 3}), pp. {600-616} 
    article  
    Abstract: It has been suggested that mental states play an important role in determining behaviour and that mental state attributions ('theory of mind') underlie the ability to understand and predict other peoples' behaviour. Theory of mind was investigated in 31 patients with unilateral frontal lobe lesions (15 right-sided and 16 left-sided) by comparing their performance with that of 31 matched control subjects. The ability to infer first- and second-order beliefs was tested by requiring subjects to listen to stories in which a protagonist acted upon a false belief. Both patient groups exhibited significantly impaired performance on the two theory of mind measures. Both frontal lobe groups also exhibited a range of deficits in tests of executive functions, but analyses revealed that these seemed to be independent of theory of mind impairments. These findings are discussed in terms of the hypothesis of a specialized, adaptive brain system underlying theory of mind reasoning ability, and are related to observed difficulties in social functioning among patients with frontal lobe damage.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rowe2001,
      author = {Rowe, AD and Bullock, PR and Polkey, CE and Morris, RG},
      title = {`Theory of mind' impairments and their relationship to executive functioning following frontal lobe excisions},
      journal = {BRAIN},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {124},
      number = {Part 3},
      pages = {600-616}
    }
    
    Rubia, K., Overmeyer, S., Taylor, E., Brammer, M., Williams, S., Simmons, A., Andrew, C. & Bullmore, E. Functional frontalisation with age: mapping neurodevelopmental trajectories with fMRI {2000} NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS
    Vol. {24}({1}), pp. {13-19} 
    article  
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate whether previously observed hypofrontality in adolescents with attention deficit-hyperacivity disorder (ADHD) during executive functioning [Rubia K, Overmeyer S, Taylor E, Brammer M, Williams S, Simmons A, Andrew C, Bullmore ET. Hypofrontality in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during higher order motor control: a study using fMRI. Am J Psychiatry 1999;156(6):891 -896] could be attributed to delayed maturation of frontal cortex. Brain activation of 17 healthy subjects, 9 adolescents and 8 young adults, during performance of a motor response inhibition task and a motor timing task was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The effect of age on brain activation was estimated, using the analysis of variance and regression, at both voxel and regional levels. In the delay task, superior performance in adults was paralleled by a significantly increased power of response in a network comprising prefrontal and parietal cortical regions and putamen. In the stop task, alternative neuronal routes - left hemispheric prefrontal regions in adults and right hemispheric opercular frontal cortex and caudate in adolescents - seem to have been recruited by the two groups for achieving comparable performances. A significant age effect was found for the prefrontal activation in both task, confirming the hypothesis of a dysmaturational pathogenesis for the hypofrontality in ADHD. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rubia2000,
      author = {Rubia, K and Overmeyer, S and Taylor, E and Brammer, M and Williams, SCR and Simmons, A and Andrew, C and Bullmore, ET},
      title = {Functional frontalisation with age: mapping neurodevelopmental trajectories with fMRI},
      journal = {NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {24},
      number = {1},
      pages = {13-19},
      note = {Symposium on What can Genetic Models tell us about Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, HAMILTON, CANADA, DEC 07-16, 1998}
    }
    
    Rund, B., Melle, I., Friis, S., Larsen, T., Midboe, L., Opjordsmoen, S., Simonsen, E., Vaglum, P. & McGlashan, T. Neurocognitive dysfunction in first-episode psychosis: correlates with symptoms, premorbid adjustment, and duration of untreated psychosis {2004} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {161}({3}), pp. {466-472} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: The authors examined the relationship of neurocognitive function with duration of untreated psychosis, pre-morbid illness factors, and clinical symptoms to determine whether long duration of untreated psychosis independently compromises cognitive function. Method: Patients recruited to a study of the effect of an early detection program on the duration of untreated first-episode psychosis in two catchment areas were compared to patients in a similar treatment program in two other catchment areas without an early detection program. The median duration of untreated psychosis was 10.5 weeks for all patients. A total of 301 patients entered the study, and 207 completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery that assessed working memory/fluency, executive function, verbal learning, impulsivity, and motor speed. The median time from start of treatment to neuropsychological testing was 108 days; all patients were tested within 9 months. Results: No significant association was found between duration of untreated psychosis and any of the cognitive measures. Strong associations were demonstrated between poorer pre-morbid school functioning and neurocognitive deficits, especially in verbal learning and working memory. No relationship was found between neurocognitive functions and clinical measures, except for an inverse correlation of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptoms and working memory and a positive correlation between positive symptoms and motor speed. Conclusions: The data contribute to a disconfirmation of the hypothesis of an association between duration of untreated psychosis and neurocognitive performance at baseline.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rund2004,
      author = {Rund, BR and Melle, I and Friis, S and Larsen, TK and Midboe, LJ and Opjordsmoen, S and Simonsen, E and Vaglum, P and McGlashan, T},
      title = {Neurocognitive dysfunction in first-episode psychosis: correlates with symptoms, premorbid adjustment, and duration of untreated psychosis},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {161},
      number = {3},
      pages = {466-472}
    }
    
    Russell, J., Jarrold, C. & Hood, B. Two intact executive capacities in children with autism: Implications for the core executive dysfunctions in the disorder {1999} JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
    Vol. {29}({2}), pp. {103-112} 
    article  
    Abstract: Many studies have shown that children with autism perform at a much lower level than control subjects on tests of executive functioning, defined as tasks requiring subjects to hold information in mind while suppressing a prepotent response. These tasks have invariably required subjects to (a) follow arbitrary and novel rules and (b) make a nonverbal response. We report that when one of these features is absent, children with autism are not impaired relative to controls. They perform at a similar level to normally developing children on the ``tubes'' task (containing no arbitrary and novel rules) and on the day/night task (in which the output is verbal). Results are consistent, at least, with the hypothesis that children with autism are challenged by executive tasks because they are unlikely to encode rules in a verbal form.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Russell1999,
      author = {Russell, J and Jarrold, C and Hood, B},
      title = {Two intact executive capacities in children with autism: Implications for the core executive dysfunctions in the disorder},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {29},
      number = {2},
      pages = {103-112}
    }
    
    Ryan, E., Morgello, S., Isaacs, K., Naseer, M., Gerits, P. & Manhattan HIV Brain Bank Neuropsychiatric impact of hepatitis C on advanced HIV {2004} NEUROLOGY
    Vol. {62}({6}), pp. {957-962} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To determine whether hepatitis C (HCV) contributes to CNS dysfunction among HIV-infected individuals. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, the neuropsychiatric profile of individuals with advanced HIV coinfected with hepatitis C (HIV +/ HCV +) was compared to similarly advanced HIV patients without HCV coinfection (HIV +/ HCV -). Participants were derived from the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank and underwent neurocognitive testing and semistructured psychiatric interviews. Evidence of HCV infection was determined by serology performed prior to study entry. Hepatic function was determined by serum chemistries ( bilirubin, creatinine, and international normalized ratio) at the time of the cognitive assessments. Results: Coinfected (HIV +/ HCV +) individuals were significantly more likely to have had past opiate or cocaine or stimulant dependence. HIV +/ HCV+ participants also had significantly greater rates of past substance-induced major depression. There were no significant differences in rates of primary mental disorders. Forty-two percent of both the HIV +/ HCV+ and HIV +/ HCV-participants met criteria for current major depression. There was a trend for HIV +/ HCV+ patients to perform worse neurocognitively. On tests of executive functioning, HIV +/ HCV+ individuals exhibited a greater rate of impairment and had significantly more perseveration. Differences in cognitive functioning were associated with serology but did not correlate with indices of liver disease severity. The HCV+ patients were also more likely to be diagnosed with HIV-associated dementia. Conclusions: There appears to be a neuropsychiatric impact of HCV that is detectable even among an advanced HIV cohort.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ryan2004,
      author = {Ryan, EL and Morgello, S and Isaacs, K and Naseer, M and Gerits, P and Manhattan HIV Brain Bank},
      title = {Neuropsychiatric impact of hepatitis C on advanced HIV},
      journal = {NEUROLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {62},
      number = {6},
      pages = {957-962}
    }
    
    Sabbagh, M., Xu, F., Carlson, S., Moses, L. & Lee, K. The development of executive functioning and theory of mind - A comparison of Chinese and US preschoolers {2006} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {17}({1}), pp. {74-81} 
    article  
    Abstract: Preschoolers' theory-of-mind development follows a similar age trajectory across many cultures. To determine whether these similarities are related to similar underlying ontogenetic processes, we examined whether the relation between theory of mind and executive function commonly found among U.S. preschoolers is also present among Chinese preschoolers. Preschoolers from Beijing, China (N= 109), were administered theory-of-mind and executive-functioning tasks, and their performance was compared with that of a previously studied sample of U.S. preschoolers (N= 107). The Chinese preschoolers outperformed their U.S. counterparts on all measures of executive functioning, but were not similarly advanced in theory-of-mind reasoning. Nonetheless, individual differences in executive functioning predicted theory of mind for children in both cultures. Thus, the relation between executive functioning and theory of mind is robust across two disparate cultures. These findings shed light on why executive functioning is important for theory-of-mind development.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sabbagh2006,
      author = {Sabbagh, MA and Xu, F and Carlson, SM and Moses, LJ and Lee, K},
      title = {The development of executive functioning and theory of mind - A comparison of Chinese and US preschoolers},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {17},
      number = {1},
      pages = {74-81}
    }
    
    Saint-Cyr, J., Trepanier, L., Kumar, R., Lozano, A. & Lang, A. Neuropsychological consequences of chronic bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease {2000} BRAIN
    Vol. {123}({Part 10}), pp. {2091-2108} 
    article  
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine possible neuropsychological changes in patients with advanced idiopathic Parkinson's disease treated with bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Eleven patients (age = 67 +/- 8 years, years with Parkinson's disease = 15 +/- 3, verbal IQ = 114 +/- 12) were evaluated (in their best `on state') with tests assessing processes reliant on the functional integrity of frontal striatal circuitry, prior to the procedure (n = 11), at 3-6 months (n = 11) and at 9-12 months (n =10) postoperatively. Six of these patients were older than 69 years. Despite clinical motor benefits at 3-6 months postoperative, significant declines were noted in working memory, speed of mental processing, bimanual motor speed and co-ordination, set switching, phonemic fluency, long-term consolidation of verbal material and the encoding of visuospatial material. Declines were more consistently observed in patients who were older than 69 years, leading to a mental state comparable with progressive supranuclear palsy. `Frontal' behavioural dyscontrol without the benefit of insight was also reported by half (three of six) of the caregivers of the elderly subgroup. At 9-12 months postoperative, only learning based on multiple trials had recovered. Tasks reliant on the integrity of frontal striatal circuitry either did not recover or gradually worsened over time. Bilateral STN DBS can have a negative impact on various aspects of frontal executive functioning, especially in patients older than 69 years. Future studies will evaluate a larger group of patients and examine the possible reversibility of these effects by turning the DBS off.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Saint-Cyr2000,
      author = {Saint-Cyr, JA and Trepanier, LL and Kumar, R and Lozano, AM and Lang, AE},
      title = {Neuropsychological consequences of chronic bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease},
      journal = {BRAIN},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {123},
      number = {Part 10},
      pages = {2091-2108}
    }
    
    Salame, P., Danion, J., Peretti, S. & Cuervo, C. The state of functioning of working memory in schizophrenia {1998} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {30}({1}), pp. {11-29} 
    article  
    Abstract: The functioning of working memory in schizophrenic patients according to Baddeley's model was examined in two complementary experiments. Experiment 1 comprised 27 patients and their controls, matched in age and level of education. Of this pool, 20 pairs participated also in Experiment 2. Digit span, reading rate, and immediate serial recall assessed the functioning of the phonological loop. Corsi and pattern span tasks assessed the capacity of visuospatial memory. The central executive's ability to monitor two concurrent tasks was evaluated in a dual task paradigm, and its capacity to control action in a random generation task. A preliminary jet of analyses showed that the patients' performances were reduced in all tasks explored, except in digit span. This initial pattern changed consistently after controlling for reading rate. While slow and fast reading patients were comparable in demographic and clinical criteria, slow reading patients showed impaired performance in all tasks, whereas fast reading patients exhibited reduced performance in visuo-spatial tasks and in the random generation task only. The state of functioning of working memory in schizophrenia appears, therefore, to vary consistently among the components of the model and is markedly impaired in slow reading patients. The implication of slowness are discussed. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Salame1998,
      author = {Salame, P and Danion, JM and Peretti, S and Cuervo, C},
      title = {The state of functioning of working memory in schizophrenia},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {30},