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    ABRAHAM, C. & SHEERAN, P. MODELING AND MODIFYING YOUNG HETEROSEXUALS HIV-PREVENTIVE BEHAVIOR - A REVIEW OF THEORIES, FINDINGS AND EDUCATIONAL-IMPLICATIONS {1994} PATIENT EDUCATION AND COUNSELING
    Vol. {23}({3}), pp. {173-186} 
    article  
    Abstract: Studies applying social cognitive frameworks such as the health belief model and the theory of reasoned action to HIV-prevention are reviewed. These models suggest that appropriate beliefs, attitudes, social norms, intentions and perceived self-efficacy are sufficient psychological conditions for safer sexual behaviour. Limitations inherent in these accounts are identified and additional factors which need to be incorporated in psychological models and health education programmes are highlighted. These include, the motivational complexity of sexual behaviour, the emotional and arousal states in which it is enacted, the difficulties of planning what is regarded as spontaneous interaction and contextual factors which can undermine HIV-preventive intentions. Health education interventions aimed at individual, group and community levels are examined in light of this theoretical review and action-focused, empowering interventions grounded in youth culture are recommended.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ABRAHAM1994,
      author = {ABRAHAM, C and SHEERAN, P},
      title = {MODELING AND MODIFYING YOUNG HETEROSEXUALS HIV-PREVENTIVE BEHAVIOR - A REVIEW OF THEORIES, FINDINGS AND EDUCATIONAL-IMPLICATIONS},
      journal = {PATIENT EDUCATION AND COUNSELING},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {23},
      number = {3},
      pages = {173-186}
    }
    
    Adams, P. & Krockover, G. Beginning science teacher cognition and its origins in the preservice secondary science teacher program {1997} JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN SCIENCE TEACHING
    Vol. {34}({6}), pp. {633-653} 
    article  
    Abstract: The objectives of this study were to (a) identify the major tenets of a preservice secondary science education program as expressed by science education faculty, (b) identify knowledge structures that beginning secondary science teachers have constructed about the teaching and learning of science, and (c) identify the correlatives that exist between the first two objectives. The study was grounded in the postulates of teacher cognition in that teachers construct their own schema from their experiences in order to comprehend, plan for, and respond to the dynamics of their classroom. This qualitative study consisted of interviews and observations of beginning science teachers, interviews with science education faculty, and an analysis of the course syllabi of that faculty. Methods of single and cross-case analytic induction were combined to analyze the data. Based on the data, it may be concluded that aspects of the program, such as student-centered learning, cooperative learning, general pedagogical knowledge, and pedagogical content knowledge, were adopted into the schema of the beginning teachers; the degree of adoption appeared to be linked to the individual's most significant learning experiences and the constraints of the school situation. (C) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Adams1997,
      author = {Adams, PE and Krockover, GH},
      title = {Beginning science teacher cognition and its origins in the preservice secondary science teacher program},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN SCIENCE TEACHING},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {34},
      number = {6},
      pages = {633-653}
    }
    
    Adcock, R.A., Dale, C., Fisher, M., Aldebot, S., Genevsky, A., Simpson, G.V., Nagarajan, S. & Vinogradov, S. When Top-Down Meets Bottom-Up: Auditory Training Enhances Verbal Memory in Schizophrenia {2009} SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN
    Vol. {35}({6}), pp. {1132-1141} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: A critical research priority for our field is to develop treatments that enhance cognitive functioning in schizophrenia and thereby attenuate the functional losses associated with the illness. In this article, we describe such a treatment method that is grounded in emerging research on the widespread sensory processing impairments of schizophrenia, as described elsewhere in this special issue. We first present the rationale for this treatment approach, which consists of cognitive training exercises that make use of principles derived from the past 2 decades of basic science research in learning-induced neuroplasticity; these exercises explicitly target not only the higher order or ``top-down'' processes of cognition but also the content building blocks of accurate and efficient sensory representations to simultaneously achieve ``bottom-up'' remediation. We then summarize our experience to date and briefly review our behavioral and serum biomarker findings from a randomized controlled trial of this method in outpatients with long-term symptoms of schizophrenia. Finally, we present promising early psychophysiological evidence that supports the hypothesis that this cognitive training method induces changes in aspects of impaired bottom-up sensory processing in schizophrenia. We conclude with the observation that neuroplasticity-based cognitive training brings patients closer to physiological patterns seen in healthy participants, suggesting that it changes the brain in an adaptive manner in schizophrenia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Adcock2009,
      author = {Adcock, R. Alison and Dale, Corby and Fisher, Melissa and Aldebot, Stephanie and Genevsky, Alexander and Simpson, Gregory V. and Nagarajan, Srikantan and Vinogradov, Sophia},
      title = {When Top-Down Meets Bottom-Up: Auditory Training Enhances Verbal Memory in Schizophrenia},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {35},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1132-1141},
      doi = {{10.1093/schbul/sbp068}}
    }
    
    Alheid, G. Extended amygdala and basal forebrain {2003}
    Vol. {985}AMYGDALA IN BRAIN FUNCTION: BASIC AND CLINICAL APPROACHES, pp. {185-205} 
    inproceedings  
    Abstract: The basal forebrain is a confluence of systems that are crucial to understanding some of the most important functions of the brain, including reward and punishment, learning and cognition, and feeding and reproduction. Basic to understanding this broad spectrum of behavior is untangling the interwoven functional systems in basal forebrain. This has been grounded by the appreciation that the major nearby structures, that is, amygdala and basal ganglia, provide a context for interpreting basal forebrain areas that are best viewed as extensions of either of these larger regions. The components of basal forebrain, the ventral striatopallidal system and the medial and central divisions of extended amygdala, are subcortical relays for information garnered from brain stem, thalamus, and cortical areas. With respect to the classically defined amygdala of the temporal lobe, the lateral-basolateral complex, and the superficial amygdaloid nuclei may tentatively be viewed as specialized cortical regions. Their output targets both the striatopallidal complex and the extended amygdala, with some of the most massive basal forebrain efferents originating in the basolateral amygdaloid complex. The subcortical projections of the basolateral nucleus, at least in the rat, appear to be dichotomous, with anterior (or magnocellular) portions of the nucleus preferentially targeting striatum and ventral striatum (including the core of the nucleus accumbens), while the posterior (small-celled) portions of the basolateral nucleus target the extended amygdala as well as the shell of the nucleus accumbens. This divergence represents a particular opportunity for behavioral neuroscientists analyzing basal forebrain functions. Studies exploiting the dual subcortical projection of basolateral amygdala indicate distinct functional roles for striatum versus extended amygdala. These reinforce the identification of extended amygdala as a functional-anatomical entity distinct from the striatopallidal system.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Alheid2003,
      author = {Alheid, GF},
      title = {Extended amygdala and basal forebrain},
      booktitle = {AMYGDALA IN BRAIN FUNCTION: BASIC AND CLINICAL APPROACHES},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {985},
      pages = {185-205},
      note = {Conference on the Amygdala in Brain Function, GALVESTON, TX, JUN 24-26, 2002}
    }
    
    Andersen, S.M. & Thorpe, J.S. An IF-THEN theory of personality: Significant others and the relational self {2009} JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY
    Vol. {43}({2}), pp. {163-170} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In our work on the relational self [Andersen, S. M., & Chen, S. (2002). The relational self: An interpersonal social-cognitive theory. Psychological Review, 109, 619-645], which is grounded in research and theory on the social-cognitive process of transference [Andersen, S. M., & Cole, S. W. (11990). ``Do I know you?'': The role of significant others in general social perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 383-399], we build on advances in IF-THEN models of personality [Mischel, W. & Shoda, Y. (1995). A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure. Psychological Review, 102, 246-268] and their lineage in early work [Mischel, W. (1968). Personality and assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.] to demonstrate that the self is inherently interpersonal. Because we have shown that mental representations of significant others are activated by immediate triggering cues in a situation and that this activation influences the nature of self and personality as experienced and expressed, the work expands the IF-THEN approach to the dyadic level of interpersonal relations. Moving beyond Mischel's early work (Mischel, 1968) our model also integrates social cognition and learning theory with psychodynamic thought, bringing the latter into the realm of this contemporary conceptualization of personality that highlights the importance of the situation. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Andersen2009,
      author = {Andersen, Susan M. and Thorpe, Jennifer S.},
      title = {An IF-THEN theory of personality: Significant others and the relational self},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {43},
      number = {2},
      pages = {163-170},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jrp.2008.12.040}}
    }
    
    Apperly, I.A. Beyond Simulation-Theory and Theory-Theory: Why social cognitive neuroscience should use its own concepts to study ``theory of mind'' {2008} COGNITION
    Vol. {107}({1}), pp. {266-283} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The debate between Simulation-Theory (ST) and Theory-Theory (TT) provides the dominant theoretical framework for research on ``theory of mind'' (ToM). Behavioural research has failed to provide clear methods for discriminating between these theories, but a number of recent studies have claimed that neuroimaging methods do allow key predictions of ST and TT to be tested. In the current paper it is argued that neuroimaging studies have not in fact provided any data that discriminates between ST and TT accounts of propositional attitude ascription, and moreover that it is uncertain that they will in the future. However, it is also argued that the fault lies with the ST/TT debate, not with the methods and concepts of neuroimaging research. Neuroimaging can certainly contribute to our understanding of ToM, and should contribute to the project of developing theoretical models more firmly grounded in specific cognitive and neural processes than ST or TT. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Apperly2008,
      author = {Apperly, Ian A.},
      title = {Beyond Simulation-Theory and Theory-Theory: Why social cognitive neuroscience should use its own concepts to study ``theory of mind''},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {107},
      number = {1},
      pages = {266-283},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.cognition.2007.07.019}}
    }
    
    Araujo, D., Davids, K. & Hristovski, R. The ecological dynamics of decision making in sport {2006} PSYCHOLOGY OF SPORT AND EXERCISE
    Vol. {7}({6}), pp. {653-676} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Objectives: The aim of this position paper is to consider the decision-making process as an integral part of goal-directed behaviour influenced by functional constraints at the scale of the environment-athlete relationship. To achieve this aim we discuss relevant theoretical ideas from ecological psychology, focusing particularly on ecological dynamics, as a contrast to more traditional perspectives on decision-making behaviour. To support the argumentation we briefly describe some recent empirical data from studies of sports that emphasise this alternative. perspective on decision making. We conclude that traditional approaches analyse decisions as if they were not grounded, i.e., expressed behaviourally through actions in performance contexts. It is argued that an ecological approach should analyse affordances or action possibilities, when studying cognition in sport, demanding an integration of theories and ideas from the natural sciences in order to understand concepts like information and intentionality. Conclusion: Decision-making behaviour is best considered at the level of the performer-environment relationship and viewed as emerging from the interactions of individuals with environmental constraints over time towards specific functional goals. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Araujo2006,
      author = {Araujo, Duarte and Davids, Keith and Hristovski, Robert},
      title = {The ecological dynamics of decision making in sport},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY OF SPORT AND EXERCISE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {7},
      number = {6},
      pages = {653-676},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.07.002}}
    }
    
    Aronoff, M., Meir, I. & Sandler, W. The paradox of sign language morphology {2005} LANGUAGE
    Vol. {81}({2}), pp. {301-344} 
    article  
    Abstract: Sign languages have two strikingly different kinds of morphological structure: sequential and simultaneous. The simultaneous morphology of two unrelated sign languages, American and Israeli Sign Language, is very similar and is largely inflectional, while what little sequential morphology we have found differs significantly and is derivational. We show that at least two pervasive types of inflectional morphology, verb agreement and classifier constructions, are iconically grounded in spatiotemporal cognition, while the sequential patterns can be traced to normal historical development. We attribute the paucity of sequential morphology in sign languages to their youth. This research both brings sign languages much closer to spoken languages in their morphological structure and shows how the medium of communication contributes to the structure of languages.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aronoff2005,
      author = {Aronoff, M and Meir, I and Sandler, W},
      title = {The paradox of sign language morphology},
      journal = {LANGUAGE},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {81},
      number = {2},
      pages = {301-344}
    }
    
    Arzi-Gonczarowski, Z. Understanding one another: making out meanings with Boolean equations {2006} ANNALS OF MATHEMATICS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
    Vol. {48}({3-4}), pp. {109-134} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Autonomous AI agents raise the issue of semantic interoperability between independently architectured and differently embodied intelligences. This article offers an approach to the issue with certain aspects that are close in spirit to the way humans make out meanings. Using a mathematical model of cognition, it is shown how agents with autonomously developed conceptualizations can bootstrap and unravel each other's meanings ad hoc. The domain general methodology is based on the agents' capability to deal with Boolean operations, and on the shared outside environment. No prior provisions are required. The formalized cognitive process consists of constructing, and solving, Boolean equations that are grounded in the shared environment. The process yields a testable conjecture about the grounded conceptual representation of the other, along with a testable conjectured translation that maps from that representation to one's own.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Arzi-Gonczarowski2006,
      author = {Arzi-Gonczarowski, Zippora},
      title = {Understanding one another: making out meanings with Boolean equations},
      journal = {ANNALS OF MATHEMATICS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {48},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {109-134},
      note = {9th International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence and Mathematics, Ft Lauderdale, FL, JAN 04-06, 2006},
      doi = {{10.1007/s10472-007-9045-6}}
    }
    
    Ashby, M., Hoog, C., Kellehear, A., Kerr, P., Brooks, D., Nicholls, K. & Forrest, M. Renal dialysis abatement: lessons from a social study {2005} PALLIATIVE MEDICINE
    Vol. {19}({5}), pp. {389-396} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Aim: This study aimed to examine the reasons why some people chose to abate (i.e., stop or not start) renal dialysis, together with the personal and social impact of this decision on the person concerned, and/or their families. Method: A qualitative design based on the principles of Grounded Theory was employed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen patients and/or carers (depending on whether the patient was able to be interviewed) where the issue of dialysis abatement was being considered, or had recently been decided. Results: Of 52 participants considered for entry into the study 41 were ineligible, with impaired cognition, rapid medical deterioration, and inability to speak sufficient English being the main reasons for exclusion. The desire not to burden others and the personal experience of a deteriorating quality of life were crucial elements in the decision to stop or decline dialysis. The problem of prognostic uncertainty and a sense of abandonment were also prominently expressed. Conclusions: From this small Australian sample, it appears that there would be considerable potential benefit from a more proactive and open approach to end-of-life issues, with incorporation of the clinical and health promoting principles of palliative care into renal dialysis practice. The high number of exclusions shows how sick and unstable this population of patients is, but the issue of data gathering from people whose main language is not English requires attention.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ashby2005,
      author = {Ashby, M and Hoog, CO and Kellehear, A and Kerr, PG and Brooks, D and Nicholls, K and Forrest, M},
      title = {Renal dialysis abatement: lessons from a social study},
      journal = {PALLIATIVE MEDICINE},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {19},
      number = {5},
      pages = {389-396},
      doi = {{10.1191/0269216305pm1043oa}}
    }
    
    Atkinson, D. Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition {2010} APPLIED LINGUISTICS
    Vol. {31}({5}), pp. {599-622} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: A cognitivist approach to cognition has traditionally dominated second language acquisition (SLA) studies. In this article, I examine two alternative approaches-extended cognition and embodied cognition-for how they might help us conceptualize SLA. More specifically, I present: (i) summaries of extended and embodied cognition, followed by reasons why the two can be treated as a single, synthetic perspective; (ii) an approach to SLA grounded in an extended, embodied view of cognition-i.e. a sociocognitive approach-in three principles; and (iii) a naturally occurring example of extended, embodied cognition-for-SLA.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Atkinson2010,
      author = {Atkinson, Dwight},
      title = {Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition},
      journal = {APPLIED LINGUISTICS},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {31},
      number = {5},
      pages = {599-622},
      doi = {{10.1093/applin/amq009}}
    }
    
    Augoustinos, M. Ideology, false consciousness and psychology {1999} THEORY & PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {9}({3}), pp. {295-312} 
    article  
    Abstract: Marxist social theory and, in particular, Marxist notions of ideology have never been popular within psychology. Recently, however, the Marxist notion of false consciousness has begun to make appearances in mainstream psychological journals. In this paper I argue that this notion has been misappropriated by those who construct it simply as a psychological-cognitive phenomenon located in individuals' heads, rather than as a socially emergent product of a capitalist society. A cognitive construction of false consciousness by social psychologists is no surprise given the dominance of social cognition as a research tradition within psychology: a tradition which has always emphasized the limited and faulty cognitive capacities of the individual and one which sits comfortably with a highly individualized and psychological account of false consciousness. The inherent epistemological difficulties in maintaining the notion of false consciousness within contemporary social theory are discussed. Despite these difficulties, it is argued that the notion of false consciousness remains a useful theoretical construct, not as a psychological and cognitive affliction suffered by the `less enlightened', but as a phenomenon grounded in social reality itself: in particular, the material reality of late capitalism and postmodern culture.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Augoustinos1999,
      author = {Augoustinos, M},
      title = {Ideology, false consciousness and psychology},
      journal = {THEORY & PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {295-312}
    }
    
    Aukstakalnis, N., Baniulis, K. & Tamulynas, B. Intelligence and flexibility of learning and knowledge testing environments {2005} WMSCI 2005: 9th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Vol 7, pp. {172-177}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: The proposed goal oriented knowledge acquisition and assessment are based on the flexible educational model and allows to implement an adaptive control of the enhanced learning process according to the requirements of student's knowledge level, his state of cognition and subject learning history. The enhanced learner knowledge model specifies how the cognition state of the user will be achieved step by step. The use case actions definition is a starting point of the specification, which depends on different levels of learning scenarios and user cognition sub goals. The use case actions specification is used as a basis to set the requirements for service software specification and attributes of learning objects respectively. The paper presents the enhanced architecture of the student self-evaluation and on-line assessment system TestTool. The system is explored as an assessment engine capable of supporting and improving the individualized intelligent goal oriented self-instructional and simulation based mode of learning, grounded on the GRID distributed service architecture.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Aukstakalnis2005,
      author = {Aukstakalnis, Nerijus and Baniulis, Kazys and Tamulynas, Bronius},
      title = {Intelligence and flexibility of learning and knowledge testing environments},
      booktitle = {WMSCI 2005: 9th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Vol 7},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {172-177},
      note = {9th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Orlando, FL, JUL 10-13, 2005}
    }
    
    Aukstakalnis, N., Baniulis, K. & Tamulynas, B. Enhanced learning and understanding in knowledge testing environments {2007} Proceedings of the ITI 2007 29th International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces, pp. {287-292}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: The proposed web-based implementation of goal oriented knowledge acquisition and assessment environment allows to enhance learning process according to the requirements of student's knowledge level and his state of cognition. The use case actions definition is a starting point of the specification, which depends on different levels of learning scenarios and user cognition sub goals. The online assessment TestTool system is explored as an assessment engine capable of supporting and improving the individualized intelligent goal oriented and simulation based mode of learning, grounded on the GRID distributed service architecture.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Aukstakalnis2007,
      author = {Aukstakalnis, Nerijus and Baniulis, Kazys and Tamulynas, Bronius},
      title = {Enhanced learning and understanding in knowledge testing environments},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the ITI 2007 29th International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {287-292},
      note = {29th International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces, Cavtat, CROATIA, JUN 25-28, 2007}
    }
    
    Aukstakalnis, N. & Tamulynas, B. The composition of learning scenarios using domain ontology {2008} INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES' 2008, PROCEEDINGS, pp. {286-290}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: In this paper we present an ontology that propose for the formal specification of learning object (LO) content structure which allows to enhance learning process according to the requirements of student's knowledge level and his state of cognition. The use case actions definition is a starting point of the specification, which depends on different levels of learning scenarios and user cognition sub goals. The ontology structure of disaggregated domain to content units of the lowest level of granularity enable to make the process of composing new learning scenarios of components out of existing LO automatic. The on-line assessment TestTool system is explored as an assessment engine capable of supporting and improving the individualized intelligent goal oriented mode of learning, grounded on the GRID distributed service architecture. The broad scope of ontology allows providing an integrated view of the several aspects involved in the design of such systems. Courses domain ontologies are constructed using Protege tool.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Aukstakalnis2008,
      author = {Aukstakalnis, Nerijus and Tamulynas, Bronius},
      title = {The composition of learning scenarios using domain ontology},
      booktitle = {INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES' 2008, PROCEEDINGS},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {286-290},
      note = {14th International Conference on Information and Software Technologies, Kaunas, LITHUANIA, APR 24-25, 2008}
    }
    
    Barab, S., Cherkes-Julkowski, M., Swenson, R., Garrett, S., Shaw, R. & Young, M. Principles of self-organization: Learning as participation in autocatakinetic systems {1999} JOURNAL OF THE LEARNING SCIENCES
    Vol. {8}({3-4}), pp. {349-390} 
    article  
    Abstract: Modern science has been built on a Cartesian or Newtonian (mechanical) world view giving rise to an artifactual view of mind and suggesting that particles (learners) are continuously working to destroy order (are recalcitrant), which can only be maintained by an external artificer (the teacher). At the core of the Cartesian worldview is the absolute separation of mind and matter. Beginning with the separation of mind and body, Cartesianism is grounded in a set of dualisms that separate individual from environment and leads to the belief that knowledge refers to a self-sufficient immaterial substance that can be understood independently from the individual, environment and context in which it is situated. In contrast, we make the argument for an alternative set of assumptions predicated on a relational ontology and grounded in recent developments in the understanding of self-organizing systems. In our view, knowing, meaning, and cognition are actualized through the dynamic between learner (self) and environment (nonself), and that which is neither the learner nor the environment. We further argue that the ecologized, or self-organization, model (relational ontology) establishes that (under the appropriate conditions) the particles (learners), in effect, ``want'' to or strive opportunistically to order themselves once the intention has been properly initialized. From this perspective, instruction involves establishing the appropriate field conditions or connecting the learner into a system (a set of relations) through participation (e.g., as part of a community of practice) in the service of an intention. The type of learning that we are advocating cannot be handed to the learner wholecloth but develops itself through dynamic activity (participation) as part of a system as a whole. Central to this line of reasoning is the assertion not only that learner practices and meaningful relations that arise due to their functional significance as part of a dynamic system are fundamentally different from teacher- or textbook-owned descriptions of practices and meanings, but that they are in this way far richer, more meaningful, and more functional. Context and participation, to put it directly, not only matter but in a deep and fundamental way are everything.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barab1999,
      author = {Barab, SA and Cherkes-Julkowski, M and Swenson, R and Garrett, S and Shaw, RE and Young, M},
      title = {Principles of self-organization: Learning as participation in autocatakinetic systems},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE LEARNING SCIENCES},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {349-390},
      note = {Annual Meeting of the American-Educational-Research-Association, SAN DIEGO, CA, APR 13-17, 1998}
    }
    
    Barab, S. & Plucker, J. Smart people or smart contexts? Cognition, ability, and talent development in an age of situated approaches to knowing and learning {2002} EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {37}({3}), pp. {165-182} 
    article  
    Abstract: Intelligence, expertise, ability and talent, as these terms have traditionally been used in education and psychology, are socially agreed upon labels that minimize the dynamic, evolving, and contextual nature of individual-environment relations. These hypothesized constructs can instead be described as functional relations distributed across whole persons and particular contexts through which individuals appear knowledgeably skillful. The purpose of this article is to support a concept of ability and talent development that is theoretically grounded in 5 distinct, yet interrelated, notions: ecological psychology, situated cognition, distributed cognition, activity theory, and legitimate peripheral participation. Although talent may be reserved by some to describe individuals possessing exceptional ability and ability may be described as an internal trait, in our description neither ability nor talent are possessed. Instead, they are treated as equivalent terms that can be used to describe functional transactions that are situated across person-in-situation. Further, and more important, by arguing that ability is part of the individual-environment transaction, we take the potential to appear talented out of the hands (or heads) of the few and instead treat it as an opportunity that is available to all although it may be actualized more frequently by some.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barab2002,
      author = {Barab, SA and Plucker, JA},
      title = {Smart people or smart contexts? Cognition, ability, and talent development in an age of situated approaches to knowing and learning},
      journal = {EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {37},
      number = {3},
      pages = {165-182}
    }
    
    Barsalou, L. Perceptual symbol systems {1999} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {22}({4}), pp. {577+} 
    article  
    Abstract: Prior to the twentieth century, theories of knowledge were inherently perceptual. Since then, developments in logic, statistics, and programming languages have inspired amodal theories that rest on principles fundamentally different from those underlying perception. In addition, perceptual approaches have become widely viewed as untenable because they are assumed to implement recording systems, not conceptual systems. A perceptual theory of knowledge is developed here in the context of current cognitive science and neuroscience. During perceptual experience, association areas in the brain capture bottom-up patterns of activation in sensory-motor areas. Later, in a top-down manner, association areas partially reactivate sensory-motor areas to implement perceptual symbols. The storage and reactivation of perceptual symbols operates at the level of perceptual components - not at the level of holistic perceptual experiences. Through the use of selective attention, schematic representations of perceptual components are extracted from experience and stored in memory (e.g., individual memories of green, purr, hot). As memories of the same component become organized around a common frame, they implement a simulator that produces limitless simulations of the component (e.g., simulations of purr). Not only do such simulators develop for aspects of sensory experience, they also develop for aspects of proprioception (e.g., lift, run) and introspection (e.g., compare, memory, happy, hungry). Once established, these simulators implement a basic conceptual system that represents types, supports categorization, and produces categorical inferences. These simulators further support productivity, propositions, and abstract concepts, thereby implementing a fully functional conceptual system. Productivity results from integrating simulators combinatorially and recursively to produce complex simulations. Propositions result from binding simulators to perceived individuals to represent type-token relations. Abstract concepts are grounded in complex simulations of combined physical and introspective events. Thus, a perceptual theory of knowledge can implement a fully functional conceptual system while avoiding problems associated with amodal symbol systems. Implications far cognition, neuroscience, evolution, development, and artificial intelligence are explored.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barsalou1999,
      author = {Barsalou, LW},
      title = {Perceptual symbol systems},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {22},
      number = {4},
      pages = {577+}
    }
    
    Barsalou, L.W. Grounded cognition {2008} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {59}, pp. {617-645} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barsalou2008,
      author = {Barsalou, Lawrence W.},
      title = {Grounded cognition},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {59},
      pages = {617-645},
      doi = {{10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093639}}
    }
    
    Barsalou, L.W. Cognitive and neural contributions to understanding the conceptual system {2008} CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {17}({2}), pp. {91-95} 
    article  
    Abstract: The conceptual system contains categorical knowledge about experience that supports the spectrum of cognitive processes. Cognitive science theories assume that categorical knowledge resides in a modular and amodal semantic memory, whereas neuroscience theories assume that categorical knowledge is grounded in the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and affect. Neuroscience has influenced theories of the conceptual system by stressing principles of neural processing in neural networks and by motivating grounded theories of cognition, which propose that simulations of experience represent knowledge. Cognitive science has influenced theories of the conceptual system by documenting conceptual phenomena and symbolic operations that must be grounded in the brain. Significant progress in understanding the conceptual system is most likely to occur if cognitive and neural approaches achieve successful integration.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barsalou2008a,
      author = {Barsalou, Lawrence W.},
      title = {Cognitive and neural contributions to understanding the conceptual system},
      journal = {CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {17},
      number = {2},
      pages = {91-95}
    }
    
    BECHTEL, W. LEVELS OF DESCRIPTION AND EXPLANATION IN COGNITIVE SCIENCE {1994} MINDS AND MACHINES
    Vol. {4}({1}), pp. {1-25} 
    article  
    Abstract: The notion of levels has been widely used in discussions of cognitive science, especially in discussions of the relation of connectionism to symbolic modeling of cognition. I argue that many of the notions of levels employed are problematic for this purpose, and develop an alternative notion grounded in the framework of mechanistic explanation. By considering the source of the analogies underlying both symbolic modeling and connectionist modeling, I argue that neither is likely to provide an adequate analysis of processes at the level at which cognitive theories attempt to function: One is drawn from too low a level, the other from too high a level. If there is a distinctly cognitive level, then we still need to determine what are the basic organizational principles at that level.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BECHTEL1994,
      author = {BECHTEL, W},
      title = {LEVELS OF DESCRIPTION AND EXPLANATION IN COGNITIVE SCIENCE},
      journal = {MINDS AND MACHINES},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-25}
    }
    
    Bering, J.M. The folk psychology of souls {2006} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {29}({5}), pp. {453+} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present article examines how people's belief in an afterlife, as well as closely related supernatural beliefs, may open an empirical backdoor to our understanding of the evolution of human social cognition. Recent findings and logic from the cognitive sciences contribute to a novel theory of existential psychology, one that is grounded in the tenets of Darwinian natural selection. Many of the predominant questions of existential psychology strike at the heart of cognitive science. They involve: causal attribution (why is mortal behavior represented as being causally related to one's afterlife? how are dead agents envisaged as communicating messages to the living?), moral judgment (why are certain social behaviors, i.e., transgressions, believed to have ultimate repercussions after death or to reap the punishment of disgruntled ancestors?), theory of mind (how can we know what it is ``like'' to be dead? what social-cognitive strategies do people use to reason about the minds of the dead?), concept acquisition (how does a common-sense dualism interact with a formalized socio-religious indoctrination in childhood? how are supernatural properties of die dead conceptualized by young minds?), and teleological reasoning (why do people so often see their lives as being designed for a purpose that must be accomplished before they perish? how do various life events affect people's interpretation of this purpose?), among others. The central thesis of the present article is that an organized cognitive ``system'' dedicated to forming illusory representations of (1) psychological immortality, (2) the intelligent design of the self, and (3) the symbolic meaning of natural events evolved in response to the unique selective pressures of the human social environment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bering2006,
      author = {Bering, Jesse M.},
      title = {The folk psychology of souls},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {29},
      number = {5},
      pages = {453+}
    }
    
    Bilal, D. Children's information seeking and the design of digital interfaces in the affective paradigm {2005} LIBRARY TRENDS
    Vol. {54}({2}), pp. {197-208} 
    article  
    Abstract: Research reveals that affect imparts directionality to cognition, which in turn influences actions. The role of affect has been well recognized in psychology, computing, education, cognitive science, and neuroscience. However, little recognition has been given to the study of affect in the field of information science. In this article the term ``affective paradigm'' is introduced based on research grounded in many disciplines. Research that investigated children's affect in seeking information and participating in the design of digital interfaces is reviewed. Unanswered questions in these areas of study are addressed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bilal2005,
      author = {Bilal, D},
      title = {Children's information seeking and the design of digital interfaces in the affective paradigm},
      journal = {LIBRARY TRENDS},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {54},
      number = {2},
      pages = {197-208}
    }
    
    Bispham, J. Rhythm in music: What is it? Who has it? And why? {2006} MUSIC PERCEPTION
    Vol. {24}({2}), pp. {125-134} 
    article  
    Abstract: THIS ARTICLE EXPLORES HUMAN rhythmic abilities and behaviors within a framework of evolutionary theory highlighting the need for research in this area to be grounded upon solid psychologically valid definitions of rhythm. A wide-ranging cross-species comparison of rhythmic or quasi-rhythmic behaviors is presented with a view to exploring possible homologies and homoplasies to rhythm in human music. Sustained musical pulse and period correction mechanisms are put forward as human-specific and music-specific traits. Finally hypotheses as to why these abilities may have been selected for-and uniquely selected for-in the course of human evolution are explored.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bispham2006,
      author = {Bispham, John},
      title = {Rhythm in music: What is it? Who has it? And why?},
      journal = {MUSIC PERCEPTION},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {24},
      number = {2},
      pages = {125-134},
      note = {10th International Workshop on Rhythm Perception and Production, Bilzen, BELGIUM, JUL 02-06, 2005}
    }
    
    Blair, C. How similar are fluid cognition and general intelligence? A developmental neuroscience perspective on fluid cognition as an aspect of human cognitive ability {2006} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {29}({2}), pp. {109+} 
    article  
    Abstract: This target article considers the relation of fluid cognitive functioning to general intelligence. A neurobiological model differentiating working memory executive function cognitive processes of the prefrontal cortex from aspects of psychometrically defined general intelligence is presented. Work examining the rise in mean intelligence-test performance between normative cohorts, the neuropsychology and neuroscience of cognitive function in typically and atypically developing human populations, and stress, brain development, and corticolimbic connectivity in human and nonhuman animal models is reviewed and found to provide evidence of mechanisms through which early experience affects the development of an aspect of cognition closely related to, but distinct from, general intelligence. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of emotion in fluid cognition and on research indicating fluid cognitive deficits associated with early hippocampal pathology and with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress-response system. Findings are seen to be consistent with the idea of an independent fluid cognitive construct and to assist with the interpretation of findings from the study of early, compensatory education for children facing psychosocial adversity and from behavior genetic research oil intelligence. It is concluded that ongoing development of neurobiologically grounded measures of fluid cognitive skills appropriate for young children will play a key role in understanding early mental development and the adaptive success to which it is related, particularly for young children facing social and economic disadvantage. Specifically, in the evaluation of the efficacy of compensatory education efforts such as Head Start and the readiness for school of children from diverse backgrounds, it is important to distinguish fluid cognition from psychometrically defined general intelligence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Blair2006,
      author = {Blair, C},
      title = {How similar are fluid cognition and general intelligence? A developmental neuroscience perspective on fluid cognition as an aspect of human cognitive ability},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {29},
      number = {2},
      pages = {109+}
    }
    
    Blaison, C., Chassard, D., Kop, J.-L. & Gana, K. Implicit Association Test or the measure of implicit social cognition: a critical review of the validity and the theoretical basement of its scores {2006} ANNEE PSYCHOLOGIQUE
    Vol. {106}({2}), pp. {305-335} 
    article  
    Abstract: In order to remedy the limits of self-report measures (self-presentational biases, introspective limits...), several indirect measures have been developed. The Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwald, McGhee et Schwartz, 1998) is the one that has concentrated most interest and research: it is flexible enough to measure a broad range of constructs (attitude, personality, stereotypes...), and it produces reliable and encouraging criteria valid scores. But the construct validity of the IAT scores remains controversial because their interpretation is quite ambiguous. In the same vein, because of the lack of any strong theoretical background, the interpretation of the observed dissociations between direct (self-report) and indirect measures remains problematic. This leads to multiple discussions. These ``youthful limits'' however stimulate researchers' creativity and open new perspectives which should lead to more theoretically grounded measures.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Blaison2006,
      author = {Blaison, Christophe and Chassard, Delphine and Kop, Jean-Luc and Gana, Kamel},
      title = {Implicit Association Test or the measure of implicit social cognition: a critical review of the validity and the theoretical basement of its scores},
      journal = {ANNEE PSYCHOLOGIQUE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {106},
      number = {2},
      pages = {305-335}
    }
    
    Bleakley, A. Blunting Occam's razor: aligning medical education with studies of complexity {2010} JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE
    Vol. {16}({4}), pp. {849-855} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Clinical effectiveness and efficiency in medicine for patient benefit should be grounded in the quality of medical education. In turn, the quality of medical education should be informed by contemporary learning theory that offers high explanatory, exploratory and predictive power. Multiple team-based health care interventions and associated policy are now routinely explored and explained through complexity theory. Yet medical education - how medical students learn to become doctors and how doctors learn to become clinical specialists or primary care generalists - continues to refuse contemporary, work-based social learning theories that have deep resonance with models of complexity. This can be explained ideologically, where medicine is grounded in a tradition of heroic individualism and knowledge is treated as private capital. In contrast, social learning theories resonating with complexity theory emphasize adaptation through collaboration, where knowledge is commonly owned. The new era of clinical teamwork demands, however, that we challenge the tradition of autonomy, bringing social learning theories in from the cold, to reveal their affinities with complexity science and demonstrate their powers of illumination. Social learning theories informed by complexity science can act as a democratizing force in medical education, helping practitioners to work more effectively in non-linear, complex, dynamic systems through inter-professionalism, shared tolerance of ambiguity and distributed cognition. Taking complexity science seriously and applying its insights demands a shift in cultural mindset in medical education. Inevitably, patterns of resistance will arise to frustrate such potential innovation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bleakley2010,
      author = {Bleakley, Alan},
      title = {Blunting Occam's razor: aligning medical education with studies of complexity},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {16},
      number = {4},
      pages = {849-855},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1365-2753.2010.01498.x}}
    }
    
    Bohart, A. Intuition and creativity in psychotherapy {1999} JOURNAL OF CONSTRUCTIVIST PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {12}({4}), pp. {287-311} 
    article  
    Abstract: Human beings use cognition creatively. Rather than concepts and schemas forming the structure of mind through which stimuli are filtered and processed human beings are continually modifying and using concepts to try to deal with everyday life problems. Creativity also arises from tacit, intuitive knowing. Such knowing is grounded in bodily, experiential knowledge, which is nonconceptual. At the most basic level, human beings know the world more in terms of its aesthetics than in terms of the hind of conceptual analysis postulated by those who model the human after a naive scientist. The creative process is one of articulating tacit or experiential knowing in words or symbols, and then revising those words and symbols. Therapists also use this process. Creativity and the use of intuition in therapy are described, and a case history given.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bohart1999,
      author = {Bohart, AC},
      title = {Intuition and creativity in psychotherapy},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSTRUCTIVIST PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {12},
      number = {4},
      pages = {287-311}
    }
    
    Borghi, A.M. & Cimatti, F. Embodied cognition and beyond: Acting and sensing the body {2010} NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA
    Vol. {48}({3, Sp. Iss. SI}), pp. {763-773} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Embodied cognition (EC) underlines that cognition is constrained by the kind of body we possess, and stresses the importance of action for cognition. In this perspective the body is always considered as an acting body. Here, we review EC literature discussing studies that show that body parts are not considered independent of their involvement in action. We propose to extend EC perspective through studying the body independently from its direct involvement in goal-directed action. Through this we aim to avoid the risk of limiting the notion of ``sense of the body'' to the restricted boundaries of the flesh of brain-body system. In our extended perspective language is considered as a form of action too. We propose that: (a) internal language (i.e. social language used as an internal medium for thought and planning) can contribute to form a unitary sense of our body, and (b) language can help to reshape the way we implicitly perceive our own body. Namely, it can modify our sense of body by extending its boundaries beyond the boundaries of the anatomical body. We argue for an integrated notion of bodily self-suggesting that the internal sense and the boundaries of the human body coincide with the extensions that linguistic tools allow. In sum, the basic idea we hold is that human body is a social entity. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Borghi2010,
      author = {Borghi, Anna M. and Cimatti, Felice},
      title = {Embodied cognition and beyond: Acting and sensing the body},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {48},
      number = {3, Sp. Iss. SI},
      pages = {763-773},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.10.029}}
    }
    
    Botelho, L. & Coelho, H. Machinery for artificial emotions {2001} CYBERNETICS AND SYSTEMS
    Vol. {32}({5}), pp. {465-506} 
    article  
    Abstract: We present a preliminary definition and theory of artificial emotion viewed as a sequential process comprising the appraisal of the agent global state, the generation of an emotion-signal, and an emotion-response. This theory distinguishes cognitive from affective appraisal on an architecture-grounded basis. Affective appraisal is performed by the affective component of the architecture; cognitive appraisal is performed by its cognitive component. A scheme for emotion classification with seven dimensions is presented. Among them, we emphasize the roles played by emotions and the way these roles are fulfilled. It is shown how emotions are generated, represented, and used in the Salt & Pepper architecture for autonomous agents (Botelho, 1997). Salt & Pepper is a specific architecture comprising an affective engine, a cognitive and behavioral engine, and an interruption manager. Most properties of the cognitive and behavioral engine rely upon a hybrid associative, schema-based long-term memory. In Salt & Pepper, emotion-signals, represented by label, object of appraisal, urgency, and valence, are generated by the affective engine through the appraisal of the agent's global state. For each emotion-signal there are several nodes stored and interconnected in long-term memory. Each of these nodes contains an emotion response that may be executed when an emotion-signal is generated. Emotion intensity relates to the activation of the node. It is shown that the Salt & Pepper architecture for autonomous agents exhibits several properties usually related to emotion: state and mood congruence, compound emotions, autonomic emotion-responses, and different emotion-responses to the same stimulus including the generation of different motives. The implementation of a concrete example is described.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Botelho2001,
      author = {Botelho, LM and Coelho, H},
      title = {Machinery for artificial emotions},
      journal = {CYBERNETICS AND SYSTEMS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {32},
      number = {5},
      pages = {465-506},
      note = {5th International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, ZURICH, SWITZERLAND, AUG 17-21, 1998}
    }
    
    Butterfield, K., Trevino, L. & Ball, G. Punishment from the manager's perspective: A grounded investigation and inductive model {1996} ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL
    Vol. {39}({6}), pp. {1479-1512} 
    article  
    Abstract: We employed a qualitative interview technique to develop an inductive model of punishment from a managerial perspective. Findings suggest that managers feel pressure from a variety of sources-organizations, work groups, punished subordinates, and themselves. Managers are also aware that punishment is a highly charged cognitive and emotional event with broad and far-reaching effects that range well beyond punished subordinates and simply changing their attitudes and behaviors.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Butterfield1996,
      author = {Butterfield, KD and Trevino, LK and Ball, GA},
      title = {Punishment from the manager's perspective: A grounded investigation and inductive model},
      journal = {ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {39},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1479-1512}
    }
    
    Cader, R., Campbell, S. & Watson, D. Judging nursing information on the WWW: a theoretical understanding {2009} JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING
    Vol. {65}({9}), pp. {1916-1925} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Title. Judging nursing information on the WWW: a theoretical understanding. Aim. This paper is a report of a study of the judgement processes nurses use when evaluating World Wide Web information related to nursing practice. Background. The World Wide Web has increased the global accessibility of online health information. However, the variable nature of the quality of World Wide Web information and its perceived level of reliability may lead to misinformation. This makes demands on healthcare professionals, and on nurses in particular, to ensure that health information of reliable quality is selected for use in practice. Method. A grounded theory approach was adopted. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were used to collect data, between 2004 and 2005, from 20 nurses undertaking a postqualification graduate course at a university and 13 nurses from a local hospital in the United Kingdom. Findings. A theoretical framework emerged that gave insight into the judgement process nurses use when evaluating World Wide Web information. Participants broke the judgement process down into specific tasks. In addition, they used tacit, process and propositional knowledge and intuition, quasi-rational cognition and analysis to undertake these tasks. World Wide Web information cues, time available and nurses' critical skills were influencing factors in their judgement process. Conclusion. Addressing the issue of quality and reliability associated with World Wide Web information is a global challenge. This theoretical framework could contribute towards meeting this challenge.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cader2009,
      author = {Cader, Raffik and Campbell, Steve and Watson, Don},
      title = {Judging nursing information on the WWW: a theoretical understanding},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {65},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1916-1925},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05093.x}}
    }
    
    Callon, M. & Muniesa, F. Economic markets as calculative collective devices {2005} ORGANIZATION STUDIES
    Vol. {26}({8}), pp. {1229-1250} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: How to address empirically the calculative character of markets without dissolving it? In our paper, we propose a theoretical framework that helps to deal with markets without suspending their calculative properties. In the first section, we construct a broad definition of calculation, grounded on the anthropology of science and techniques. In the next sections, we apply this definition to three constitutive elements of markets: economic goods, economic agents and economic exchanges. First, we examine the question of the calculability of goods: in order to be calculated, goods must be calculable. In the following section, we introduce the notion of calculative distributed agencies to understand how these calculable goods are actually calculated. Thirdly, we consider the rules and material devices that organize the encounter between (and aggregation of) individual supplies and demands, i.e. the specific organizations that allow for a calculated exchange and a market output. Those three elements define concrete markets as collective organized devices that calculate compromises on the values of goods. In each, we encounter different versions of our broad definition of calculation, which we illustrate with examples, mainly taken from the fields of financial markets and mass retail.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Callon2005,
      author = {Callon, M and Muniesa, F},
      title = {Economic markets as calculative collective devices},
      journal = {ORGANIZATION STUDIES},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {26},
      number = {8},
      pages = {1229-1250},
      note = {Workshop on Market(ing) Practice in Shaping Markets, Skebo, SWEDEN, JUN, 2003},
      doi = {{10.1177/0170840605056393}}
    }
    
    Cangelosi, A. The sensorimotor bases of linguistic structure: Experiments with grounded adaptive agents {2004} From Animals to Animats 8, pp. {487-496}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: This research uses grounded adaptive agents for investigating the evolutionary origins of syntactic categories, such as nouns and verbs. To analyze the sensorimotor bases of linguistic structure, the techniques of categorical perception and of synthetic brain imaging are employed. The simulation uses two different architectures for the adaptive agent's neural controller. Analyses show that the neural processing of verbs is consistently localized in the regions of the networks that perform sensorimotor integration, while nouns are associated with sensory processing areas. The general implications of such model and of the analysis techniques for adaptive behavior and language evolution research are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Cangelosi2004,
      author = {Cangelosi, A},
      title = {The sensorimotor bases of linguistic structure: Experiments with grounded adaptive agents},
      booktitle = {From Animals to Animats 8},
      year = {2004},
      pages = {487-496},
      note = {8th International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior (SAB 2004), Los Angeles, CA, JUL 13-17, 2004}
    }
    
    Cangelosi, A. Grounding language in action and perception: From cognitive agents to humanoid robots {2010} PHYSICS OF LIFE REVIEWS
    Vol. {7}({2}), pp. {139-151} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In this review we concentrate on a grounded approach to the modeling of cognition through the methodologies of cognitive agents and developmental robotics. This work will focus on the modeling of the evolutionary and developmental acquisition of linguistic capabilities based on the principles of symbol grounding. We review cognitive agent and developmental robotics models of the grounding of language to demonstrate their consistency with the empirical and theoretical evidence on language grounding and embodiment, and to reveal the benefits of such an approach in the design of linguistic capabilities in cognitive robotic agents. In particular, three different models will be discussed, where the complexity of the agent's sensorimotor and cognitive system gradually increases: from a multi-agent simulation of language evolution, to a simulated robotic agent model for symbol grounding transfer, to a model of language comprehension in the humanoid robot iCub. The review also discusses the benefits of the use of humanoid robotic platform, and specifically of the open source iCub platform, for the study of embodied cognition. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cangelosi2010,
      author = {Cangelosi, Angelo},
      title = {Grounding language in action and perception: From cognitive agents to humanoid robots},
      journal = {PHYSICS OF LIFE REVIEWS},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {139-151},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.plrev.2010.02.001}}
    }
    
    Cangelosi, A. Adaptive agent modeling of distributed language: investigations on the effects of cultural variation and internal action representations {2007} LANGUAGE SCIENCES
    Vol. {29}({5}), pp. {633-649} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In this paper we present the ``grounded adaptive agent'' computational framework for studying the emergence of communication and language. This modeling framework is based on simulations of population of cognitive agents that evolve linguistic capabilities by interacting with their social and physical environment (internal and external symbol grounding). These models provide an integrative vision of language where the linguistic abilities of cognitive agents strictly depend on other social, sensorimotor, neural and cognitive capabilities. Here language is not seen as an isolated and dedicated symbol processing system, but rather as a heterogeneous set of artifacts implicated in cultural and cognitive activities. The proposed modeling approach is also closely related to embodied cognition theories of the grounding of language in the organism's perceptual and motor systems. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cangelosi2007a,
      author = {Cangelosi, Angelo},
      title = {Adaptive agent modeling of distributed language: investigations on the effects of cultural variation and internal action representations},
      journal = {LANGUAGE SCIENCES},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {29},
      number = {5},
      pages = {633-649},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.langsci.2006.12.026}}
    }
    
    Cangelosi, A. & Riga, T. An embodied model for sensorimotor grounding and grounding transfer: Experiments with epigenetic robots {2006} COGNITIVE SCIENCE
    Vol. {30}({4}), pp. {673-689} 
    article  
    Abstract: The grounding of symbols in computational models of linguistic abilities is one of the fundamental properties of psychologically plausible cognitive models. In this article, we present an embodied model for the grounding of language in action based on epigenetic robots. Epigenetic robotics is one of the new cognitive modeling approaches to modeling autonomous mental development. The robot model is based on an integrative vision of language in which linguistic abilities are strictly dependent on and grounded in other behaviors and skills. It uses simulated robots that learn through imitation the names of basic actions. Robots also learn higher order action concepts through the process of grounding transfer. The simulation demonstrates how new, higher order behavioral abilities can be autonomously built on previously grounded basic action categories following linguistic interaction with human users.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cangelosi2006,
      author = {Cangelosi, Angelo and Riga, Thomas},
      title = {An embodied model for sensorimotor grounding and grounding transfer: Experiments with epigenetic robots},
      journal = {COGNITIVE SCIENCE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {30},
      number = {4},
      pages = {673-689}
    }
    
    Cangelosi, A., Tikhanoff, V., Fontanari, J.F. & Hourdakis, E. Integrating language and cognition: A cognitive robotics approach {2007} IEEE COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE
    Vol. {2}({3}), pp. {65-70} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this paper, we present some recent cognitive robotics studies on language and cognition integration to demonstrate how the language acquired by robotic agents can be directly grounded in action representations. These studies are characterized by the hypothesis that symbols are directly grounded into the agents' own categorical representations, while at the same time having logical (e.g. syntactic) relationships with other symbols. The two robotics studies are based on the combination of cognitive robotics with neural modeling methodologies, such as connectionist models and modeling field theory. Simulations demonstrate the efficacy of the mechanisms of action grounding of language and the symbol grounding transfer in agents that acquire a lexicon via imitation and linguistic instructions. The paper also discusses the scientific and technological implications of such an approach.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cangelosi2007,
      author = {Cangelosi, Angelo and Tikhanoff, Vadim and Fontanari, Jose Fernando and Hourdakis, Emmanouil},
      title = {Integrating language and cognition: A cognitive robotics approach},
      journal = {IEEE COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {2},
      number = {3},
      pages = {65-70}
    }
    
    Casey, D. & Brugha, C. From fighting fires to building bridges: The role of metaphor in systems requirements {2005} 2005 IEEE International Professional Communication Conference (IPCC), pp. {813-828}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: The problems of systems development have been called a chronic affliction with no apparent cure. We see issues of misunderstanding: misunderstanding in the practice of communication and misunderstanding of the nature of the communication at the heart of this problem. We illustrate the standard model of systems requirements, a reductionist model based on the conduit metaphor of communications, which minimises proper understanding. We describe how this approach is conceptually flawed and use developments from cognitive science to gain a deeper understanding of embodied cognition and the role of metaphor in communication. We show how even our understanding and application of understanding is confined by the usage of analogies and metaphors such as `grasping' and `filling' which relate to physical objects. We show that avoiding reductionism is more challenging than not using the conduit approach. It requires working with the problems at the second level. We need to identify and use metaphors about understanding that do not cause an unconscious dumbing down of the processes involved in systems development. Concluding that conceptual difficulties will necessarily arise when groups are working with different metaphorical concepts grounded in their personal experience, we suggest some approaches for improving communication.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Casey2005,
      author = {Casey, D and Brugha, C},
      title = {From fighting fires to building bridges: The role of metaphor in systems requirements},
      booktitle = {2005 IEEE International Professional Communication Conference (IPCC)},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {813-828},
      note = {IEEE International Professional Communication Conference (IPCC), Limerick, IRELAND, JUL 10-13, 2005}
    }
    
    Castellanos, F., Sonuga-Barke, E., Milham, M. & Tannock, R. Characterizing cognition in ADHD: beyond executive dysfunction {2006} TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES
    Vol. {10}({3}), pp. {117-123} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The hypothesis that Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) reflects a primary inhibitory executive function deficit has spurred a substantial literature. However, empirical findings and methodological issues challenge the etiologic primacy of inhibitory and executive deficits in ADHD. Based on accumulating evidence of increased intra-individual variability in ADHD, we reconsider executive dysfunction in light of distinctions between `hot' and `cool' executive function measures. We propose an integrative model that incorporates new neuroanatornical findings and emphasizes the interactions between parallel processing pathways as potential loci for dysfunction. Such a reconceptualization provides a means to transcend the limits of current models of executive dysfunction in ADHD and suggests a plan for future research on cognition grounded in neurophysiological and developmental considerations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Castellanos2006,
      author = {Castellanos, FX and Sonuga-Barke, EJS and Milham, MP and Tannock, R},
      title = {Characterizing cognition in ADHD: beyond executive dysfunction},
      journal = {TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {117-123},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.tics.2006.01.011}}
    }
    
    Cattuto, C., Barrat, A., Baldassarri, A., Schehr, G. & Loreto, V. Collective dynamics of social annotation {2009} PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
    Vol. {106}({26}), pp. {10511-10515} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The enormous increase of popularity and use of the worldwide web has led in the recent years to important changes in the ways people communicate. An interesting example of this fact is provided by the now very popular social annotation systems, through which users annotate resources (such as web pages or digital photographs) with keywords known as ``tags.'' Understanding the rich emergent structures resulting from the uncoordinated actions of users calls for an interdisciplinary effort. In particular concepts borrowed from statistical physics, such as random walks (RWs), and complex networks theory, can effectively contribute to the mathematical modeling of social annotation systems. Here, we show that the process of social annotation can be seen as a collective but uncoordinated exploration of an underlying semantic space, pictured as a graph, through a series of RWs. This modeling framework reproduces several aspects, thus far unexplained, of social annotation, among which are the peculiar growth of the size of the vocabulary used by the community and its complex network structure that represents an externalization of semantic structures grounded in cognition and that are typically hard to access.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cattuto2009,
      author = {Cattuto, Ciro and Barrat, Alain and Baldassarri, Andrea and Schehr, Gregory and Loreto, Vittorio},
      title = {Collective dynamics of social annotation},
      journal = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {106},
      number = {26},
      pages = {10511-10515},
      doi = {{10.1073/pnas.0901136106}}
    }
    
    Cha, M.-S. & Bae, Z.-T. Entrepreneurial Journey: Emergence from Entrepreneurial Intent to Opportunity Realization {2008} 2008 PORTLAND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MANAGEMENT OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, VOLS 1-5, pp. {777-786}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: Entrepreneurial journey of new business creation starts when a business opportunity is discovered by nascent entrepreneurs. There are many obstacles along the journey, and must be an `internal driving force' to create entrepreneurial actions for problem solving. This paper develops a new concept of `entrepreneurial intent' as an internal driving force of opportunity realization with `drive' (sense of crisis) and `directivity' (sense of opportunity). Furthermore, it presents a theory of the underlying entrepreneurial process with entrepreneurial intent. Case study methods and grounded theory building are utilized. The results based on cases from high-tech venture firms in Korea show that entrepreneurial intent toward a new opportunity is emerged to collective actions for combining new resources to create new values. The entrepreneurial intent is the extreme level of achievement motivation which is comprised of arousal, direction, and duration (reducing the cognition gap), and drives 3C effects such as `channeling', `concentrating' and `continuing' of entrepreneurial actions. The entrepreneurial actions, in turn, make more chances of serendipity in the external process of networking and gaining resources (reducing the resource gap), and the internal process of value creation. Value creation finally converts discovered opportunities into realized opportunities to complete the entrepreneurial journey.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Cha2008,
      author = {Cha, Min-Seok and Bae, Zong-Tae},
      title = {Entrepreneurial Journey: Emergence from Entrepreneurial Intent to Opportunity Realization},
      booktitle = {2008 PORTLAND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MANAGEMENT OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, VOLS 1-5},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {777-786},
      note = {Portland International Conference on Management Engineering and Technology, Cape Town, SOUTH AFRICA, JUL 27-31, 2008}
    }
    
    Chan, P.Y.K. Examining the Psychological Impact of Video Cases for Teacher Education {2005}
    Vol. {133}TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND SCALABLE EDUCATIONAL INNOVATIONS INFORMED BY LEARNING SCIENCES, pp. {42-50} 
    inproceedings  
    Abstract: This study examines teachers' cognitive development when interacting with video ethnography, a form of video cases. It used grounded theory to discover embedded meanings and relationships that emerge from descriptive data collected from six teachers. Findings revealed the categories of cognitive activities when using video ethnography and teachers' progression in a cognitive development process through interaction with video ethnography. The study has implications in improving technology use in teacher development, production of video cases, and research on case-based pedagogy and other related areas.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Chan2005,
      author = {Chan, Peter Y. K.},
      title = {Examining the Psychological Impact of Video Cases for Teacher Education},
      booktitle = {TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND SCALABLE EDUCATIONAL INNOVATIONS INFORMED BY LEARNING SCIENCES},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {133},
      pages = {42-50},
      note = {13th International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCCE 2005), Singapore, SINGAPORE, DEC 08-30, 2005}
    }
    
    Chen, J. Teacher's conceptions of excellent teaching in middle school in the north of China {2007} ASIA PACIFIC EDUCATION REVIEW
    Vol. {8}({2}), pp. {288-297} 
    article  
    Abstract: Knowing how teachers in China understand excellence in teaching is an important precursor to developing teaching standards. This study explores the conceptions of excellent teaching held by 20 middle school teachers in the north of China. A phenomenographic approach with grounded theory was used to interpret teachers' descriptions of a time when they delivered excellent teaching. Four main themes were found: (1) caring for students, (2) guiding students' all-round development, (3) connecting school knowledge/work to other areas, and (4) planning and preparing structured lessons. In contrast to other Western and Chinese descriptions of excellent teaching, these teachers were much less transmission, examination, or professionally oriented and exhibited much more nurturing, facilitative, and apprenticeship characteristics.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chen2007,
      author = {Chen, Junjun},
      title = {Teacher's conceptions of excellent teaching in middle school in the north of China},
      journal = {ASIA PACIFIC EDUCATION REVIEW},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {288-297}
    }
    
    Clarke, S. SIM and the City: Rationalism in Psychology and Philosophy and Haidt's Account of Moral Judgment {2008} PHILOSOPHICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {21}({6}), pp. {799-820} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Jonathan Haidt (2001) advances the `Social Intuitionist' account of moral judgment, which he presents as an alternative to rationalist accounts of moral judgment, hitherto dominant in psychology. Here I consider Haidt's anti-rationalism and the debate that it has provoked in moral psychology, as well as some anti-rationalist philosophical claims that Haidt and others have grounded in the empirical work of Haidt and his collaborators. I will argue that although the case for anti-rationalism in moral psychology based on the work of Haidt and his collaborators is plausible, a decisive case has yet to be made. It will require further experimental evidence before a decisive case could be made. My assessment of anti-rationalist philosophical arguments that are grounded in the empirical work of Haidt and his collaborators is much more negative than this. I will argue that this body of empirical work is a very unpromising basis for such arguments.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Clarke2008,
      author = {Clarke, Steve},
      title = {SIM and the City: Rationalism in Psychology and Philosophy and Haidt's Account of Moral Judgment},
      journal = {PHILOSOPHICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {21},
      number = {6},
      pages = {799-820},
      doi = {{10.1080/09515080802513250}}
    }
    
    Cokely, E.T. & Feltz, A. Adaptive variation in judgment and philosophical intuition Reply {2009} CONSCIOUSNESS AND COGNITION
    Vol. {18}({1}), pp. {356-358} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Our theoretical understanding of individual differences can be used as a tool to test and refine theory. Individual differences are useful because judgments, including philosophically relevant intuitions, are the predictable products of the fit between adaptive psychological mechanisms (e.g., heuristics, traits, skills, capacities) and task constraints. As an illustration of this method and its potential implications, our target article used a canonical, representative, and affectively charged judgment task to reveal a relationship between the heritable personality trait extraversion and some compatabilist judgments. In the current Reply, we further clarify major theoretical implications of these data and outline potential opportunities and obstacles for this methodology. Discussion focuses on (I) the need for theoretically grounded a priori predictions; (2) the use of precise process level data and theory; (3) the possibility of convergent validity as personality is known to predict life experiences and outcomes; and (4) the fundamentally adaptive nature of cognition. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cokely2009,
      author = {Cokely, Edward T. and Feltz, Adam},
      title = {Adaptive variation in judgment and philosophical intuition Reply},
      journal = {CONSCIOUSNESS AND COGNITION},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {18},
      number = {1},
      pages = {356-358},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.concog.2009.01.001}}
    }
    
    Cowley, S.J. Language and biosemiosis: Towards unity? {2006} SEMIOTICA
    Vol. {162}({1-4}), pp. {417-443} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The paper reviews and extends the debate at the core of Language and Interaction. Having endorsed John Gumperz's descriptions of contextualization, I consider how this is theorized. With his critics, I find the compelling accounts to be linked with inadequate explanation of events. Mistakenly, Gumperz invokes `cues' or physical invariants. In fact, as Thibault suggests, the indexicality of talk is grounded in material practice. The incompatibility of description and explanation takes us to the limits of analysis. Rejecting appeal to `meaning potential,' therefore, I turn to cognitive science. Stressing that much cognition is occurs beyond skin and skull, I posit that contextualization arises from interpersonal dynamics. Viewing it as unintended meaning that occurs between acting subjects, I endorse Sebeok's view that communication extends the sensorium. On this distributed view, I sketch a theory based on three main sources. By stressing interpersonal dynamics, I link Kirsh and Maglio's work on epistemic action, Damasio's theory of core-consciousness, and Barbieri's model of biosemiosis. This enables me to leave Gumperz's description intact by focusing - not on cues - but a subject's life history. During talk, we integrate vocal and visible dynamics with judgments arising from how experience impacts on our updating feeling-of-what-happens.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cowley2006,
      author = {Cowley, Stephen J.},
      title = {Language and biosemiosis: Towards unity?},
      journal = {SEMIOTICA},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {162},
      number = {1-4},
      pages = {417-443},
      doi = {{10.1515/SEM.2006.088}}
    }
    
    Crespi, B. & Badcock, C. Psychosis and autism as diametrical disorders of the social brain {2008} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {31}({3}), pp. {241+} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Autistic-spectrum conditions and psychotic-spectrum conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression) represent two major suites of disorders of human cognition, affect, and behavior that involve altered development and function of the social brain. We describe evidence that a large set of phenotypic traits exhibit diametrically opposite phenotypes in autistic-spectrum versus psychotic-spectrum conditions, with a focus on schizophrenia. This suite of traits is inter-correlated, in that autism involves a general pattern of constrained overgrowth, whereas schizophrenia involves undergrowth. These disorders also exhibit diametric patterns for traits related to social brain development, including aspects of gaze, agency, social cognition, local versus global processing, language, and behavior. Social cognition is thus underdeveloped in autistic-spectrum conditions and hyper-developed on the psychotic spectrum. We propose and evaluate a novel hypothesis that may help to explain these diametric phenotypes: that the development of these two sets of conditions is mediated in part by alterations of genomic imprinting. Evidence regarding the genetic, physiological, neurological, and psychological underpinnings of psychotic-spectrum conditions supports the hypothesis that the etiologies of these conditions involve biases towards increased relative effects from imprinted genes with maternal expression, which engender a general pattern of undergrowth. By contrast, autistic-spectrum conditions appear to involve increased relative bias towards effects of paternally expressed genes, which mediate overgrowth. This hypothesis provides a simple yet comprehensive theory, grounded in evolutionary biology and genetics, for understanding the causes and phenotypes of autistic-spectrum and psychotic-spectrum conditions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Crespi2008,
      author = {Crespi, Bernard and Badcock, Christopher},
      title = {Psychosis and autism as diametrical disorders of the social brain},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {31},
      number = {3},
      pages = {241+},
      doi = {{10.1017/S0140525X08004214}}
    }
    
    Crespi, B. & Badcock, C. The evolutionary social brain: From genes to psychiatric conditions {2008} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {31}({3}), pp. {284-320} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The commentaries on our target article, ``Psychosis and Autism as Diametrical Disorders of the Social Brain,'' reflect the multidisciplinary yet highly fragmented state of current studies of human social cognition. Progress in our understanding of the human social brain must come from studies that integrate across diverse analytic levels, using conceptual frameworks grounded in evolutionary biology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Crespi2008a,
      author = {Crespi, Bernard and Badcock, Christopher},
      title = {The evolutionary social brain: From genes to psychiatric conditions},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {31},
      number = {3},
      pages = {284-320},
      doi = {{10.1017/S0140525X08004457}}
    }
    
    Crucitti, P., Latora, V. & Porta, S. Centrality in networks of urban streets {2006} CHAOS
    Vol. {16}({1}) 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Centrality has revealed crucial for understanding the structural properties of complex relational networks. Centrality is also relevant for various spatial factors affecting human life and behaviors in cities. Here, we present a comprehensive study of centrality distributions over geographic networks of urban streets. Five different measures of centrality, namely degree, closeness, betweenness, straightness and information, are compared over 18 1-square-mile samples of different world cities. Samples are represented by primal geographic graphs, i.e., valued graphs defined by metric rather than topologic distance where intersections are turned into nodes and streets into edges. The spatial behavior of centrality indices over the networks is investigated graphically by means of color-coded maps. The results indicate that a spatial analysis, that we term multiple centrality assessment, grounded not on a single but on a set of different centrality indices, allows an extended comprehension of the city structure, nicely capturing the skeleton of most central routes and subareas that so much impacts on spatial cognition and on collective dynamical behaviors. Statistically, closeness, straightness and betweenness turn out to follow similar functional distribution in all cases, despite the extreme diversity of the considered cities. Conversely, information is found to be exponential in planned cities and to follow a power-law scaling in self-organized cities. Hierarchical clustering analysis, based either on the Gini coefficients of the centrality distributions, or on the correlation between different centrality measures, is able to characterize classes of cities. (C) 2006 American Institute of Physics.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Crucitti2006,
      author = {Crucitti, P and Latora, V and Porta, S},
      title = {Centrality in networks of urban streets},
      journal = {CHAOS},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {16},
      number = {1},
      doi = {{10.1063/1.2150162}}
    }
    
    Dale, R. & Spivey, M. A linguistic module for integrating the senses, or a house of cards? {2002} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {25}({6}), pp. {681+} 
    article  
    Abstract: Carruthers invokes a number of controversial assumptions to support his thesis. Most are questionable and unnecessary to investigate the wider relevance of language in cognition. A number of research programs (e.g., interactionist psycliolinguistics and cognitive linguistics) have for years pursued a similar thesis and provide a more empirically grounded framework for investigating languages cognitive functions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dale2002,
      author = {Dale, R and Spivey, M},
      title = {A linguistic module for integrating the senses, or a house of cards?},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {25},
      number = {6},
      pages = {681+}
    }
    
    Decety, J. Empathy naturalized {2002} ENCEPHALE-REVUE DE PSYCHIATRIE CLINIQUE BIOLOGIQUE ET THERAPEUTIQUE
    Vol. {28}({1}), pp. {9-20} 
    article  
    Abstract: Empathy is the ability to share emotions with others. It is acknowledged to be a powerful means of tacit communication, a key ingredient in any therapeutic relationship as well as in psychotherapy. Empathy is the cornerstone in the humanist perspective (Ego-psychology) in clinical psychology. This approach is often considered as poorly grounded on scientific and objective evidence. It is however acknowledged that empathetic therapists are more effective than less empathetic therapists. I shall argue that this paradox, i.e. it is the least scientific and the less validated psychotherapeutic approach that is the most efficient, can be eliminated if one considers the nature of empathy, its biological foundation, its evolutionary origin and its cognitive architecture. In this paper I will suggest that empathy is based on specific information processing modules which have been designed by natural selection to cope with social regularities in expressing and reading emotional states. This has provided adaptive benefits to individuals living in large groups bestowing them with mechanisms for cooperativity, altruism and more generally various aspects of prosocial behaviour. The capacity to express emotions, and to read and understand emotions of others also ensures implicit communication with others and may be at the root of intersubjectivity. This perspective on empathy is then articulated with two concurrent hypotheses regarding theory of mind (the simulation and the theory-theory) which aim to explain the human capacity to understand that the behaviors of other intelligent agents are caused by intentions, desires and beliefs. In this context, empathy can be considered as a simulation (or analogical) process that is necessary to understand but not sufficient to interpret other people. This last issue is relevant to clinical practice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Decety2002,
      author = {Decety, J},
      title = {Empathy naturalized},
      journal = {ENCEPHALE-REVUE DE PSYCHIATRIE CLINIQUE BIOLOGIQUE ET THERAPEUTIQUE},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {28},
      number = {1},
      pages = {9-20}
    }
    
    Dixon, J.A., Stephen, D.G., Boncoddo, R. & Anastas, J. THE SELF-ORGANIZATION OF COGNITIVE STRUCTURE {2010}
    Vol. {52}PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND MOTIVATION: ADVANCES IN RESEARCH AND THEORY, VOL 52, pp. {343-384} 
    incollection DOI  
    Abstract: Explaining the emergence of new structure is a fundamental challenge for theories of cognition. In this chapter, we provide evidence for a physical account of the emergence of new cognitive structure, grounded in work on self-organization. After introducing the issue of new structure, we discuss the relation between a physical account of cognition and current approaches that ascribe causal power to information transfer. We then review results demonstrating a strong link between action and the development of a new representation during problem solving; these findings highlight the difficulty that information-transfer approaches encounter in explaining new structure. We next introduce self-organization, a phenomenon that occurs in open thermodynamic systems. Evidence for a central prediction from self-organization is reviewed: entropy should peak and then drop just prior to the emergence of a new cognitive structure. We further show that injecting entropy into the system sends the cognitive system through its transition to new structure more quickly. Finally, a set of converging predictions, changes in power-law behavior, are demonstrated for two tasks. The promise and challenges of developing a physical approach to cognition are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{Dixon2010,
      author = {Dixon, James A. and Stephen, Damian G. and Boncoddo, Rebecca and Anastas, Jason},
      title = {THE SELF-ORGANIZATION OF COGNITIVE STRUCTURE},
      booktitle = {PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND MOTIVATION: ADVANCES IN RESEARCH AND THEORY, VOL 52},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {52},
      pages = {343-384},
      doi = {{10.1016/S0079-7421(10)52009-7}}
    }
    
    Do, S. & Schallert, D. Emotions and classroom talk: Toward a model of the role of affect in students' experiences of classroom discussions {2004} JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {96}({4}), pp. {619-634} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: To understand the role of affect in classroom discussion, the authors asked 16 students taking a 3-hr seminar to participate in a semester-long grounded theory inquiry. Coding of classroom observations, stimulated recall interviews, and self-ratings from each class meeting resulted in a model of affect as a catalyst in,students' experience of classroom discussion, both moment by moment and cumulatively across the semester. Influenced by personal and contextual factors, four main actions-attending, listening, talking, and tuning out-constituted the experience of discussion, with affect playing a key role. The consequences of this dynamic system of affect, cognition, and action in discussion were that students learned content, became more aware of social aspects, experienced different affective states, and changed their motivation to talk in future discussions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Do2004,
      author = {Do, SL and Schallert, DL},
      title = {Emotions and classroom talk: Toward a model of the role of affect in students' experiences of classroom discussions},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {96},
      number = {4},
      pages = {619-634},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-0663.96.4.619}}
    }
    
    Dobratz, M. The pattern of the becoming-self in death and dying {2002} NURSING SCIENCE QUARTERLY
    Vol. {15}({2}), pp. {137-142} 
    article  
    Abstract: As part of a triangulated study that examined psychological adaptation in home hospice patients, the grounded theory method was used to generate social-psychological processes of dying. The pattern of the becoming-self was one of seven patterns that emerged. The responses and reactions of 15 dying persons described a pattern that was shaped by self-integration, inner cognition, creation of personal meanings, and connection to others and a higher being. The becoming-self supported humanism and veritivity as defined in adaptation nursing theory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dobratz2002,
      author = {Dobratz, MC},
      title = {The pattern of the becoming-self in death and dying},
      journal = {NURSING SCIENCE QUARTERLY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {15},
      number = {2},
      pages = {137-142}
    }
    
    Dobratz, M. The self-transacting dying: Patterns of social-psychological adaptation in home hospice patients {2002} OMEGA-JOURNAL OF DEATH AND DYING
    Vol. {46}({2}), pp. {151-167} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study explored the perceptions and reactions of individuals as they dealt with the dying process. As part of a triangulated methodology, the grounded theory method recorded, coded, and analyzed the spontaneous responses of 97 adult home hospice patients. The central construct that emerged was self-transactions. The self-transacting dying was represented by higher and lower patterns of social-psychological integration that reflected the cognition, feelings, and meanings of one's death as well as the supportive others who sustained them. The seven patterns of the self-transacting dying were: transcending; becoming; reconciling; agonizing; avoiding; relinquishing; and repressing. Along with the seven patterns, the self-transactions included a core concept called the integrating forces. The integrating forces were the person/environment influences and a dialectical motion between positive and negative forces of these influences.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dobratz2002a,
      author = {Dobratz, MC},
      title = {The self-transacting dying: Patterns of social-psychological adaptation in home hospice patients},
      journal = {OMEGA-JOURNAL OF DEATH AND DYING},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {46},
      number = {2},
      pages = {151-167}
    }
    
    Dodd, S. Metaphors and meaning - A grounded cultural model of us entrepreneurship {2002} JOURNAL OF BUSINESS VENTURING
    Vol. {17}({5}), pp. {519-535} 
    article  
    Abstract: A grounded cultural model of US entrepreneurship is developed by analysing the metaphors that entrepreneurs use to give meaning to entrepreneurship in their life-and-business narratives. The resultant cultural model is coherent and internally consistent, and is helpful in providing stronger insights into entrepreneurs' own perspectives, aspirations, and cognition of the entrepreneurial process. Close to Schumpeter's conception of the entrepreneur, it nevertheless contains elements that are markedly American, and can be contrasted both with European mental models of entrepreneurship, and metaphorically derived models of organisational behaviour. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dodd2002,
      author = {Dodd, SD},
      title = {Metaphors and meaning - A grounded cultural model of us entrepreneurship},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF BUSINESS VENTURING},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {17},
      number = {5},
      pages = {519-535}
    }
    
    Dominey, P.F. Towards a construction-based framework for development of language, event perception and social cognition: Insights from grounded robotics and simulation {2007} NEUROCOMPUTING
    Vol. {70}({13-15, Sp. Iss. SI}), pp. {2288-2302} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The current research addresses the question of how neurocomputational mechanisms developed for a given cognitive function can be adapted to novel functions. In this context, research in language development has contributed to the concept of grammatical construction defined in terms of a functional mapping between the surface structure of an utterance, and its meaning. The objective of the current research is to generalize this notion of construction, and demonstrate its possible application in two cognitive areas that are adjacent and related to language, notably the understanding of physical events based on vision, and the understanding of the intentions of other agents based on observation of their behavior in the context of a perceptually grounded robotic system. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dominey2007,
      author = {Dominey, Peter Ford},
      title = {Towards a construction-based framework for development of language, event perception and social cognition: Insights from grounded robotics and simulation},
      journal = {NEUROCOMPUTING},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {70},
      number = {13-15, Sp. Iss. SI},
      pages = {2288-2302},
      note = {3rd International Conference on Development and Learning (ICDL 2004), La Jolla, CA, OCT 20-22, 2004},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neucom.2006.02.030}}
    }
    
    Doos, M., Backstrom, T. & Sundstrom-Frisk, C. Human actions and errors in risk handling - an empirically grounded discussion of cognitive action-regulation levels {2004} SAFETY SCIENCE
    Vol. {42}({3}), pp. {185-204} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Knowledge and error flow from the same mental sources, only success can tell the one from the other (Mach, E., 1905. Knowledge and Error. Sketches on the Psychology of Enquiry. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht (translated into English, 1976). The current paper is concerned with human actions and errors that have accidents with an injury outcome as their consequence. Its aims are to identify and describe the occurrence of risk-triggering and risk-creating human errors, and to analyze the cognitive regulation levels of risk-triggering actions. This provides a basis on which to discuss some difficulties involved in the assigning of regulation levels to actions. The empirical material employed in the paper consists of data from 76 in-depth investigations of accidents in automated production. Risk-creating errors were found in 93% of cases, and were made at various organizational levels in the companies. The amount of and character of the risk-creating errors point to the importance of interventions that promote learning at the levels of the work team and the organization. In 88% of cases there was also a human error that triggered the risk. Risk-triggering errors were made at all cognitive-regulation levels. The conclusions concern methodological issues and theoretical question marks arising. There emerged a need to distinguish between the outcome of an action and its further consequences. Classification of regulation levels involved in human error was found to be fraught with difficulties when drawing boundaries between levels. Actions at different levels appeared to intervene and take over from each other, leaving errors at category interfaces. The structural aspect of action as a composite phenomenon might mean that it is not always possible to assign any particular act to a specific level, and since a task or an action usually is composed of several behavioral components the action could be assigned to several levels simultaneously. This raises questions concerning the applicability of the Skill-Rule-Knowledge (SRK) model to triggering errors in automated production. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Doos2004,
      author = {Doos, M and Backstrom, T and Sundstrom-Frisk, C},
      title = {Human actions and errors in risk handling - an empirically grounded discussion of cognitive action-regulation levels},
      journal = {SAFETY SCIENCE},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {42},
      number = {3},
      pages = {185-204},
      doi = {{10.1016/S0925-7535(03)00026-2}}
    }
    
    Eccles, D., Walsh, S. & Ingledew, D. A grounded theory of expert cognition in orienteering {2002} JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {24}({1}), pp. {68-88} 
    article  
    Abstract: The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of expert cognition in orienteering. The British orienteering squad was interviewed (N = 17) and grounded theory was used to develop a theory of expert cognition in orienteering. A task constraint identified as central to orienteering is the requirement to manage attention to three sources of information: the map, the environment, and travel. Optimal management is constrained by limited processing resources. However, consistent with the research literature, the results reveal considerable adaptations by experts to task constraints, characterized primarily by various cognitive skills including anticipation and simplification. By anticipating the environment from the map, and by simplifying the information required to navigate, expert orienteers can circumvent processing limitations. Implications of this theory for other domains involving navigation, and for the coaching process within the sport, are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eccles2002,
      author = {Eccles, DW and Walsh, SE and Ingledew, DK},
      title = {A grounded theory of expert cognition in orienteering},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {24},
      number = {1},
      pages = {68-88}
    }
    
    Elsbach, K., Barr, P. & Hargadon, A. Identifying situated cognition in organizations {2005} ORGANIZATION SCIENCE
    Vol. {16}({4}), pp. {422-433} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Using the established definition of situated cognition in organizations as ``the interaction of cognitive schemas and organizational context'' (Lant 2002), we examine empirical case studies from the last 15 years to illustrate what situated cognitions in organizations might actually. look like. Grounded in this research, we develop a framework that identifies how some specific forms of cognitive schemas (i.e., rule schemas, event schemas, person schemas) and specific contexts (e.g., physical contexts, institutional contexts) interact during sensemaking processes to give rise to momentary perceptions that we call situated cognitions. We present evidence that common patterns of interaction between schemas and context may occur during sensemaking in organizations. In terms of theoretical implications, our framework focuses attention on the specific interactions between context and cognition (rather than on context or cognition alone) that comprise situated cognitions, and helps to more concretely define situated cognitions as momentary or temporally bounded perceptions. We offer several practical implications of this framework for managers and suggest avenues for further elaboration on our ideas through research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Elsbach2005,
      author = {Elsbach, KD and Barr, PS and Hargadon, AB},
      title = {Identifying situated cognition in organizations},
      journal = {ORGANIZATION SCIENCE},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {16},
      number = {4},
      pages = {422-433},
      doi = {{10.1287/orsc.1050.0138}}
    }
    
    Engel, L.R., Frum, C., Puce, A., Walker, N.A. & Lewis, J.W. Different categories of living and non-living sound-sources activate distinct cortical networks {2009} NEUROIMAGE
    Vol. {47}({4}), pp. {1778-1791} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: With regard to hearing perception, it remains unclear as to whether, or the extent to which, different conceptual categories of real-world Sounds and related categorical knowledge are differentially represented in the brain. Semantic knowledge representations are reported to include the major divisions of living versus non-living things, plus more specific categories including animals, tools, biological motion, faces, and places-categories typically defined by their characteristic visual features. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions showing preferential activity to four categories of action sounds, which included non-vocal human and animal actions (living), plus mechanical and environmental sound-producing actions (non-living). The results showed a striking antero-posterior division in cortical representations for sounds produced by living versus non-living sources. Additionally, there were several significant differences by category, depending on whether the task was category-specific (e.g. human or not) versus non-specific (detect end-of-sound). In general, (1) human-produced sounds yielded robust activation in the bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci independent of task. Task demands modulated activation of left lateralized fronto-parietal regions, bilateral insular cortices, and sub-cortical regions previously implicated in observation-execution matching, consistent with ``embodied'' and mirror-neuron network representations subserving recognition. (2) Animal action sounds preferentially activated the bilateral posterior insulae. (3) Mechanical sounds activated the anterior superior temporal gyri and parahippocampal cortices. (4) Environmental sounds preferentially activated dorsal occipital and medial parietal cortices. Overall, this multi-level dissociation of networks for preferentially representing distinct sound-source categories provides novel support for grounded cognition models that may underlie organizational principles for hearing perception. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Engel2009,
      author = {Engel, Lauren R. and Frum, Chris and Puce, Aina and Walker, Nathan A. and Lewis, James W.},
      title = {Different categories of living and non-living sound-sources activate distinct cortical networks},
      journal = {NEUROIMAGE},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {47},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1778-1791},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.05.041}}
    }
    
    Falmagne, R.J. Subverting Theoretical Dualisms Discourse and Mentalism {2009} THEORY & PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {19}({6}), pp. {795-815} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This article interrogates dualistic theoretical polarization as an unproductive metatheoretical approach to knowledge production, addresses associated issues of cultural politics, and submits that theoretical tensions are, instead, productive grounds for transformative reformulations and for contingent, selective synthesis. In particular, the article takes issue with the polarization of discourse-theoretic and ``cognitive'' approaches to psychological phenomena, and it explores a reconstructed notion of the mental grounded in a discursive view of the subject that honors the inseparability of the psychological and the social. A reconceived ``mental space'' is posited, seen as continuous with the social yet consisting of a distinct functional space, as the anchor for (discursively produced) thought processes in a given moment. These ideas are briefly illustrated with respect to ongoing feminist research on reasoning and discussed with reference to a systemic model of the social that comprises macro-social, local, and personal processes of social constitution.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Falmagne2009,
      author = {Falmagne, Rachel Joffe},
      title = {Subverting Theoretical Dualisms Discourse and Mentalism},
      journal = {THEORY & PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {19},
      number = {6},
      pages = {795-815},
      doi = {{10.1177/0959354309346081}}
    }
    
    Fernandino, L. & Iacoboni, M. Are cortical motor maps based on body parts or coordinated actions? Implications for embodied semantics {2010} BRAIN AND LANGUAGE
    Vol. {112}({1}), pp. {44-53} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The embodied cognition approach to the study of the mind proposes that higher order mental processes such as concept formation and language are essentially based on perceptual and motor processes. Contrary to the classical approach in cognitive science, in which concepts are viewed as amodal, arbitrary symbols, embodied semantics argues that concepts must be ``grounded'' in sensorimotor experiences in order to have meaning. In line with this view, neuroimaging studies have shown a roughly somatotopic pattern of activation along cortical motor areas (broadly construed) for the observation of actions involving different body parts, as well as for action-related language comprehension. These findings have been interpreted in terms of a mirror-neuron system, which automatically matches observed and executed actions. However, the somatotopic pattern of activation found in these studies is very coarse, with significant overlap between body parts, and sometimes with multiple representations for the same body part. Furthermore, the localization of the respective activations varies considerably across studies. Based on recent work on the motor cortex in monkeys, we suggest that these discrepancies result from the organization of the primate motor cortex (again, broadly construed), which probably includes maps of the coordinated actions making up the individual's motor repertoire, rather than a single, continuous map of the body. We review neurophysiological and neuroimaging data supporting this hypothesis and discuss ways in which this framework can be used to further test the links between neural mirroring and linguistic processing. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fernandino2010,
      author = {Fernandino, Leonardo and Iacoboni, Marco},
      title = {Are cortical motor maps based on body parts or coordinated actions? Implications for embodied semantics},
      journal = {BRAIN AND LANGUAGE},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {112},
      number = {1},
      pages = {44-53},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.bandl.2009.02.003}}
    }
    
    Ferscha, A. A matter of taste {2007}
    Vol. {4794}AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE, PROCEEDINGS, pp. {287-304} 
    inproceedings  
    Abstract: Ambient information systems, often referred to as ambient displays, peripheral displays or informative art systems (IAS), aim at providing users with information considered relevant at arbitrary points of work or living engagement, in easy and quickly to convey, aesthetic and artful style. Adhering principles of visual perception, visualization and design, information coming from various different (hardware and software) sensors is aggregated through abstraction and selective omission, and displayed at the periphery of a user's attention. A broad range of visual metaphors ranging from the fine arts, abstract art, naive art, comic drawings up to photographic images or technical drawings have been proposed, but all grounded on the ``I-throw-it-out-there-and-watch'' design paradigm, totally excluding the user, his background knowledge and his aesthetic appreciation from the design process. This paper advocates for a user-oriented, participatory design process for IASs. Addressing canvas style IASs, i.e. displays that decorate apartments, offices, foyers and the like in the first (but not the only) place, in our approach the choice of the IAS canvas theme is left to the user. To steer the (design) process of identifying symbols within a chosen theme we have developed categories of metaphors like color, space, shape, abstraction, scale and dimension, and discuss their potential with respect to preattentive and interpretative cognition. From experiments with users we find, that the choice of themes and the identification of metaphoric symbols are considered as a means of personal emotional expression (or in other words, as ``a matter of taste''). Aesthetic attractiveness turns out to be a dominant factor of IAS appreciation. A general purpose software framework for IASs is presented, implementing sensor data acquisition, context recognition, aggregation and filtering, as well as 2D/3D graphics engine, dynamically controlling the visual appearance of themes and symbols.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Ferscha2007,
      author = {Ferscha, Alois},
      title = {A matter of taste},
      booktitle = {AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE, PROCEEDINGS},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {4794},
      pages = {287-304},
      note = {European Conference on Ambient Intelligence, Darmstadt, GERMANY, NOV 07-10, 2007}
    }
    
    FESMIRE, S. AERATING THE MIND - THE METAPHOR OF MENTAL FUNCTIONING AS BODILY FUNCTIONING {1994} METAPHOR AND SYMBOLIC ACTIVITY
    Vol. {9}({1}), pp. {31-44} 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent advances in the cognitive sciences suggest that cognition is grounded in our embodied experience. This article supPorts this claim by analyzing the way we conceptualize our emotions metaphorically in terms of bodily processes. Our emotions are not merely matters of subjective feeling. Rather, emotions have stable conceptual structures that have emerged from our embodied activity through metaphorical projections, structures that are shared in a culture and can be disclosed by empirical inquiry. This article explores the metaphorical structuring of anxiety in terms of our experience of breathing. The correlation in our experience between mental functioning and bodily functioning, which leads to the emergence of metaphorical understanding, is of special concern. The article elaborates on how features of our experience of inhibited breathing map onto our experience of mental disquietude. The analysis draws primarily from Johnson (1987), Lakoff (1987), Lakoff and Johnson (1980), and Reddy (1979) and borrows insight from James and Perls.
    BibTeX:
    @article{FESMIRE1994,
      author = {FESMIRE, SA},
      title = {AERATING THE MIND - THE METAPHOR OF MENTAL FUNCTIONING AS BODILY FUNCTIONING},
      journal = {METAPHOR AND SYMBOLIC ACTIVITY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {31-44}
    }
    
    Fonseca, F. & Martin, J. Space and time in eco-ontologies {2004} AI COMMUNICATIONS
    Vol. {17}({4}), pp. {259-269} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this paper, we elaborate on the fundamental characteristics of ecological ontologies, and draw attention to the importance of space and time in the structure of these ontologies. First, we argue that a key to the specification of eco-ontologies is the notion of teleological organization grounded in a notion of recursion. Second, we introduce the notion of roles to characterize the generalized and interactive teleological aspects of ecological systems. Third, we also introduce a preliminary set of temporal and spatial concepts intended to represent ecological space and time in the formalization of eco-ontologies. Fourth, we show how some important epistemological constraints on cognition are fundamentally ecological in nature. This work is informed by Kant's investigations into the foundations of biology, by the hermeneutic investigations of Heidegger and Gadamer, and by mathematical investigations into recursive logic and their application to biology by Spencer-Brown, Maturana, Varela, and Kauffman.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fonseca2004,
      author = {Fonseca, F and Martin, J},
      title = {Space and time in eco-ontologies},
      journal = {AI COMMUNICATIONS},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {17},
      number = {4},
      pages = {259-269},
      note = {International Joint Conference on Artificaial Intellligence, Chambery, FRANCE, 2003}
    }
    
    Foo, C.T. Cognitive strategy from the Romance of the Three Kingdoms {2008} CHINESE MANAGEMENT STUDIES
    Vol. {2}({3}), pp. {171-182} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Purpose - The Romance of the Three Kingdoms (RTK) is probably the most popular classical novel in Chinese literature. Of more than 1,000 characters in this extensive, three-volume novel, Kong Ming in RTK is widely seen by the Chinese as the most remarkable strategist. This paper attempts to develop a cognitive schema of Kong Ming on strategy. Design/methodology/approach - First, the paper reviews broadly the traditionally, four most popular novels within the Chinese classical literature: The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Water Margin, Journey to the West and A Dream of the Red Mansions. After emphasizing the role of the RTK in influencing Chinese strategic thinking, the paper utilizes the methods of textual analyses in research. Focusing on a specific episode of global strategy making and taking (Chapter 38), the methodology is explained. Findings - From textual analysis, the paper presents as its finding a schematically linear, cognitive structure of the strategy process. It also presents the central role of the ``Counselor of Strategy'' in Chinese strategy making process. From this research, a Kong Ming-grounded, cognitive model of strategy process is developed. If the RTK (more than say, any MBA program) continues to influence Chinese strategy processes, then fast strategic decision making (as exemplified in our analyses) may be one of the pivotal reasons for the equally fast rise of the Chinese economy in our global economic landscape. Originality/value - Kong Ming (or Zhuge Liang) had been hailed by the Chinese with such lofty epithets such as the `Divine Strategist''. His exploits during the declining Han dynasty and emergence of the Three Kingdoms of Wei, Shu and Wu (220-280 CE) are still cited by the Chinese people in their daily conversations on strategy. In this paper, we draw lessons for CEOs through a Kong Ming-grounded model for strategy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Foo2008,
      author = {Foo, Check Teck},
      title = {Cognitive strategy from the Romance of the Three Kingdoms},
      journal = {CHINESE MANAGEMENT STUDIES},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {2},
      number = {3},
      pages = {171-182},
      doi = {{10.1108/17506140810895870}}
    }
    
    Foroni, F. & Semin, G.R. Language That Puts You in Touch With Your Bodily Feelings: The Multimodal Responsiveness of Affective Expressions {2009} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {20}({8}), pp. {974-980} 
    article  
    Abstract: Observing and producing a smile activate the very same facial muscles. In Experiment 1, we predicted and found that verbal stimuli (action verbs) that refer to emotional expressions elicit the same facial muscle activity (facial electromyography) as visual stimuli do. These results are evidence that language referring to facial muscular activity is not amodal, as traditionally assumed, but is instead bodily grounded. These findings were extended in Experiment 2, in which subliminally presented verbal stimuli were shown to drive muscle activation and to shape judgments, but not when muscle activation was blocked. These experiments provide an important bridge between research on the neurobiological basis of language and related behavioral research. The implications of these findings for theories of language and other domains of cognitive psychology (e.g., priming) are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Foroni2009,
      author = {Foroni, Francesco and Semin, Gun R.},
      title = {Language That Puts You in Touch With Your Bodily Feelings: The Multimodal Responsiveness of Affective Expressions},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {20},
      number = {8},
      pages = {974-980}
    }
    
    Gan, Z., Humphreys, G. & Hamp-Lyons, L. Understanding successful and unsuccessful EFL students in Chinese universities {2004} MODERN LANGUAGE JOURNAL
    Vol. {88}({2}), pp. {229-244} 
    article  
    Abstract: Unlike success in first language acquisition, success in learning a second or foreign language is considerably more variable. Recently, second language acquisition researchers have called for more integrative research on individual difference factors. With this goal in mind, this study followed a larger, quantitative study of the links between self-directedness for language learning and English language learning attainment among university students on the Chinese mainland and in Hong Kong. Drawing on the findings of that study (Gan, 2003), this I-semester study looked closely at 2 small groups of tertiary-level English as a foreign language (EFL) learners in China in order to document how they carried out their out-of-class (self-directed) English learning, as well as to elaborate issues that may be critical to understanding the variability that had already been observed in their English learning outcomes., The data were gathered through interviews, diaries, and follow-up email correspondence with 9 successful and 9 unsuccessful second-year EFL students at 2 Chinese mainland universities. Using grounded theory methodology (Strauss & Corbin, 1994, 1998), 6 categories of qualitative data were constructed: conceptualizing English language learning; perceptions of the College English Course; learning and practising strategies; self-management; internal drive; and English proficiency tests. The study findings suggest that different levels of success may be explained by a complex and dynamic interplay of internal cognition and emotion, external incentives, and social context. The findings imply the need to take a holistic view of variation in language learning outcomes and to broaden the scope of the current practice in learner strategy training.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gan2004,
      author = {Gan, ZD and Humphreys, G and Hamp-Lyons, L},
      title = {Understanding successful and unsuccessful EFL students in Chinese universities},
      journal = {MODERN LANGUAGE JOURNAL},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {88},
      number = {2},
      pages = {229-244},
      note = {International Language in Education Conference, Hong Kong, PEOPLES R CHINA, 2001}
    }
    
    Glac, K. Understanding Socially Responsible Investing: The Effect of Decision Frames and Trade-off Options {2009} JOURNAL OF BUSINESS ETHICS
    Vol. {87}({Suppl. 1}), pp. {41-55} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Over the past two decades, the phenomenon of socially responsible investing has become more widespread. However, knowledge about the individual socially responsible investor is largely limited to descriptive and comparative accounts. The question of ``why do some investors practice socially responsible investing and others don't?'' is therefore still largely unanswered. To address this shortcoming in the current literature, this paper develops a model of the decision to invest socially responsibly that is grounded in the cognition literature. The hypotheses proposed in the model are tested with an experimental survey. The results indicate that the framing of the investing situation influences the likelihood of engagement in socially responsible investing and how much return the individuals are willing to sacrifice when choosing socially responsible over conventional investments. The study does not find support for a relationship between expectations about corporate social responsibility and the likelihood of engagement in socially responsible investing.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Glac2009,
      author = {Glac, Katherina},
      title = {Understanding Socially Responsible Investing: The Effect of Decision Frames and Trade-off Options},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF BUSINESS ETHICS},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {87},
      number = {Suppl. 1},
      pages = {41-55},
      doi = {{10.1007/s10551-008-9800-6}}
    }
    
    Glenberg, A., Robertson, D., Kaschak, M. & Malter, A. Authors' response - Embodied meaning and negative priming {2003} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {26}({5}), pp. {644-648} 
    article  
    Abstract: Standard models of cognition are built from abstract, amodal, arbitrary symbols, and the meanings of those symbols are given solely by their interrelations. The target article (Glenberg 1997t) argues that these models must be inadequate because meaning cannot arise from relations among abstract symbols. For cognitive representations to be meaningful they must, at the least, be grounded; but abstract symbols are difficult, if not impossible, to ground. As an alternative, the target article developed a framework in which representations are grounded in perception and action, and hence are embodied. Recent work (Glenberg Robertson 1999; 2000; Glenberg Kaschak 2002; Kaschak & Glenberg 2000) extends this framework to language.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Glenberg2003,
      author = {Glenberg, AM and Robertson, DA and Kaschak, MP and Malter, AJ},
      title = {Authors' response - Embodied meaning and negative priming},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {26},
      number = {5},
      pages = {644-648}
    }
    
    Goldstone, R. & Barsalou, L. Reuniting perception and conception {1998} COGNITION
    Vol. {65}({2-3}), pp. {231-262} 
    article  
    Abstract: Work in philosophy and psychology has argued for a dissociation between perceptually-based similarity and higher-level rules in conceptual thought. Although such a dissociation may be justified at times, our goal is to illustrate ways in which conceptual processing is grounded in perception, both for perceptual similarity and abstract rules. We discuss the advantages, power and influences of perceptually-based representations. First, many of the properties associated with amodal symbol systems can be achieved with perceptually-based systems as well (e.g. productivity). Second, relatively raw perceptual representations are powerful because they can implicitly represent properties in an analog fashion. Third, perception naturally provides impressions of overall similarity, exactly the type of similarity useful for establishing many common categories. Fourth, perceptual similar;ty is not static but becomes tuned over time to conceptual demands. Fifth, the original motivation or basis for sophisticated cognition is often less sophisticated perceptual similarity. Sixth, perceptual simulation occurs even in conceptual tasks that have no explicit perceptual demands. Parallels between perceptual and conceptual processes suggest that many mechanisms typically associated with abstract thought are also present in perception, and that perceptual processes provide useful mechanisms that may be co-opted by abstract thought. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Goldstone1998,
      author = {Goldstone, RL and Barsalou, LW},
      title = {Reuniting perception and conception},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {65},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {231-262}
    }
    
    Gomez, P. & Jones, B. Conventions: An interpretation of deep structure in organizations {2000} ORGANIZATION SCIENCE
    Vol. {11}({6}), pp. {696-708} 
    article  
    Abstract: To describe human action as purely the product of rational calculation leaves unanswered the question of how human beings can act in the absence of any structure for calculating the likely outcome of their actions. If the answer is that they cannot, how can any such structure be stable and comprehensive enough to enable action without becoming either inert or deterministic? In this paper, we seek to understand how free will and social context can interact to produce both structure and action. This is accomplished through the development of a framework based on the notion of convention. Organizations, in this view, are grounded in ``effort conventions'' of what constitutes ``normal'' effort at work, that structure the action of those who work within the organization, and in turn reinforce these structures. We show how humans can calculate within a context of socially constructed beliefs, and how these beliefs can evolve, provided that they remain essentially nonjustified and beyond the reach of rational calculation. It is this mix of rational calculation and nonrational beliefs that form the core of our model. We begin by defining the nature of a convention and its properties. We then describe the evolutionary dynamics of conventions, and show that conventions exist in competition with other conventions and evolve over time. Our model of convention is then linked to other notions, advanced in the managerial literature, which point to a kind of `deep structure' that lies at the heart of organizations. We conclude by outlining how this notion can shed new light on the analysis of organizations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gomez2000,
      author = {Gomez, PY and Jones, BC},
      title = {Conventions: An interpretation of deep structure in organizations},
      journal = {ORGANIZATION SCIENCE},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {11},
      number = {6},
      pages = {696-708}
    }
    
    Goodwin, G.P. & Darley, J.M. The psychology of meta-ethics: Exploring objectivism {2008} COGNITION
    Vol. {106}({3}), pp. {1339-1366} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: How do lay individuals think about the objectivity of their ethical beliefs? Do they regard them as factual and objective, or as more subjective and opinion-based, and what might predict such differences? In three experiments, we set out a methodology for assessing the perceived objectivity of ethical beliefs, and use it to document several novel findings. Experiment 1 showed that individuals tend to regard ethical statements as clearly more objective than social conventions and tastes, and almost as objective as scientific facts. Yet, there was considerable variation in objectivism, both across different ethical statements, and across individuals. The extent to which individuals treat ethical beliefs as objective was predicted by the way they grounded their ethical systems. Groundings which emphasize the religious, pragmatic, and self-identity underpinnings of ethical belief each independently predicted greater ethical objectivity. Experiment 2 replicated and extended these findings with a refined measure of ethical objectivism. Experiment 3 demonstrated the robustness of the religious grounding of ethics, and differentiates it from mere religious belief and from political orientation. The results shed light on the nature of ethical belief, and have implications for the resolution of ethical disputes. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Goodwin2008,
      author = {Goodwin, Geoffrey P. and Darley, John M.},
      title = {The psychology of meta-ethics: Exploring objectivism},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {106},
      number = {3},
      pages = {1339-1366},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.cognition.2007.06.007}}
    }
    
    Grillo, E. Peirce on categories: Towards a metaphysical foundation of pragmatics {2007} SEMIOTICA
    Vol. {167}({1-4}), pp. {309-336} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This paper focuses on Peirce's account of the categories. Its first aim is to work out a synoptic view of Peirce's categorial research. The second aim consists in stating and evaluating the conceptual changes that Peirce's conception entails regarding each of the three dimensions (ontological, semiotic, and cognitive) that are usually involved in such research. The third and major aim consists in stating that a kind of metaphysical foundation of pragmatics might be sought for in Peirce's `mature' conception of the categories, insofar as pragmatic properties appear, to the greatest extent, to be grounded in the most fundamental level of the semiotic process itself A tentative `Peircean pragmatics' is outlined as a conclusion.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Grillo2007,
      author = {Grillo, Eric},
      title = {Peirce on categories: Towards a metaphysical foundation of pragmatics},
      journal = {SEMIOTICA},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {167},
      number = {1-4},
      pages = {309-336},
      note = {9th International Pragmatics Conference, Riva del Garda, ITALY, JUL 10-15, 2005},
      doi = {{10.1515/SEM.2007.081}}
    }
    
    Guerra-Filho, G. & Aloimonos, Y. Towards a Sensorimotor WordNet(SM): Closing the Semantic Gap {2005} GWC 2006: THIRD INTERNATIONAL WORDNET CONFERENCE, PROCEEDINGS, pp. {171-176}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: We have empirically discovered that the space of human actions has a grammatical structure. This is a motoric space consisting of the evolution of the joint angles of the human body in movement. Furthermore, the process of assembling individual human movements into higher level descriptions resembles in a natural sense the process of speech recognition. Thus the space of human activity has its own phonemes, morphemes, words (verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs), and sentences formed by its own syntax. This has a number of implications for the grounding problem and cognition in general. With regard to WordNet, the theory points to a future Sensorimotor WordNet which contains a map between the nodes of the current WordNet and the space consisting of human action. In this paper, we suggest initial steps towards closing the semantic gap by grounding language with visuo-motor information. The grounding takes place on a set of primitive words which are selected here through verb classification of the WordNet lexicon. A formal approach to the identification of primitive words would consider the basic atoms of WordNet extensions. However, one further extension is required to incorporate grounded information into WordNet in the direction of a sensorimotor WordNet, designated here as WordNet(SM).
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Guerra-Filho2005,
      author = {Guerra-Filho, Gutemberg and Aloimonos, Yiannis},
      title = {Towards a Sensorimotor WordNet(SM): Closing the Semantic Gap},
      booktitle = {GWC 2006: THIRD INTERNATIONAL WORDNET CONFERENCE, PROCEEDINGS},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {171-176},
      note = {3rd International Global WordNet Conference (GWC 2006), Jeju Isl, SOUTH KOREA, JAN 22-26, 2006}
    }
    
    Hadley, R. A defence of functional modularity {2003} CONNECTION SCIENCE
    Vol. {15}({2-3}), pp. {95-116} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Although belief in the existence of mental modules of some,form is widespread among cognitive researchers, neurally sophisticated researchers commonly resist the view that cognitive processing involves modules that are functionally independent of one another. Moreover, within the past few years, at least three noted researchers (Fodor, Kosslyn and Uttal) have called into serious question the existence of distinct modules in broad areas of human cognition. This paper offers a defence of the existence of functionally independent modules, which, though spatially distributed, communicate via traditionally conceived input/output channels. This defence proceeds: (i) by showing that the anti-modularity arguments of Fodor, Kosslyn and Uttal are not compelling; (ii) by presenting theoretically-grounded reasons why any connectionist is committed, via the most basic tenets of connectionism, to accepting the existence of functionally independent modules; (iii) by presenting holistically inclined connectionists with a novel challenge, namely, to demonstrate that a single, holistic network could display strong levels of generalization as a side-effect of multiple, previously acquired skills. In the course of these arguments, I examine a recent generalization challenge posed by Phillips (2000, Connection Science, 12: 1-19) to eliminative connectionists.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hadley2003,
      author = {Hadley, RF},
      title = {A defence of functional modularity},
      journal = {CONNECTION SCIENCE},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {15},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {95-116},
      doi = {{10.1080/09540090310001597566}}
    }
    
    Hakimzada, A.F., Green, R.A., Sayan, O.R., Zhang, J. & Patel, V.L. The nature and occurrence of registration errors in the emergency department {2008} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INFORMATICS
    Vol. {77}({3}), pp. {169-175} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Research into the nature and occurrence of medical errors has shown that these often result from a combination of factors that lead to the breakdown of workflow. Nowhere is this more critical than in the emergency department (ED), where the focus of clinical decisions is on the timely evaluation and stabilization of patients. This paper reports on the nature of errors and their implications for patient safety in an adult ED, using methods of ethnographic observation, interviews, and think-aloud protocols. Data were analyzed using modified ``grounded theory,'' which refers to a theory developed inductively from a body of data. Analysis revealed four classes of errors, relating to errors of misidentification, ranging from multiple medical record numbers, wrong patient identification or address, and in one case, switching of one patient's identification information with those of another. Further analysis traced the root of the errors to ED registration. These results indicate that the nature of errors in the emergency department are complex, multi-layered and result from an intertwined web of activity, in which stress in the work environment, high patient volume and the tendency to adopt shortcuts play a significant role. The need for information technology (IT) solutions to these problems as well as the impact of alternative policies is discussed. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hakimzada2008,
      author = {Hakimzada, A. Forogh and Green, Robert A. and Sayan, Osman R. and Zhang, Jiajie and Patel, Vimla L.},
      title = {The nature and occurrence of registration errors in the emergency department},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INFORMATICS},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {77},
      number = {3},
      pages = {169-175},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2007.04.011}}
    }
    
    Hao, J.-X., Kwok, R.C.-W. & Yu, A.Y. Automatic Semantic Causal Map Integration {2007} PACIFIC ASIA CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION SYSTEMS 2007, SECTIONS 1-6, pp. {U1148-U1160}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: Causal map integration is helpful to broaden group member's eyesight and sheds insight on the detection of overall group's cognition tendencies. However the existing causal map integration approaches are either based on human intervention mechanism that is criticized with researcher bias, or based on syntactic mechanism that lacks of semantic. In order to improve the current causal map integration methodology and practice, this study proposes the conceptualization and formalization of an innovative causal map integration approach, automatic semantic causal map integration, grounded on the Sowa's Conceptual Graph Theory and Kosko's Fuzzy Knowledge Combination Theory. The system prototype with an example is also illustrated.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Hao2007,
      author = {Hao, Jin-Xing and Kwok, Ron Chi-Wai and Yu, Angela Yan},
      title = {Automatic Semantic Causal Map Integration},
      booktitle = {PACIFIC ASIA CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION SYSTEMS 2007, SECTIONS 1-6},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {U1148-U1160},
      note = {11th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, Auckland, NEW ZEALAND, JUL 03-06, 2007}
    }
    
    Hargadon, A.B. & Bechky, B.A. When collections of creatives become creative collectives: A field study of problem solving at work {2006} ORGANIZATION SCIENCE
    Vol. {17}({4}), pp. {484-500} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This paper introduces a model of collective creativity that explains how the locus of creative problem solving shifts, at times, from the individual to the interactions of a collective. The model is grounded in observations, inter-views, informal conversations, and archival data gathered in intensive field studies of work in professional service firms. The evidence suggests that although some creative solutions can be seen as the products of individual insight, others should be regarded as the products of a momentary collective process. Such collective creativity reflects a qualitative shift in the nature of the creative process, as the comprehension of a problematic situation and the generation of creative solutions draw from-and reframe-the past experiences of participants in ways that lead to new and valuable insights. This research investigates the origins of such moments, and builds a model of collective creativity that identifies the precipitating roles played by four types of social interaction: help seeking, help giving, reflective reframing, and reinforcing. Implications of this research include shifting the emphasis in research and management of creativity from identifying and managing creative individuals to understanding the social context and developing interactive approaches to creativity, and from a focus on relatively constant contextual variables to the alignment of fluctuating variables and their precipitation of momentary phenomena.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hargadon2006,
      author = {Hargadon, Andrew B. and Bechky, Beth A.},
      title = {When collections of creatives become creative collectives: A field study of problem solving at work},
      journal = {ORGANIZATION SCIENCE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {17},
      number = {4},
      pages = {484-500},
      doi = {{10.1287/orsc.1060.0200}}
    }
    
    Haselager, P., de Groot, A. & van Rappard, H. Representationalism vs. anti-representationalism: a debate for the sake of appearance {2003} PHILOSOPHICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {16}({1}), pp. {5-23} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In recent years the cognitive science community has witnessed the rise of a new, dynamical approach to cognition. This approach entails a framework in which cognition and behavior are taken to result from complex dynamical interactions between brain, body, and environment. The advent of the dynamical approach is grounded in a dissatisfaction with the classical computational view of cognition. A particularly strong claim has been that cognitive systems do not rely on internal representations and computations. Focusing on this claim, we take as a starting point a question recently raised by Cliff and Noble: ``... if evolution did produce a design that used internal representations, how would we recognize it?'' (Knowledge-based vision and simple visual machines, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 352, 1165-1175, 1997). We will argue that cognitive science lacks a proper operationalization of the notion of representation, and therefore is unable to ftuitfully discuss whether a particular system has representations or not. A basic method to detect representations in a physical system, grounded in isomorphism, turns out to be quite unconstrained. We will look at a practical example of this problem by examining the debate on whether or not van Gelder's (What might cognition be, if not computation? Journal of Philosophy, 92, 345-381, 1995) controversial example of the Watt Governor is representational. We will conclude that cognitive science, as of yet, has no empirically applicable means to answer Cliff and Noble's question unequivocally. This makes the recent representationalism vs. anti-representationalism debate a debate for the sake of appearance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Haselager2003,
      author = {Haselager, P and de Groot, A and van Rappard, H},
      title = {Representationalism vs. anti-representationalism: a debate for the sake of appearance},
      journal = {PHILOSOPHICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {16},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5-23},
      doi = {{10.1080/0951508032000067761}}
    }
    
    Heckman, P.E. & Montera, V.L. School Reform: The Flatworm in a Flat World: From Entropy to Renewal through Indigenous Invention {2009} TEACHERS COLLEGE RECORD
    Vol. {111}({5}), pp. {1328-1351} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background/Context: Current research on learning, organizational change, and the context of the 21st century yields insight into the needed fundamental reforms in our educational learning environments. Despite these new insights, schooling and school reform in the 21st century continue to be grounded in ideas based on the industrial model of the 20th century. Reform efforts in today's No Child Left Behind environment reify static ideas about schooling, resulting in organizational entropy. Purpose: In this article, we compare current schooling practices and reform efforts to the mechanistic industrial model and illustrate why this paradigm is no longer sufficient in this ``flat world.'' Schooling and school reform in the 21st century continue to be approached as if these are a flatworm capable replicating itself. We argue that a new paradigm is needed-one that builds on current knowledge and human resources, one that is created by those who work and live in a school or community-which we have called Indigenous Invention. Research Design: Indigenous Invention grows from new conceptions of learning, cognition, and development, and our work in schools and communities during the past 16 years. Examples of Indigenous Invention presented here come from a much larger case study and long-term action research project in five urban schools and communities. Conclusion/Recommendations: Three areas are presented. First, we examine ideas that currently guide schooling practices and explore why these ideas have resulted in a decline of educational organizational vitality and are no longer sufficient for our in-school, after-school, and preschool programs. We suggest using new knowledge about human learning, cognition, and development to bring organizational energy and renewal to educational institutions. Second, the power of this new knowledge will not be realized with conventional school change models that urge fidelity in implementing packages and procedures developed far away from the school and its neighborhood. Replication may work for the flatworm. It does not work in complex systems like educational institutions. Third, we present the process of Indigenous Invention as one that holds promise in moving our schools from entropy to renewal.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Heckman2009,
      author = {Heckman, Paul E. and Montera, Viki L.},
      title = {School Reform: The Flatworm in a Flat World: From Entropy to Renewal through Indigenous Invention},
      journal = {TEACHERS COLLEGE RECORD},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {111},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1328-1351}
    }
    
    Helmhout, M., Jorna, R.J. & Gazendam, H.W. The semiotic actor: From signs to socially constructed meaning {2009} SEMIOTICA
    Vol. {175}({1-4}), pp. {335-377} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: A semiotic actor creates, uses and transfers or communicates meaning with the help of signs in order to interact with other actors and society. For a complete understanding of the cognitive and social phenomena related to this process, we state that social science and cognitive science cannot stay in their own arenas. The use of social constructivism or construction sheds light on the relationship and interaction between the individual (cognition) and society. The semiotic actor is not merely a stimulus response actor that exchanges signs; it has a cognitive system that creates new signs, modifies (the meaning of) signs, and forgets signs (cognitive limited semiosis). Secondly, the semiotic actor has the capability to incorporate and influence the environment (semiotic Umwelt or ``outer'' world) as part of its cognitive ``inner'' world. And thirdly, linguistic capabilities allow it to socially construct and share meaning with others, thereby empowering itself and others to create social structures and express social behavior (e. g., reciprocity, empathy). The contribution of our work is to emphasize that social construction needs to be grounded in cognitive science, i.e., the semiotic actor or homo semioticus enables us to reason that signs in social science are represented as signs in cognition and the other way around (semiotic resonance).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Helmhout2009,
      author = {Helmhout, Martin and Jorna, Rene J. and Gazendam, Henk W.},
      title = {The semiotic actor: From signs to socially constructed meaning},
      journal = {SEMIOTICA},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {175},
      number = {1-4},
      pages = {335-377},
      doi = {{10.1515/semi.2009.053}}
    }
    
    Heshmati-Nabavi, F. & Vanaki, Z. Professional approach: The key feature of effective clinical educator in Iran {2010} NURSE EDUCATION TODAY
    Vol. {30}({2}), pp. {163-168} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Clinical educators have an important role in the successful completion of a student's clinical education. Clinical educating is a dynamic process that occurs in a variety of socio-cultural contexts. This study was conducted to determine Iranian nursing students and faculty members' perceptions of effective clinical educator characteristics. This study was based on Grounded Theory method. A total of 10 nursing students and clinical educators voluntarily participated in this study. Data was obtained through semi-structured interviews. The analysis was carried out by the Straus and Corbin method. Findings of the study yielded five significant categories. These include (1) personal traits; (2) meta-cognition; (3) making clinical learning enjoyable; (4) being a source of support; (5) being a role model. The core variable ``professional approach'' in clinical education integrates these categories. The results of the study illustrated that, in an Iranian context, effective clinical educators are those who are in harmony with the spirit of nursing, adopt a reflective approach, make clinical learning enjoyable and provide a patient-centred care. They act as a role model enabling their students to manage their vocational challenges, which are a direct result of the specific socio-cultural conditions of nursing profession in Iran. 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Heshmati-Nabavi2010,
      author = {Heshmati-Nabavi, Fatemeh and Vanaki, Zohreh},
      title = {Professional approach: The key feature of effective clinical educator in Iran},
      journal = {NURSE EDUCATION TODAY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {30},
      number = {2},
      pages = {163-168},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.nedt.2009.07.010}}
    }
    
    Hewitt, J. & Scardamalia, M. Design principles for distributed knowledge building processes {1998} EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {10}({1}), pp. {75-96} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this paper we explore various interpretations of the term ``distributed cognition,'' then turn our attention to communities grounded in the practice of collaborative knowledge building. We discuss CSILE (Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environments), a technology designed to support contributions to a communal database. Shared responsibility for this community resource extends to aspects of school practice typically handled exclusively by teachers, and engagement in improving and connecting the contents of the database makes the process of knowledge building self-sustaining. We discuss knowledge building communities involving students and teachers, and end with discussion of design principles for distributed knowledge building processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hewitt1998,
      author = {Hewitt, J and Scardamalia, M},
      title = {Design principles for distributed knowledge building processes},
      journal = {EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {75-96},
      note = {Annual Meeting of the American-Educational-Research-Association, NEW YORK, NEW YORK, APR 08-12, 1996}
    }
    
    Ho, W.C. & Watson, S. Autobiographic knowledge for believable virtual characters {2006}
    Vol. {4133}INTELLIGENT VIRTUAL AGENTS, PROCEEDINGS, pp. {383-394} 
    inproceedings  
    Abstract: It has been widely acknowledged in the areas of human memory and cognition that behaviour and emotion are essentially grounded by autobiographic knowledge. In this paper we propose an overall framework of human autobiographic memory for modelling believable virtual characters in narrative story-telling systems and role-playing computer games. We first lay out the background research of autobiographic memory in Psychology, Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence. Our autobiographic agent framework is then detailed with features supporting other cognitive processes which have been extensively modelled in the design of believable virtual characters (e.g. goal structure, emotion, attention, memory schema and reactive behaviour-based control at a lower level). Finally we list directions for future research at the end of the paper.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Ho2006,
      author = {Ho, Wan Ching and Watson, Scott},
      title = {Autobiographic knowledge for believable virtual characters},
      booktitle = {INTELLIGENT VIRTUAL AGENTS, PROCEEDINGS},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {4133},
      pages = {383-394},
      note = {6th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, Marina Del Rey, CA, AUG 21-23, 2006}
    }
    
    Hobson, R. The interpersonal foundations of thinking {2005} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {28}({5}), pp. {703+} 
    article  
    Abstract: Tomasello et al. provide a convincing account of the origins of cultural cognition. I highlight how emotionally grounded sharing of experiences (not merely or predominantly intentions) is critical for the development of interpersonal understanding and perspective-sensitive thinking. Such sharing is specifically human in quality as well as motivation, and entails forms of self-other connectedness and differentiation that are essential to communication and symbolic functioning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hobson2005,
      author = {Hobson, RP},
      title = {The interpersonal foundations of thinking},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {28},
      number = {5},
      pages = {703+}
    }
    
    Hoefer, G. & Mauerkirchner, M. Biomimetic Controller for Situated Robots Based on State-Driven Behaviour {2009}
    Vol. {5717}COMPUTER AIDED SYSTEMS THEORY - EUROCAST 2009, pp. {398-405} 
    inproceedings  
    Abstract: This work introduces the internally and externally grounded core structure of intelligent behaviour in complete robots. It integrates reactive as well as emotional subsystems into a muilti-agent network in order to realize emergent intertional behaviour. The architecture of this controller is structured in four layers that interact in a decentralized and reciprocal way. Of special importance is the internal grounding which is based on monitoring internal processes of the robotic system. The integration of these internal states enables the robot. to response differently to the same stimulus pattern at different times. Emotional behaviour may be regarded as a bundle of concerted activities that. facilitate the successful survival in a potentially unpredictable environment. Additionally, an extension for the controller that may help to achieve long-ranging and aim-oriented behaviour is outlined. Rational behaving robots should be based on grounded cognition.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Hoefer2009,
      author = {Hoefer, Gerhard and Mauerkirchner, Manfred},
      title = {Biomimetic Controller for Situated Robots Based on State-Driven Behaviour},
      booktitle = {COMPUTER AIDED SYSTEMS THEORY - EUROCAST 2009},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {5717},
      pages = {398-405},
      note = {12th International Conference on Computer Aided Systems Theory (EUROCAST 2009), SPAIN, FEB 15-20, 2009}
    }
    
    Hoffmann, G. Nativism: In Defense of the Representational Interpretation {2009} CROATIAN JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY
    Vol. {9}({27}), pp. {303-315} 
    article  
    Abstract: The nativist view of language holds that the principal foundation of linguistic competence is an innate faculty of linguistic cognition. In this paper, close scrutiny is given to nativism's fundamental commitments tit the area of metaphysics. In lite course of this exploration it is argued that any minimally defensible variety of nativism is, for better or worse, committed to two theses: linguistic competence is grounded in a faculty of linguistic cognition that is (i) embodied and (ii) whose operating rules are represented in the neurophysiology of human language users.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hoffmann2009,
      author = {Hoffmann, Glen},
      title = {Nativism: In Defense of the Representational Interpretation},
      journal = {CROATIAN JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {9},
      number = {27},
      pages = {303-315}
    }
    
    IJzerman, H. & Semin, G.R. The Thermometer of Social Relations: Mapping Social Proximity on Temperature {2009} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {20}({10}), pp. {1214-1220} 
    article  
    Abstract: ``Holding warm feelings toward someone'' and ``giving someone the cold shoulder'' indicate different levels of social proximity. In this article, we show effects of temperature that go beyond these metaphors people live by. In three experiments, warmer conditions, compared with colder conditions, induced (a) greater social proximity, (b) use of more concrete language, and (c) a more relational focus. Different temperature conditions were created by either handing participants warm or cold beverages (Experiment 1) or placing them in comfortable warm or cold ambient conditions (Experiments 2 and 3). These studies corroborate recent findings in the field of grounded cognition revealing that concrete experiences ground abstract concepts with which they are coexperienced. Our studies show a systemic interdependence among language, perception, and social proximity: Environmentally induced conditions shape not only language use, but also the perception and construal of social relationships.
    BibTeX:
    @article{IJzerman2009,
      author = {IJzerman, Hans and Semin, Gun R.},
      title = {The Thermometer of Social Relations: Mapping Social Proximity on Temperature},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {20},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1214-1220}
    }
    
    Insole, C.J. Two conceptions of liberalism - Theology, creation, and politics in the thought of Immanuel Kant and Edmund Burke {2008} JOURNAL OF RELIGIOUS ETHICS
    Vol. {36}({3}), pp. {447-489} 
    article  
    Abstract: Constitutional liberal practices are capable of being normatively grounded by a number of different metaphysical positions. Kant provides one such grounding, in terms of the autonomously derived moral law. I argue that the work of Edmund Burke provides a resource for an alternative construal of constitutional liberalism, compatible with, and illumined by, a broadly Thomistic natural law worldview. I contrast Burke's treatment of the relationship between truth and cognition, prudence and rights, with that of his contemporary, Kant. We find that in each case where Kant's system is constructed from the first principle of autonomy, Burke's thought is oriented toward an end that is not of our making. Readings of Burke as a natural law thinker are currently out of fashion among Burke commentators; without relying, for the main thesis, on historical claims about Burke's ``Thomism,'' I nonetheless explore and challenge some of the assumptions that underlie the current orthodoxy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Insole2008,
      author = {Insole, Christopher J.},
      title = {Two conceptions of liberalism - Theology, creation, and politics in the thought of Immanuel Kant and Edmund Burke},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF RELIGIOUS ETHICS},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {36},
      number = {3},
      pages = {447-489},
      note = {Colloquium on Religion and Liberalism, Dublin, IRELAND, JUL, 2006}
    }
    
    Iyer, V. Embodied mind, situated cognition, and expressive microtiming in African-American music {2002} MUSIC PERCEPTION
    Vol. {19}({3}), pp. {387-414} 
    article  
    Abstract: The dual theories of embodied mind and situated cognition, in which physical/temporal embodiment and physical/social/cultural environment contribute crucially to the structure of mind, are brought to bear on issues in music perception. It is argued that cognitive universals grounded in human bodily experience are tempered by the cultural specificity that constructs the role of the body in musical performance. Special focus is given to microrhythmic techniques in specific forms of African-American music, using audio examples created by the author or sampled from well-known jazz recordings.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Iyer2002,
      author = {Iyer, V},
      title = {Embodied mind, situated cognition, and expressive microtiming in African-American music},
      journal = {MUSIC PERCEPTION},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {19},
      number = {3},
      pages = {387-414}
    }
    
    Jaervelae, S., Naeykki, P., Laru, J. & Luokkanen, T. Structuring and regulating collaborative learning in higher education with wireless networks and mobile tools {2007} EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY
    Vol. {10}({4}), pp. {71-79} 
    article  
    Abstract: In our recent research we have explored possibilities to scaffold collaborative learning in higher education with wireless networks and mobile tools. The pedagogical ideas are grounded on concepts of collaborative learning, including the socially shared origin of cognition, as well as self-regulated learning theory. This paper presents our three design experiments on mobile, handheld supported collaborative learning. All experiments are aimed at investigating novel ways to structure and regulate individual and collaborative learning with smartphones. In the first study a Mobile Lecture Interaction tool (M.L.I.) was used to facilitate higher education students' self-regulated learning in university lectures. In the second study smartphones were used as regulation tools to scaffold collaboration by supporting externalization of knowledge representations in individual and collaborative levels. The third study demonstrates how face to face and social software integrated collaborative learning supported with smartphones can be used for facilitating socially shared collaboration and community building. In conclusion, it is stressed that there is a need to place students in various situations in which they can engage in effortful interactions in order to build a shared understanding. Wireless networks and mobile tools will provide multiple opportunities for bridging different contents and contexts as well as virtual and face to face learning interactions in higher education.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jaervelae2007,
      author = {Jaervelae, Sanna and Naeykki, Piia and Laru, Jari and Luokkanen, Tiina},
      title = {Structuring and regulating collaborative learning in higher education with wireless networks and mobile tools},
      journal = {EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {71-79},
      note = {90th Annual Clinical Assembly of the American Osteopathic Colleges of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngolohy-Head and Neck Surgey, Orlando, FL, MAY 03-07, 2006}
    }
    
    James, D. & Maida, A.S. Sequential Hierarchical Recruitment Learning in a Network of Spiking Neurons {2009} IJCNN: 2009 INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON NEURAL NETWORKS, VOLS 1- 6, pp. {740-746}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: Understanding how sequences are learned and encoded is a key component to understanding cognition. We present a recruitment model in which sequences are learned via the hierarchical binding of features across time. Learning in the model is unsupervised and occurs within a single presentation of the input. The topology and learning mechanisms allow the network to exploit the temporal structure of the input in order to recruit localized representations of sequences, using leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with biologically-grounded learning mechanisms. The model learns a temporal XOR-style task, and ablation tests are performed to justify the inclusion of particular features in the model. The model is then extended and applied to the task of learning 7-digit sequences. Both sets of simulations demonstrate the ability of the model to acquire and reuse chunks. Limitations and future extensions of the model are then discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{James2009,
      author = {James, Derek and Maida, Anthony S.},
      title = {Sequential Hierarchical Recruitment Learning in a Network of Spiking Neurons},
      booktitle = {IJCNN: 2009 INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON NEURAL NETWORKS, VOLS 1- 6},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {740-746},
      note = {International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, Atlanta, GA, JUN 14-19, 2009}
    }
    
    Jarymowicz, M. & Bar-Tal, D. The dominance of fear over hope in the life of individuals and collectives {2006} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {36}({3}), pp. {367-392} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We address the question why fear dominates hope in the life of individuals and collectives on the basis of the accumulated knowledge in the psychology, neurology and sociology of emotions. This knowledge suggests that fear, as primary emotion, is grounded in the experienced present and based on the memorized past, processed both consciously and unconsciously, causes freezing and conservatism, and sometimes leads to pre-emptive aggression. Hope, in contrast, as a secondary emotion, involves cognitive activity, which requires anticipation and the search for new ideas and thus is based on complex processes of creativity and flexibility. Therefore, hope is often preceded and inhibited by spontaneous, automatically activated and faster fear Fear and hope can each become a collective emotional orientation, and as such organize society's views and direct its actions. Societies involved in intractable conflict are dominated by a collective fear orientation. This orientation is functional for society's coping with the stressful and demanding situation-but it may serve as a psychological obstacle to any peace process, once it starts. The case of the collective fear orientation in the Jewish Israeli society is presented as an example. The article ends with a presentation of a particular approach, suggesting that individuals and collectives can overcome their fear with much determination, and establish an orientation of hope which allows change in situations dominated by fear Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jarymowicz2006,
      author = {Jarymowicz, Maria and Bar-Tal, Daniel},
      title = {The dominance of fear over hope in the life of individuals and collectives},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {36},
      number = {3},
      pages = {367-392},
      doi = {{10.1002/ejsp.302}}
    }
    
    Johnson, J.S., Spencer, J.P. & Schoener, G. Moving to higher ground: The dynamic field theory and the dynamics of visual cognition {2008} NEW IDEAS IN PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {26}({2}), pp. {227-251} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In the present report, we describe a new dynamic field theory that captures the dynamics of visuo-spatial cognition. This theory grew out of the dynamic systems approach to motor control and development, and is grounded in neural principles. The initial application of dynamic field theory to issues in visuo-spatial cognition extended concepts of the motor approach to decision making in a sensori-motor context, and, more recently, to the dynamics of spatial cognition. Here we extend these concepts still further to address topics in visual cognition, including visual working memory for non-spatial object properties, the processes that underlie change detection, and the `binding problem' in vision. In each case, we demonstrate that the general principles of the dynamic field approach can unify findings in the literature and generate novel predictions. We contend that the application of these concepts to visual cognition avoids the pitfalls of reductionist approaches in cognitive science, and points toward a formal integration of brains, bodies, and behavior. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Johnson2008,
      author = {Johnson, Jeffrey S. and Spencer, John P. and Schoener, Gregor},
      title = {Moving to higher ground: The dynamic field theory and the dynamics of visual cognition},
      journal = {NEW IDEAS IN PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {26},
      number = {2},
      pages = {227-251},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.newideapsych.2007.07.007}}
    }
    
    Jones, R. Racial bias in the assessment of cognitive functioning of older adults {2003} AGING & MENTAL HEALTH
    Vol. {7}({2}), pp. {83-102} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This study was undertaken to determine if the difference in assessed cognition between Black/African-American and White older adults was due differential item functioning ( DIF) and/or differences in the effect of background variables. Participants were 15,257 adults aged 50 and older surveyed in the Study of Asset and Health Dynamics of the Oldest Old ( AHEAD) and Health and Retirement Study (HRS). The cognitive measure was a modified telephone interview for cognitive status. The analytic strategy was a multiple group structural equation model grounded in item response theory. Results suggest that most (89 of the group difference could be attributed to measurement or structural differences, the remainder being not significantly different from zero ( p = 0.193). Most items displayed racial DIF, accounting for most of the group difference. After controlling for DIF, the group difference that remained could be attributed to heterogeneity in the effect of background variables. For example, low education was more deleterious for Black/African-Americans, and high income conferred an advantage only for Whites. These findings underscore the importance of efforts to generate culture-fair measurement devices. However, culture-fair assessments may attenuate, but not eliminate, group differences in assessed cognition due to the incommensurate action of background variables.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jones2003,
      author = {Jones, RN},
      title = {Racial bias in the assessment of cognitive functioning of older adults},
      journal = {AGING & MENTAL HEALTH},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {83-102},
      doi = {{10.1080/1360786031000045872}}
    }
    
    Jones, R. & Gallo, J. Education and sex differences in the mini-mental state examination: Effects of differential item functioning {2002} JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY SERIES B-PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
    Vol. {57}({6}), pp. {P548-P558} 
    article  
    Abstract: Years of completed education is a powerful correlate of performance on mental status assessment. This analysis evaluates differences in cognitive performance attributable to level of education and sex. We analyzed Mini-Mental State Examination responses from a large community sample (Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, N = 8,556), using a structural equation analytic framework grounded in item response theory. Significant sex and education group differential item functioning (DIF) were detected. Those with low education were more likely to err on the first serial subtraction, spell world backwards, repeat phrase, write, name season, and copy design tasks. Women were more likely to err on all serial subtractions, men on spelling and other language tasks. The magnitude of detected DIF was small. Our analyses show that failing to account for DIF results in an approximately 1.6% overestimation of the magnitude of difference in assessed cognition between high- and low-education groups. In contrast, nearly all (95 of apparent sex differences underlying cognitive impairment are due to DIF. Therefore, item bias does not appear to be a major source of observed differences in cognitive status by educational attainment. Adjustments of total scores that eliminate education group differences are not supported by these results. Our results have implications for future research concerning education and risk for dementia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jones2002,
      author = {Jones, RN and Gallo, JJ},
      title = {Education and sex differences in the mini-mental state examination: Effects of differential item functioning},
      journal = {JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY SERIES B-PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {57},
      number = {6},
      pages = {P548-P558}
    }
    
    Jost, L.J. & Jost, J.T. Why Marx left philosophy for social science {2007} THEORY & PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {17}({2}), pp. {297-322} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: It is customary to distinguish between philosophically oriented `critical psychologists, and `mainstream psychologists' who are committed to a scientific approach to the study of human behavior. In this article, we highlight a fundamental irony concerning the critical psychology movement, especially with respect to those contributions that appeal to Karl Marx and his legacy to justify the criticism or rejection of traditional Scientific methods in approaching the subject matter of psychology on moral and/or epistemological grounds. The irony is that Marx's own intellectual development led him to abandon philosophy in favor of empirically grounded forms of investigation resembling those of today's `mainstream' social sciences. Unlike many contemporary critics who see little or nothing of possible value in the image and methods of sociology and psychology as Sciences, Marx's own work sought to integrate critical, value-laden aims with a serious commitment to establishing independently verifiable facts. After examining a range of historical and biographical explanations given for Marx's change of heart, we show that Marx was one of the world's first social scientists. We highlight the characteristic features of a critical, empirically oriented Marxian social science, paying special attention to issues of continuing theoretical and meta-theoretical relevance in sociology, psychology and their intersection.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jost2007,
      author = {Jost, Lawrence J. and Jost, John T.},
      title = {Why Marx left philosophy for social science},
      journal = {THEORY & PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {17},
      number = {2},
      pages = {297-322},
      doi = {{10.1177/0959354307075047}}
    }
    
    Jostmann, N.B., Lakens, D. & Schubert, T.W. Weight as an Embodiment of Importance {2009} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {20}({9}), pp. {1169-1174} 
    article  
    Abstract: Four studies show that the abstract concept of importance is grounded in bodily experiences of weight. Participants provided judgments of importance while they held either a heavy or a light clipboard. Holding a heavy clipboard increased judgments of monetary value (Study 1) and made participants consider fair decision-making procedures to be more important (Study 2). It also caused more elaborate thinking, as indicated by higher consistency between related judgments (Study 3) and by greater polarization of agreement ratings for strong versus weak arguments (Study 4). In line with an embodied perspective on cognition, these findings suggest that, much as weight makes people invest more physical effort in dealing with concrete objects, it also makes people invest more cognitive effort in dealing with abstract issues.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jostmann2009,
      author = {Jostmann, Nils B. and Lakens, Daniel and Schubert, Thomas W.},
      title = {Weight as an Embodiment of Importance},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {20},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1169-1174}
    }
    
    Kalenine, S., Bonthoux, F. & Borghi, A.M. How action and context priming influence categorization: A developmental study {2009} BRITISH JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {27}({Part 3}), pp. {717-730} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Embodied views of cognition propose that concepts are grounded in sensorimotor experience. Diverse aspects of sensorimotor experience, like action and context information, could play a key role in the formation and processing of manipulable object concepts. Specifically, contextual information could help to link specific actions experienced with different object exemplars. In this study, the effects of action and context priming on superordinate and basic-level categorization of manipulable objects were directly contrasted in 7- and 9-year-olds and in adults. Across the ages, results revealed a differential effect of hand and scene primes on conceptual processing at the superordinate and basic levels; the disadvantage of superordinate over basic-level categorization was reduced in the context priming condition in comparison to the action priming condition. The nature and role of contextual knowledge are discussed from a cognitive and a neurophysiological point of view. Directions for further developmental research on concepts are also considered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kalenine2009,
      author = {Kalenine, Solene and Bonthoux, Francoise and Borghi, Anna M.},
      title = {How action and context priming influence categorization: A developmental study},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {27},
      number = {Part 3},
      pages = {717-730},
      doi = {{10.1348/026151008X369928}}
    }
    
    Karniol, R. Protocentrism will prevail: A reply to Krueger (2003), Mussweiler (2003), and Sedikides (2003) {2003} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {110}({3}), pp. {595-600} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In this article, the author replies to 3 commentaries relating to the egocentrism versus protocentrism debate and the self-as-distinct model (R. Karniol, 2003). Given space limitations, the author does not directly respond to the alternative. frameworks her colleagues have proposed and focuses instead on 6 issues that are interwoven in the commentaries on her article: the appropriate framework within which a model of self-representation should be grounded, the distinction between representational and motivational models, the default representation in social cognition, the representation of self as distinctive, empirical issues relevant to settling the egocentrism versus protocentrism debate, and finally, the ubiquity of protocentrism. The author concludes that protocentrism will prevail.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Karniol2003,
      author = {Karniol, R},
      title = {Protocentrism will prevail: A reply to Krueger (2003), Mussweiler (2003), and Sedikides (2003)},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {110},
      number = {3},
      pages = {595-600},
      doi = {{10.1037/0033-295X.110.3.595}}
    }
    
    KASHIMA, Y. IS THE HUMPHREYS-WILES-DENIS (HWD) FORMALISM USEFUL FOR SOCIAL COGNITION {1994} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {17}({4}), pp. {672-673} 
    article  
    Abstract: The HWD formalism is useful for social cognitive researchers as a tool for discovery that is grounded to the empirical research of human memory. However, its applicability is limited by the requirement that inputs and goals be specified, and the possibility that social cognitive tasks may require other decision primitives. Illustrative examples are provided.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KASHIMA1994,
      author = {KASHIMA, Y},
      title = {IS THE HUMPHREYS-WILES-DENIS (HWD) FORMALISM USEFUL FOR SOCIAL COGNITION},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {17},
      number = {4},
      pages = {672-673}
    }
    
    Kass, H. & MacDonald, A. The learning contribution of student self-directed building activity in science {1999} SCIENCE EDUCATION
    Vol. {83}({4}), pp. {449-471} 
    article  
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify features of the knowledge-building processes that secondary science students spontaneously develop and consider useful in the context of personal and social action. Capabilities involved in building things (i.e., in creating physical artifacts that embody functional understanding in a novel and physically contextualized way) are an important source of learning and knowing. Our research focuses on questions of how students create meanings for themselves in complex and evolving building environments. Our interpretations are grounded in a perspective on cognition that is constructivist (i.e., students create their own meanings for their experiences) and enactivist (i.e., person and environment are mutually specified). Problem settings that allow for a high degree of student self-direction permit multiple Viable paths of action-thought to be created that contribute to students' understanding of their capabilities. Four examples of students engaged in self-directed building projects are presented in the form of interpretive vignettes to illustrate a progression of increasing scope and depth in the context of the building activity and student learning outcomes. We were present every day during the classroom building projects to help, videotape, and interview students. An out-of-school component was also studied in two of the projects. Our unit of analysis is person-acting-in-a-setting The first example focuses on Amy's metacognitive awareness that thought and action in building have strategic properties. Ronnie and Willie discover a pathway to success through individual and social (classroom) action, lan develops skill in managing a complex set of social factors in a project with a large out-of-school social context. Dan reflects on the development of his learning in a sequence of self-directed building engagements over a period of 3 years. The enactivist ideas of enaction, coemergence, mutual specification, and adequate conduct are used to describe and interpret the four cases. Each case illustrates ways in which personally significant meanings and personal competency emerge within the context of self-directed action-thought. (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kass1999,
      author = {Kass, H and MacDonald, AL},
      title = {The learning contribution of student self-directed building activity in science},
      journal = {SCIENCE EDUCATION},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {83},
      number = {4},
      pages = {449-471}
    }
    
    Katarzyniak, R. Some properties of grounding modal conjunctions in artificial cognitive agents {2005}
    Vol. {3682}KNOWLEDGE-BASED INTELLIGENT INFORMATION AND ENGINEERING SYSTEMS, PT 2, PROCEEDINGS, pp. {500-506} 
    inproceedings  
    Abstract: In this paper properties of an originally introduced idea of epistemic satisfaction relation are discussed. It is assumed that this relation defines states of artificial cognition in which particular cases of modal conjunctions are well grounded. Presented theorems show that the epistemic satisfaction preserves the desirable similarity between artificially realized grounding and its natural counterpart known from the context of natural language discourse. The most important conclusion is that as regards to the set of modal conjunctions it is possible to develop an artificial cognitive agent that is able to carry out semantic communication reflecting the natural language communication. In order to achieve this property the artificial cognitive agent needs to be equipped with a certain system modality thresholds.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Katarzyniak2005a,
      author = {Katarzyniak, RP},
      title = {Some properties of grounding modal conjunctions in artificial cognitive agents},
      booktitle = {KNOWLEDGE-BASED INTELLIGENT INFORMATION AND ENGINEERING SYSTEMS, PT 2, PROCEEDINGS},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {3682},
      pages = {500-506},
      note = {9th International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA, SEP 14-16, 2005}
    }
    
    Katarzyniak, R. The language grounding problem and its relation to the internal structure of cognitive agents {2005} JOURNAL OF UNIVERSAL COMPUTER SCIENCE
    Vol. {11}({2}), pp. {357-374} 
    article  
    Abstract: An original approach to modelling internal structure of artificial cognitive agents and the phenomenon of language grounding is presented. The accepted model for the internal cognitive space reflects basic structural properties of human cognition and assumes the partition of cognitive phenomena into conscious and `non-conscious'. The language is treated as a set of semiotic symbols and is used in semantic communication. Semiotic symbols are related to the internal content of empirical knowledge bases in which they are grounded. This relation is given by the so-called epistemic satisfaction relations defining situations in which semiotic symbols are adequate ( grounded) representations of embodied experience. The importance of non-conscious embodied knowledge in language grounding and production is accepted. An example of application of the proposed approach to the analysis of grounding requirements is given for the case of logic equivalences extended with modal operators of possibility, belief and knowledge. Implementation issues are considered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Katarzyniak2005,
      author = {Katarzyniak, RP},
      title = {The language grounding problem and its relation to the internal structure of cognitive agents},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF UNIVERSAL COMPUTER SCIENCE},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {11},
      number = {2},
      pages = {357-374},
      note = {1st Workshop on Modern Technologies for Web-Based Adaptive System, Cracow, POLAND, JUN, 2004}
    }
    
    Kaup, B., Ludtke, J. & Zwaan, R. Processing negated sentences with contradictory predicates: Is a door that is not open mentally closed? {2006} JOURNAL OF PRAGMATICS
    Vol. {38}({7}), pp. {1033-1050} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We investigated whether comprehenders of isolated negative sentences with contradictory predicates (e.g., The door was not open) have available a representation of the actual state of affairs (closed door) from a certain point in the comprehension process on. In a self-paced-reading paradigm, participants were presented with affirmative and negative sentences in which a target entity and a contradictory predicate were being mentioned. After reading the sentence, participants were presented with a picture of the target entity that either matched or mismatched the entity's properties in the described world, and their task was to name out loud as quickly as possible the name of the depicted entity. When the delay between sentence and picture was 750 ms, a match effect with respect to the actual state of affairs occurred for the affirmative versions of the sentences but not for the negative versions of the sentences. When the delay was 1500 ms, a match effect with respect to the actual state of affairs occurred for the negative but not for the affirmative versions. The results are interpreted in the context of the experiential-simulations view of comprehension. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kaup2006,
      author = {Kaup, B and Ludtke, J and Zwaan, RA},
      title = {Processing negated sentences with contradictory predicates: Is a door that is not open mentally closed?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PRAGMATICS},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {38},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1033-1050},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.pragma.2005.09.012}}
    }
    
    Kemmerer, D., Castillo, J.G., Talavage, T., Patterson, S. & Wiley, C. Neuroanatomical distribution of five semantic components of verbs: Evidence from fMRI {2008} BRAIN AND LANGUAGE
    Vol. {107}({1}), pp. {16-43} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The Simulation Framework, also known as the Embodied Cognition Framework, maintains that conceptual knowledge is grounded in sensorimotor systems. To test several predictions that this theory makes about the neural substrates of verb meanings; we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan subjects' brains while they made semantic judgments involving five classes of verbs-specifically, Running verbs (e.g., run, jog, walk), Speaking verbs (e.g., shout, mumble, whisper), Hitting verbs (e.g., hit, poke, jab), Cutting verbs (e.g., cut, slice, hack), and Change of State verbs (e.g., shatter, smash, crack). These classes were selected because they vary with respect to the presence or absence of five distinct semantic components-specifically, ACTION; MOTION, CONTACT, CHANGE OF STATE, and TOOL USE. Based on the Simulation Framework, we hypothesized that the ACTION component depends on the primary motor and premotor cortices, that the MOTION component depends on the posterolateral temporal cortex, that the CONTACT component depends on the intraparietal sulcus and inferior parietal lobule, that the CHANGE OF STATE component depends on the ventral temporal cortex, and that the TOOL USE component depends on a distributed network of temporal, parietal, and frontal regions. Virtually all of the predictions were confirmed. Taken together, these findings support the Simulation Framework and extend our understanding of the neuroanatomical distribution of different aspects of verb meaning. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kemmerer2008,
      author = {Kemmerer, David and Castillo, Javier Gonzalez and Talavage, Thomas and Patterson, Stephanie and Wiley, Cynthia},
      title = {Neuroanatomical distribution of five semantic components of verbs: Evidence from fMRI},
      journal = {BRAIN AND LANGUAGE},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {107},
      number = {1},
      pages = {16-43},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.bandl.2007.09.003}}
    }
    
    Kempen, M., Viezzer, M., Bisson, P. & Nieuwenhuis, C. The challenges of designing an intelligent companion {2005} Foundations of Augmented Cognition, Vol 11, pp. {661-670}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: In this paper we discuss how the design of an Intelligent Companion constitutes a challenge and a test-bed for computer-based technologies aimed at improving the user's cognitive abilities. We conceive an intelligent companion to be an autonomous cognitive system (ACS) that should be capable of naturally interacting and communicating in real-world environments. It should do so by embodying learning of physically grounded conceptualizations of multimodal perception, decision making, planning and actuation, with the aim of supporting human cognition in both an intelligent and intelligible way. In order to arrive at a proper design of our intelligent companion we start with building and analysing a representative scenario for an intelligent companion within the areas of Education/Entertainnient. In the light of such requirement analyses, we discuss three desirable abilities of the companion: formation of concepts (concrete as well as abstract concepts, such as emotions and moods); reasoning and learning about emotions; multimodal communication for a natural (non-disturbing) social interaction. We argue that these abilities are needed in order to enable the companion to enter a partially grounded linguistic interaction with its user(s). We then present a system-level approach to the design of the cognitive architecture of the companion. This architecture will integrate perceptive (vision, speech, sound, emotions), cognitive (learning, reasoning, knowledge bases) and motor modules. As a concrete example, we discuss the potential use of an Intelligent companion to assist children in discovering their world. The companion can adapt to a child's cognitive state, first attune to and subsequently challenge the child's cognitive abilities to ever higher levels, in order to support and potentially speed-up the child's development process. The cognitive abilities mentioned above are pre-requisites for the companion to enter a partially grounded linguistic interplay with the child. However, in order to keep up and be ahead of the child we also claim that the system needs to regularly and gradually enlarge and refine its initially built-in conceptual space, and make use of learning mechanisms to evolve and select adequate dialogue schemes.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Kempen2005,
      author = {Kempen, M and Viezzer, M and Bisson, P and Nieuwenhuis, CHM},
      title = {The challenges of designing an intelligent companion},
      booktitle = {Foundations of Augmented Cognition, Vol 11},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {661-670},
      note = {1st International Conference on Augmented Cognition held in Conjunction with the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Las Vegas, NV, JUL 22-27, 2005}
    }
    
    Kennedy, N.S. CONCEPTUAL CHANGE AS DIALECTICAL TRANSFORMATION {2006} PME 30: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 30TH CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL GROUP FOR THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION, VOL 5, pp. {193-200}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: This report concerns an inquiry into the nature and character of conceptual transformation through a process of argumentation in a community of mathematical inquiry. Its theoretical approach is based on Vygotsky's theory of social cognition, which in turn is grounded in the broader framework of Hegelian and Marxist dialectical theories, and systems theory. The study explores mechanisms of conceptual transformation in a dialogical group setting with 21 fifth grade students in a community of mathematical inquiry format. It concludes that the process follows a dialectical model, which the author illustrates through an analysis of group discussions of the concept of infinity.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Kennedy2006,
      author = {Kennedy, Nadia Stoyanova},
      title = {CONCEPTUAL CHANGE AS DIALECTICAL TRANSFORMATION},
      booktitle = {PME 30: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 30TH CONFERENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL GROUP FOR THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION, VOL 5},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {193-200},
      note = {30th Conference of the International-Group-for-the-Psychology-of-Mathematics-Education, Prague, CZECH REPUBLIC, JUL 16-21, 2006}
    }
    
    Kezar, A. & Eckel, P. Examining the institutional transformation process: The importance of sensemaking, interrelated strategies, and balance {2002} RESEARCH IN HIGHER EDUCATION
    Vol. {43}({3}), pp. {295-328} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study develops elements of a transformational change framework that is theoretically and empirically grounded and is context based through case studies of 6 institutions over a 4-year period. The 3 key findings include: (a) 5 core strategies for transformational change; (b) the characteristic that makes them the essential, sensemaking; and (c) the interrelationship among core and secondary strategies, the nonlinear process of change, and the need for balance among strategies. Two major conclusions are developed from the study findings: (a) the efficacy for researchers of combining multiple conceptual models for understanding change processes; and (b) the importance of social cognition models for future studies of transformational change based on the significance of sensemaking.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kezar2002,
      author = {Kezar, A and Eckel, P},
      title = {Examining the institutional transformation process: The importance of sensemaking, interrelated strategies, and balance},
      journal = {RESEARCH IN HIGHER EDUCATION},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {43},
      number = {3},
      pages = {295-328}
    }
    
    Kingstone, A., Smilek, D., Ristic, J., Friesen, C. & Eastwood, J. Attention, researchers! It is time to take a look at the real world {2003} CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {12}({5}), pp. {176-180} 
    article  
    Abstract: Theories of attention, too often generated from artificial laboratory experiments, may have limited validity when attention in the natural world is considered. For instance, for more than two decades, conceptualizations of ``reflexive'' and ``volitional'' shifts of spatial attention have been grounded in methodologies that do not recognize or utilize the basic fact that people routinely use the eyes of other people as rich and complex attentional cues. This fact was confirmed by our novel discovery that eyes will trigger a reflexive shift of attention even when they are presented centrally and are known to be spatially nonpredictive. This exploration of real-world attention also led to our finding that, contrary to popular wisdom, arrows, like eyes, are capable of producing reflexive shifts of attention-a discovery that brings into question much of the existing attention research. We argue that research needs to be grounded in the real world and not in experimental paradigms. It is time for cognitive psychology to reaffirm the difficult task of studying attention in a manner that has relevance to real life situations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kingstone2003,
      author = {Kingstone, A and Smilek, D and Ristic, J and Friesen, CK and Eastwood, JD},
      title = {Attention, researchers! It is time to take a look at the real world},
      journal = {CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {12},
      number = {5},
      pages = {176-180}
    }
    
    Klein, P. The challenges of scientific literacy: From the viewpoint of second-generation cognitive science {2006} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE EDUCATION
    Vol. {28}({2-3}), pp. {143-178} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Recent trends in cognitive science have not made scientific literacy easier to attain, but they have made the practices through which educators meet its challenges more interpretable. Traditionally, cognitive scientists viewed knowledge as a set of propositions comprised of classical concepts, thought as logical inference and language as a literal representation of the world. They attributed the same denotative characteristics to cognition as to science text. In contrast, many contemporary cognitive scientists view knowledge as comprised of fuzzy and contextual concepts, thought as perceptually rather than formally grounded, and language as largely metaphorical and narrative. In this view the expressive characteristics of cognitive representations differ from the relatively denotative characteristics of science texts. Science literacy education bridges this difference through practices that help students: build classical concepts on a fuzzy cognitive architecture, achieve formally valid reasoning using perceptually driven operations, and construct written explanations and arguments using speech-like and narrative language.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Klein2006,
      author = {Klein, PD},
      title = {The challenges of scientific literacy: From the viewpoint of second-generation cognitive science},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE EDUCATION},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {28},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {143-178},
      note = {Conference on Crossing Borders - Connection Science and Literacy, Baltimore, MD, AUG 24-26, 2001},
      doi = {{10.1080/09500690500336627}}
    }
    
    Klein, P.D. & Kirkpatrick, L.C. Multimodal Literacies in Science: Currency, Coherence and Focus {2010} RESEARCH IN SCIENCE EDUCATION
    Vol. {40}({1, Sp. Iss. SI}), pp. {87-92} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Since the 1990s, researchers have increasingly drawn attention to the multiplicity of representations used in science. This issue of RISE advances this line of research by placing such representations at the centre of science teaching and learning. The authors show that representations do not simply transmit scientific information; they are integral to reasoning about scientific phenomena. This focus on thinking with representations mediates between well-resolved representations and formal reasoning of disciplinary science, and the capacity-limited, perceptually-driven nature of human cognition. The teaching practices described here build on three key principles: Each representation is interpreted through others; natural language is a sign system that is used to interpret a variety of other kinds of representations; and this chain of signs or representations is ultimately grounded in bodily experiences of perception and action. In these papers, the researchers provide examples and analysis of teachers scaffolding students in using representations to construct new knowledge, and in constructing new representations to express and develop their knowledge. The result is a new delineation of the power and the challenges of teaching science with multiple representations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Klein2010,
      author = {Klein, Perry D. and Kirkpatrick, Lori C.},
      title = {Multimodal Literacies in Science: Currency, Coherence and Focus},
      journal = {RESEARCH IN SCIENCE EDUCATION},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {40},
      number = {1, Sp. Iss. SI},
      pages = {87-92},
      doi = {{10.1007/s11165-009-9159-4}}
    }
    
    Klippel, A., Tappe, H., Kulik, L. & Lee, P. Wayfinding choremes - a language for modeling conceptual route knowledge {2005} JOURNAL OF VISUAL LANGUAGES AND COMPUTING
    Vol. {16}({4}), pp. {311-329} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The emergent interest in ontological and conceptual approaches to modeling route information results from new information technologies as well as from a multidisciplinary interest in spatial cognition. Linguistics investigates verbal route directions; cartography carries out research on route maps and on the information needs of map users; and computer science develops formal representations of routes with the aim to build new wayfinding applications. In concert with geomatics, ontologies of spatial domain knowledge are assembled while sensing technologies for location-aware wayfinding aids are developed simultaneously (e.g. cell phones, GPS-enabled devices or PDAs). These joint multidisciplinary efforts have enhanced cognitive approaches for route directions. In this article, we propose an interdisciplinary approach to modeling route information, the wayfinding choreme theory. Wayfinding choremes are mental conceptualizations of functional wayfinding and route direction elements. With the wayfinding choreme theory, we propose a formal treatment of (mental) conceptual route knowledge that is based on qualitative calculi and refined by behavioral experimental research. This contribution has three parts: First, we introduce the theory of wayfinding choremes. Second, we present terms rewriting rules that are grounded in cognitive principles and can tailor route directions to different user requirements. Third, we exemplify various application scenarios for our approach. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Klippel2005,
      author = {Klippel, A and Tappe, H and Kulik, L and Lee, PU},
      title = {Wayfinding choremes - a language for modeling conceptual route knowledge},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF VISUAL LANGUAGES AND COMPUTING},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {16},
      number = {4},
      pages = {311-329},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jvlc.2004.11.004}}
    }
    
    Knobf, M. The menopausal symptom experience in young mid-life women with breast cancer {2001} CANCER NURSING
    Vol. {24}({3}), pp. {201-211} 
    article  
    Abstract: Menopausal symptoms are important concerns for breast cancer survivors, which may influence daily activities, physical comfort and sexual health. Incidence and severity ratings of menopausal symptoms contribute to our knowledge about menopause in women with cancer, but fail to fully describe the symptom experience. The purpose of this article is to broaden our understanding by describing variation in menopausal symptom distress and how women interpret and manage symptoms within the context of breast cancer. From a larger grounded theory study that explored women's responses to the experience of premature induced menopause within the context of breast cancer, the constant comparative method of analysis was used to generate a detailed contextually grounded description of the menopausal symptom experience in a sample of 27 women with breast cancer who received adjuvant therapy. Women identified a symptom profile of menstrual cycle changes, hot flashes, insomnia, vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, alterations in mood, cognition and libido, and weight gain. The majority of women reported menopausal symptoms but some women were distress Free while others reported moderate to severe distress. The context of breast cancer influenced women's response to symptoms and their decision making about menopausal symptom management.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Knobf2001,
      author = {Knobf, MT},
      title = {The menopausal symptom experience in young mid-life women with breast cancer},
      journal = {CANCER NURSING},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {24},
      number = {3},
      pages = {201-211}
    }
    
    Knott, A. A SENSORIMOTOR CHARACTERISATION OF SYNTAX, AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR MODELS OF LANGUAGE EVOLUTION {2010} EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE, PROCEEDINGS, pp. {214-221}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: In this paper I consider the possibility that language is more strongly grounded in sensorimotor cognition than is normally assumed-a scenario which would be providential for language evolution theorists. I argue that the syntactic theory most compatible with this scenario, perhaps surprisingly, is generative grammar. I suggest that there may be a way of interpreting the syntactic structures posited in one theory of generative grammar (Minimalism) as descriptions of sensorimotor processing, and discuss the implications of this for models of language evolution.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Knott2010,
      author = {Knott, Alistair},
      title = {A SENSORIMOTOR CHARACTERISATION OF SYNTAX, AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR MODELS OF LANGUAGE EVOLUTION},
      booktitle = {EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE, PROCEEDINGS},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {214-221},
      note = {8th International Conference on the Evolution of Language (EVOLANG 8), Utrecht, NETHERLANDS, APR 14-17, 2010}
    }
    
    Komarova, N.L., Jameson, K.A. & Narens, L. Evolutionary models of color categorization based on discrimination {2007} JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {51}({6}), pp. {359-382} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Specifying the factors that contribute to the universality of color categorization across individuals and cultures is a longstanding and still controversial issue in psychology, linguistics, and anthropology. This article approaches this issue through the simulated evolution of color lexicons. It is shown that the combination of a minimal perceptual psychology of discrimination, simple pragmatic constraints involving communication, and simple learning rules is enough to evolve color-naming systems. Implications of this result for psychological theories of color categorization and the evolution of color-naming systems in human societies are discussed. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Komarova2007,
      author = {Komarova, Natalia L. and Jameson, Kimberly A. and Narens, Louis},
      title = {Evolutionary models of color categorization based on discrimination},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {51},
      number = {6},
      pages = {359-382},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jmp.2007.06.001}}
    }
    
    Kravchenko, A.V. Essential properties of language, or, why language is not a code {2007} LANGUAGE SCIENCES
    Vol. {29}({5}), pp. {650-671} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Despite a strong tradition of viewing coded equivalence as the underlying principle of linguistic semiotics, it lacks the power needed to understand and explain language as an empirical phenomenon characterized by complex dynamics. Applying the biology of cognition to the nature of the human cognitive/linguistic capacity as rooted in the dynamics of reciprocal causality between an organism and the world, we can show language to be connotational rather than denotational. This leaves no room for the various `code-models' of language exploited in traditional linguistics. Bio-cognitive analysis leads to deeper insights into the essence of language as a biologically based, cognitively motivated, circularly organized serniotic activity in a consensual domain of interactions aimed at adapting to, and, ultimately, gaining control of the environment. The understanding that cognition is grounded in the dynamics of biological self-organization fits both the integrational model of communication and distributed cognition. A short discussion of the key notions of representation, sign and signification, interpretation, intentionality, communication, and reciprocal causality is offered, showing that the notion of `code' is only misleadingly applied to natural language. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kravchenko2007,
      author = {Kravchenko, Alexander V.},
      title = {Essential properties of language, or, why language is not a code},
      journal = {LANGUAGE SCIENCES},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {29},
      number = {5},
      pages = {650-671},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.langsci.2007.01.004}}
    }
    
    Krueger, J. & Funder, D. Towards a balanced social psychology: Causes, consequences, and cures for the problem-seeking approach to social behavior and cognition {2004} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {27}({3}), pp. {313+} 
    article  
    Abstract: Mainstream social psychology focuses on how people characteristically violate norms of action through social misbehaviors such as conformity with false majority judgments, destructive obedience, and failures to help those in need. Likewise, they are seen to violate norms of reasoning through cognitive errors such as misuse of social information, self-enhancement, and an over-readiness to attribute dispositional characteristics. The causes of this negative research emphasis include the apparent informativeness of norm violation, the status of good behavior and judgment as unconfirmable null hypotheses, and the allure of counter-intuitive findings. The shortcomings of this orientation include frequently erroneous imputations of error, findings of mutually contradictory errors, incoherent interpretations of error, an inability to explain the sources of behavioral or cognitive achievement, and the inhibition of generalized theory. Possible remedies include increased attention to the complete range of behavior and judgmental accomplishment, analytic reforms emphasizing effect sizes and Bayesian inference, and a theoretical paradigm able to account for both the sources of accomplishment and of error. A more balanced social psychology would yield not only a more positive view of human nature, but also an improved understanding of the bases of good behavior and accurate judgment, coherent explanations of occasional lapses, and theoretically grounded suggestions for improvement.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Krueger2004,
      author = {Krueger, JI and Funder, DC},
      title = {Towards a balanced social psychology: Causes, consequences, and cures for the problem-seeking approach to social behavior and cognition},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {27},
      number = {3},
      pages = {313+}
    }
    
    Krull, R. Embodied language and procedural documentation {2007} 2007 IEEE INTERNATIONAL PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION CONFERENCE, pp. {132-138}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: Embodied language is grounded in users' concrete experience and thereby reduces user effort when using procedural information. Embodied language does this because doesn't force users to think purely abstractly.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Krull2007,
      author = {Krull, Robert},
      title = {Embodied language and procedural documentation},
      booktitle = {2007 IEEE INTERNATIONAL PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION CONFERENCE},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {132-138},
      note = {IEEE international Professional Communication Conference, Seattle, WA, OCT 01-03, 2007}
    }
    
    Labianca, G., Gray, B. & Brass, D. A grounded model of organizational schema change during empowerment {2000} ORGANIZATION SCIENCE
    Vol. {11}({2}), pp. {235-257} 
    article  
    Abstract: We analyzed employee resistance to an organizational change project in which employees were empowered to participate in the design of a new organizational structure. What emerged from our analysis was the, importance of cognitive barriers to empowerment. Employees' resistance appeared to be motivated less by intentional self-interest than by the constraints of well-established, ingrained schemas. Resistance was also fueled by skepticism among the employees about management's commitment to the new decision-making schema, especially because employees judged managerial actions to be inconsistent with their new espoused framework. A grounded model of schema change is developed for changes in organizational decision-making schemas during empowerment efforts. Theoretical implications and suggestions for improving organizational change efforts are proposed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Labianca2000,
      author = {Labianca, G and Gray, B and Brass, DJ},
      title = {A grounded model of organizational schema change during empowerment},
      journal = {ORGANIZATION SCIENCE},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {11},
      number = {2},
      pages = {235-257}
    }
    
    Laru, J. & Jarvela, S. Using web2.0 software and mobile devices for creating shared understanding among virtual learning communities {2008} FIFTH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WIRELESS, MOBILE AND UBIQUITOUS TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATION, PROCEEDINGS, pp. {228-230}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: In our recent research we have explored possibilities to scaffold collaborative learning in higher education with wireless networks and mobile toolsd The pedagogical ideas are grounded on concepts of collaborative learning, including the socially shared origin of cognition, as well as self-regulated learning theoryd This poster will demonstrate how social software and mobile devices can be used for facilitating socially shared collaboration and community buildingd.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Laru2008,
      author = {Laru, Jari and Jarvela, Sana},
      title = {Using web2.0 software and mobile devices for creating shared understanding among virtual learning communities},
      booktitle = {FIFTH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WIRELESS, MOBILE AND UBIQUITOUS TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATION, PROCEEDINGS},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {228-230},
      note = {5th IEEE International Workshop on Wireless, Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies in Education, Beijing, PEOPLES R CHINA, MAR 23-26, 2008}
    }
    
    Laxmisan, A., Hakimzada, F., Sayan, O.R., Green, R.A., Zhang, J. & Patel, V.L. The multitasking clinician: Decision-making and cognitive demand during and after team handoffs in emergency care {2007} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INFORMATICS
    Vol. {76}({11-12}), pp. {801-811} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Several studies have shown that there is information loss during interruptions, and that multitasking creates higher memory load, both of which contribute to medical error. Nowhere is this more critical than in the emergency department (ED), where the emphasis of clinical decision is on the timely evaluation and stabilization of patients. This paper reports on the nature of multitasking and shift change and its implications for patient safety in an adult ED, using the methods of ethnographic observation and inter-views. Data were analyzed using grounded theory to study cognition in the context of the work environment. Analysis revealed that interruptions within the ED were prevalent and diverse in nature. On average, there was an interruption every 9 and 14 min for the attending physicians and the residents, respectively. In addition, the workflow analysis showed gaps in information flow due to multitasking and shift changes. Transfer of information began at the point of hand-offs/shift changes and continued through various other activities, such as documentation, consultation, teaching activities and utilization of computer resources. The results show that the nature of the communication process in the ED is complex and cognitively taxing for the clinicians, which can compromise patient safety. The need to tailor existing generic electronic tools to support adaptive processes like multitasking and handoffs in a time-constrained environment is discussed. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Laxmisan2007,
      author = {Laxmisan, Archana and Hakimzada, Forogh and Sayan, Osman R. and Green, Robert A. and Zhang, Jiajie and Patel, Vimla L.},
      title = {The multitasking clinician: Decision-making and cognitive demand during and after team handoffs in emergency care},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INFORMATICS},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {76},
      number = {11-12},
      pages = {801-811},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2006.09.019}}
    }
    
    Lecusay, R., Rossen, L. & Cole, M. Cultural-historical activity theory and the zone of proximal development in the study of idioculture design and implementation {2008} COGNITIVE SYSTEMS RESEARCH
    Vol. {9}({1-2}), pp. {92-103} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: For a large part of its history cognitive science has been grounded in views of the mind based on the traditional Cartesian dualisms. These dichotomies have been reinforced in particular by the view of the mind as an encased symbol-processing system `'protected from the external world'' (Newell, A., Rosenbloom, P. S., & Laird J. E. (1990). Symbolic architectures for cognition. In M. I. Posner (Ed.), Foundations of cognitive science, Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books/MIT Press, pp. 93-131: 107). Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) seeks to supersede Cartesianism, thinking about cognition and culture as mutually constitutive of each other. This approach analyzes thought processes as embedded in and manifested through systems of historically developing, culturally mediated activity. Consequently for CHAT, a basic unit for the study of human thought is joint mediated activity. In this paper we will discuss an example of research that follows the CHAT approach to the analysis of learning and development. The data sample is taken from a session of the Fifth Dimension, an after-school activity designed to implement CHAT principles in order to promote the cognitive and social development of adult and child participants alike. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lecusay2008,
      author = {Lecusay, Robert and Rossen, Lars and Cole, Michael},
      title = {Cultural-historical activity theory and the zone of proximal development in the study of idioculture design and implementation},
      journal = {COGNITIVE SYSTEMS RESEARCH},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {92-103},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.cogsys.2007.06.012}}
    }
    
    Leech-Wilkinson, D. Sound and meaning in recordings of Schubert's ``Die junge Nonne'' {2007} MUSICAE SCIENTIAE
    Vol. {11}({2}), pp. {209-236} 
    article  
    Abstract: Musicology's growing interest in performance brings it closer to musical science through a shared interest in the relationship between musical sounds and emotional states. However, the fact that musical performance styles change over time implies that understandings of musical compositions change too. And this has implications for studies of music cognition. While the mechanisms by which musical sounds suggest meaning are likely to be biologically grounded, what musical sounds signify in specific performance contexts today may not always be what they signified in the past, nor what they will signify in the future. Studies of music cognition need to take account of performance style change and its potential to inflect conclusions with cultural assumptions. The recorded performance history of Schubert's ``Die junge Nonne'' offers examples of significant change in style, as well as a range of radically contrasting views of what the song's text may mean. By examining details of performances, and interpreting them in the light of work on music perception and cognition, it is possible to gain a clearer understanding of how signs of emotional state are deployed in performance by singers. At the same time, in the absence of strong evidence as to how individual performances were understood in the past, we have to recognise that we can only speak with any confidence for our own time.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Leech-Wilkinson2007,
      author = {Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel},
      title = {Sound and meaning in recordings of Schubert's ``Die junge Nonne''},
      journal = {MUSICAE SCIENTIAE},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {11},
      number = {2},
      pages = {209-236}
    }
    
    Leman, M. & Camurri, A. Understanding musical expressiveness using interactive multimedia platforms {2005} MUSICAE SCIENTIAE({Sp. Iss. SI}), pp. {209-233}  article  
    Abstract: Background in musicology. Understanding the gesture-based foundations of musical involvement opens a number of new perspectives for musicology, with the likely effect of a change in approach. Giving justice to the role of gesture in music calls for an integrated view of perception and action, which implies a shift from auditory-based cognition towards embodied cognition, an approach that includes the whole human body as mediator between mental processes and physical energy. Background in computing. With the help of new measurement tools, new computational models of multi-modal interaction, and new interactive multimedia platforms, it becomes easier to study music from a multi-modal point of view, both in terms of scientific and artistic perspectives. Music also offers an appropriate domain for the testing and developing of interactive systems and computational models for handling non-verbal multi-modal communication. Aims. In studying musical gesture, both musicology and engineering can profit from a joint collaboration. While technology provides new tools for the measurement and modelling of musical involvement, knowledge of its corporeal foundation may largely contribute to the development of technology that in turn contributes to measurement and modelling. Furthermore, this knowledge may be exploited in artistic applications. As such, the interaction between musicology and music engineering may lead to interesting developments in the domain of embodied cognition and interactive multimedia platforms. Main contribution. An overview of recent work on the development of an interactive multimedia platform for the measurement and modelling of musical expressiveness is presented. The paper introduces the notion of corporeal imitation and mirroring behavior as a core concept fur understanding musical expressiveness. Implications. The approach advocated in this paper implies a shift of paradigm in systematic musicology, away from an all too narrow focus on auditory perception and sound structure, towards a broader view that encompasses multi-modal musical involvement. This approach is grounded in multi-sensory integration, the coupling of perception and action, the study of motor imitation, and issues that relate to affect, emotions and subjectivity. The advantage of using a interactive multimedia platform for music research, rather than ad hoc solutions, pertains to the use of modular functionalities, which allow rapid prototyping of experimental setup, flexible modelling, and the subsequent use of results in artistic applications.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Leman2005,
      author = {Leman, M and Camurri, A},
      title = {Understanding musical expressiveness using interactive multimedia platforms},
      journal = {MUSICAE SCIENTIAE},
      year = {2005},
      number = {Sp. Iss. SI},
      pages = {209-233},
      note = {1st Conference on Interdisciplinary Musicology (CIM04), Graz, AUSTRIA, APR 15-18, 2004}
    }
    
    Li, Q., Clark, B. & Winchester, I. Instructional design and technology grounded in enactivism: A paradigm shift? {2010} BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY
    Vol. {41}({3}), pp. {403-419} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Although traditional instructional design and technology (IDT) has largely been based on objectivism, in the past 20 years, constructivism has emerged as a dominant framework for IDT. Both perspectives, however, present shortcomings. This paper explores enactivism-an emerging new philosophical world view-as an alternative paradigm. It also investigates the possibilities offered by this new paradigm to IDT. The philosophical world view known as enactivism is reviewed to illustrate the similarities and differences among the three philosophical paradigms, namely, objectivism, constructivism and enactivism. Finally, details of enactivism and its implications for IDT are explored.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Li2010,
      author = {Li, Qing and Clark, Bruce and Winchester, Ian},
      title = {Instructional design and technology grounded in enactivism: A paradigm shift?},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {41},
      number = {3},
      pages = {403-419},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.00954.x}}
    }
    
    Licoppe, C. Processing E-mail in call centers {2002} SOCIOLOGIE DU TRAVAIL
    Vol. {44}({3}), pp. {381-400} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study of a call center that mainly handles sales through E-mail shows how operators develop interactional skills based on the precision and concision needed to conduct a successful exchange of electronic messages. The cognitive workload is lightened by using form letters; the writing, archiving and accessing of these letters form the basis for a sort of occupational solidarity grounded in a social and technical distribution of activities. However the skills required at the time of hiring are those related to jobs using the telephone. During the recruitment process, only ``singular'' candidates can take advantage of the room left by the lack of adjustment between the local classification of tasks and more general grids of qualifications and wages. The way this ``singularity'' can be suspected to be a transgression denotes the naturalization of a division, deeply rooted in our culture, between written and oral practices, a division which can be put to use thanks to the emergence of electronic transactions. (C) 2002 editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Licoppe2002,
      author = {Licoppe, C},
      title = {Processing E-mail in call centers},
      journal = {SOCIOLOGIE DU TRAVAIL},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {44},
      number = {3},
      pages = {381-400}
    }
    
    Liebreich, T., Plotnikoff, R.C., Courneya, K.S. & Boule, N. Diabetes NetPLAY: A physical activity website and linked email counselling randomized intervention for individuals with type 2 diabetes {2009} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
    Vol. {6} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background -: This pilot study evaluated the feasibility ( recruitment, retention, adherence and satisfaction) and preliminary efficacy of a 12-week website and email-linked counselling intervention on physical activity behaviour change in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods -: A total of 49 individuals with type 2 diabetes (59% female, average age 54.1 years) were randomized to the Diabetes NetPLAY intervention or control condition. The intervention condition received information grounded in the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), personalized weekly emails, an on-line logbook and message board. Key outcomes included physical activity behaviour and related cognition changes. The control condition was provided links to the Canadian Diabetes Association's Clinical Practice Guidelines for Physical Activity and Canada's Guide to Physical Activity. Results -: Intervention participants indicated high levels of satisfaction for this mode of delivery and study results demonstrated the feasibility of web-based mediums for the delivery of physical activity information in this population. The intervention group demonstrated a significant improvement in total vigorous and moderate minutes of physical activity (p = 0.05) compared to the control group over the 12- week study. Among the SCT variables, behavioural capacity, showed a significant increase (p < 0.001) among intervention participants. Conclusion -: Web-based interventions for individuals with type 2 diabetes are feasible and show promise for improving positive physical activity outcomes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Liebreich2009,
      author = {Liebreich, Tanis and Plotnikoff, Ronald C. and Courneya, Kerry S. and Boule, Normand},
      title = {Diabetes NetPLAY: A physical activity website and linked email counselling randomized intervention for individuals with type 2 diabetes},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {6},
      doi = {{10.1186/1479-5868-6-18}}
    }
    
    Lipinski, J., Sandamirskaya, Y. & Schoener, G. Swing it to the left, swing it to the right: enacting flexible spatial language using a neurodynamic framework {2009} COGNITIVE NEURODYNAMICS
    Vol. {3}({4}), pp. {373-400} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Research is continually expanding the empirical and theoretical picture of embodiment and dynamics in language. To date, however, a formalized neural dynamic framework for embodied linguistic processes has yet to emerge. To advance embodied theories of language, the present work develops a formalized neural dynamic framework of spatial language that explicitly integrates linguistic processes and dynamic sensory-motor systems. We then implement and test our spatial language architecture on a robotic platform continuously linked to real-time camera input. In a suite of tasks using everyday objects we demonstrate the framework's capacity for both contextually-dependent behavioral flexibility and the seamless integration of spatial, non-spatial, and symbolic representations. To our knowledge this is the first unified, neurally-grounded architecture integrating these processes and behaviors.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lipinski2009a,
      author = {Lipinski, John and Sandamirskaya, Yulia and Schoener, Gregor},
      title = {Swing it to the left, swing it to the right: enacting flexible spatial language using a neurodynamic framework},
      journal = {COGNITIVE NEURODYNAMICS},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {3},
      number = {4},
      pages = {373-400},
      doi = {{10.1007/s11571-009-9096-y}}
    }
    
    Lipinski, J., Spencer, J.P. & Samuelson, L.K. TOWARDS THE INTEGRATION OF LINGUISTIC AND NON-LINGUISTIC SPATIAL COGNITION: A DYNAMIC FIELD THEORY APPROACH {2009}
    Vol. {18}CONNECTIONIST MODELS OF BEHAVIOUR AND COGNITION II, pp. {205-216} 
    inproceedings  
    Abstract: We present empirical results and an implemented computational model grounded in the Dynamic Field Theory [1] that directly addresses the second-to-second dynamics governing the integration of linguistic and non-linguistic spatial systems. Results from two experiments show activating a spatial term can differentially bias location memories in the direction of the spatial term prototype. Subsequent simulations from a hybrid Dynamic Field Theory-connectionist model capture the observed term-dependent modulation of those biases. Together, our simulations and results provide strong evidence that a formalized, dynamic framework directly linked to observable behavior can facilitate the theoretical integration of linguistic and non-linguistic spatial systems.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Lipinski2009,
      author = {Lipinski, John and Spencer, John P. and Samuelson, Larissa K.},
      title = {TOWARDS THE INTEGRATION OF LINGUISTIC AND NON-LINGUISTIC SPATIAL COGNITION: A DYNAMIC FIELD THEORY APPROACH},
      booktitle = {CONNECTIONIST MODELS OF BEHAVIOUR AND COGNITION II},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {18},
      pages = {205-216},
      note = {11h Neural Computational and Psychology Workshop, Oxford, ENGLAND, JUL 16-18, 2008}
    }
    
    Lipkind, M. Consciousness enigma: The ``hard problem'' - binding problem entanglement, ``extra ingredient'' and field principle {2008} INDIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY
    Vol. {46}({5}), pp. {395-402} 
    article  
    Abstract: The ``Hard problem'' of consciousness relates to the perplexing emergence of consciousness as a result of the brain activity. The binding problem concerns separate processing of perceived data in functionally and topographically segregated cortical areas and functional integration of such locally disjoined operations into coherently perceived images and events. The existing field-grounded theories of consciousness fall into two groups: (i) those based on the physical (electromagnetic) field, and (ii) those grounded on autonomous fields irreducible to the established physical fundamentals. The critical analysis of the existing theories results in formulation of the extra ingredient and a novel irreducible field-based theory of consciousness.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lipkind2008,
      author = {Lipkind, Michael},
      title = {Consciousness enigma: The ``hard problem'' - binding problem entanglement, ``extra ingredient'' and field principle},
      journal = {INDIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {46},
      number = {5},
      pages = {395-402}
    }
    
    Lopez, V. & Emmer, E. Adolescent male offenders - A grounded theory study of cognition, emotion, and delinquent crime contexts {2000} CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {27}({3}), pp. {292-311} 
    article  
    Abstract: Perspectives of adolescent offenders were examined, especially how they define, interpret, and in some cases justify their delinquent behaviors. Grounded theory methodology was used to examine the cognitive, affective, moral, sociocultural, and situational components that influence how and why adolescents commit crimes. A total of 24 adolescent males were interviewed. A theory of delinquent crime contexts emerged. This article focuses on three of these crime contexts: the emotion-driven violent assault, the belief-driven violent assault, and the mixed-motive mixed-crime contexts.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lopez2000,
      author = {Lopez, VA and Emmer, ET},
      title = {Adolescent male offenders - A grounded theory study of cognition, emotion, and delinquent crime contexts},
      journal = {CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND BEHAVIOR},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {27},
      number = {3},
      pages = {292-311}
    }
    
    Lutkehaus, N.C. Putting ``Culture'' into cultural psychology: Anthropology's role in the development of Bruner's cultural psychology {2008} ETHOS
    Vol. {36}({1}), pp. {46-59} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: I present an intellectual history of the impact of cultural anthropology on Jerome Bruner's cultural psychology and discuss the influence of Bruner's role during the 1960s in the creation of an elementary school science curriculum based on the study of anthropology, Man, A Course of Study (MACOS). Funded by the National Science Foundation, the MACOS curriculum became highly politicized in a national science textbook controversy in the 1970s. I argue that during the 1960s, Bruner had three key experiences that influenced his understanding of the role that culture plays in learning and cognition and that thus grounded his vision of cultural psychology. These include his role in the development of the MACOS curriculum, his involvement with the federally funded Head Start preschool program, and the research conducted by several of his graduate students in Africa and the Arctic.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lutkehaus2008,
      author = {Lutkehaus, Nancy C.},
      title = {Putting ``Culture'' into cultural psychology: Anthropology's role in the development of Bruner's cultural psychology},
      journal = {ETHOS},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {36},
      number = {1},
      pages = {46-59},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1548-1352.2008.00003.x}}
    }
    
    MAHONEY, M. COGNITION AND CAUSATION IN HUMAN-EXPERIENCE {1995} JOURNAL OF BEHAVIOR THERAPY AND EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {26}({3}), pp. {275-278} 
    article  
    Abstract: Arguments that thoughts cannot have the power to cause or influence behavior are briefly addressed. Despite being couched in traditional behavioristic terminology, some of these arguments actually invoke the very dualism that they criticize. Likewise problematic are portrayals of scientific activity as being necessarily grounded in an ontology of physical extension and an epistemology that grants the visual system (and hence observability) sole and supreme authority. Contemporary cognitivists challenge classical mind-body dualism and refer to thoughts and other `'mental'' phenomena as activities of the living system. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) humans think, (2) human thinking influences human behavior, and vice-versa, and (3) dialogues on this topic would be well served by a refinement of the questions under consideration.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MAHONEY1995,
      author = {MAHONEY, MJ},
      title = {COGNITION AND CAUSATION IN HUMAN-EXPERIENCE},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF BEHAVIOR THERAPY AND EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {26},
      number = {3},
      pages = {275-278}
    }
    
    Maier, M.A., Elliot, A.J. & Lichtenfeld, S. Mediation of the Negative Effect of Red on Intellectual Performance {2008} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {34}({11}), pp. {1530-1540} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This research examines the hypothesis that an attentional process grounded in avoidance motivation-local relative to global processing mediates the negative effect of red on intellectual performance. This hypothesis was tested in a series of experiments using two approaches to documenting mediation. Experiment 1 established that the perception of red undermines IQ test performance. Experiments 2a and 2b documented mediation via the experimental causal chain approach, and Experiment 3 documented mediation via the measurement of mediation approach. This represents the first demonstration of a mediational process in the domain of color psychology. A call is made to broaden priming research to include color stimuli.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Maier2008,
      author = {Maier, Markus A. and Elliot, Andrew J. and Lichtenfeld, Stephanie},
      title = {Mediation of the Negative Effect of Red on Intellectual Performance},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {34},
      number = {11},
      pages = {1530-1540},
      doi = {{10.1177/0146167208323104}}
    }
    
    Mamo, L. Death and dying: confluences of emotion and awareness {1999} SOCIOLOGY OF HEALTH & ILLNESS
    Vol. {21}({1}), pp. {13-36} 
    article  
    Abstract: Using data from an introspective ethnography, this paper proposes a modified theory of awareness among dying patients, their families and medical personnel. By incorporating the sociology of emotions, this modified theory provides a richer understanding of the complexity of relationships in death and dying than the previous literature which focuses on knowledge and the management of knowledge in social interactions in the context of dying. It is suggested that awareness based on knowledge and the cognitive processing of information not only obscures the emotional content of terminal illness, but also moves to the background the emotional work performed by dying patients and their families. The modified version of awareness theory recognises that emotion and cognition are intertwined and pays close attention to emotions within the social context.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mamo1999,
      author = {Mamo, L},
      title = {Death and dying: confluences of emotion and awareness},
      journal = {SOCIOLOGY OF HEALTH & ILLNESS},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {21},
      number = {1},
      pages = {13-36}
    }
    
    MANN, G. BEELINE - A SITUATED, BOUNDED CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM {1995} SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
    Vol. {7}({1}), pp. {37-53} 
    article  
    Abstract: How do recent theoretical arguments about situated cognition and bounded rationality affect the practical matter of designing and building intelligent knowledge based systems? A particular view of situated cognition is adopted, in which conceptual knowledge structures are grounded by being linked to objects, events and behaviours in nested environments outside the system through channels that are analogous to biological sensors and actuators. These grounded conceptual structures can be created and modified through a variety of arbitrarily bounded conceptual processes, including natural language text parsing. Fruitful interactions between conceptual structures from these different sources may then be explored. BEELINE is a software platform designed for experimenting with these ideas. It immerses a language-using, goal-seeking cognitive agent in a simulated physical world. It can use real English instructions to achieve a navigational goal. This predicament offers fresh solutions to old knowledge engineering problems, and presents some new challenges for knowledge based systems of the future.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MANN1995,
      author = {MANN, G},
      title = {BEELINE - A SITUATED, BOUNDED CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM},
      journal = {SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND INFORMATION SCIENCE},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {37-53}
    }
    
    Mareschal, D. & Thomas, M.S.C. Computational modeling in developmental psychology {2007} IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION
    Vol. {11}({2}), pp. {137-150} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This manuscript surveys computational modeling efforts by researchers in developmental psychology. Developmental psychology is ready to blossom into a modern science that focuses on causal mechanistic explanations of development rather than just describing and classifying behaviors. Computational modeling is the key to this process. However, to be effective, models must not only mimic observed data. They must also be transparent, grounded, and plausible to be accepted by the developmental psychology community. Connectionist model provides one such example. Many developmental features of typical and atypical perception, cognition, and language have been modeled using connectionist methods. Successful models are closely tied to the details of existing empirical studies and make concrete testable predictions. The success of such a project relies on the close collaboration of computational scientists with empirical psychologists.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mareschal2007,
      author = {Mareschal, Denis and Thomas, Michael S. C.},
      title = {Computational modeling in developmental psychology},
      journal = {IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {11},
      number = {2},
      pages = {137-150},
      doi = {{10.1109/TEVC.2006.890232}}
    }
    
    Marques, J.F. The Effect of Visual Deprivation on the Organization of Conceptual Knowledge Testing the Grounded Cognition Hypothesis {2010} EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {57}({2}), pp. {83-88} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The present paper evaluates the effect of visual deprivation on the organization and retrieval of conceptual knowledge. The experimental study used the release from proactive interference (PI-release) paradigm. Early onset blind (EOB) and sighted ( S) subjects were tested with this task and additional visual and nonvisual property retrieval cues. PI-release results showed that the visual cue was less effective for EOB individuals than for S individuals, whereas the nonvisual cue was similarly effective for EOB individuals and S individuals. Results support a grounded view of cognition where the organization of conceptual knowledge depends on the role that sensory and motor channels play in its acquisition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Marques2010,
      author = {Marques, J. Frederico},
      title = {The Effect of Visual Deprivation on the Organization of Conceptual Knowledge Testing the Grounded Cognition Hypothesis},
      journal = {EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {57},
      number = {2},
      pages = {83-88},
      doi = {{10.1027/1618-3169/a000011}}
    }
    
    Martinez, M. The process of knowing: A biocognitive epistemology {2001} JOURNAL OF MIND AND BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {22}({4}), pp. {407-426} 
    article  
    Abstract: The biocognitive theory presented in this paper offers an alternative to the attribution of cause perpetuated by the life sciences in our western culture. Historically, biology has based its epistemology on physics to understand life, whereas cognitive science has grounded its ontology in a convergence of biology, physics, and philosophy to provide models of self that range from a passive acceptance of an outside world to the active creation of an inner world. While Newtonian physics has served us well in the physical sciences, the life sciences continue to embrace the limitations of its reductionism without advancing to the more inclusive concepts offered by complexity and quantum theories. As long as the biological and cognitive sciences remain married to Newtonian physics and Cartesian philosophy, mind will be relegated to an epiphenomenon of biology that will continue to separate cognitive processes from biological functions. Rather than choosing between upward causality that explains cause from the simplest level of the organism and downward causality that explains it from the most complex to the simplest, biocognitive theory offers contextual coemergence where the simultaneous resonance between fields of bioinformation is the genesis of cause. In this model of coemergent causality, cognition, biology, and cultural history are viewed as biocognitions that communicate within a bioinformational field that has both linear processes in Euclidian geometry and non-linear processes in fractal geometry. Because of the simultaneous and reciprocal nature of mind and body communication, it is argued that biology creates thought and thought creates biology. just as mind and body cannot be separated, to attempt a separation of mind and world would create an artificial split between observer and observation that assumes we can ``step out'' of the world we are attempting to observe.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Martinez2001,
      author = {Martinez, ME},
      title = {The process of knowing: A biocognitive epistemology},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF MIND AND BEHAVIOR},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {22},
      number = {4},
      pages = {407-426}
    }
    
    Matthews, H. & Limb, M. Defining an agenda for the geography of children: review and prospect {1999} PROGRESS IN HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
    Vol. {23}({1}), pp. {61-90} 
    article  
    Abstract: There is still only a limited development of a solidly grounded social and cultural geography prepared to conceptualize children as a neglected social grouping undergoing various forms of sociospatial marginalization. Given the focus and momentum of the `new' cultural geography, we contend that this is an apposite time to define an agenda for the geography of children, which not only takes into account earlier studies which can inform contemporary debate, largely drawn from an environmental psychology tradition, but which also recognizes the interface between sociology, anthropology and cultural studies and draws upon important work being undertaken by feminist and critical geographers. To date, much of the research on the geography of children has been blighted by fragmentation, narrow disciplinary perspectives and methodologies which do not sufficiently engage themselves with the lifeworld of children in the `here and now'. Ln this article we propose a working agenda based upon a set of seven generic propositions which highlight different aspects of children's relationship with their physical and built environment, beyond the home, school and playground. Our emphasis in this review is on work which examines the experiences of children and how they `see the world' around them. We recognize, however, that part of what children see are structures which constrain them. These may include the adult values imprinted on the physical and built landscapes in which they live, or the social constraints of the adult gaze. We argue that research on the lives of children should not just be reported for its own sake, but should lead to outcomes which encourage empowerment, participation and self-determination consistent with levels of competence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Matthews1999,
      author = {Matthews, H and Limb, M},
      title = {Defining an agenda for the geography of children: review and prospect},
      journal = {PROGRESS IN HUMAN GEOGRAPHY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {23},
      number = {1},
      pages = {61-90}
    }
    
    McFall, R., Treat, T. & Viken, R. Contributions of cognitive theory to new behavioral treatments {1997} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {8}({3}), pp. {174-176} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although clinical, social, and cognitive psychologists all use the concept of `'cognition,'' they often use it in different ways to refer to different phenomena. We offer a heuristic framework for distinguishing among three general uses of the word cognition, and apply this framework to an evaluation of the experiential avoidance concept presented by Hayes and Gifford (this issue). While acknowledging the promise of such work, we raise concerns about its possible limitations. We recommend that clinical applications of the cognition concept be grounded in the theories and methods of contemporary cognitive and neural sciences. In support of our recommendation, we present three examples from experiments from our own research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McFall1997,
      author = {McFall, RM and Treat, TA and Viken, RJ},
      title = {Contributions of cognitive theory to new behavioral treatments},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {174-176},
      note = {Workshop on Behavioral Therapy Development and Psychological Science, BETHESDA, MD, MAY 14-16, 1996}
    }
    
    McGeer, V. & Schwitzgebel, E. Disorder in the representational warehouse {2006} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {77}({6}), pp. {1557-1562} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although developmental psychologists are generally happy to endorse dissociationist and gradualist views of development like Woolley's (2006), the design and interpretation of developmental research often suggests an implicit commitment to a cleaner, less dissociative, sudden-transition view of development. Such an implicit commitment may derive some of its power from the ``representational warehouse'' model of cognition and development that rose to prominence in the cognitive revolution. An alternative model of cognition and development, grounded in dispositional patterns of responding to stimuli, more naturally accommodates dissociative phenomena in development and highlights mechanisms for self-regulation and for fashioning and deploying representations, or depictions, in a uniquely human way.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McGeer2006,
      author = {McGeer, Victoria and Schwitzgebel, Eric},
      title = {Disorder in the representational warehouse},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {77},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1557-1562}
    }
    
    Meier, B.P. & Dionne, S. DOWNRIGHT SEXY: VERTICALITY, IMPLICIT POWER, AND PERCEIVED PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS {2009} SOCIAL COGNITION
    Vol. {27}({6}), pp. {883-892} 
    article  
    Abstract: Grounded theory proposes that abstract concepts (e.g., power) are represented by perceptions of vertical space (e.g., up is powerful; down is powerless). We used this theory to examine predictions made by evolutionary psychologists who suggest that desirable males are those who have status and resources (i.e., powerful) while desirable females are those who are youthful and faithful (i.e., powerless). Using vertical position as an implicit cue for power, we found that male participants rated pictures of females as more attractive when their images were presented near the bottom of a computer screen, whereas female participants rated pictures of males as more attractive when their images were presented near the top of a computer screen. Our results support the evolutionary theory of attraction and reveal the social-judgment consequences of grounded theories of cognition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Meier2009,
      author = {Meier, Brian P. and Dionne, Sarah},
      title = {DOWNRIGHT SEXY: VERTICALITY, IMPLICIT POWER, AND PERCEIVED PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS},
      journal = {SOCIAL COGNITION},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {27},
      number = {6},
      pages = {883-892}
    }
    
    Mesquita, B. Emotions in collectivist and individualist contexts {2001} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {80}({1}), pp. {68-74} 
    article  
    Abstract: A theory of cultural differences in emotions was tested in a questionnaire study. Hypotheses about the differences between emotion in individualist and collectivist contexts covered different components of emotion: concerns and appraisals, action readiness, social sharing, and belief changes. The questionnaire focused on 6 types of events that were rated as similar in meaning across cultures. Participants were 86 Dutch individualist respondents and 171 Surinamese and Turkish collectivist respondents living in the Netherlands. As compared with emotions in individualist cultures, emotions in collectivist cultures (a) were more grounded in assessments of social worth and of shifts in relative social worth, (b) were to a large extent taken to reflect reality rather than the inner world of the individual. and (c) belonged to the self-other relationship rather than being confined to the subjectivity of the self.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mesquita2001,
      author = {Mesquita, B},
      title = {Emotions in collectivist and individualist contexts},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {80},
      number = {1},
      pages = {68-74}
    }
    
    Michel, A.A. A distributed cognition perspective on newcomers' change processes: The management of cognitive uncertainty in two investment banks {2007} ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE QUARTERLY
    Vol. {52}({4}), pp. {507-557} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper examines newcomers' cognitive change processes in two investment banks during their socialization. A two-year ethnographic study examines how the two banks managed the duration of junior bankers' cognitive uncertainty differently, which resulted in distinct forms of individual cognitive change and cognition at the organizational level. Red Bank reduced cognitive uncertainty such that bankers experienced it as transient. It conveyed abstract concepts so that bankers could solve problems independently using deduction. This created an individual-centric organizational cognition. To highlight situational uniqueness, Amp Bank amplified cognitive uncertainty such that bankers experienced it as persistent. This created a collective-centric organizational cognition: because demands exceeded individuals' cognitive capacity, bankers used organizational resources to solve problems inductively. A grounded theory depicts the mutual constitution of individual and organizational cognition, including the relation of these levels over time and how the same individual cognitive process operates differently in a different organizational cognitive context. It uses a distributed cognition framework to contribute to theory development on how cognition becomes diversified and specialized in organizations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Michel2007,
      author = {Michel, A. Alexandra},
      title = {A distributed cognition perspective on newcomers' change processes: The management of cognitive uncertainty in two investment banks},
      journal = {ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE QUARTERLY},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {52},
      number = {4},
      pages = {507-557}
    }
    
    Miller, J. Bringing culture to basic psychological theory - Beyond individualism and collectivism: Comment on Oyserman et al. (2002) {2002} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {128}({1}), pp. {97-109} 
    article  
    Abstract: D. Oyserman, H. M. Coon, and M. Kemmelmeir (2002) offered a comprehensive literature review on individualism and collectivism that forwards valuable suggestions for ways to enhance future research conducted within this framework. The author argues that although their criticisms of much contemporary social psychological research on individualism and collectivism are valid. even more fundamental problems need to be recognized as characterizing work within this tradition, such as the insufficiently subtle nature of the views held of culture, the limited attention given to meanings, and the downplaying of contextual variation. The author suggests adopting more nuanced and process-oriented conceptions of culture and more contextually grounded views of its impact on psychological functioning as a way of realizing the promise of cultural psychology to broaden and provide insight into basic psychological theory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Miller2002,
      author = {Miller, JG},
      title = {Bringing culture to basic psychological theory - Beyond individualism and collectivism: Comment on Oyserman et al. (2002)},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {128},
      number = {1},
      pages = {97-109}
    }
    
    Moebus, C., Eilers, M., Garbe, H. & Zilinski, M. Probabilistic and Empirical Grounded Modeling of Agents in (Partial) Cooperative Traffic Scenarios {2009}
    Vol. {5620}DIGITAL HUMAN MODELING, PROCEEDINGS, pp. {423-432} 
    inproceedings  
    Abstract: The Human Centered Design (HCD) of Partial Autonomous Driver Assistance Systems (PADAS) requires Digital Human Models (DHMs) of human control strategies for simulations of traffic scenarios. The scenarios can be regarded as problem situations with one or more (partial) cooperative problem solvers. According to their roles models can be descriptive or normative. We present new model architectures and applications and discuss the suitability of dynamic Bayesian networks as control models of traffic agents: Bayesian Autonomous Driver (BAD) models. Descriptive BAD models can be used for Simulating human agents in conventional traffic scenarios with Between-Vehicle-Cooperation (BVC) and in new scenarios with In-Vehicle-Cooperation (IVC). Normative BAD models representing error free behavior of ideal human drivers (e.g. driving instructors) may be used in these new IVC scenarios as a first Bayesian approximation or prototype of a PADAS.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Moebus2009,
      author = {Moebus, Claus and Eilers, Mark and Garbe, Hilke and Zilinski, Malte},
      title = {Probabilistic and Empirical Grounded Modeling of Agents in (Partial) Cooperative Traffic Scenarios},
      booktitle = {DIGITAL HUMAN MODELING, PROCEEDINGS},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {5620},
      pages = {423-432},
      note = {2nd International Conference on Digital Human Modeling held at the HCI International 2009, San Diego, CA, JUL 19-24, 2009}
    }
    
    Moeller, R. & Schenck, W. Bootstrapping cognition from behavior - A computerized thought experiment {2008} COGNITIVE SCIENCE
    Vol. {32}({3}), pp. {504-542} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We show that simple perceptual competences can emerge from an internal simulation of action effects and are thus grounded in behavior. A simulated agent learns to distinguish between dead ends and corridors without the necessity to represent these concepts in the sensory domain. Initially, the agent is only endowed with a simple value system and the means to extract low-level features from an image. In the interaction with the environment, it acquires a visuo-tactile forward model that allows the agent to predict how the visual input is changing under its movements, and whether movements will lead to a collision. From short-term predictions based on the forward model, the agent learns an inverse model. The inverse model in turn produces suggestions about which actions should be simulated in long-term predictions, and long-term predictions eventually give rise to the perceptual ability.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Moeller2008,
      author = {Moeller, Ralf and Schenck, Wolfram},
      title = {Bootstrapping cognition from behavior - A computerized thought experiment},
      journal = {COGNITIVE SCIENCE},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {32},
      number = {3},
      pages = {504-542},
      doi = {{10.1080/03640210802035241}}
    }
    
    Moll, J., de Oliveira-Souza, R. & Eslinger, P. Morals and the human brain: a working model {2003} NEUROREPORT
    Vol. {14}({3}), pp. {299-305} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Morality has been at the center of informal talks and metaphysical discussions since the beginning of history. Recently, converging lines of evidence from evolutionary biology, neuroscience and experimental psychology have shown that morality is grounded in the brain. This article reviews the main lines of investigation indicating that moral behavior is a product of evolutionary pressures that shaped the neurobehavioral processes related to the selective perception of social cues, the experience of moral emotions and the adaption of behavioral responses to the social milieu. These processes draw upon specific cortical-subcortical loops that organize social cognition, emotion and motivation into uniquely human forms of experience and behavior. We put forth a model of brain-behavior relationships underlying moral reasoning and emotion that accommodates the impairments of moral behavior observed in neuropsychiatric disorders. This model provides a framework for empirical testing with current methods of neurobehavioral analysis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Moll2003,
      author = {Moll, J and de Oliveira-Souza, R and Eslinger, PJ},
      title = {Morals and the human brain: a working model},
      journal = {NEUROREPORT},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {14},
      number = {3},
      pages = {299-305},
      doi = {{10.1097/01.wnr.0000057866.05120.28}}
    }
    
    Mondada, L. & Doehler, S. Second language acquisition as situated practice: Task accomplishment in the French second language classroom {2005} CANADIAN MODERN LANGUAGE REVIEW-REVUE CANADIENNE DES LANGUES VIVANTES
    Vol. {61}({4}), pp. {461-490} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article provides an empirically based perspective on the contribution of conversation analysis (CA) and sociocultural theory to our understanding of learners' second language (L2) practices within what we call a strong socio-interactionist perspective. It explores the interactive (re)configuration of tasks in French second language classrooms. Stressing that learning is situated in learners' social, and therefore profoundly interactional, practices, we investigate how tasks are not only accomplished but also collaboratively (re)organized by learners and teachers, leading to various configurations of classroom talk and structuring specific opportunities for learning. The analysis of L2 classroom interactions at basic and advanced levels shows how the teacher's instructions are reflexively redefined within courses of action and how thereby the learner's emerging language competence is related to other (interactional, institutional, sociocultural) competencies. Discussing the results in the light of recent analyses of the indexical and grounded dimensions of everyday and experimental tasks allows us to broaden our understanding of competence and situated cognition in language learning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mondada2005,
      author = {Mondada, L and Doehler, SP},
      title = {Second language acquisition as situated practice: Task accomplishment in the French second language classroom},
      journal = {CANADIAN MODERN LANGUAGE REVIEW-REVUE CANADIENNE DES LANGUES VIVANTES},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {61},
      number = {4},
      pages = {461-490}
    }
    
    Mondada, L. & Doehler, S. Second language acquisition as situated practice: Task accomplishment in the French second language classroom {2004} MODERN LANGUAGE JOURNAL
    Vol. {88}({4}), pp. {501-518} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article provides an empirically based perspective on the contribution of conversation analysis (CA) and Sociocultural theory to our understanding of learners' second language (L2) practices within what we call a strong socio-interactionist perspective. It explores the interactive (re) configuration of tasks in French second language classrooms. Stressing that learning is situated in learners' social, and therefore profoundly interactional, practices, we investigate how tasks are not only accomplished but also collaboratively (re)organized by learners and teachers, leading to various configurations of classroom talk and structuring specific opportunities for learning. The analysis of L2 classroom interactions at basic and advanced levels shows how the teacher's instructions are reflexively redefined within courses of action and how thereby the learner's emerging language competence is related to other (interactional, institutional, sociocultural) competencies. Discussing the results in the light of recent analyses of the indexical and grounded dimensions of everyday and experimental tasks allows us to broaden our understanding of competence and situated cognition in language learning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mondada2004,
      author = {Mondada, L and Doehler, SP},
      title = {Second language acquisition as situated practice: Task accomplishment in the French second language classroom},
      journal = {MODERN LANGUAGE JOURNAL},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {88},
      number = {4},
      pages = {501-518}
    }
    
    Moreno, A. & Etxeberria, A. Agency in natural and artificial systems {2005} ARTIFICIAL LIFE
    Vol. {11}({1-2}), pp. {161-175} 
    article  
    Abstract: We analyze the conditions for agency, in natural and artificial m-stems. In the case of basic (natural) autonomous systems, self-construction and activity in the environment are two aspects of the same organization, the distinction between,which is entirely conceptual: their sensorimotor activities are metabolic, realized according to the same principles and through the same material trans formations as those topical of internal processes (such as energy transduction). The two aspects begin to be distinguishable in a particular evolutionary trend, related to the size increase of some groups of organisms whose adaptive abilities depend on motility. Here a specialized system develops, which, in the sensoriotor aspect, is decoupled from the metabolic basis, although it remains dependent on it in the self-constructive aspect. This decoupling reveals a complexification of the organization. I the last section of the article this approach to natural agency is used to analyze artificial systems by posing two problems: whether it is possible to artificially build an organization similar to the natural, and whether this notion of agency can be grounded on different organizing principles.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Moreno2005,
      author = {Moreno, A and Etxeberria, A},
      title = {Agency in natural and artificial systems},
      journal = {ARTIFICIAL LIFE},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {161-175}
    }
    
    Morrison, J.K. FROM GLOBAL PARADIGMS TO GROUNDED POLICIES: LOCAL SOCIO-COGNITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT {2010} PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {30}({2, Sp. Iss. SI}), pp. {159-174} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Understandings of participatory development require grounding both in the sense that understandings of the principles must be held by local and international staff working on the ground, and also grounded in the local culture. This article provides documentation of a 10 month ethnographic study of an administrative decentralization support program in Cambodia (Seila), funded through multi-donor support, in order to examine the agency of local mid-level staff, asking: How do multiple environments interact to create local understandings of participation in international development environments? Five `socio-cognitive environments' (SCE) surrounding the program environment were developed to disentangle the factors that influence how one group of local staff negotiates complex cultural and historical realities in juxtaposition to donor conceptualizations of development, providing new understanding of structural factors and other resources employed by embedded agents which promote local staff internalization of democratic governance principles. This study suggests that even in program environments with high degrees of cognitive dissonance due to macro-historical factors, and where international development mandates tend to create additional cultural and organizational blockages, micro-programmatic interactions can significantly influence the ability of local staff to surmount strong cognitive obstacles. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Morrison2010,
      author = {Morrison, Jenny Knowles},
      title = {FROM GLOBAL PARADIGMS TO GROUNDED POLICIES: LOCAL SOCIO-COGNITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT},
      journal = {PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {30},
      number = {2, Sp. Iss. SI},
      pages = {159-174},
      doi = {{10.1002/pad.566}}
    }
    
    Mouzas, S., Henneberg, S. & Naude, P. Developing network insight {2008} INDUSTRIAL MARKETING MANAGEMENT
    Vol. {37}({2}), pp. {167-180} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: A challenge facing organizations is that of amalgamating possibilities which do not exist in a transparent and concentrated form, but rather as dispersed individual cognitive `pictures' perceived by managers embedded in business networks. Based on our research of business networks involving manufacturers of consumer goods, pharmaceutical companies, producers of semiconductors and telecommunication and utility service providers, we propose the concept of network insight, which does not consist merely of extant pictures held by individual managers, but is grounded in the practice of inter-firm exchange. We argue that developing network insight is a managerial challenge encompassing the amalgamation of dispersed pieces of atomized network pictures through heedful, multilateral interactions. Such a managerial activity transcends the task-specific knowledge base of managerial cognition and leads to objectified organizational learning within a business network. Managers that develop insight in business networks are able to mobilize other actors and create a competitive advantage for their organization that is crucial for innovation and growth. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mouzas2008,
      author = {Mouzas, Stefanos and Henneberg, Stephan and Naude, Peter},
      title = {Developing network insight},
      journal = {INDUSTRIAL MARKETING MANAGEMENT},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {37},
      number = {2},
      pages = {167-180},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.indmarman.2007.01.003}}
    }
    
    Myachykov, A., Platenburg, W.P.A. & Fischer, M.H. Non-abstractness as mental simulation in the representation of number {2009} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {32}({3-4}), pp. {343+} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Abstraction is instrumental for our understanding of how numbers are cognitively represented. We propose that the notion of abstraction becomes testable from within the framework of simulated cognition. We describe mental simulation as embodied, grounded, and situated cognition, and report evidence for number representation at each of these levels of abstraction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Myachykov2009,
      author = {Myachykov, Andriy and Platenburg, Wouter P. A. and Fischer, Martin H.},
      title = {Non-abstractness as mental simulation in the representation of number},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {32},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {343+},
      doi = {{10.1017/S0140525X09990811}}
    }
    
    Nahachewsky, J. & Ward, A. Contrapuntal writing: Student discourse in an online literature class {2007} ENGLISH TEACHING-PRACTICE AND CRITIQUE
    Vol. {6}({1}), pp. {50-68} 
    article  
    Abstract: There is a continuing need to investigate how contemporary students in schools are writing the word, and their world, beyond modernist parameters of the page. This article explores the online writing of a senior English world literature class, located in a Western Canadian city, as examined through a recent qualitative case study. Borrowing a 17(th) century musical term meaning ``of counterpoint'', contrapuntal here is used to describe the visibly polyphonic and layered writing by students and their teacher in the online course. Complex constructions and understandings of situated self/culture in relation, or as counterpoint, to other members of the class, their teacher, and their various prescribed/personal texts were made throughout the course. Discordances were voiced, but also played out as silences. The class's emergent and evolving writing provides a grounded glimpse into critical literacy practices. Particularly evident was a developing meta-cognition throughout the students' writing - their ability to ``read'' the other writers so that they could be reflexive about their own practices. Yet, little was done by the students to critique or transform the constructs of the course itself. This seemingly contradictory aspect further manifests an equally important, yet for critical literacy theorists, frustrating characteristic of contrapuntality - that the various composers/voices follow strict structural rules.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nahachewsky2007,
      author = {Nahachewsky, James and Ward, Angela},
      title = {Contrapuntal writing: Student discourse in an online literature class},
      journal = {ENGLISH TEACHING-PRACTICE AND CRITIQUE},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {50-68}
    }
    
    Namy, L.L. & Nygaard, L.C. Perceptual-motor constraints on sound-to-meaning correspondence in language {2008} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {31}({5}), pp. {528+} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The proposal that language has evolved to conform to general cognitive and learning constraints inherent in the human brain calls for specification of these mechanisms. We propose that just as cognition appears to be grounded in cross-modal perceptual-motor capabilities, so too must language. Evidence for perceptual-motor grounding comes from non-arbitrary sound-to-meaning correspondences and their role in word learning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Namy2008,
      author = {Namy, Laura L. and Nygaard, Lynne C.},
      title = {Perceptual-motor constraints on sound-to-meaning correspondence in language},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {31},
      number = {5},
      pages = {528+},
      doi = {{10.1017/S0140525X08005190}}
    }
    
    NEISSER, U. MULTIPLE SYSTEMS - A NEW APPROACH TO COGNITIVE THEORY {1994} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {6}({3}), pp. {225-241} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cognitive processes turn out to be both more innate and more culturally based than we used to think. On the one hand, ecological and interpersonal perception are innately prepared, available in infancy; on the other, mental development depends critically on social support. Taken together with the emerging multiple/modular structure of the brain, these discoveries demand a new kind of cognitive theory: an ecologically grounded, developmental account of distinct systems in interaction. Three such systems, primarily perceptual in function, are described here: (1) direct perception/action establishes an immediate non-representational sense of self and environment that grounds all other cognition; (2) interpersonal preception/reactivity produces species-specific patterns of social interaction; (3) recognition/representation identifies and classifies what is perceived. These systems are distinguished by neurological as well as psychological criteria: the neuroanatomical `'where/what'' distinction, for example, reflects the difference between direct perception and recognition. Cooperation among these three systems, which begins near the end of the first year, is basic to language and other forms of cultural learning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{NEISSER1994,
      author = {NEISSER, U},
      title = {MULTIPLE SYSTEMS - A NEW APPROACH TO COGNITIVE THEORY},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {225-241},
      note = {6th Conference of the European-Society-for-Cognitive-Psychology, HELSINGOR, DENMARK, SEP 11-15, 1993}
    }
    
    Nerlich, B. & Clarke, D. Semantic fields and frames: Historical explorations of the interface between language, action, and cognition {2000} JOURNAL OF PRAGMATICS
    Vol. {32}({2}), pp. {125-150} 
    article  
    Abstract: The concept of `semantic field', like the concept of `semantic frame', opened up new domains of semantic research, first in Germany in the 1930s and then in the United States in the 1970s. Both concepts brought about `revolutions' in semantics, and provided semanticists with new tools for the study of semantic change and semantic structure. Although there have been several historical accounts of the development of field semantics, there exists no detailed study linking and comparing the development of field and frame semantics. In this article we shall reconstruct the contexts in which the concepts of `field' and `frame' appeared for the first time and highlight the similarities as well as the differences between the semantic theories built on them. One of the main differences between the older and the modem traditions is that the latter no longer study how lexical fields carve up a relatively amorphous conceptual mass, as most older traditions had done, but how lexical fields are conceptually and pragmatically `framed' by or grounded in our bodily, social and cultural experiences and practices. In doing so they establish forgotten links with certain communicational and functional conceptions of semantic fields developed in the past. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nerlich2000,
      author = {Nerlich, B and Clarke, DD},
      title = {Semantic fields and frames: Historical explorations of the interface between language, action, and cognition},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PRAGMATICS},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {32},
      number = {2},
      pages = {125-150}
    }
    
    NOVELLY, R. THE DEBT OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY TO THE EPILEPSIES {1992} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {47}({9}), pp. {1126-1129} 
    article  
    Abstract: Both neuropsychology and psychology in general have been enhanced markedly by brain-behavior models derived from the study of the epilepsies. A significant body of neuropsychological concepts originated or were confirmed through epilepsy-based treatment and research. These concepts include the peri-Rolandic homunculus, the role of the hippocampal-temporal lobe complex in cognitive memory, hemisphere plasticity for speech in childhood, the intracarotid amytal procedure for determining hemisphere memory patency, and hemisphere-based models of cognition confirmed through human commissurotomy Personality and social-emotional research in epilepsy are additional areas in which new conceptual models grounded in psychological science can both repay our debt to the epilepsies and provide much needed psychological research and treatment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{NOVELLY1992,
      author = {NOVELLY, RA},
      title = {THE DEBT OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY TO THE EPILEPSIES},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {47},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1126-1129}
    }
    
    Nowacek, R.S. Toward a theory of interdisciplinary connections: A classroom study of talk and text {2007} RESEARCH IN THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH
    Vol. {41}({4}), pp. {368-401} 
    article  
    Abstract: Despite the general trend to embrace interdisciplinarity in post-secondary education, we remain remarkably unclear concerning what we mean by interdisciplinarity and how it is achieved. Reporting on research conducted in a team-taught interdisciplinary course, I propose a new way of conceptualizing interdisciplinary connections, grounded in Bakhtinian theories of language and cognition. I offer a three-part schema for identifying the discursive disciplinary resources individuals use to make interdisciplinary connections and identify some broad characteristics of writing assignments that appear to invite students to make connections among disciplines. Finally, I argue that reflection on certain types of interdisciplinary connections can be tin extremely powerful resource for interdisciplinary as well as disciplinary thinking and learning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nowacek2007,
      author = {Nowacek, Rebecca S.},
      title = {Toward a theory of interdisciplinary connections: A classroom study of talk and text},
      journal = {RESEARCH IN THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {41},
      number = {4},
      pages = {368-401}
    }
    
    Nunez, R.E. & Sweetser, E. With the future behind them: Convergent evidence from Aymara language and gesture in the crosslinguistic comparison of spatial construals of time {2006} COGNITIVE SCIENCE
    Vol. {30}({3}), pp. {401-450} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cognitive research on metaphoric concepts of time has focused on differences between moving Ego and moving time models, but even more basic is the contrast between Ego- and temporal-reference-point models. Dynamic models appear to be quasi-universal cross-culturally, as does the generalization that in Ego-reference-point models, FUTURE IS IN FRONT OF EGO and PAST IS IN BACK OF EGO. The Aymara language instead has a major static model of time wherein FUTURE IS BEHIND EGO and PAST IS IN FRONT OF EGO; linguistic and gestural data give strong confirmation of this unusual culture-specific cognitive pattern. Gestural data provide crucial information unavailable to purely linguistic analysis, suggesting that when investigating conceptual systems both forms of expression should be analyzed complementarily. Important issues in embodied cognition are raised: how fully shared are bodily grounded motivations for universal cognitive patterns, what makes a rare pattern emerge, and what are the cultural entailments of such patterns?
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nunez2006,
      author = {Nunez, Rafael E. and Sweetser, Eve},
      title = {With the future behind them: Convergent evidence from Aymara language and gesture in the crosslinguistic comparison of spatial construals of time},
      journal = {COGNITIVE SCIENCE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {30},
      number = {3},
      pages = {401-450}
    }
    
    Ortman, S. Conceptual metaphor in the archaeological record: Methods and an example from the American southwest {2000} AMERICAN ANTIQUITY
    Vol. {65}({4}), pp. {613-645} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper attempts to unify recent theorizing or? cultural meaning in material culture using the notion of conceptual metaphor: Research in several disciplines suggests that conventional metaphorical concepts are central to cultural cognition. Ethnographic studies and psychological experiments indicate that conceptual metaphors are expressed in numerous forms of human expression, including speech, ritual, narrative, and material culture. Generalization on the nature and structure of metaphor emerging cognitive linguistic research carl he used to develop methods for reconstructing ancient metaphors from archaeological evidence. In a preliminary application, I argue that pottery designs from the Mesa Verde region of the the American Southwest were conceptualized as textile fabrics, and suggest that connections between these media derived from a worldview grounded in container imagery. The ability to decipher conceptual metaphors in prehistoric material culture opens Icp many new avenues Sor research, including the role of worldview in cultural evolution, and the discovery of cultural continuities between archaeological cultures and historic ethnolinguistic groups.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ortman2000,
      author = {Ortman, SG},
      title = {Conceptual metaphor in the archaeological record: Methods and an example from the American southwest},
      journal = {AMERICAN ANTIQUITY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {65},
      number = {4},
      pages = {613-645}
    }
    
    Otal Campo, J.L. & de Mendoza, F.R. Modelling thought in language use: At the crossroads between discourse, pragmatics, and cognition {2007} JEZIKOSLOVLJE
    Vol. {8}({2}), pp. {115-167} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article studies a number of semantic and pragmatic phenomena with consequences for the development of discourse. Thus, our study of the way we make use of cognitive models in discourse allows us to postulate the principle of ``Metaphoric Source Selection'': the metaphorical extension of a concept can only select partial structure from this concept to construct the metaphoric source. The recognition of degrees of centrality in semantic specifications underlies the ``Peripherality Principle'', a discourse principle grounded in the ``Principle of Relevance'': when the most central characterization of a concept is not capable of creating discourse coherence, speakers turn to less central specifications and select the one that best satisfies the conditions of relevance. We then address the question of the pragmatic grounding of so-called cohesion and coherence in discourse. We claim that ellipsis and substitution are discourse phenomena subject to pragmatic constraints and argue for the existence of the ``Conceptual Structure Selection Principle'', which accounts for the semantic scope of ellipsis and substitution devices: these have within their scope as much structure as is not cancelled out by the discourse unit that contains the cohesion device. We have redefined the cohesion-coherence distinction as one between procedural and conceptual connectivity and have formulated two further principles of discourse connectivity: the ``Principle of Iconicity'' and the ``Principle of Conceptual Prominence''. There is a large amount of evidence that iconic arrangements are an important aspect of discourse coherence. Still, there is little work done with respect to the principles that regulate non-iconic arrangements. The Principle of Conceptual Prominence, which accounts for the special discourse status of prominent non-iconic information, fills this vacuum. The final part of this research work focuses upon the analysis of discourse strategies as non-conventional sets of procedures that allow speakers to create and interpret procedurally and conceptually connected texts. Two reverse discourse strategies are formulated, both related to the balance between procedural and conceptual markers of discourse connectivity. To this we add two other discourse principles, the ``Principle of Internal Contrast'' and the ``Principle of External Contrast''. The former is based upon explicit procedural operations, whereas the latter makes use of conceptual connectivity. Lastly, we distinguish two more discourse principles that constrain strategic discourse activity: the ``Principle of Conceivability'', which regulates conceptual links with situations in terms of the possibility of creating plausible mental scenarios for them; and the ``Principle of Relative Distance'', which helps sort out ambiguities in anaphoric operations on the basis of the relative distance between the anaphoric pronoun and its potential antecedent as licensed by the Principle of Conceivability.
    BibTeX:
    @article{OtalCampo2007,
      author = {Otal Campo, Jose Luis and de Mendoza, Francisco Ruiz},
      title = {Modelling thought in language use: At the crossroads between discourse, pragmatics, and cognition},
      journal = {JEZIKOSLOVLJE},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {115-167}
    }
    
    Pace, S. A grounded theory of the flow experiences of Web users {2004} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES
    Vol. {60}({3}), pp. {327-363} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This paper presents a grounded theory of the flow experiences of Web users engaged in information-seeking activities. The term flow refers to a state of consciousness that is sometimes experienced by individuals who are deeply involved in an enjoyable activity. The experience is characterized by some common elements: a balance between the challenges of an activity and the skills required to meet those challenges; clear goals and feedback; concentration on the task at hand; a sense of control; a merging of action and awareness; a loss of self-consciousness; a distorted sense of time; and the autotelic experience. The grounded theory research method that was employed in this study is a primarily inductive investigative process in which the researcher formulates a theory about a phenomenon by systematically gathering and analysing relevant data. The aim of this research method is building theory, not testing theory. The data that was gathered for this study primarily consisted of semi-structured in-depth interviews with informants of varying gender, age, educational attainments, occupations and Web experience who could recall experiencing flow while using the Web. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pace2004,
      author = {Pace, S},
      title = {A grounded theory of the flow experiences of Web users},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {60},
      number = {3},
      pages = {327-363},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.ijhcs.2003.08.003}}
    }
    
    Pasick, R.J. & Burke, N.J. A critical review of theory in breast cancer screening promotion across cultures {2008} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH
    Vol. {29}, pp. {351-368} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This article reviews the contribution and potential of widely used health behavior theories in research designed to understand and redress the disproportionate burden of breast cancer borne by diverse race/ethnic, immigrant, and low-income groups associated with unequal use of mammography. We review the strengths and limitations of widely used theories and the extent to which theory contributes to the understanding of screening disparities and informs effective intervention. The dominant focus of most theories on individual cognition is critically assessed as the abstraction of behavior from its social context. Proposed alternatives emphasize multilevel ecological approaches and the use of anthropologic theory and, methods for more culturally grounded understandings of screening behavior. Common and alternative treatments of fatalism exemplify this approach, and descriptive and intervention research exemplars further highlight the integration of screening behavior and sociocultural context.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pasick2008,
      author = {Pasick, Rena J. and Burke, Nancy J.},
      title = {A critical review of theory in breast cancer screening promotion across cultures},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {29},
      pages = {351-368},
      doi = {{10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.143420}}
    }
    
    Pearsall, E. Mind and music: On intentionality, music theory, and analysis {1999} JOURNAL OF MUSIC THEORY
    Vol. {43}({2}), pp. {231-255} 
    article  
    Abstract: Among current theories of cognition, Gerald Edelman's Theory of Neuronal Group Selection is one of the most successful in showing how the mind is grounded in neurobiological activity. Edelman brings together ideas concerning the selective adaptability of the brain and the interplay of neural impulses during perception to show how the brain creates interconnected neural maps from which memory, the foundation for consciousness, is constructed. Such maps are adaptive; they can change in response to a plethora of ongoing associations in the cortex. Hence, perceptions, rather than remaining fixed in memory, are acts of reconstruction, a perspective that encourages one to view music less as a collection of immutable structures and more as a subject for international creative perception. An analysis of Berg's Op. 2, No.3 tests these ideas by bringing intentionalism and the biological basis of the mind to the forefront of the discussion.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pearsall1999,
      author = {Pearsall, E},
      title = {Mind and music: On intentionality, music theory, and analysis},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF MUSIC THEORY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {43},
      number = {2},
      pages = {231-255}
    }
    
    Pecher, D., van Dantzig, S. & Schifferstein, H.N.J. Concepts are not represented by conscious imagery {2009} PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW
    Vol. {16}({5}), pp. {914-919} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: According to theories of grounded cognition, conceptual representation and perception share processing mechanisms. We investigated whether this overlap is due to conscious perceptual imagery. Participants filled out questionnaires to assess the vividness of their imagery (Questionnaire on Mental Imagery) and the extent to which their imagery was object oriented and spatially oriented (Object-Spatial Imagery Questionnaire), and they performed a mental rotation task. One week later, they performed a verbal property verification task. In this task, involvement of modality-specific systems is evidenced by the modality-switch effect, the finding that performance on a target trial (e.g., apple-green) is better after a same-modality trial (e.g., diamond-sparkle) than after a different-modality trial (e.g., airplane-noisy). Results showed a modality-switch effect, but there was no systematic relation between imagery scores and modality switch. We conclude that conscious mental imagery is not fundamental to conceptual representation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pecher2009,
      author = {Pecher, Diane and van Dantzig, Saskia and Schifferstein, Hendrik N. J.},
      title = {Concepts are not represented by conscious imagery},
      journal = {PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {16},
      number = {5},
      pages = {914-919},
      doi = {{10.3758/PBR.16.5.914}}
    }
    
    Pelham, B., Carvallo, A. & Jones, J. Implicit egotism {2005} CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {14}({2}), pp. {106-110} 
    article  
    Abstract: People gravitate toward people, places, and things that resemble the self. We refer to this tendency as implicit egotism, and we suggest that it reflects an unconscious process that is grounded in people's favorable self-associations. We review recent archival and experimental research that supports this position, highlighting evidence that rules out alternate explanations and distinguishes implicit egotism from closely related ideas such as mere exposure. Taken together, the evidence suggests that implicit egotism is an implicit judgmental consequence of people's positive self-associations. We conclude by identifying promising areas for future research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pelham2005,
      author = {Pelham, BW and Carvallo, A and Jones, JT},
      title = {Implicit egotism},
      journal = {CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {14},
      number = {2},
      pages = {106-110}
    }
    
    Peres, C. The concept of repleteness and deficiency of aesthetic symbolization - Baumgarten's (proto)semiotic theory and Goodman's symptoms of art {2000} STUDIA LEIBNITIANA
    Vol. {32}({2}), pp. {215-236} 
    article  
    Abstract: There is a famous line in the first treatise ever on aesthetics written by A.G. Baumgarten in 1750-58: ``What is abstraction, if not a loss?'' The `loss' or deficiency refers to a main aesthetical category to this day, encompassing syntactical and semantical complexity. On one hand it distinguishes works of art from works of science in a specific manner. Works of art can symbolize the ontological richness of individuals, i.e. entities, which are `omnimode determinatum'. On the other hand there are a number of analogies holding between the aesthetical symbolizations of art and in a wider sense the empirical sciences, so that art can be understood as a form of cognition. With this conception Baumgarten anticipates basic precepts of one of the most influential epistemologies and aesthetics of our time. According to my interpretation, four of Nelson Goodman's five symptoms of art can be reduced to repleteness or complexity. The paper analyses the concept of repleteness and deficiency of aesthetic symbolization in art and science in both conceptions. It will be argued, that the metaphysically grounded theory of Baumgarten complements Goodman's semantical theory in a productive way. Taken further, both philosophical conceptions also pose effective means of understanding and interpreting works of contemporary art.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Peres2000,
      author = {Peres, C},
      title = {The concept of repleteness and deficiency of aesthetic symbolization - Baumgarten's (proto)semiotic theory and Goodman's symptoms of art},
      journal = {STUDIA LEIBNITIANA},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {32},
      number = {2},
      pages = {215-236}
    }
    
    Perkins, C. Mapping golf: A contextual study {2006} CARTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL
    Vol. {43}({3}), pp. {208-223} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: A contextual study of the employment of golf mapping reveals the diversity of products, designs and uses. This research describes the different roles played by a very specialized range of products employed on and off the golf course and places them in social, historical and technological contexts. It argues for a relational approach to mapping as a process, based upon a wide investigation of practice, rather than a narrow focus on design, cognition or technology. Grounded in Actor-Network Theory, this approach reveals a complex web of links between producers, users, representations and meanings.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Perkins2006,
      author = {Perkins, Chris},
      title = {Mapping golf: A contextual study},
      journal = {CARTOGRAPHIC JOURNAL},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {43},
      number = {3},
      pages = {208-223},
      doi = {{10.1179/000870406X158173}}
    }
    
    Perlovsky, L. Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution {2010} PHYSICS OF LIFE REVIEWS
    Vol. {7}({1}), pp. {2-27} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language. and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity. evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in psychological and neuroimaging research are reviewed. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Perlovsky2010,
      author = {Perlovsky, Leonid},
      title = {Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution},
      journal = {PHYSICS OF LIFE REVIEWS},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {2-27},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.plrev.2009.11.001}}
    }
    
    Pezzulo, G., Barca, L., Bocconi, A.L. & Borghi, A.M. When affordances climb into your mind: Advantages of motor simulation in a memory task performed by novice and expert rock climbers {2010} BRAIN AND COGNITION
    Vol. {73}({1}), pp. {68-73} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Does the sight of multiple climbing holds laid along a path activate a motor simulation of climbing that path? One way of testing whether multiple affordances and their displacement influence the formation of a motor simulation is to study acquired motor skills. We used a behavioral task in which expert and novice rock climbers were shown three routes: an easy route, a route impossible to climb but perceptually salient, and a difficult route. After a distraction task, they were then given a recall test in which they had to write down the sequence of holds composing each route. We found no difference between experts and novices on the easy and impossible routes, whereas on the difficult route, the performance of experts was better than that of novices. This suggests that seeing a climbing wall activates a motor, embodied simulation, which relies not on perceptual salience, but on motor competence. More importantly, our results show that the capability to form this simulation is modulated by individuals' motor repertoire and expertise, and that this strongly impacts recall. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pezzulo2010,
      author = {Pezzulo, Giovanni and Barca, Laura and Bocconi, Alessandro Lamberti and Borghi, Anna M.},
      title = {When affordances climb into your mind: Advantages of motor simulation in a memory task performed by novice and expert rock climbers},
      journal = {BRAIN AND COGNITION},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {73},
      number = {1},
      pages = {68-73},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.bandc.2010.03.002}}
    }
    
    Pietroski, P. & Dwyer, S. Knowledge by ignoring {1999} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {22}({5}), pp. {781+} 
    article  
    Abstract: Some cases of implicit knowledge involve representations of (implicitly) known propositions, but this is not the only important type of implicit knowledge. Chomskian linguistics suggests another model of how humans can know more than is accessible to consciousness. Innate capac ities to focus on a small range of possibilities, thereby ignoring many other, need not be grounded by inner representations of any possibilities ignored. This model may apply to many domains where human cognition ``fills a gap'' between stimuli and judgement.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pietroski1999,
      author = {Pietroski, PM and Dwyer, SJ},
      title = {Knowledge by ignoring},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {22},
      number = {5},
      pages = {781+}
    }
    
    Pihlar, T. Ludvik Bartelj and France Veber's ``Object-theoretical school''. A building block of the historiography of the philosophy of Slovenia. {2005} STUDIES IN EAST EUROPEAN THOUGHT
    Vol. {57}({2}), pp. {185-208} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The paper presents a description of the foundations of Ludvik Bartelj's philosophy. Bartelj, born in 1913, lives and writes philosophy and theology in Slovenia. He is a close follower of his teacher's, France Weber/Veber, ``Gegenstandsphilosophie'' [''object-philosophy'' = OP]. He develops OP in some respects and also in some areas missing in Veber but even these innovations take as their point of departure Veberian ``Gegenstandsphilosophie.'' For Bartelj OP theory is the fundamental philosophic discipline and, finally, will embrace all real ``objects.'' OP itself is grounded in the knowledge that objects receive their contents from Primeval Reality [Urwirklichkeit; Prastvarnost], i.e. from God. Bartelj also exploits the scholastic tradition and he intends to complement one of the two positions by means of the other. He divides the faculty of cognition into four species: Sense perception, ``profound understanding'' [Tiefenverstand; globinski razum], ``peripheral understanding,'' and feelings. Profound and peripheral understanding are intertwined indissolubly: Whereas profound understanding approaches objects in a non-conceptual way, peripheral understanding has the task to determine conceptually profound understanding's cognition(s). By means of profound understanding the subject of cognition as well as its experiences are epistemically grasped. God, too, is the object of profound understanding, and knowledge of God directly emerges from the real empirical world. Profound understanding discovers that such ``realities'' are, according to their very nature, dependent on something else, i.e. their content( s) come( s) from a being independent by nature, which Bartelj calls ``Primeval Reality'' [Prastvarnost] or ``God.''
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pihlar2005,
      author = {Pihlar, T},
      title = {Ludvik Bartelj and France Veber's ``Object-theoretical school''. A building block of the historiography of the philosophy of Slovenia.},
      journal = {STUDIES IN EAST EUROPEAN THOUGHT},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {57},
      number = {2},
      pages = {185-208},
      doi = {{10.1007/s11212-004-602-z}}
    }
    
    Pitt, M., Myung, I. & Zhang, S. Toward a method of selecting among computational models of cognition {2002} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {109}({3}), pp. {472-491} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The question of how one should decide among competing explanations of data is at the heart of the scientific enterprise. Computational models of cognition are increasingly being advanced as explanations of behavior. The success of this line of inquiry depends on the development of robust methods to guide the evaluation and selection of these models. This article introduces a method of selecting among mathematical models of cognition known as minimum description length. which provides an intuitive and theoretically well-grounded understanding of why one model should be chosen. A central but elusive concept in model selection, complexity, can also be derived with the method. The adequacy of the method is demonstrated in 3 areas of cognitive modeling: psychophysics, information integration, and categorization.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pitt2002,
      author = {Pitt, MA and Myung, IJ and Zhang, SB},
      title = {Toward a method of selecting among computational models of cognition},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {109},
      number = {3},
      pages = {472-491},
      note = {32nd Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Mathematical-Psychology, SANTA CRUZ, CALIFORNIA, JUL 29-AUG 01, 1999},
      doi = {{10.1037//0033-295X.109.3.472}}
    }
    
    Polaschek, D.L.L., Calvert, S.W. & Gannon, T.A. Linking Violent Thinking Implicit Theory-Based Research With Violent Offenders {2009} JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE
    Vol. {24}({1}), pp. {75-96} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Violent offenders often articulate offense-supportive cognitions during rehabilitation, yet these statements have received little theoretical attention, and intervention approaches have targeted each type of statement individually, as if they were unrelated. An implicit theory approach to cognitions has proved fruitful for research and intervention. The authors apply it to violent offenders. The first study presents a grounded theory investigation of offense-supportive cognition in prisoners attending an intensive rehabilitation program for violent offenders. Analysis of offense transcripts enabled the identification of several implicit theories. These results were refined with a second sample and trialed in the rehabilitation program. Findings suggest that several implicit theories held by violent offenders are linked to each other through the widespread normalization of violence. Few offenders experienced their violent behavior as abnormal, or completely outside of their control, once initiated. The authors make suggestions for enhancing the empirical status of this research domain, particularly through experimental investigations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Polaschek2009,
      author = {Polaschek, Devon L. L. and Calvert, Susan W. and Gannon, Theresa A.},
      title = {Linking Violent Thinking Implicit Theory-Based Research With Violent Offenders},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {24},
      number = {1},
      pages = {75-96},
      doi = {{10.1177/0886260508315781}}
    }
    
    Posel, N., Fleiszer, D. & Shore, B.M. 12 Tips: Guidelines for authoring virtual patient cases {2009} MEDICAL TEACHER
    Vol. {31}({8}), pp. {701-708} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background: Virtual patient cases are an increasingly utilized and compelling pedagogical strategy for medical education informatics. They provide educators with the opportunity to develop richly layered, multidimensional teaching situations for their learners. However, `virtual patients are notoriously difficult to author, adapt and exchange' (MedBiquitous Virtual Patient Specification, Virtual Patient Working Group 2007), and case creation can be daunting. Authors may be uncertain about the process of virtual patient case development and this can translate into ambiguity and hesitation. Aims: This installment of the `12 tips' presents specific guidelines that are intended to provide medical educators with guidelines to facilitate the development of virtual patient cases. Methods: These 12 tips are based upon comprehensive, research-based, theory-grounded and criterion-referenced guidelines and founded in pedagogical principles, theories of cognition, and recognition of current technology and availability of authoring applications. Results: It is anticipated that the 12 tips will provide medical educators interested in authoring virtual patient cases one set of useful guidelines to facilitate the process. Conclusions: Virtual patient cases provide medical educators with an innovative tool for medical education. These guidelines will assist authors in case development.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Posel2009,
      author = {Posel, Nancy and Fleiszer, David and Shore, Bruce M.},
      title = {12 Tips: Guidelines for authoring virtual patient cases},
      journal = {MEDICAL TEACHER},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {31},
      number = {8},
      pages = {701-708},
      doi = {{10.1080/01421590902793867}}
    }
    
    Postma, A. & Barsalou, L.W. Spatial working memory and imagery: From eye movements to grounded cognition {2009} ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA
    Vol. {132}({2}), pp. {103-105} 
    article DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Postma2009,
      author = {Postma, Albert and Barsalou, Lawrence W.},
      title = {Spatial working memory and imagery: From eye movements to grounded cognition},
      journal = {ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {132},
      number = {2},
      pages = {103-105},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.actpsy.2009.07.006}}
    }
    
    Poulin-Dubois, D. From action to interaction: Apes, infants, and the last Rubicon {2005} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {28}({5}), pp. {711+} 
    article  
    Abstract: Tomasello et al. have presented a position that is grounded in a conservative perspective of cultural learning, as well as in a rich interpretation of recent findings in early social cognition. Although I applaud their theoretical framework, I argue that data from studies of human infants are not necessarily consistent with the developmental picture that they describe.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Poulin-Dubois2005,
      author = {Poulin-Dubois, D},
      title = {From action to interaction: Apes, infants, and the last Rubicon},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {28},
      number = {5},
      pages = {711+}
    }
    
    Powers, D. & Flach, P. Symbolism versus connectionism: An introduction - Commentary on Harnad on symbolism-connectionism. {2001} PSYCOLOQUY
    Vol. {12}({35}), pp. {1-4} 
    article  
    Abstract: Harnad's (2001) main argument can be roughly summarised as follows: due to Searle's Chinese Room argument, symbol systems by themselves are insufficient to exhibit cognition, because the symbols are not grounded in the real world, hence without meaning. However, a symbol system that is connected to the real world through transducers receiving sensory data, with neural nets translating these data into sensory categories, would not be subject to the Chinese Room argument. Harnad's article is not only the starting point for the present debate, but is also a contribution to a longlasting discussion about such questions as: Can a computer think? If yes, would this be solely by virtue of its program? Is the Turing Test appropriate for deciding whether a computer thinks?
    BibTeX:
    @article{Powers2001,
      author = {Powers, DMW and Flach, PA},
      title = {Symbolism versus connectionism: An introduction - Commentary on Harnad on symbolism-connectionism.},
      journal = {PSYCOLOQUY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {12},
      number = {35},
      pages = {1-4}
    }
    
    Pretorius, M. CRITICAL VARIABLES OF BUSINESS FAILURE: A REVIEW AND CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK {2008} SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC AND MANAGEMENT SCIENCES
    Vol. {11}({4}), pp. {408-430} 
    article  
    Abstract: Failure is a phenomenon that ventures face during all stages of the life cycle and requires insight into its causes before it can be reversed. The scientific literature on failure is, however, spread over multiple disciplines. This study's line of enquiry firstly reviews the documented research (both theoretical and empirical) encompassing the phenomenon `business failure' on a multidisciplinary basis. A conceptual framework is then proposed for categorising variables into four sub-domains namely: signs and prediction; causes and preconditions; recovery; and cognition and learning. Better understanding of the failure phenomenon is achieved. The methodology applied is fundamentally based on grounded theory interpretation with a focus on classifying the identified relevant variables.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pretorius2008,
      author = {Pretorius, Marius},
      title = {CRITICAL VARIABLES OF BUSINESS FAILURE: A REVIEW AND CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK},
      journal = {SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC AND MANAGEMENT SCIENCES},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {11},
      number = {4},
      pages = {408-430}
    }
    
    Quenza, C. On the structural approach to social representations {2005} THEORY & PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {15}({1}), pp. {77-100} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The theory of social representations is one of the most vigorous areas in social psychology. Far from constituting a homogeneous body of knowledge, the theory consists of several analytical perspectives, including the structural approach. In this paper I propose that most of the assumptions of the structural approach applied to social representations or the central core theory are grounded in traditional conceptions of social cognition and mental representations, which are at variance with the general theory. The fact that one can view the structural approach embedded within associative networks and schema models makes it similar to most theories of attitude structure. Since the structural approach has remained within a mentalist social cognition paradigm, this paper proposes to move it towards a theory of social cognition that reflects the sociocultural conditions of creation and transformation of thought, and then emphasizes the communicative and ideological components of social life.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Quenza2005,
      author = {Quenza, CJP},
      title = {On the structural approach to social representations},
      journal = {THEORY & PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {15},
      number = {1},
      pages = {77-100},
      doi = {{10.1177/0959354305049746}}
    }
    
    Quinn, L., Busse, M., Khalil, H., Richardson, S., Rosser, A. & Morris, H. Client and therapist views on exercise programmes for early-mid stage Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease {2010} DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION
    Vol. {32}({11}), pp. {917-928} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Purpose. Physiotherapists frequently prescribe home exercise programmes for individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD); however, little is known about clients' perceptions of such programmes and any barriers that may affect participation and compliance. Method. A qualitative design was used to capture the attitudes and experiences of people with early-mid stage HD and PD, and with physiotherapists who have experience in neurodegenerative diseases. Two focus groups were conducted for physiotherapists (n = 8); individual interviews were conducted for clients with HD and PD (n = 10). Conversations were digitally recorded and transcribed, and transcriptions were analysed using grounded theory and validated through researcher triangulation. Concepts were categorised according to emerging themes and findings were verified by participants. Results. Both groups cited several barriers to engagement in exercise programmes, which included disease-specific impairments, individual safety and the location at which exercising takes place. Therapists felt that a client's cognition could affect their ability to participate in an exercise programme. Therapists and clients offered a number of strategies to overcome barriers to exercise. Conclusions. Therapists should work in collaboration with clients to evaluate their individual considerations, identify barriers to exercise and design a client-specific programme that is acceptable and feasible for the client.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Quinn2010,
      author = {Quinn, Lori and Busse, Monica and Khalil, Hanan and Richardson, Sue and Rosser, Anne and Morris, Huw},
      title = {Client and therapist views on exercise programmes for early-mid stage Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease},
      journal = {DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {32},
      number = {11},
      pages = {917-928},
      doi = {{10.3109/09638280903362712}}
    }
    
    Raelin, J. A model of work-based learning {1997} ORGANIZATION SCIENCE
    Vol. {8}({6}), pp. {563-578} 
    article  
    Abstract: A comprehensive model of work-based learning is illustrated combining explicit and tacit forms of knowing and theory and practice modes of learning at both individual and collective levels. The model is designed to bring together epistemic contributions which are typically studied in isolation. The learning types produced from the model represent processes the intersection of which can contribute to the development of a comprehensive theory for integrating learning and work. At the individual level, work-based learning might start with conceptualization which provides practitioners with a means to challenge the assumptions underlying their practice. In experimentation, they engage their conceptual knowledge in such a way that it becomes contextualized or grounded. However, within the world of practice, in applying theoretical criteria or advanced analytical techniques, one confronts technical, cultural, moral, and personal idiosyncrasies which defy categorization. Hence, experience is required to reinforce the tacit knowledge acquired in experimentation. In fact, learning acquired through experience, often referred to as implicit learning, is the foundation for tacit knowledge and can be used to solve problems as well as make reasonable decisions about novel situations. Nevertheless, reflection is required to bring the inherent tacit knowledge of experience to the surface. It thus contributes to the reconstruction of meaning. At the collective level, conceptualization again makes a contribution in informing spontaneous inquiry but is now embedded within the more formal methods of applied science. Scientists seek to describe and explain social reality through the manipulation of theoretical propositions using the rules of hypothetico-deductive logic. The theories of applied science are often not helpful to practitioners, however, unless they are incorporated into practice. This is the purview of action learning wherein real-time experience, especially problems occurring within one's own work setting, constitutes the primary subject matter. As practitioners come together by being involved with one another in action, they may become a community of practice wherein they learn to construct shared understanding amidst confusing and conflicting data. Hence, community of practice returns knowledge back into its context such that groups learn to observe and experiment with their own collective tacit processes in action. Action science is called upon to bring the individuals' and group's mental models, often untested and unexamined, into consciousness. It is a form of ``reflection-in-action'' which attempts to discover how what one did contributed to an unexpected or expected outcome, taking into account the interplay between theory and practice. Applications of the model can spur conceptual and practical developments that might lead to a comprehensive theory of work-based learning. The discussion takes up such issues as transition links between learning types, their segmentation by function or process, and implications for epistemology. A sample program, incorporating many of the learning types in the model, is demonstrated. The paper argues that all eight types of learning need to be brought into consideration if learners are to achieve proficiency and become critical while learning at work.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Raelin1997,
      author = {Raelin, JA},
      title = {A model of work-based learning},
      journal = {ORGANIZATION SCIENCE},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {8},
      number = {6},
      pages = {563-578}
    }
    
    Raisig, S., Welke, T., Hagendorf, H. & van der Meer, E. Insights Into Knowledge Representation: The Influence of Amodal and Perceptual Variables on Event Knowledge Retrieval From Memory {2009} COGNITIVE SCIENCE
    Vol. {33}({7}), pp. {1252-1266} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Event sequences or scripts are the conceptual representations of activities in memory. Traditional views hold that events are represented in amodal networks and are retrieved by associative strategies. The embodied cognition approach holds that knowledge is grounded in perception and retrieved by mental simulation. We used a script generation task where event sequences of activities had to be produced. Activities varied in their degree of familiarity. In a regressional design we investigated whether amodal or perceptual variables best predicted knowledge retrieval to gain insight into the underlying representation. Retrieval depended on the familiarity of the activity. While novel activities mainly relied on perception-based simulation and to a lesser extent on associative strategies, moderately familiar activities showed the opposite pattern, and events of familiar activities were retrieved by association alone. We conclude that amodal structures exist in all representations that become stronger with increasing frequency and finally prevail over perceptual structures.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Raisig2009,
      author = {Raisig, Susanne and Welke, Tinka and Hagendorf, Herbert and van der Meer, Elke},
      title = {Insights Into Knowledge Representation: The Influence of Amodal and Perceptual Variables on Event Knowledge Retrieval From Memory},
      journal = {COGNITIVE SCIENCE},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {33},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1252-1266},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1551-6709.2009.01044.x}}
    }
    
    Rakison, D. Developing knowledge of objects' motion properties in infancy {2005} COGNITION
    Vol. {96}({3}), pp. {183-214} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Three experiments with a novel variation of the inductive generalization procedure examined 18-and 22-month-olds' knowledge of objects' motion properties. Infants observed simple air and land movements modeled with an appropriate category member (e.g. dog) or an ambiguous block and were allowed to imitate with one or more of four exemplars. The experiments show that 18-month-olds' knowledge of land motions is grounded in causally relevant object parts, whereas 22-month-olds relate such motions more broadly to appropriate category members. Infants' basis for generalizing air motions suggested that at 22 months they have little knowledge about objects from that domain. The results are discussed in relation to the early development of the animate-inanimate distinction and the nature of the inductive generalization task. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rakison2005,
      author = {Rakison, DH},
      title = {Developing knowledge of objects' motion properties in infancy},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {96},
      number = {3},
      pages = {183-214},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.cognition.2004.07.007}}
    }
    
    Ramscar, M. & Yarlett, D. Semantic grounding in models of analogy: an environmental approach {2003} COGNITIVE SCIENCE
    Vol. {27}({1}), pp. {41-71} 
    article  
    Abstract: Empirical studies indicate that analogy consists of two main processes: retrieval and mapping. While current theories and models of analogy have revealed much about the mainly structural constraints that govern the mapping process, the similarities that underpin the correspondences between individual representational elements and drive retrieval are understood in less detail. In existing models symbol similarities are externally defined but neither empirically grounded nor theoretically justified. This paper introduces a new model (EMMA: the environmental model of analogy) which relies on co-occurrence information provided by LSA (Latent Semantic Analysis; Landauer & Dumais, 1997) to ground the relations between the symbolic elements aligned in analogy. LSA calculates a contextual distribution for each word encountered in a corpus by counting the frequency with which it co-occurs with other words. This information is used to define a model that locates each word encountered in a high-dimensional space, with relations between elements in this space representing contextual similarities between words. A series of simulation experiments demonstrate that the environmental approach to semantics embodied in LSA can produce appropriate patterns of analogical retrieval, but that this semantic measure is not sufficient to model analogical mapping. The implications of these findings, both for theories of representation in analogy research and more general theories of semantics in cognition, are explored. (C) 2002 Cognitive Science Society, Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ramscar2003,
      author = {Ramscar, M and Yarlett, D},
      title = {Semantic grounding in models of analogy: an environmental approach},
      journal = {COGNITIVE SCIENCE},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {27},
      number = {1},
      pages = {41-71},
      note = {22nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive-Science-Society, PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, AUG 13-15, 2000}
    }
    
    REDMOND, M. A MULTIDIMENSIONAL THEORY AND MEASURE OF SOCIAL DECENTERING {1995} JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY
    Vol. {29}({1}), pp. {35-58} 
    article  
    Abstract: A multidimensional conceptualization of social decentering is presented grounded in social cognition, social information theory, attribution, implicit personality theory, social judgment, empathy, perspective-taking, and role-taking. That conceptualization is based upon two types of information input (experienced-based and fantasy-based), three methods of processing the information (use-of-self, use-of-specific other, and use-of-generalized other), and two forms of response (affective and cognitive). An instrument was developed based upon this conceptualization of social decentering. Evidence for the measure's reliability and validity is presented. (C) 1995 Academic Press, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{REDMOND1995,
      author = {REDMOND, MV},
      title = {A MULTIDIMENSIONAL THEORY AND MEASURE OF SOCIAL DECENTERING},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {29},
      number = {1},
      pages = {35-58}
    }
    
    Rennie, D.L. & Fergus, K.D. Embodied categorizing in the grounded theory method - Methodical hermeneutics in action {2006} THEORY & PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {16}({4}), pp. {483-503} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In this article it is argued that attention to embodied experiencing enhances the quality of categorizing in the grounded theory method of qualitative research. George Lakoff and Mark Johnson's model of experiential cognition is applied to the structural features of embodied categorizing, while Eugene Gendlin's philosophy of experiential phenomenology is extended to use of embodied experiencing in the process of creating and evaluating categories. This use is demonstrated. The method's procedure of categorizing is connected more tightly with its methodology, seen by the authors as methodical hermeneutics, and with its epistemology, seen as an accommodation of realism and relativism. The article concludes with practical implications for the practice of categorizing in the grounded theory method.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rennie2006,
      author = {Rennie, David L. and Fergus, Karen D.},
      title = {Embodied categorizing in the grounded theory method - Methodical hermeneutics in action},
      journal = {THEORY & PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {16},
      number = {4},
      pages = {483-503},
      doi = {{10.1177/0959354306066202}}
    }
    
    Reyna, V.F., Nelson, W.L., Han, P.K. & Dieckmann, N.F. How Numeracy Influences Risk Comprehension and Medical Decision Making {2009} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {135}({6}), pp. {943-973} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We review the growing literature oil health numeracy. the ability to understand and use numerical information, and its relation to cognition, health behaviors, and medical Outcome;. Despite the surfeit of health information from commercial and noncommercial sources. national and International surveys show that many people lack basic numerical skills that are essential to maintain their health and make informed medical decisions. Low numeracy distorts perceptions of risks and benefits of screening. reduces medication compliance impedes access to treatments. Impairs risk communication (limiting prevention efforts among the Most vulnerable). and. based oil the scant research conducted on outcomes, appears to adversely affect medical outcomes Low numeracy is also associated with greater susceptibility to extraneous factors (i.e., factors that do not change the objective numerical information) That is. low numeracy increases susceptibility to effects of mood or how information presented (e g. as frequencies vs percentages) and to biases In Judgment and decision making (e g framing and ratio bias effects) Much of this research is not grounded in empirically supported theories of numeracy or mathematical cognition. which are crucial for designing evidence-based policies and intervention, that are effective in reducing risk and improving medical decision making To address this gap, we outline four theoretical approaches (psychophysical, computational, standard dual-process, and fuzzy trace theory), review their implications for numeracy. and point to avenues for future research
    BibTeX:
    @article{Reyna2009,
      author = {Reyna, Valerie F. and Nelson, Wendy L. and Han, Paul K. and Dieckmann, Nathan F.},
      title = {How Numeracy Influences Risk Comprehension and Medical Decision Making},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {135},
      number = {6},
      pages = {943-973},
      doi = {{10.1037/a0017327}}
    }
    
    Rieman, J., Young, R. & Howes, A. A dual-space model of iteratively deepening exploratory learning {1996} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES
    Vol. {44}({6}), pp. {743-775} 
    article  
    Abstract: When users of interactive computers must work with new software without formal training, they rely on strategies for `'exploratory learning''. These include trial and error, asking for help from other users, and looking for information in printed and on-line documentation. This paper describes a cognitive model of exploratory learning, which covers both trial-and-error and instruction-taking activities. The model, implemented in Soar, is grounded in empirical data of subjects in a task-oriented, trial-and-error exploratory learning situation. A key empirical finding reflected in the model is the repeated scanning of a subset of the available menu items, with increased attention to items on each successive scan. This is explained in terms of dual search spaces, the external interface and the user's internal knowledge, both of which must be tentatively explored with attention to changing costs and benefits. The model implements this dual-space search by alternating between external scanning and internal comprehension, a strategy that gradually shifts its focus to a potentially productive route through an interface. Ways in which interfaces might be designed to capitalize on this behaviour are suggested. The research demonstrates how cognitive modelling can describe behaviour of the kind discussed by theories of `'situated cognition''. (C) 1996 Academic Press Limited
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rieman1996,
      author = {Rieman, J and Young, RM and Howes, A},
      title = {A dual-space model of iteratively deepening exploratory learning},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {44},
      number = {6},
      pages = {743-775}
    }
    
    Rivers, W. Autonomy at all costs: An ethnography of metacognitive self-assessment and self-management among experienced language learners {2001} MODERN LANGUAGE JOURNAL
    Vol. {85}({2}), pp. {279-290} 
    article  
    Abstract: Research in cognition has shown that expert learners in diverse fields, including chess, mathematics, physics, and language learning, approach new learning tasks differently than novice learners. More recent research in neuropsychology makes a strong claim that metacognition is separate from cognition and consists of two types of behavior: self-assessment and self-management. This article analyzes self-directed language learning behaviors of adult third-language learners based on qualitative data. The data were gathered in 1993 and 1994 from 11 learners of Georgian and Kazakh at the University of Maryland at College Park. All learners had 2/2/2 (L/R/S) proficiency in Russian according to the Federal Interagency Language Roundtable (FILR) scale. Data were analyzed using the Grounded Method for analyzing qualitative data (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). All learners were found to assess their progress, learning styles, strategy preferences, and conflicts with teaching styles and with the behaviors of other learners regularly. Based on these assessments, the majority of learners made attempts at specific self-directed learning behaviors, focused primarily on changes to course materials and classroom activities, and targeted specific learning tasks and strategies.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rivers2001,
      author = {Rivers, WP},
      title = {Autonomy at all costs: An ethnography of metacognitive self-assessment and self-management among experienced language learners},
      journal = {MODERN LANGUAGE JOURNAL},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {85},
      number = {2},
      pages = {279-290}
    }
    
    Roth, W. & Bowen, G. When are graphs worth ten thousand words? An expert-expert study {2003} COGNITION AND INSTRUCTION
    Vol. {21}({4}), pp. {429-473} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study analyzes the interpretive activities of scientists related to familiar and unfamiliar graphs. The analyses show that when scientists were familiar with a graph, they read it transparently and thereby leapt beyond the material basis to the thing the graph is said to be about. In contrast, when scientists were less familiar with the particular graphs, their reading turned out to be a complex iterative process. In this process, scientists linked graphs to possible worlds by means of complex inferences. They checked whether an expression referred to the actual properties of the worldly things the graphs are speaking of. They also checked graphical expressions themselves on the basis of certain circumstances. In a few instances, the scientists abandoned all attempts in interpreting the graphs and classified them as meaningless. Grounded in the data, a 2-stage model is proposed. This model accounts for different levels of reading graphs observed in this study.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Roth2003,
      author = {Roth, WM and Bowen, GM},
      title = {When are graphs worth ten thousand words? An expert-expert study},
      journal = {COGNITION AND INSTRUCTION},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {21},
      number = {4},
      pages = {429-473}
    }
    
    Roth, W. & McGinn, M. Graphing: Cognitive ability or practice? {1997} SCIENCE EDUCATION
    Vol. {81}({1}), pp. {91-106} 
    article  
    Abstract: Traditional views conceive graphing as knowledge represented in students' minds. We show in our critique that such views lead to a common assessment problem of how to account for variations in performance across contexts and tasks, and a common attribution problem that locates difficulties in students' deficient cognitive apparatus. Grounded in recent research of scientists at work and everyday cognition, this article provides an alternative perspective that conceives of graphing as observable practices employed to achieve specific goals. This perspective highlights the nature of graphs as semiotic objects, rhetorical devices, and conscription devices. This shift in perspective dissolves problems with assessment and inappropriate attribution of student difficulties. The plausibility and fruitfulness of the new per perspective is illustrated in three ways. First, we show that successes and failures of various graphing curricula become understandable in terms of the presence or absence of social dimensions of the practice. Second, we show how our perspective necessitates new assessment practices. Third, we show how our practice perspective on graphing led us to different learning environments and to new foci for conducting research in student-centered open-inquiry contexts. (C) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Roth1997,
      author = {Roth, WM and McGinn, MK},
      title = {Graphing: Cognitive ability or practice?},
      journal = {SCIENCE EDUCATION},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {81},
      number = {1},
      pages = {91-106}
    }
    
    Rothman, A.J., Bartels, R.D., Wlaschin, J. & Salovey, P. The strategic use of gain- and loss-framed messages to promote healthy behavior: How theory can inform practice {2006} JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION
    Vol. {56}({Suppl. S}), pp. {S202-S220} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Message framing provides a theoretically grounded approach to the development Of effective health messages. In this study, we review the state of research and theory on message framing (Rothman & Salovey, 1997), and how it can inform efforts to enhance health practices throughout the cancer care continuum. Gain-framed appeals are more effective when targeting behaviors that prevent the onset of disease, whereas loss-framed appeals are more effective when targeting behaviors that detect the presence of a disease. In light of these findings, we consider how message frames may affect other types of health behaviors and identify the need to understand better the processes that shape how people construe health behaviors.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rothman2006,
      author = {Rothman, Alexander J. and Bartels, Roger D. and Wlaschin, Jhon and Salovey, Peter},
      title = {The strategic use of gain- and loss-framed messages to promote healthy behavior: How theory can inform practice},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {56},
      number = {Suppl. S},
      pages = {S202-S220},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00290.x}}
    }
    
    Rougier, N.P. Implicit and explicit representations {2009} NEURAL NETWORKS
    Vol. {22}({2, Sp. Iss. SI}), pp. {155-160} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: During the past decades, the symbol grounding problem, as has been identified by Harnard [Harnard, S. (1990). The symbol grounding problem. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, 42, 335-346], became a prominent problem in the cognitive science society. The idea that a symbol is much more than a mere meaningless token that can be processed through some algorithm, sheds new light on higher brain functions such as language and cognition. We present in this article a computational framework that may help in our understanding of the nature of grounded representations. Two models are briefly introduced that aim at emphasizing the difference we make between implicit and explicit representations. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rougier2009,
      author = {Rougier, Nicolas P.},
      title = {Implicit and explicit representations},
      journal = {NEURAL NETWORKS},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {22},
      number = {2, Sp. Iss. SI},
      pages = {155-160},
      note = {1st Meeting of the Federation-of-the-European-Societies-of-Neuropsychology, Edinburgh, SCOTLAND, 2008},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neunet.2009.01.008}}
    }
    
    Roussin, C.J. Increasing trust, psychological safety, and team performance through dyadic leadership discovery {2008} SMALL GROUP RESEARCH
    Vol. {39}({2}), pp. {224-248} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In this article, the author uses a case-based argument to explore the idea that team members have grounded rationality, which may be actively learned by team leaders through a process of leadership discovery. The analysis reveals evidence that leaders using dyadic discovery methods learn more and more effectively customize leadership behaviors to increase trust, psychological safety, and team performance. A comparison of dyadic and group-level discovery cases tends support to the theory that dyadic-level discovery is psychologically safer and more consistently effective than is group-level discovery in most work team settings. This is an important finding, as many ``action'' and ``organization development'' methods presently rely on group-level interventions as a means of uncovering individual-level rationality.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Roussin2008,
      author = {Roussin, Christopher J.},
      title = {Increasing trust, psychological safety, and team performance through dyadic leadership discovery},
      journal = {SMALL GROUP RESEARCH},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {39},
      number = {2},
      pages = {224-248},
      doi = {{10.1177/1046496408315988}}
    }
    
    Roy, D. Grounded spoken language acquisition: Experiments in word learning {2003} IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MULTIMEDIA
    Vol. {5}({2}), pp. {197-209} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Language is grounded in sensory-motor experience. Grounding connects concepts to the physical world enabling humans to acquire and use words and sentences in context. Currently most machines which process language are not grounded. Instead, semantic representations are abstract, pre-specified, and have meaning only when interpreted by humans. We are interested in developing computational systems which represent words, utterances, and underlying concepts in terms of sensory-motor experiences leading to richer levels of machine understanding. A key element of this work is the development of effective architectures for processing multisensory data. Inspired by theories of infant cognition, we present a computational model which learns words from untranscribed acoustic and video input. Channels of input derived from different sensors are integrated in an information-theoretic framework. Acquired words are represented in terms of associations between acoustic and visual sensory experience. The model has been implemented in a real-time robotic system which performs interactive language learning and understanding. Successful learning has also been demonstrated using infant-directed speech and images.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Roy2003,
      author = {Roy, D},
      title = {Grounded spoken language acquisition: Experiments in word learning},
      journal = {IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MULTIMEDIA},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {5},
      number = {2},
      pages = {197-209},
      doi = {{10.1109/TMM.2003.811618}}
    }
    
    Rumph, S. The sense of tough in `Don Giovanni' (Mozart) {2007} MUSIC & LETTERS
    Vol. {88}({4}), pp. {561-588} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: While Don Giovanni has fascinated posterity, the Commendatore perhaps resonated more deeply with Mozart's age. Living statues haunted the late Enlightenment imagination, expressing, among other values, the new primacy of touch. For post-Cartesian thinkers, touch supplanted reason as the bedrock of cognition and aesthetics. Touch plays the same veridical role in Giovanni, above all in the lanious handshake of Giovanni and the Commendatore. Three scenes are analysed, illuminated by the psychological theory of Berkeley, Condillac, and Herder. Zerlina's `Vedrai carino' traces an integrative path from sight to touch. Her discourse recedes from conventional poetic and musical rhetoric into more immediate bodily representations. In `La ci darem la mano', conversely, music and poetry grow increasingly stylized as the false taking of hands proceeds. The banquet scene enacts another integration of representation and reality, as the Commendatore forces Giovannni to engage an older linguistic paradigm. This reading, grounded in the senses and signs, can temper more allegorical readings.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rumph2007,
      author = {Rumph, Stephen},
      title = {The sense of tough in `Don Giovanni' (Mozart)},
      journal = {MUSIC & LETTERS},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {88},
      number = {4},
      pages = {561-588},
      doi = {{10.1093/ml/gcm035}}
    }
    
    Rusman, E., van Bruggen, J., Sloep, P. & Koper, R. Fostering trust in virtual project teams: Towards a design framework grounded in a Trust Worthiness ANtecedents (TWAN) schema {2010} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES
    Vol. {68}({11}), pp. {834-850} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Several collaboration problems in virtual project teams that work in knowledge-intensive contexts can be attributed to a hampered process of interpersonal trust formation. Solutions to trust formation problems need to be based on an understanding of how interpersonal trust forms in face-to-face project teams as well as on insight into how this process differs in virtual teams. Synthesizing literature from various disciplines, we propose a model for the formation of interpersonal trust between project team members. Taking this model as a starting point, we analyse how virtual settings may alter or even obstruct the process of trust formation. One method to improve the formation of interpersonal trust in virtual settings is to facilitate the assessment of trustworthiness. This can be done by making information available about individual virtual project team members. Previous research in virtual project teams focussed principally on the medium by which information is spread, for example, by phone, mail, or videoconferencing. Most researchers failed to take the specific content of the information into account, although there is general agreement that personal, non-task-related information is important to foster trust. For this, we propose to use the antecedents of trustworthiness, which until now have mainly been used as a framework to measure trust, as a design framework instead. This framework of antecedents can also be used to determine which type of information is relevant to assess each other's trustworthiness. We review existing literature on the antecedents of trustworthiness and extend the well-accepted antecedents of `ability', `benevolence' and `integrity' with several other antecedents, such as `communality' and `accountability'. Together, these form the TrustWorthiness ANtecedents (TWAN) schema. We describe how these antecedents can be used to determine which information is relevant for team members assessing others' trustworthiness. In future research we will first verify this extended cognitive schema of trustworthiness (TWAN) empirically and then apply it to the design of artefacts or guidelines, such as a personal identity profile to support the assessment of trustworthiness in virtual project teams. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rusman2010,
      author = {Rusman, Ellen and van Bruggen, Jan and Sloep, Peter and Koper, Rob},
      title = {Fostering trust in virtual project teams: Towards a design framework grounded in a Trust Worthiness ANtecedents (TWAN) schema},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {68},
      number = {11},
      pages = {834-850},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.ijhcs.2010.07.003}}
    }
    
    Salay, N. Thinking without global generalisations: A cognitive defence of moral particularism {2008} INQUIRY-AN INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY
    Vol. {51}({4}), pp. {390-411} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In their article entitled ``Ethical Particularism and Patterns'', Frank Jackson, Philip Pettit, and Michael Smith (JPS henceforth) argue that moral particularism is a cognitively implausible theory since it appears to entail the view that one might have a skill that is not grounded in an ability to recognise and represent natural patterns in the world. This charge echoes the complaints of computational theorists of cognition against their embodied cognition counterparts, namely that, theories of cognition that eschew talk of mental representation are implausible qua theories of cognition. In both debates, the cognitive role of generalisation is central to the discussion; however, contrary to the received wisdom, I want to suggest that the dispute is not between generalisation or mental representation on the one hand and no generalisation or mental representation on the other, but rather between what I will call global and local generalisation. Using the dialogue between JPS and Dancy (our paradigm particularist) to frame this discussion, I show that by replacing Dancy's connectionist model for particularist reasoning with a case-based one, we not only vindicate his response to JPS, but we also gain insight into how it is the global/local distinction rather than the generalisation/no generalisation distinction that divides the two views.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Salay2008,
      author = {Salay, Nancy},
      title = {Thinking without global generalisations: A cognitive defence of moral particularism},
      journal = {INQUIRY-AN INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {51},
      number = {4},
      pages = {390-411},
      doi = {{10.1080/00201740802166684}}
    }
    
    Sandamirskaya, Y. & Schoener, G. Dynamic Field Theory of Sequential Action: A Model and its Implementation on an Embodied Agent {2008} 2008 IEEE 7TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING, pp. {133-138}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: How sequences of actions are learned, remembered, and generated is a core problem of cognition. Despite considerable theoretical work on serial order, it typically remains unexamined how physical agents may direct sequential actions at the environment within which they are embedded. Situated physical agents face a key problem - the need to accommodate variable amounts of time it takes to terminate each individual action within the sequence. Here we examine how Dynamic Field Theory (DFT), a neuronally grounded dynamical system approach to embodied cognition, may address sequence learning and sequence generation. To demonstrate that the proposed DFT solution works with real and potentially noisy sensory systems as well as with real physical action systems, we implement the approach on a simple autonomous robot. We demonstrate how the robot acquires sequences from experiencing the associated sensory information and how the robot generates sequences based on visual information from its environment using low-level visual features.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Sandamirskaya2008,
      author = {Sandamirskaya, Yulia and Schoener, Gregor},
      title = {Dynamic Field Theory of Sequential Action: A Model and its Implementation on an Embodied Agent},
      booktitle = {2008 IEEE 7TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {133-138},
      note = {7th IEEE International Conference on Development Learnin, Monterey, CA, AUG 09-12, 2008}
    }
    
    Schilhab, T.S.S., Fridgeirsdottir, G. & Allerup, P. The midwife case: Do they ``walk the talk''? {2010} PHENOMENOLOGY AND THE COGNITIVE SCIENCES
    Vol. {9}({1}), pp. {1-13} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Expertise depends on hours and hours of practice within a field before a state of proficiency is achieved. Normally, expert skills involve bodily knowledge associated to the practices of a field. Interactional expertise, i.e. the ability to talk competently about the field, however, is not causally dependent on bodily proficiency. Instead, interactional experts are verbally skilled to an extent that makes them impossible to distinguish from so-called contributory experts, the experienced practitioners. The concept of interactional expertise defines linguistic skills as contingent on bodily knowledge. However, recent neuropsychological findings make it plausible that ``first-person''-related neural activations would be relevant with respect to the subjects' verbal output, at least when subjects address concepts that refer to tangible objects. Using imitation games, we explore and expand on the apparently arbitrary relation between bodily experiences and linguistic skills in midwifery. In alignment with several findings within grounded cognition studies, the results presented suggest that somehow personal experiences make a linguistic difference, noticeable to contributory experts.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schilhab2010,
      author = {Schilhab, Theresa S. S. and Fridgeirsdottir, Gudlaug and Allerup, Peter},
      title = {The midwife case: Do they ``walk the talk''?},
      journal = {PHENOMENOLOGY AND THE COGNITIVE SCIENCES},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-13},
      doi = {{10.1007/s11097-009-9147-1}}
    }
    
    Schubert, T.W. A New Conception of Spatial Presence: Once Again, with Feeling {2009} COMMUNICATION THEORY
    Vol. {19}({2}), pp. {161-187} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Recent theories of telepresence or spatial presence in a virtual environment argue that it is a subjective experience of being in the virtual environment, and that it is the outcome of constructing a mental model of the self as being located in the virtual environment. However, current theories fail to explain how the subjective experience of spatial presence emerges from the unconscious spatial cognition processes. To fill this gap, spatial presence is conceptualized here as a cognitive feeling. From this perspective, spatial presence is a feedback from unconscious cognitive processes that informs conscious thought about the state of the spatial cognitive system. Current theorizing on the origins and properties of cognitive feelings is reviewed and applied to spatial presence. This new conception of presence draws attention to the functionality of spatial presence for judgments, decisions, and behavior. By highlighting the distinction between spatial cognitive processes and the subjective feeling of spatial presence, the use of questionnaires is theoretically grounded and legitimized as a method of presence research. Finally, embodied cognition theories are reviewed to identify cues that give rise to spatial presence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schubert2009a,
      author = {Schubert, Thomas W.},
      title = {A New Conception of Spatial Presence: Once Again, with Feeling},
      journal = {COMMUNICATION THEORY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {19},
      number = {2},
      pages = {161-187},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1468-2885.2009.01340.x}}
    }
    
    Schubert, T.W. & Koole, S.L. The embodied self: Making a fist enhances men's power-related self-conceptions {2009} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {45}({4}), pp. {828-834} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In line with recent theories of embodied cognition, the authors propose that the self-concept may be embodied in sensory-motor representations. To test this notion, two studies investigated the effects of bodily feedback from a gesture associated with power (making a fist) on the self-concept. As expected, making a fist led male participants to perceive themselves as more assertive and esteemed (Study 1) and to display stronger associations between the self-concept and power (Study 2), while these effects were absent among female participants. The gender difference may reflect that men are more prone to use physical force to gain social influence. The results indicate that people's conceptions of themselves are partly grounded in bodily experiences. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schubert2009,
      author = {Schubert, Thomas W. and Koole, Sander L.},
      title = {The embodied self: Making a fist enhances men's power-related self-conceptions},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {45},
      number = {4},
      pages = {828-834},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jesp.2009.02.003}}
    }
    
    Schwarz, N. & Oyserman, D. Asking questions about behavior: Cognition, communication, and questionnaire construction {2001} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EVALUATION
    Vol. {22}({2}), pp. {127-160} 
    article  
    Abstract: Evaluation researchers frequently obtain self-reports of behaviors, asking program participants to report on process and outcome-re levant behaviors, Unfortunately, reporting on one's behavior poses a difficult cognitive task, and participants' reports can be profoundly influenced by question wording, format, and context. We review the steps involved in answering a question about one's behavior and highlight the underlying cognitive and communicative processes. We alert researchers to what can go wrong and provide theoretically grounded recommendations for pilot testing and questionnaire construction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schwarz2001,
      author = {Schwarz, N and Oyserman, D},
      title = {Asking questions about behavior: Cognition, communication, and questionnaire construction},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EVALUATION},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {22},
      number = {2},
      pages = {127-160}
    }
    
    Secchi, D. The Cognitive Side of Social Responsibility {2009} JOURNAL OF BUSINESS ETHICS
    Vol. {88}({3}), pp. {565-581} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Individuals sit on the board of directors and set organizational goals, individuals make the product, push new marketing campaigns, make tough decisions, create new products, and so on. What is the role of social responsibility (SR) in their thinking? Do individuals need to behave responsibly to live in a social environment? Could this be grounded in their cognition? Furthermore, is there room for SR in our cognitive processes? And then, how can this analysis help studies on socially responsible business? The article presents how the distributed cognition approach provides a viable explanation for SR in human thinking. The exploitation of external - both social and nonsocial - resources shapes cognitive processes such that the idea of the ``isolated brain'' is definitely abandoned. Our social cognition uses responsibility as a support mechanism that sustains or discharges distributive processes. The article uses the notion of docility to keep cognition and social behavior together. The conclusion is that SR is (1) a mechanism that allows individuals to maintain cognitive advantages and (2) it emerges when the same social channel is exploited for extended periods of time.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Secchi2009,
      author = {Secchi, Davide},
      title = {The Cognitive Side of Social Responsibility},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF BUSINESS ETHICS},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {88},
      number = {3},
      pages = {565-581},
      note = {15th IESE International Symposium on Ethics, Business and Society, Barcelona, SPAIN, MAY 16-17, 2008},
      doi = {{10.1007/s10551-009-0124-y}}
    }
    
    Sergi, M.J., Fiske, A.P., Horan, W.P., Kern, R.S., Kee, K.S., Subotnik, K.L., Nuechterlein, K.H. & Green, M.F. Development of a measure of relationship perception in schizophrenia {2009} PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH
    Vol. {166}({1}), pp. {54-62} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Relationships Across Domains (RAD) is a new measure of competence in relationship perception that may be used to assess clinically stable persons with schizophrenia and healthy persons. The structure and content of the RAD are grounded in relational models theory, a well-validated theory of social relations. The 75-item RAD contains 25 vignettes and can be administered in approximately 35 min. The RAD requires participants to implicitly identify the relational model of a dyad described in a brief vignette and infer how the members of the dyad are likely to behave in three other social contexts. The RAD demonstrated good internal consistency in schizophrenia outpatients and healthy participants matched to the outpatients in age and education. The schizophrenia outpatients performed more poorly on the RAD than two healthy comparison groups, supporting the ability of the RAD to discriminate between clinical and non-clinical populations. The schizophrenia patients' performance on the RAD was moderately related to reading ability and several domains of community functioning. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All fights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sergi2009,
      author = {Sergi, Mark J. and Fiske, Alan P. and Horan, William P. and Kern, Robert S. and Kee, Kimmy S. and Subotnik, Kenneth L. and Nuechterlein, Keith H. and Green, Michael F.},
      title = {Development of a measure of relationship perception in schizophrenia},
      journal = {PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {166},
      number = {1},
      pages = {54-62},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.psychres.2008.03.010}}
    }
    
    Serpell, R. & Jere-Folotiya, J. Developmental assessment, cultural context, gender, and schooling in Zambia {2008} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {43}({2}), pp. {88-96} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Multiple perspectives on the assessment of children's development at the school-community interface in rural areas of Zambia are discussed in the light of several empirical studies conducted between 1974 and 2005. A longitudinal trace study of a cohort of 46 young people born into a rural, Chewa community in Katete District found that girls' scores in early childhood on a battery of ecoculturally grounded cognitive tests correlated less well than they did for boys with two educational outcomes: number of grades of schooling completed, and adult literacy scores. Conversely, ratings of the children on indigenous conceptions of intelligence by adults familiar with the children in the context of their home village lives predicted the same outcomes better for girls than for boys. A separate, linked experiment compared the performance of 76 Katete school children with that of 84 school children in the capital city of Lusaka on the US standardized Draw-a-Person Test (DPT) and the Panga Munthu Test (PMT), an expanded version of one of the tests developed for the Zambian trace study. Analysis of the correlations among scores on these two tests, age, and teacher ratings suggests that aptitudes evident in the home and school domains are less well integrated for rural girls than for urban boys, and that for a low-income, rural population, the PMT taps the domain of home cognition better than school cognition, while the converse is true of the DPT. Implications for educational assessment in Zambia are discussed, and supportive documentation is cited from two ongoing programs of test development. The authors conclude that if educational testing is to support the process of enhancing educational equity across gender, family socioeconomic status, and residential location, its focus should be broadened to include other dimensions of psychological development such as multilingual and personal-social competencies.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Serpell2008,
      author = {Serpell, Robert and Jere-Folotiya, Jacqueline},
      title = {Developmental assessment, cultural context, gender, and schooling in Zambia},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {43},
      number = {2},
      pages = {88-96},
      doi = {{10.1080/00207590701859184}}
    }
    
    Seve, C., Poizat, G., Saury, J. & Durand, M. A grounded theory of elite male table tennis players' activity during matches {2006} SPORT PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {20}({1}), pp. {58-73} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article describes the main features of a collaborative project involving researchers, coaches, and elite table tennis players. The project was carried out between 1997 and 2002 with funding from the French Ministry of Youth and Sports, in response to a request by French Table Tennis Team coaches to improve the training of table tennis players. Matches were videotaped during international meets and followed by interviews during which the players described and commented on their activity as they viewed the tapes. A grounded theory of players' activity emerged from the data collected and the ensuing theoretical issues that were raised. The findings on table tennis players' activity pointed to a new direction for training proposals, for example the organization of reflexive practices during training.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Seve2006,
      author = {Seve, C and Poizat, G and Saury, J and Durand, M},
      title = {A grounded theory of elite male table tennis players' activity during matches},
      journal = {SPORT PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {20},
      number = {1},
      pages = {58-73}
    }
    
    Shanon, B. Hallucinations {2003} JOURNAL OF CONSCIOUSNESS STUDIES
    Vol. {10}({2}), pp. {3-31} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper examines the standard conceptualizations of the notion of hallucination in light of various non-ordinary phenomenological patterns associated with altered states of consciousness induced by psychoactive agents. It is argued that in general, the conceptualizations encountered in the literature do not do justice to the richness and complexity that the psychological phenomenology actually exhibits. A close inspection of this phenomenology reveals some pertinent distinctions which are usually not made in the scientific literature. On the one hand, the discussion is based on first-hand experiences and, on the other hand, it is grounded in empirical and theoretical cognitive investigations of the phenomenology of human consciousness. Theoretically, the discussion is grounded in an approach highlighting the centrality of experience, meaning and action in cognition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Shanon2003,
      author = {Shanon, B},
      title = {Hallucinations},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSCIOUSNESS STUDIES},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {10},
      number = {2},
      pages = {3-31}
    }
    
    Siakaluk, P.D., Pexman, P.M., Aguilera, L., Owen, W.J. & Sears, C.R. Evidence for the activation of sensorimotor information during visual word recognition: The body-object interaction effect {2008} COGNITION
    Vol. {106}({1}), pp. {433-443} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We examined the effects of sensorimotor experience in two visual word recognition tasks. Body-object interaction (BOI) ratings were collected for a large set of words. These ratings assess perceptions of the ease with which a human body can physically interact with a word's referent. A set of high BOI words (e.g., mask) and a set of low BOI words (e.g., ship) were created, matched on imageability and concreteness. Facilitatory BOI effects were observed in lexical decision and phonological lexical decision tasks: responses were faster for high BOI words than for low BOI words. We discuss how our findings may be accounted for by (a) semantic feedback within the visual word recognition system, and (b) an embodied view of cognition (e.g., Barsalou's perceptual symbol systems theory), which proposes that semantic knowledge is grounded in sensorimotor interactions with the environment. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Siakaluk2008,
      author = {Siakaluk, Paul D. and Pexman, Penny M. and Aguilera, Laura and Owen, William J. and Sears, Christopher R.},
      title = {Evidence for the activation of sensorimotor information during visual word recognition: The body-object interaction effect},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {106},
      number = {1},
      pages = {433-443},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.cognition.2006.12.011}}
    }
    
    Sinha, C. Blending out of the background: Play, props and staging in the material world {2005} JOURNAL OF PRAGMATICS
    Vol. {37}({10}), pp. {1537-1554} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The focus in blending theory on the dynamics of meaning construction makes it a productive tool for analysing psychological processes in a developmental perspective. However, blending theory has largely preserved the traditionally mentalist and individualist assumptions of classical cognitive science. This article argues for an extension of the range of both theory and data, to encompass the socially collaborative, culturally and materially grounded nature of the human mind. An approach to young children's symbolic play in terms of conceptual blending is presented, together with an analysis of an episode of sociodramatic play which highlights the role of cultural material objects as crucial meaning-bearing elements in the blend. From a developmental perspective, conceptual blending can be viewed as a microgenetic process, in which not only cognitive strategies, but social roles, relationships and identities are negotiated by participants in social and communicative interactions. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sinha2005,
      author = {Sinha, C},
      title = {Blending out of the background: Play, props and staging in the material world},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PRAGMATICS},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {37},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1537-1554},
      note = {5th Rasmus Rask Symposium, Odense, DENMARK, AUG, 2002},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.pragma.2004.09.011}}
    }
    
    Sirois, S. & Mareschal, D. An interacting systems model of infant habituation {2004} JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {16}({8}), pp. {1352-1362} 
    article  
    Abstract: Habituation and related procedures are the primary behavioral tools used to assess perceptual and cognitive competence in early infancy. This article introduces a neurally constrained computational model of infant habituation. The model combines the two leading process theories of infant habituation into a single functional system that is grounded in functional brain circuitry. The HAB model (for Habituation, Autoassociation, and Brain) proposes that habituation behaviors emerge from the opponent, complementary processes of hippocampal selective inhibition and cortical long-term potentiation. Simulations of a seminal experiment by Fantz [Visual experience in infants: Decreased attention familiar patterns relative to novel ones. Science, 146, 668-670, 1964] are reported. The ability of the model to capture the fine detail of infant data ( especially age-related changes in performance) underlines the useful contribution of neurocomputational models to our understanding of behavior in general, and of early cognition in particular.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sirois2004,
      author = {Sirois, S and Mareschal, D},
      title = {An interacting systems model of infant habituation},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {16},
      number = {8},
      pages = {1352-1362}
    }
    
    Skewes, J.C. Interactivist-constructivist foundations for embodying attention {2007} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL & THEORETICAL ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
    Vol. {19}({2}), pp. {69-90} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This article discusses the increasing use of ideas from, and consistency with, the embodiment program in artificial intelligence (AI) and cognitive science. A model is embodied if it is (1) functionally grounded in behavioral regulation and (2) strongly constrained by both the physical and computational parameters of its implementation. The main goal of this is to put forward some dynamical foundations for embodying attention. A recent embodied model of attention is discussed in this context. It is shown that although the model's framework qualifies as embodied, its specific implementation does not. From here, its framework is used to develop a reconstruction of the model's dynamics, from which a new implementation which fits more closely into the embodiment program can be developed in the future. A general strategy of using dynamic considerations to constrain the development of embodied models is in this way advanced.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Skewes2007,
      author = {Skewes, Joshua C.},
      title = {Interactivist-constructivist foundations for embodying attention},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL & THEORETICAL ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {19},
      number = {2},
      pages = {69-90},
      doi = {{10.1080/09528130600926124}}
    }
    
    Slingerland, E. Who's afraid of reductionism? The study of religion in the age of cognitive science {2008} JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF RELIGION
    Vol. {76}({2}), pp. {375-411} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This paper aims to defend the application of tools and knowledge drawn from the natural sciences to the study of religion from the common charge that such approaches are overly ``reductionistic.'' I will argue that `reductionism'' is ultimately an empty term of abuse-any explanation worthy of being called an explanation involves reductionism of some sort. Drawing upon the work of Charles Taylor, I will try to explain what ``good,'' non-eliminative reductionism-one that recognizes the reality of complex, emergent human-level structures of meaning-might look like. I will also argue that these human-level structures of meaning should not be seen as possessing special ontological status, but rather must be understood as grounded in the lower levels of meaning studied by the natural sciences, instead of hovering magically above them. Practically speaking, this means that scholars of religion need to start taking seriously discoveries about human cognition being provided by neuro- and cognitive scientists, which have a constraining function to play in the formulation of theories in religious studies. Moreover, adopting a,'vertically integrated'' approach-grounded in a post-dualist, embodied pragmatist perspective-will help the field of religious studies to get beyond the unhelpful, and intellectually paralyzing, social constructivist dogma that continues to inform most of the work in our field.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Slingerland2008,
      author = {Slingerland, Edward},
      title = {Who's afraid of reductionism? The study of religion in the age of cognitive science},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF RELIGION},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {76},
      number = {2},
      pages = {375-411},
      doi = {{10.1093/jaarel/lfn004}}
    }
    
    Smeijsters, H., Koolmees, H. & Schoenmakers, S. Practice based research and action learning in a learning organization the case: Patient centred treatment in a general hospital {2008} PROCEEDINGS OF THE 9TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT, pp. {817-826}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: The Dutch government commissioned the Maasland Hospital of the Orbis Medical and Treatment Group to develop the `Hospital of the 21st Century'. In 2006, the board of Orbis and the board of Zuyd University of Applied Sciences signed an agreement to join forces for this development. Part of this collaboration is the project Patient Centred Treatment (PCT). The objectives of the project are to develop a mental model for PCT with core categories and subcategories, values and behavioural guidelines, and to develop learning activities that change the actual behaviour and knowledge flows of medical professionals at their workplace. The practice based research design is based on the naturalistic/constructivistic research methodology, with elements of grounded theory. The key characteristic of this design research is to explore and evaluate the implicit knowledge in the organization by means of iterative dialogues among professionals and between professionals and researchers. Within this process of co-creation among up to 200 participants, consensus based `best practices' are developed. This practice based research approach organically runs into action learning activities that serve to anchor PCT at the workplace. As a result, consensus based core categories and subcategories of PTC (patient, guest, person; cognition, emotion, self-esteem) have been developed, consensus based values and behavioural guidelines derived form the core categories and subcategories have been described, and training activities and action learning activities for PCT have been introduced at the workplace. In terms of learning as a result of the project, the individual professionals, the teams of professionals and the organization is developing into a learning organization.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Smeijsters2008,
      author = {Smeijsters, Henk and Koolmees, Hans and Schoenmakers, Sylvia},
      title = {Practice based research and action learning in a learning organization the case: Patient centred treatment in a general hospital},
      booktitle = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE 9TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {817-826},
      note = {9th European Conference on Knowledge Management, Southampton, ENGLAND, SEP 04-05, 2008}
    }
    
    Smilek, D., Eastwood, J.D., Reynolds, M.G. & Kingstone, A. Metacognition and change detection: Do lab and life really converge? {2008} CONSCIOUSNESS AND COGNITION
    Vol. {17}({3}), pp. {1056-1061} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Studies of change blindness indicate that more intentional monitoring of changes is necessary to successfully detect changes as scene complexity increases. However, there have been conflicting reports as to whether people are aware of this relation between intention and successful change detection as scene complexity increases. Here we continue our dialogue with [Beck, M. R., Levin, D. T., & Angelone, B. (2007a). Change blindness blindness: Beliefs about the roles of intention and scene complexity in change detection. Consciousness and Cognition, 16, 31-51; Beck, M. R., Levin, D. T., & Angelone, B. (2007b). Metacognitive errors in change detection: Lab and life converge. Consciousness and Cognition, 16, 58-62] by reporting two experiments that show participants do in fact intuit that more intentional monitoring is needed to detect changes as scene complexity increases. We also discuss how this dialogue illustrates the need for psychological studies to be grounded in measurements taken from real world situations rather than laboratory experiments or questionnaires. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Smilek2008,
      author = {Smilek, Daniel and Eastwood, John D. and Reynolds, Michael G. and Kingstone, Alan},
      title = {Metacognition and change detection: Do lab and life really converge?},
      journal = {CONSCIOUSNESS AND COGNITION},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {17},
      number = {3},
      pages = {1056-1061},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.concog.2007.08.003}}
    }
    
    Smith, L. & Gasser, M. The development of embodied cognition: Six lessons from babies {2005} ARTIFICIAL LIFE
    Vol. {11}({1-2}), pp. {13-29} 
    article  
    Abstract: The embodiment hypothesis is the idea that intelligence emerges in the interaction of an agent with an environment and as a result of sensorimotor activity. We offer six lessons for developing, embodied intelligent agents suggested by research in developmental psychology. We argue that starting as a baby grounded in a physical, social, and linguistic world is crucial to the development of the flexible and inventive intelligence that characterizes humankind.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Smith2005,
      author = {Smith, L and Gasser, M},
      title = {The development of embodied cognition: Six lessons from babies},
      journal = {ARTIFICIAL LIFE},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {13-29}
    }
    
    Stamp, G. A qualitatively constructed interpersonal communication model - A grounded theory analysis {1999} HUMAN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH
    Vol. {25}({4}), pp. {531-547} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study examined 288 interpersonal research articles published duping the past 25 years in Human Communication Research. The method used was grounded theory Through constant comparison analysis, a 17-part categorization system was developed to account for each of the articles. The categories were cognition, nonverbal communication, compliance-gaining, message type, personality, interpersonal effects, conversation, close relationships, perception, deception, initial interaction, culture, relationship development, apprehension, self-disclosure, competence, and conflict. The categories were then placed in relationship with one another to create a model of interpersonal communication that consists of seven components. The final representation provides a new model of interpersonal communication, which is obtained from data, empirically supported, and analytically derived.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Stamp1999,
      author = {Stamp, GH},
      title = {A qualitatively constructed interpersonal communication model - A grounded theory analysis},
      journal = {HUMAN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {25},
      number = {4},
      pages = {531-547}
    }
    
    Steels, L. Intelligence with representation {2003} PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES A-MATHEMATICAL PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES
    Vol. {361}({1811}), pp. {2381-2395} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Behaviour-based robotics has always been inspired by earlier cybernetics work such as that of W. Grey Walter. It emphasizes that intelligence can be achieved without the kinds of representations common in symbolic AI systems. The paper argues that such representations might indeed not be needed for many aspects of sensory-motor intelligence but become a crucial issue when bootstrapping to higher levels of cognition. It proposes a scenario in the form of evolutionary language games by which embodied agents develop situated grounded representations adapted to their needs and the conventions emerging in the population.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Steels2003,
      author = {Steels, L},
      title = {Intelligence with representation},
      journal = {PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES A-MATHEMATICAL PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {361},
      number = {1811},
      pages = {2381-2395},
      note = {International Workshop on Biologically Inspired Robotics, BRISTOL, ENGLAND, AUG, 2002},
      doi = {{10.1098/rsta.2003.1257}}
    }
    
    Steels, L. & Belpaeme, T. Coordinating perceptually grounded categories through language: A case study for colour {2005} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {28}({4}), pp. {469+} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article proposes a number of models to examine through which mechanisms a population of autonomous agents could arrive at a repertoire of perceptually grounded categories that is sufficiently shared to allow successful communication. The models are inspired by the main approaches to human categorisation being discussed in the literature: nativism, empiricism, and culturalism. Colour is taken as a case study Although we take no stance on which position is to be accepted as final truth with respect to human categorisation and naming, we do point to theoretical constraints that make each position more or less likely and we make clear suggestions on what the best engineering solution would be. Specifically, we argue that the collective choice of a shared repertoire must integrate multiple constraints, including constraints coining from communication.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Steels2005,
      author = {Steels, L and Belpaeme, T},
      title = {Coordinating perceptually grounded categories through language: A case study for colour},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {28},
      number = {4},
      pages = {469+}
    }
    
    Steeman, E., Godderis, J., Grypdonck, M., De Bal, N. & Dierckx De Casterle, B. Living with dementia from the perspective of older people: Is it a positive story? {2007} AGING & MENTAL HEALTH
    Vol. {11}({2}), pp. {119-130} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Dementia, even at an early stage, may pose problems and challenge one's quality of life. Having accurate knowledge of what one experiences when living with dementia is important for developing proactive care for individuals with dementia and their families. The aim of our Grounded Theory study was to explore what it means for elderly people to live with early-stage dementia. We interviewed 20 elderly people with probable mild dementia and their family members. Living with dementia was often presented as a positive narrative, one that told of only minor problems and which stressed abilities and contentment with life. Being valued, rather than losing one's cognition or identity was central in their experience. More in-depth analyses of participants' narratives revealed, however, that they were constantly balancing their feelings of value and worthlessness, struggling to remain someone of value. This struggle was prompted by threats posed by dementia and by the persons' interactions with others. Superficially, a positive narrative may be understood as a lack of awareness or as denial due to cognitive loss. Our findings suggest, however, that we should look beyond this superficial view and seek to understand the narrative as an expression of one's attempt to counterbalance devaluation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Steeman2007,
      author = {Steeman, Els and Godderis, Jan and Grypdonck, Mieke and De Bal, Nele and Dierckx De Casterle, Bernadette},
      title = {Living with dementia from the perspective of older people: Is it a positive story?},
      journal = {AGING & MENTAL HEALTH},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {11},
      number = {2},
      pages = {119-130},
      doi = {{10.1080/13607860600963364}}
    }
    
    Stofflett, R. Metaphor development by secondary teachers enrolled in graduate teacher education {1996} TEACHING AND TEACHER EDUCATION
    Vol. {12}({6}), pp. {577-589} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper focuses on a graduate-level teacher education course intended to facilitate teachers' understanding of the relationship between theory and practice. Teachers developed metaphors grounded in their personal histories as learners and educators. Four case studies are described in depth, four cases are summarized, and a cross-case analysis is presented. Many struggled with metaphor development, but all found it valuable for linking their cognition and practice. Common themes included influence of school context, learning history, and a stronger influence of teaching history with increased years of experience. The metaphors were not strongly associated with subject matter, rather they more closely linked with their views of teaching and learning. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Stofflett1996,
      author = {Stofflett, RT},
      title = {Metaphor development by secondary teachers enrolled in graduate teacher education},
      journal = {TEACHING AND TEACHER EDUCATION},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {12},
      number = {6},
      pages = {577-589},
      note = {Annual Meeting of the American-Educational-Research-Association, NEW ORLEANS, LA, APR 04-08, 1994}
    }
    
    Stollznow, K. Dehumanisation in language and thought {2008} JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE AND POLITICS
    Vol. {7}({2}), pp. {177-200} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Dehumanisation is a central tool of propaganda, war and oppression, but could it also be an `everyday' phenomenon? This paper attempts to demonstrate that dehumanisation is not invariably deviant behaviour, but often grounded in `normal' cognition. Dehumanisation is often defined as to ``make less human'' (Encarta) or to ``deprive of human character'' (Oxford English Dictionary). Are these adequate definitions? Is there evidence of polysemy, and a more salient sense? How can we explain the meaning and enactment of this process? This paper investigates the linguistic and behavioural representation of dehumanisation, with reference to modern and historical events. This semantic analysis considers aspects of pragmatics, semiotics, cognition and metaphor. The framework used in this examination is the Natural Semantic Metalanguage method of Reductive Paraphrase (Wierzbicka & Goddard 2002; Wierzbicka 1972).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Stollznow2008,
      author = {Stollznow, Karen},
      title = {Dehumanisation in language and thought},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF LANGUAGE AND POLITICS},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {177-200},
      doi = {{10.1075/jlp.7.2.oisto}}
    }
    
    Surkan, P.J., Schnaas, L., Wright, R.J., Tellez-Rojo, M.M., Lamadrid-Figueroa, H., Hu, H., Hernandez-Avila, M., Bellinger, D.C., Schwartz, J., Perroni, E. & Wright, R.O. Maternal self-esteem, exposure to lead, and child neurodevelopment {2008} NEUROTOXICOLOGY
    Vol. {29}({2}), pp. {278-285} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The notion that maternal personality characteristics influence cognitive development in their children has been grounded in stress moderation theory. Maternal personality traits, such as self-esteem, may buffer maternal stressors or lead to improved maternal-child interactions that directly impact neurodevelopment. This can be extended to suggest that maternal personality may serve to attenuate or exacerbate the effects of other neurotoxicants, although this has not been studied directly. We examined whether mothers' self-esteem had a direct or main effect on their children's cognitive outcomes. We also explored the modifying effects of maternal self-esteem on the association between exposure to lead and neurodevelopment in these children. Study participants included 379 mother-child pairs from Mexico City. Data included the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale in mothers, children's Bayley's Scale of Infant Development (BSID) scores, and sociodemographic information. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between maternal self-esteem and the Bayley's Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) scores at age 24 months using models stratified by levels of maternal self-esteem. In adjusted models, each point increase in maternal self-esteem was associated with children having 0.2 higher score on the Bayley's MDI (p = 0.04). Similar results were observed using the PDI outcome. Moreover, there was evidence that maternal self-esteem attenuated the negative effects of lead exposure, although the interaction fell short of conventional levels of statistical significance. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Surkan2008,
      author = {Surkan, Pamela J. and Schnaas, Lourdes and Wright, Rosalind J. and Tellez-Rojo, Martha M. and Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector and Hu, Howard and Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio and Bellinger, David C. and Schwartz, Joel and Perroni, Estela and Wright, Robert O.},
      title = {Maternal self-esteem, exposure to lead, and child neurodevelopment},
      journal = {NEUROTOXICOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {29},
      number = {2},
      pages = {278-285},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neuro.2007.11.006}}
    }
    
    Tam, K.Y. & Ho, S.Y. Understanding the impact of web personalization on user information processing and decision outcomes {2006} MIS QUARTERLY
    Vol. {30}({4}), pp. {865-890} 
    article  
    Abstract: Personalized information technology services have become a ubiquitous phenomenon. Companies worldwide are using the web to provide personalized offerings and unique experiences to their customers. While there is a lot of hype about delivering personalized services over the web, little is known about the effectiveness of web personalization and the link between the IT artifact (the personalization agent) and the effects it exerts on a user's information processing and decision making. To address the impact of personalized content, this article theoretically develops and empirically tests a model of web personalization. The model is grounded on social cognition and consumer research theories adapted to the peculiar features of web personalization. The influence of a personalization agent is mediated by two variables: content relevance and self reference. Hypotheses generated from the model are empirically tested in a laboratory experiment and a field study. The findings indicate that content relevance, self reference, and goal specificity affect the attention, cognitive processes, and decisions of web users in various ways. Also, users are found to be receptive to personalized content and find it useful as a decision aid. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tam2006,
      author = {Tam, Kar Yan and Ho, Shuk Ying},
      title = {Understanding the impact of web personalization on user information processing and decision outcomes},
      journal = {MIS QUARTERLY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {30},
      number = {4},
      pages = {865-890}
    }
    
    Thelen, E. Grounded in the World: Developmental Origins of the Embodied Mind {2000} INFANCY
    Vol. {1}({1}), pp. {3-28} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Piaget's (1952) question of how the adult mind emerges from the sensorimotor infant is still the framing issue for developmental psychology. Here I suggest that real-life skill is better understood if the sensorimotor origins of cognition are not abandoned. Skilled people are not only better at both abstract and logical thinking but also at processing the world ``online'' and, most important, seamlessly and rapidly shifting between the two modes. I illustrate the tight coupling between action, perception, and cognition in early life and propose that this coupling remains but becomes more flexibly adaptive. Further, I show that the language of dynamics is appropriate to capture these mind-body-world interconnections.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Thelen2000,
      author = {Thelen, Esther},
      title = {Grounded in the World: Developmental Origins of the Embodied Mind},
      journal = {INFANCY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-28},
      doi = {{10.1207/S15327078IN0101\_02}}
    }
    
    Tiba, A.I. A GROUNDED COGNITION PERSPECTIVE ON IRRATIONAL BELIEFS IN RATIONAL EMOTIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY {2010} JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE AND BEHAVIORAL PSYCHOTHERAPIES
    Vol. {10}({1}), pp. {87-99} 
    article  
    Abstract: Knowledge has been the subject of different controversial theories in psychology; recently the idea that knowledge is grounded in the modal systems of the brain has gained considerable evidence. This paper discusses applications of the grounded cognition theory to irrational beliefs, a main concept of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), proposed as core cognitive vulnerabilities for emotional disorders. Irrational beliefs, as grounded maladaptive emotional knowledge structures are considered the result of interactions between linguistic representations and simulations in motivational and emotional brain processing circuits. It is proposed that irrational beliefs (e.g., demandingness) are represented by distorted simulations in motivational and emotional brain processing circuits that bias the online processing of activating events. This biased emotional processing generates emotional disturbance. A three-level model of irrational beliefs is presented. The impact of irrational beliefs on emotions can be analyzed at the verbal or linguistic symbols level, at the simulations and modal symbols level and at the level of relations between verbal symbols and modal symbols. Maladaptive mechanisms and proposed corrective cognitive interventions are analyzed at each level. We conclude that a grounded perspective on irrational beliefs increases the explanatory power of the REBT theory of emotions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tiba2010,
      author = {Tiba, Alexandru I.},
      title = {A GROUNDED COGNITION PERSPECTIVE ON IRRATIONAL BELIEFS IN RATIONAL EMOTIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE AND BEHAVIORAL PSYCHOTHERAPIES},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {87-99}
    }
    
    Tomasello, M. Cooperation and Communication in the 2nd Year of Life {2007} CHILD DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES
    Vol. {1}({1}), pp. {8-12} 
    article  
    Abstract: Althoug primates have evolved complex cognitive skills and strategies for competing with others in their social group, only humans have developed complex cognitive skills and motivations for collaborating with one another in joint endeavors. This cooperative dimension of human cognition emerges most clearly around the first birthday as children begin to collaborate and communicate with joint intentions and joint attention. This collaboration is also grounded in social motivations for helping and sharing with others that are unique to humans. In using the skills of shared intentionality that underlie these cooperative interactions, 1-year-olds come to create perspectival cognitive representations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tomasello2007,
      author = {Tomasello, Michael},
      title = {Cooperation and Communication in the 2nd Year of Life},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {8-12}
    }
    
    Trevarthen, C. & Aitken, K. Infant intersubjectivity: Research, theory, and clinical applications {2001} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {42}({1}), pp. {3-48} 
    article  
    Abstract: We review research evidence on the emergence and development of active ``self-and-other'' awareness in infancy, and examine the importance of its motives and emotions to mental health practice with children. This relates to how communication begins and develops in infancy, how it influences the individual subject's movement, perception, and learning, and how the infant's biologically grounded self-regulation of internal slate and self-conscious purposefulness is sustained through active engagement with sympathetic others. Mutual self-other-consciousness is found to play the lead role in developing a child's cooperative intelligence for cultural learning and language, A variety of preconceptions have animated rival research traditions investigating infant communication and cognition. We distinguish the concept of ``intersubjectivity'', and outline the history of its use in developmental research. The transforming body and brain of a human individual grows in active engagement with an environment of human factors-organic at first, then psychological or inter-mental. Adaptive, human-responsive processes are generated first by interneuronal activity within the developing brain as formation of the human embryo is regulated in a support-system of maternal tissues. Neural structures are further elaborated with the benefit of intra-uterine stimuli in the foetus, then supported in the rapidly growing forebrain and cerebellum of the young child by experience of the intuitive responses of parents and other human companions. We focus particularly on intrinsic patterns and processes in pre-natal and post-natal brain maturation that anticipate psychosocial support in infancy. The operation of an intrinsic motive formation (IMF) that developed in the core of the brain before birth is evident in the tightly integrated intermodal sensory-motor coordination of a newborn infant's orienting to stimuli and preferential learning of human signals, by the temporal coherence and intrinsic rhythms of infant behaviour, especially in communication, and neonates' extraordinary capacities for reactive and evocative imitation. The correct functioning of this integrated neural motivating system is found to be essential to the development of both the infant's purposeful consciousness and his or her ability to cooperate with other persons' actions and interests, and to learn from them. The relevance of infants' inherent intersubjectivity to major child mental health issues is highlighted by examining selected areas of clinical concern. We review recent findings on postnatal depression, prematurity, autism, ADHD, specific language impairments, and central auditory processing deficits, and comment on the efficacy of interventions that aim to support intrinsic motives for intersubjective communication when these are not developing normally.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Trevarthen2001,
      author = {Trevarthen, C and Aitken, KJ},
      title = {Infant intersubjectivity: Research, theory, and clinical applications},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {42},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-48}
    }
    
    Van Sterkenburg, J., Knoppers, A. & De Leeuw, S. Race, ethnicity, and content analysis of the sports media: a critical reflection {2010} MEDIA CULTURE & SOCIETY
    Vol. {32}({5}), pp. {819+} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In this article we draw on a cultural studies perspective to reflect critically on the racial and ethnic categorizations that are used by those who employ content analysis to study the sport media and to demonstrate how such categories naturalize racial thought and erase ethnic distinctions. We use examples of content analyses of the sport media to illustrate the dominant categorization practices used in many studies. We draw on perspectives from cultural studies and social cognition theory, and on methods based on grounded theory, to suggest a method of conducting verbal content analysis that is sensitive to the contextual character of constructions of race and ethnicity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{VanSterkenburg2010,
      author = {Van Sterkenburg, Jacco and Knoppers, Annelies and De Leeuw, Sonja},
      title = {Race, ethnicity, and content analysis of the sports media: a critical reflection},
      journal = {MEDIA CULTURE & SOCIETY},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {32},
      number = {5},
      pages = {819+},
      doi = {{10.1177/0163443710373955}}
    }
    
    Van Vlaenderen, H. Problem solving: a process of reaching common understanding and consensus {1999} SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {29}({4}), pp. {166-177} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article reports on a study of the local knowledge of a group of young African development activists in the Eastern Cape region of South Africa. Impetus for the study was the researcher's observation of a lack of transferability of knowledge, obtained by a group of young rural Africans from a training course in development strategies. to their everyday life. It was hypothesised that participants' notion of problem solving was different from that presented in the course. This motivated the researcher to conduct an investigation into the conceptual, procedural and epistemic knowledge of a group of young Africans from rural areas, involved in development activities. It was argued that insight into the participants' local knowledge could contribute to the development of appropriate methodologies for training in rural African settings. Data for the study consisted of transcripts of interviews and group discussion with the research participants. An interpretive grounded theory approach was used to ascertain the participants' conceptual and procedural knowledge of the concept problem solving. A further interpretation of this data led to the elucidation of the participants' epistemic principles underlying their concept of problem solving. Congruent with a `situated cognition' approach, these were contextualised within the participants' socio-cultural background. The study revealed that the participants' perceptions of the concepts problem and problem solving were firmly embedded within the African philosophy of Ubuntu, with the notions of social harmony, holism, pursuit of practical purpose and primacy of collective reality providing the epistemics for their actions and cognitions. However. the research data showed some evidence of emerging assumptions about problem solving which deviated from the traditional African philosophy towards a more Western philosophy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{VanVlaenderen1999,
      author = {Van Vlaenderen, H},
      title = {Problem solving: a process of reaching common understanding and consensus},
      journal = {SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {29},
      number = {4},
      pages = {166-177}
    }
    
    van der Velde, F. & de Kamps, M. Learning of control in a neural architecture of grounded language processing {2010} COGNITIVE SYSTEMS RESEARCH
    Vol. {11}({1}), pp. {93-107} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Human cognition is characterized by three important features: productivity, dynamics and grounding. These features can be integrated in a neural architecture of language processing. The representations in this architecture always remain ``in situ'', because they are grounded in perception, action, emotion, associations and (semantic) relations. The neural architecture shows how these representations can be combined in a productive manner, and how dynamics influences this process. The constraints that each of these features impose on each other result in an architecture in which local and global aspects interact in processing and learning. The architecture consists of neural ``binding'' mechanisms that produce (novel) sentence structures on the fly. Here, we discuss how the control of this binding process can be learned. We trained a feedforward network (FFN) for this task. The results show that information from the architecture is needed as input to learn control of binding. Thus, the control system is recurrent. We show that this recurrent system can learn control of binding for basic (but recursive) sentence structures. After learning, the binding process behaves well on a series of test sentences, including sentences with (unlimited) embeddings. However, for some of these sentences, difficulties arise due to dynamical binding conflicts in the architecture. We also discuss and illustrate the potential influence that the dynamics in the architecture could have on the binding process. (C) 2008 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Velde2010,
      author = {van der Velde, Frank and de Kamps, Marc},
      title = {Learning of control in a neural architecture of grounded language processing},
      journal = {COGNITIVE SYSTEMS RESEARCH},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1},
      pages = {93-107},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.cogsys.2008.08.007}}
    }
    
    van der Velde, F. & de Kamps, M. A neural architecture for grounded cognition: Representation, structure, dynamics and learning {2008} 2008 IEEE INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON NEURAL NETWORKS, VOLS 1-8, pp. {961-968}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: Human cognition is characterized by three important features: productivity, dynamics and grounding. These features can be integrated in a neural architecture. The representations in this architecture are not symbol tokens, that can be copied and transported. Instead, the representations always remain ``in situ'', because they are grounded in perception, action, emotion, associations and (semantic) relations. The neural architecture shows how these representations can be combined in a productive manner, and how dynamics influences this process. The constraints that each of these features impose on each other could result in an architecture in which the local and the global aspects of cognition interact in processing and learning.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Velde2008,
      author = {van der Velde, Frank and de Kamps, Marc},
      title = {A neural architecture for grounded cognition: Representation, structure, dynamics and learning},
      booktitle = {2008 IEEE INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON NEURAL NETWORKS, VOLS 1-8},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {961-968},
      note = {International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, Hong Kong, PEOPLES R CHINA, JUN 01-08, 2008}
    }
    
    van der Velde, F. & de Kamps, M. Neural blackboard architectures of combinatorial structures in cognition {2006} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {29}({1}), pp. {37+} 
    article  
    Abstract: Human cognition is unique in the way in which it relies on combinatorial (or compositional) structures. Language provides ample evidence for the existence of combinatorial structures, but they can also be found in visual cognition. To understand the neural basis of human cognition, it is therefore essential to understand how combinatorial structures can be instantiated in neural terms. In his recent book on the foundations of language, Jackendoff described four fundamental problems for a neural instantiation of combinatorial structures: the massiveness of the binding problem, the problem of 2, the problem of variables, and the transformation of combinatorial structures from working memory to long-term memory. This paper aims to show that these problems can be solved by means of neural ``blackboard'' architectures. For this purpose, a neural blackboard architecture for sentence structure is presented. In this architecture, neural structures that encode for words are temporarily bound in a manner that preserves the structure of the sentence. It is shown that the architecture solves the four problems presented by Jackendoff. The ability of the architecture to instantiate sentence structures is illustrated with examples of sentence complexity observed in human language performance. Similarities exist between the architecture for sentence structure and blackboard architectures for combinatorial structures in visual cognition, derived from the structure of the visual cortex. These architectures are briefly discussed, together with an example of a combinatorial structure in which the blackboard architectures for language and vision are combined. In this way, the architecture for language is grounded in perception. Perspectives and potential developments of the architectures are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Velde2006,
      author = {van der Velde, F and de Kamps, M},
      title = {Neural blackboard architectures of combinatorial structures in cognition},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {29},
      number = {1},
      pages = {37+}
    }
    
    Vermeulen, N. On the systematic social role of expressed emotions: An embodied perspective {2009} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {32}({5}), pp. {405+} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Vigil suggests that expressed emotions are inherently learned and triggered in social contexts. A strict reading of this account is not consistent with the findings that individuals, even those who to are congenitally blind, do express emotions in the absence of an audience. Rather, grounded cognition suggests that facial expressions might also be in embodied support used to represent emotional information.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Vermeulen2009a,
      author = {Vermeulen, Nicolas},
      title = {On the systematic social role of expressed emotions: An embodied perspective},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {32},
      number = {5},
      pages = {405+},
      doi = {{10.1017/S0140525X09990112}}
    }
    
    Vermeulen, N., Corneille, O. & Niedenthal, P.M. Sensory load incurs conceptual processing costs {2008} COGNITION
    Vol. {109}({2}), pp. {287-294} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Theories of grounded cognition propose that modal simulations underlie cognitive representation of concepts [Barsalou, L. W. (1999). Perceptual symbol systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22(4), 577-660; Barsalou, L. W. (2008). Grounded cognition. Annual Review of Psychology,59, 617-645]. Based on recent evidence of modality-specific resources in perception, we hypothesized that verifying properties of concepts encoded in different modalities are hindered more by perceptual short-term memory load to the same versus different sensory modality as that used to process the property. We manipulated load to visual and auditory modalities by having participants store one or three items in short-term memory during property verification. In the high (but not low) load condition, property verification took longer when the property (e.g., yellow) involved the same modality as that used by the memory load (e.g., pictures). Interestingly, similar interference effects were obtained on the conceptual verification and on the memory task. These findings provide direct support for the view that conceptual processing relies on simulation in modality-specific systems. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Vermeulen2008,
      author = {Vermeulen, Nicolas and Corneille, Olivier and Niedenthal, Paula M.},
      title = {Sensory load incurs conceptual processing costs},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {109},
      number = {2},
      pages = {287-294},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.cognition.2008.09.004}}
    }
    
    Vermeulen, N., Mermillod, M., Godefroid, J. & Corneille, O. Unintended embodiment of concepts into percepts: Sensory activation boosts attention for same-modality concepts in the attentional blink paradigm {2009} COGNITION
    Vol. {112}({3}), pp. {467-472} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This study shows that sensory priming facilitates reports of same-modality concepts in an attentional blink paradigm. Participants had to detect and report two target words (T1 and T2) presented for 53 ms each among a series of nonwords distractors at a frequency of up to 19 items per second. SOA between target words was set to 53 ms or 213 ms, with reduced attention expected for T2 under the longer SOA (attentional blink) and for T1 under the shorter SOA (lag-1 sparing). These effects were found but reduced when the sensory modality of the concepts matched that of a sensory stimulation occurring prior to the detection trial. Hence, sensory activation increased report for same-modality concepts. This finding reveals that grounded cognition effects (1) are involved in conceptual processing as soon as a word has reached the point of lexical identification and (2) occur independent of intentional access to sensory properties of concepts. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Vermeulen2009,
      author = {Vermeulen, Nicolas and Mermillod, Martial and Godefroid, Jimmy and Corneille, Olivier},
      title = {Unintended embodiment of concepts into percepts: Sensory activation boosts attention for same-modality concepts in the attentional blink paradigm},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {112},
      number = {3},
      pages = {467-472},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.cognition.2009.06.003}}
    }
    
    Vermeulen, N., Niedenthal, P.M. & Luminet, O. Switching between sensory and affective systems incurs processing costs {2007} COGNITIVE SCIENCE
    Vol. {31}({1}), pp. {183-192} 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent models of the conceptual system hold that concepts are grounded in simulations of actual experiences with instances of those concepts in sensory-motor systems (e.g., Barsalou, 1999, 2003; Solomon & Barsalou, 2001). Studies supportive of such a view have shown that verifying a property of a concept in one modality, and then switching to verify a property of a different concept in a different modality generates temporal processing costs similar to the cost of switching modalities in perception. In addition to non-emotional concepts, the present experiment investigated switching costs in verifying properties of positive and negative (emotional) concepts. Properties of emotional concepts were taken from vision, audition, and the affective system. Parallel to switching costs in neutral concepts, the study showed that for positive and negative concepts, verifying properties from different modalities produced processing costs such that reaction times were longer and error rates were higher. Importantly, this effect was observed when switching from the affective system to sensory modalities, and vice-versa. These results support the embodied cognition view of emotion in humans.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Vermeulen2007,
      author = {Vermeulen, Nicolas and Niedenthal, Paula M. and Luminet, Olivier},
      title = {Switching between sensory and affective systems incurs processing costs},
      journal = {COGNITIVE SCIENCE},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {31},
      number = {1},
      pages = {183-192}
    }
    
    Volkema, R., Farquhar, K. & Bergmann, T. Third-party sensemaking in interpersonal conflicts at work: A theoretical framework {1996} HUMAN RELATIONS
    Vol. {49}({11}), pp. {1437-1454} 
    article  
    Abstract: Theoretical and empirical models of interpersonal conflict focus primarily on engagement and avoidance behaviors between the conflict parties. Recent studies of workplace conflicts, however, suggest that encounters with third parties (e.g., co-workers, friends, family) are common responses to perceived incompatibility of interests. This paper introduces a model for understanding conflict-induced sensemaking behaviors, grounded in the conflict and social cognition literatures. Three components of sensemaking are proposed-emotional, cognitive, and behavioral. These elements are influenced by the focus of the party initiating sensemaking, as we illustrate through case-history scenarios.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Volkema1996,
      author = {Volkema, RJ and Farquhar, K and Bergmann, TJ},
      title = {Third-party sensemaking in interpersonal conflicts at work: A theoretical framework},
      journal = {HUMAN RELATIONS},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {49},
      number = {11},
      pages = {1437-1454}
    }
    
    Walenstein, A. Theory-based analysis of cognitive support in software comprehension tools {2002} 10TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON PROGRAM COMPREHENSION, PROCEEDINGS, pp. {75-84}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: Past research on software comprehension tools has produced a wealth of lessons in building good tools. However our explanations of these tools tends to be weakly grounded in existing theories of cognition and human-computer interaction. As a result, the interesting rationales underlying their design are poorly articulated, leaving the lessons primarily implicit. This paper describes a way of using existing program comprehension theories to rationalize tool designs. To illustrate the technique, key design rationales underlying a prominent reverse engineering tool (Reflexion Model Tool) are reconstructed. The reconstruction shows that theories of cognitive support can be applied to existing cognitive models of developer behaviour The method for constructing the rationales is described, and implications are drawn for codifying existing design knowledge, evaluating tools, and improving design reasoning.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Walenstein2002,
      author = {Walenstein, A},
      title = {Theory-based analysis of cognitive support in software comprehension tools},
      booktitle = {10TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON PROGRAM COMPREHENSION, PROCEEDINGS},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {75-84},
      note = {10th International Workshop on Program Comprehension, PARIS, FRANCE, JUN 27-29, 2002}
    }
    
    Wang, P. Analogy in a general-purpose reasoning system {2009} COGNITIVE SYSTEMS RESEARCH
    Vol. {10}({3}), pp. {286-296} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This paper introduces the various forms of analogy in NARS, a general-purpose reasoning system. NARS is an AI system designed to be adaptive and to work with insufficient knowledge and resources. In the system, multiple types of inference, including analogy, deduction, induction, abduction, comparison, and revision, are unified both in syntax and in semantics. The system can also carry out relational and structural analogy, in ways comparable to (though different from) that in some other models of analogy, such as Copycat and SME. The paper addresses several theoretical issues in the study of analogy, including the specification and justification of analogy, the context sensitivity of analogy, as well as the role analogy plays in intelligence and cognition. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wang2009a,
      author = {Wang, Pei},
      title = {Analogy in a general-purpose reasoning system},
      journal = {COGNITIVE SYSTEMS RESEARCH},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {286-296},
      note = {Conference on Nature, Science, and Social Movements, Mytilene, GREECE, JUN 25-28, 2004},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.cogsys.2008.09.003}}
    }
    
    Wang, W. & Benbasat, I. INTERACTIVE DECISION AIDS FOR CONSUMER DECISION MAKING IN E-COMMERCE: THE INFLUENCE OF PERCEIVED STRATEGY RESTRICTIVENESS {2009} MIS QUARTERLY
    Vol. {33}({2}), pp. {293-320} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper extends the effort-accuracy framework of cognition by taking into account the perceived strategy restrictiveness of decision aids, and tests the extended framework in a context in which online decision aids are used to elicit consumers' preferences, automate the processing of the preferences, and provide product advice for consumers. Three types of decision aids with different decision strategy support capabilities (an additive-compensatory based aid, an elimination-based aid, and a hybrid aid supporting both strategies) are, compared in terms of users' perceptions of strategy restrictiveness, advice quality, and cognitive effort. These comparisons are grounded on the properties of normativeness and complementarity of decision strategies employed by the aids. A normative strategy takes into account both the users' attribute preferences and the relative importance of such preferences, and allows for trade-offs among preferences (e.g., additive-compensatory). Strategy complementarity indicates support for decision rules based on multiple strategies (e.g., both additive-compensatory and elimination strategies). The experimental results support the validity of the extended effort-accuracy-restrictiveness framework and the effects of strategy normativeness, but not the effects of strategy complementarity. In addition to the perceptions of cognitive effort and advice quality, perceived strategy restrictiveness exerts a significant influence on consumers' intentions to use online decision aids, The additive-compensatory aid is perceived to be less restrictive, of higher quality, and less effortful than the elimination aid, whereas the hybrid aid is not perceived to be any different from the additive-compensatory aid.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wang2009,
      author = {Wang, Weiquan and Benbasat, Izak},
      title = {INTERACTIVE DECISION AIDS FOR CONSUMER DECISION MAKING IN E-COMMERCE: THE INFLUENCE OF PERCEIVED STRATEGY RESTRICTIVENESS},
      journal = {MIS QUARTERLY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {33},
      number = {2},
      pages = {293-320}
    }
    
    Watts, S., Shankaranarayanan, G. & Even, A. Data quality assessment in context: A cognitive perspective {2009} DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS
    Vol. {48}({1, Sp. Iss. SI}), pp. {202-211} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In organizations today, the risk of poor information quality is becoming increasingly high as larger and more complex information resources are being collected and managed. To mitigate this risk, decision makers assess the quality of the information provided by their IS systems in order to make effective decisions based on it. To do so, they may rely on quality metadata: objective quality measurements tagged by data managers onto the information used by decision makers. Decision makers may also gauge information quality on their own, subjectively and contextually assessing the usefulness of the information for solving the specific task at hand. Although information quality has been defined as fitness for use. models of information quality assessment have thus far tended to ignore the impact of contextual quality on information use and decision outcomes. Contextual assessments can be as important as objective quality indicators because they can affect which information gets used for decision making tasks. This research offers a theoretical model for understanding users' contextual information quality assessment processes. The model is grounded in dual-process theories of human cognition, which enable simultaneous evaluation of both objective and contextual information quality attributes. Findings of an exploratory laboratory experiment suggest that the theoretical model provides an avenue for understanding contextual aspects of information quality assessment in concert with objective ones. The model offers guidance for the design of information environments that can improve performance by integrating both objective and subjective aspect of users' quality assessments. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Watts2009,
      author = {Watts, Stephanie and Shankaranarayanan, G. and Even, Adir},
      title = {Data quality assessment in context: A cognitive perspective},
      journal = {DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {48},
      number = {1, Sp. Iss. SI},
      pages = {202-211},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.dss.2009.07.012}}
    }
    
    Weigert, A.J. Metatheoretical Theses on Identity, Inequality, Time, and Hope: Toward a Pragmatic Cosmopolitanism {2010} JOURNAL FOR THE THEORY OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR
    Vol. {40}({3}), pp. {249+} 
    article  
    Abstract: Within a pragmatic perspective, metatheoretical theses grounded on identity as sameness, uniqueness, and difference address the inevitability of inequality. Pragmatic meaning, furthermore, is always in the future. Temporal inequality emerges as central to meanings of identity, especially expectations of unequal endtime futures. The experiential mix of cognition and affect highlights an inequality of positive and negative futures, of hope and fear. Following G. H. Mead's adumbration, an emergent cultural turn is to pragmatic cosmopolitan identities allowing for a ``both-and'' acceptance that affirms self as well as other as a functional basis for cooperative action addressing shared issues.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Weigert2010,
      author = {Weigert, Andrew J.},
      title = {Metatheoretical Theses on Identity, Inequality, Time, and Hope: Toward a Pragmatic Cosmopolitanism},
      journal = {JOURNAL FOR THE THEORY OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {40},
      number = {3},
      pages = {249+}
    }
    
    Welzel, M. The emergence of complex cognition during a unit on static electricity {1998} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE EDUCATION
    Vol. {20}({9}), pp. {1107-1118} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper takes a situated cognition perspective on learning and cognitive development. According to situated cognition, knowledge is ultimately grounded in each individual's actions with the material and the social world. On the basis of this and other empirical investigations done in the Institute of Physics Education (IPE), a detailed framework that includes operationalizations for levels of situated learning is developed. This framework allows a quantification of certain aspects of the development of situated cognition in terms of complexity. A case study is provided describing the dynamics of individual processes of situated cognition development in the domain of electricity. The case study (a) provides a detail description of individual processes of cognitive development during learning electrostatics on different rime-scales, (b) describes: general rules about the dynamic of individual cognitive processes and (c) portrays the influence of interactions on these processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Welzel1998,
      author = {Welzel, M},
      title = {The emergence of complex cognition during a unit on static electricity},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE EDUCATION},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {20},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1107-1118}
    }
    
    Wenzel, A. & Beck, A.T. A cognitive model of suicidal behavior: Theory and treatment {2008} APPLIED & PREVENTIVE PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {12}({4, Sp. Iss. SI}), pp. {189-201} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: With some prominent exceptions, much of the research designed to elucidate the nature, prevalence, and correlates of suicidal behavior has been conducted from an atheoretical perspective. Conversely. psychological theories to explain Suicidal behavior are Largely untested by rigorous experimental designs. We propose a cognitive model of suicidal behavior that is grounded in the empirical literature on cognitive and behavioral correlates of and risk factors for suicidal behavior. In addition, we demonstrate the manner in which the theoretical components are targeted in cognitive therapy for Suicidal patients. We highlight aspects oft lie model wit h less empirical support, and we propose ways those constructs can be tested in future research. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wenzel2008,
      author = {Wenzel, Amy and Beck, Aaron T.},
      title = {A cognitive model of suicidal behavior: Theory and treatment},
      journal = {APPLIED & PREVENTIVE PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {12},
      number = {4, Sp. Iss. SI},
      pages = {189-201},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.appsy.2008.05.001}}
    }
    
    Williams, L.E., Huang, J.Y. & Bargh, J.A. The scaffolded mind: Higher mental processes are grounded in early experience of the physical world {2009} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {39}({7, Sp. Iss. SI}), pp. {1257-1267} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: It has long been a staple of psychological theory that early life experiences significantly shape the adult's understanding of and reactions to the social world. Here, we consider how early concept development along with evolved motives operating early in life can come to exert a passive, unconscious influence on the human adult's higher-order goal pursuits, judgments, and actions. In particular; we focus on concepts and goal structures specialized for interacting with the physical environment (e.g., distance cites, temperature, cleanliness, and self-protection), which emerge early and automatically as a natural part of human development and evolution. It is proposed that via the process of scaffolding, these early sensorimotor experiences serve as the foundation for the later development of more abstract concepts and goals. Experiments using priming methodologies reveal the extent to which these earl), concepts serve as the analogical basis for more abstract psychological concepts, such that we come easily and naturally to speak of close relationships, warm personalities, moral purity, and psychological pain. Taken together; this research demonstrates the e extent to which such foundational concepts art, capable of influencing people's information processing, affective judgements, and goal pursuit, oftentimes outside of their intention or awareness. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Williams2009,
      author = {Williams, Lawrence E. and Huang, Julie Y. and Bargh, John A.},
      title = {The scaffolded mind: Higher mental processes are grounded in early experience of the physical world},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {39},
      number = {7, Sp. Iss. SI},
      pages = {1257-1267},
      doi = {{10.1002/ejsp.665}}
    }
    
    WINTER, S. A CLEARING IN THE FOREST {1995} METAPHOR AND SYMBOLIC ACTIVITY
    Vol. {10}({3}), pp. {223-245} 
    article  
    Abstract: Most lawyers understand metaphor as merely a matter of expression-perhaps useful for rhetorical purposes, but perilous to the analytic logic that should direct the movement from an authoritative rule to the decision of a concrete case. Many philosophers understand metaphor as entirely devoid of semantic content. For them, linguistic meaning is socially contingent and essentially arbitrary; metaphors are powerful devices capable of affecting the senses and sometimes giving birth to new meanings. Advances in cognitive theory undermine these assumptions about reason and meaning. The emerging picture is of a human rationality that is embodied rather than abstract, imaginative rather than propositional, flexible rather than definitional, and grounded in experience rather than involving deduction from abstract principles. Cognitive processes such as conceptual metaphor, metonymy, image schemas, and radial categories are central to human reason and understanding. Indeed, human rationality cannot be understood apart from the pivotal role of embodied imagination in all aspects of cognition, language, and thought. These developments alter the contours of entire debates in numerous disciplines, especially in law. A human rationality that is grounded in experience supports neither the determinacy aspired to by analytic logic nor the arbitrariness assumed by most social coherence theories. On one hand, the import of transfigurative processes such as metaphor is that there can be no linear, algorithmic function that links experiential input to imaginative output. But, on the other hand, rationality is not purely arbitrary, subjective, or radically indeterminate; it is framed and constrained by the systematic nature of these conceptual processes. In this article, I demonstrate these claims by exploring how cognitive metaphor shapes our fundamental conception of law. Our conventional understand-of law is as an external restraint on an otherwise unfettered individual freedom-a forest of constraint surrounding the clearing of freedom. An examination of this apparently trite metaphor reveals that it is rich in conceptual content, nonarbitrary in meaning, complex in structure, and systematic in operation. It demonstrates the ways in which conceptual metaphor makes possible comprehension, defines patterns of inference, and enables semantic productivity. It reveals, in short, the richly complex and deeply imaginative character of an embodied human rationality.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WINTER1995,
      author = {WINTER, SL},
      title = {A CLEARING IN THE FOREST},
      journal = {METAPHOR AND SYMBOLIC ACTIVITY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {223-245}
    }
    
    Wright, C.D. Embodied cognition: Grounded until further notice {2008} BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {99}({Part 1}), pp. {157-164} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wright2008,
      author = {Wright, Cory D.},
      title = {Embodied cognition: Grounded until further notice},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {99},
      number = {Part 1},
      pages = {157-164}
    }
    
    Wu, L.-l. & Barsalou, L.W. Perceptual simulation in conceptual combination: Evidence from property generation {2009} ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA
    Vol. {132}({2}), pp. {173-189} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In three experiments, participants received nouns or noun phrases for objects and verbally generated their properties (''feature listing''). Several sources of evidence indicated that participants constructed perceptual simulations to generate properties for the noun phrases during conceptual combination. First, the production of object properties for noun phrases depended on occlusion, with unoccluded properties being generated more often than occluded properties. Because a perceptual variable affected conceptual combination, perceptual simulations appeared central to combining the concepts for modifiers and head nouns. Second, neutral participants produced the same distributions of properties as participants instructed to describe images, suggesting that the conceptual representations used by neutral participants were similar to the mental images used by imagery participants. Furthermore, the property distributions for neutral and imagery participants differed from those for participants instructed to produce word associations. Third, participants produced large amounts of information about background situations associated with the object cues, suggesting that the simulations used to generate properties were situated. The experiments ruled out alternative explanations that simulation effects occur only for familiar noun phrases associated with perceptual memories and that rules associated with modifiers produce occlusion effects. A process model of the property generation task grounded in simulation mechanisms is presented. The possibility of integrating the simulation account of conceptual combination with traditional accounts and well-established findings is explored. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wu2009,
      author = {Wu, Ling-ling and Barsalou, Lawrence W.},
      title = {Perceptual simulation in conceptual combination: Evidence from property generation},
      journal = {ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {132},
      number = {2},
      pages = {173-189},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.actpsy.2009.02.002}}
    }
    
    Yuan, S.-T. & Chen, Y.-C. Semantic ideation learning for agent-based e-brainstorming {2008} IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE AND DATA ENGINEERING
    Vol. {20}({2}), pp. {261-275} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Brainstorming can assist organizations in generating creative ideas using teamwork and collaboration. However, the role of information technology in brainstorming is merely that of an assistant that passively supports the progression of brainstorming sessions rather than proactively engaging in the sessions. This paper integrates the unique association thinking of humans with an intelligent agent technique to devise an automated decision agent called the Semantic Ideation Learning Agent (SILA) that can represent a session participant who is actively participating in brainstorming. SILAs are grounded on the three association capabilities of human thinking (similarity, contiguity, and contrast). Furthermore, a Collective Brainstorming Decision System (CBDS) is built to construct an environment where SILAs can learn and share their knowledge with each other. Additionally, CBDS is integrated into an intelligent care project (iCare) for the purpose of innovated e-service recommendation. Preliminarily, evaluation results indicate that the proposed system advances e-brainstorming by crossing the three key boundaries of human ideation capability (understanding, cognition boundary, and endurance).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Yuan2008,
      author = {Yuan, Soe-Tsyr and Chen, Yen-Chuan},
      title = {Semantic ideation learning for agent-based e-brainstorming},
      journal = {IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE AND DATA ENGINEERING},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {20},
      number = {2},
      pages = {261-275},
      doi = {{10.1109/TKDE.2007.190687}}
    }
    
    Zhang, T., Aranzamendez, G., Rinkus, S., Gong, Y., Rukab, J., Johnson-Throop, K., Malin, J. & Zhang, J. An information flow analysis of a distributed information system for space medical support {2004}
    Vol. {107}MEDINFO 2004: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 11TH WORLD CONGRESS ON MEDICAL INFORMATICS, PT 1 AND 2, pp. {992-996} 
    inproceedings  
    Abstract: In this study, we applied the methodology grounded in human-centered distributed cognition principles to the information flow analysis of a highly intensive, distributed and complex environment - the Biomedical Engineer (BME) console system at NASA Johnson Space Center. This system contains disparate human and artificial agents and artifacts. Users and tasks of this system were analyzed. An ethnographic study and a detailed communication pattern analysis were conducted to gain deeper insight and better understanding of the information flow patterns and the organizational memory of the current BME console system. From this study, we identified some major problems and offered recommendations to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of this system. We believe that this analysis methodology can be used in other distributed information systems, such as a healthcare environment.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Zhang2004,
      author = {Zhang, T and Aranzamendez, G and Rinkus, S and Gong, Y and Rukab, J and Johnson-Throop, KA and Malin, JT and Zhang, JJ},
      title = {An information flow analysis of a distributed information system for space medical support},
      booktitle = {MEDINFO 2004: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 11TH WORLD CONGRESS ON MEDICAL INFORMATICS, PT 1 AND 2},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {107},
      pages = {992-996},
      note = {11th World Congress on Medical Informatics, San Francisco, CA, SEP 07-11, 2004}
    }
    
    Zhang, T. & Jia, S. Customer's trust changes and drivers in an initiate Internet transaction: Empirical studies by grounded theory approach {2005} Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Management Science & Engineering (12th), Vols 1- 3, pp. {102-105}  inproceedings  
    Abstract: Customer's trust is one of the most important and difficult issues of transactions in Internet. Used grounded theory, this paper analyzes the questionnaire transcripts of a web vendor's 330 new customers since the shop opened 21 months on Internet, gives a theoretical model of web customer's trust change and drivers. The model means that environmental drivers and web vendor drivers affect customer's trust, and new customer's trust no only gradually change from rational trust to emotional trust but also vary in different transaction stages. The forms of customer's trust are mainly knowledge trust and institution-based trust before the transaction, and become to calculus-based trust, contractual trust and competence trust when transaction begins, then become to cognition-based trust and identification trust after the transaction. Customer's trust to a vendor will stay for a long time and transfer to other consumers though Internet.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Zhang2005,
      author = {Zhang, T and Jia, SH},
      title = {Customer's trust changes and drivers in an initiate Internet transaction: Empirical studies by grounded theory approach},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Management Science & Engineering (12th), Vols 1- 3},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {102-105},
      note = {12th International Conference on Management Science and Engineering, Incheon, SOUTH KOREA, JUL 20-21, 2005}
    }
    
    ZWANEVELD, B. & VUIST, G. A COGNITIVE TOOL FOR LEARNING MATHEMATICS {1995}
    Vol. {61}INNOVATIVE ADULT LEARNING WITH INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES, pp. {91-98} 
    inproceedings  
    Abstract: In this paper we describe a cognitive tool for structuring the declarative and procedural knowledge of mathematics. The design and the use of the tool, KennisGraaf named, is grounded in two paradigms: the information processing model of cognition and the view that in mathematics education a student should learn to apply his knowledge. KennisGraaf can be used to construct a semantic network of some part of a mathematics domain: the network consists in boxes, representing concepts or algorithms, and labelled, directed relations. Assuming that a well-constructed network can provide an overview of the mathematics involved, in education this tool can be used to support the process of structuring a mathematical domain itself or, using a prestored network, as well to give feedback to a student constructing a network. We describe a research framework of several experiments in which the focus will be laid on the necessary functionality and design of the interface of KennisGraaf and on the learning processes involved in the use of KennisGraaf.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{ZWANEVELD1995,
      author = {ZWANEVELD, B and VUIST, G},
      title = {A COGNITIVE TOOL FOR LEARNING MATHEMATICS},
      booktitle = {INNOVATIVE ADULT LEARNING WITH INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {61},
      pages = {91-98},
      note = {Joint Meeting of IFIP Working Groups 3.2 Research on Education Applications of Information Technologies/3.6 Distance Learning - Innovative Adult Learning with Innovative Technologies, NANTES, FRANCE, OCT, 1994}
    }
    

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