QuickSearch:   Number of matching entries: 0.

Search Settings

    AuthorTitleYearJournal/ProceedingsReftypeDOI/URL
    Aaker, J. Dimensions of brand personality {1997} JOURNAL OF MARKETING RESEARCH
    Vol. {34}({3}), pp. {347-356} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although a considerable amount of research in personality psychology has been done to conceptualize human personality, identify the `'Big Five'' dimensions, and explore the meaning of each dimension, no parallel research has been conducted in consumer behavior on brand personality, Consequently, an understanding of the symbolic use of brands has been limited in the consumer behavior literature. In this research, the author develops a theoretical framework of the brand personality construct by determining the number and nature of dimensions of brand personality (Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, Sophistication, and Ruggedness). Tc, measure the five brand personality dimensions, a reliable, valid, and generalizable measurement scale is created. Finally, theoretical and practical implications regarding the symbolic use of brands are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aaker1997,
      author = {Aaker, JL},
      title = {Dimensions of brand personality},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF MARKETING RESEARCH},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {34},
      number = {3},
      pages = {347-356}
    }
    
    ADAMS, G. PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS RESEARCH - TOWARD A DEVELOPMENTAL SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF BEAUTY {1977} HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {20}({4}), pp. {217-239} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ADAMS1977,
      author = {ADAMS, GR},
      title = {PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS RESEARCH - TOWARD A DEVELOPMENTAL SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF BEAUTY},
      journal = {HUMAN DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1977},
      volume = {20},
      number = {4},
      pages = {217-239}
    }
    
    Adams, J. & Sweatt, J. Molecular psychology: Roles for the ERK MAP kinase cascade in memory {2002} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
    Vol. {42}, pp. {135-163} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this review we describe an emerging understanding of the roles of the Extracellular-signal regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) cascade in learning and memory. We begin by describing several behavioral memory paradigms and review data implicating ERK as an essential component of the signal transduction mechanisms subserving these processes. We then describe evidence implicating ERK as a critical player in synaptic and neuronal plasticity-a cellular role likely to underlie ERK's behavioral role in the animal. We then proceed to parsing the complexities of biochemical regulation of ERK in neurons and to a description of a few likely cellular targets of ERK. This is in order,to begin discussing the possible molecular basis of ERK-mediated behavioral change. We close our review with speculations concerning how the complexities and idiosyncrasies of ERK regulation may allow for sophisticated information processing at the biochemical level in neurons-attributes that may make the ERK cascade well-suited for triggering complex and long-lasting behavioral change. Our goal in this review is not so much to portray ERK as unique regarding its role as a signal transducter in memory, but rather to use ERK as one specific example of recent studies beginning to address the molecules and signal transduction pathways subserving cognition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Adams2002,
      author = {Adams, JP and Sweatt, JD},
      title = {Molecular psychology: Roles for the ERK MAP kinase cascade in memory},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {42},
      pages = {135-163}
    }
    
    Addis, M. & Mahalik, J. Men, masculinity, and the contexts of help seeking {2003} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {58}({1}), pp. {5-14} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Research on men's help seeking yields strategies for enhancing men's use of mental and physical health resources. Analysis of the assumptions underlying existing theory and research also provides a context for evaluating the psychology of men and masculinity as an evolving area of social scientific inquiry. The authors identify several theoretical and methodological obstacles that limit understanding of the variable, ways that men do or do not seek help from mental and physical health care professionals. A contextual framework is developed by exploring how the socialization and social construction of masculinities transact with social psychological processes common to a variety of Potential help-seeking contexts. This approach begins to integrate the psychology of men and masculinity with theory and methodology from other disciplines and suggests innovative ways to facilitate adaptive help seeking.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Addis2003,
      author = {Addis, ME and Mahalik, JR},
      title = {Men, masculinity, and the contexts of help seeking},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {58},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5-14},
      doi = {{10.1037/0003-066X.58.1.5}}
    }
    
    ADLER, N. & MATTHEWS, K. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY - WHY DO SOME PEOPLE GET SICK AND SOME STAY WELL {1994} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {45}, pp. {229-259} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ADLER1994,
      author = {ADLER, N and MATTHEWS, K},
      title = {HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY - WHY DO SOME PEOPLE GET SICK AND SOME STAY WELL},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {45},
      pages = {229-259}
    }
    
    Agarwal, R. & Karahanna, E. Time flies when you're having fun: Cognitive absorption and beliefs about information technology usage {2000} MIS QUARTERLY
    Vol. {24}({4}), pp. {665-694} 
    article  
    Abstract: Extant explanations of why users behave in particular ways toward information technologies have tended to focus predominantly on instrumental beliefs as drivers of individual usage intentions. Prior work in individual psychology, however, suggests that holistic experiences with technology as captured in constructs such as enjoyment and flow are potentially important explanatory variables in technology acceptance theories. In this paper, we describe a multi-dimensional construct labeled cognitive absorption and defined as a state of deep involvement with software. Cognitive absorption, theorized as being exhibited through the five dimensions of temporal dissociation, focused immersion, heightened enjoyment, control, and curiosity, is posited to be a proximal antecedent of two important beliefs about technology use: perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. In addition, we propose that the individual traits of playfulness and personal innovativeness are important determinants of cognitive absorption. Based on the conceptual definition of this construct, operational measures for each dimension are developed. Using the World Wide Web as the target technology, scale validation indicates that the operational measures have acceptable psychometric properties and confirmatory factor analysis supports the proposed multi-dimensional structure. Structural equation analysis provides evidence for the theorized nomological net of cognitive absorption. Theoretical and practical implications are offered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Agarwal2000,
      author = {Agarwal, R and Karahanna, E},
      title = {Time flies when you're having fun: Cognitive absorption and beliefs about information technology usage},
      journal = {MIS QUARTERLY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {24},
      number = {4},
      pages = {665-694}
    }
    
    Aguirre, G. & D'Esposito, M. Topographical disorientation: a synthesis and taxonomy {1999} BRAIN
    Vol. {122}({Part 9}), pp. {1613-1628} 
    article  
    Abstract: Over the last century, several dozen case reports have presented `topographically disoriented' patients who, in some cases, appear to have selectively lost their ability to find their way within large-scale, locomotor environments. A review is offered here that has as its aim the creation of a taxonomy that accurately reflects the behavioural impairments and neuroanatomical findings of this literature. This effort is guided by an appreciation of the models of normative way-finding offered by environmental psychology and recent neuroscience research. It is proposed that several varieties of topographical disorientation exist, resulting from damage to distinct neuroanatomical areas. The particular pattern of impairments that patients evidence is argued to be consonant with the known functions of these cortical regions and with recent neuroimaging results. The conflicting claims of previous reviews of this area are also considered and addressed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aguirre1999,
      author = {Aguirre, GK and D'Esposito, M},
      title = {Topographical disorientation: a synthesis and taxonomy},
      journal = {BRAIN},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {122},
      number = {Part 9},
      pages = {1613-1628}
    }
    
    Aguirre, G. & DEsposito, M. Environmental knowledge is subserved by separable dorsal/ventral neural areas {1997} JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {17}({7}), pp. {2512-2518} 
    article  
    Abstract: Environmental psychology models propose that knowledge of large-scale space is stored as distinct landmark (place appearance) and survey (place position) information. Studies of brain-damaged patients suffering from `'topographical disorientation'' tentatively support this proposal. In order to determine if the components of psychologically derived models of environmental representation are realized as distinct functional, neuroanatomical regions, a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of environmental knowledge was performed. During scanning, subjects made judgments regarding the appearance and position of familiar locations within a virtual reality environment. The fMRI data were analyzed in a manner that has been empirically demonstrated to rigorously control type I error and provide optimum sensitivity, allowing meaningful results in the single subject. A direct comparison of the survey position and landmark appearance conditions revealed a dorsal/ventral dissociation in three of four subjects. These results are discussed in the context of the observed forms of topographical disorientation and are found to be in good agreement with the human lesion studies. This experiment confirms that environmental knowledge is not represented by a unitary system but is instead functionally distributed across the neocortex.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aguirre1997,
      author = {Aguirre, GK and DEsposito, M},
      title = {Environmental knowledge is subserved by separable dorsal/ventral neural areas},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {17},
      number = {7},
      pages = {2512-2518}
    }
    
    Airaksinen, O., Brox, J., Cedraschi, C., Hildebrandt, J., Klaber-Moffett, J., Kovacs, F., Mannion, A., Reis, S., Staal, J., Ursin, H., Zanoli, G. & COST B13 Working Grp Guidelines Ch Chapter 4 - European guidelines for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain {2006} EUROPEAN SPINE JOURNAL
    Vol. {15}({Suppl. 2}), pp. {S192-S300} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Summary of the concepts of diagnosis in chronic low back pain (CLBP) Patient assessment Physical examination and case history: The use of diagnostic triage, to exclude specific spinal pathology and nerve root pain, and the assessment of prognostic factors (yellow flags) are recommended. We cannot recommend spinal palpatory tests, soft tissue tests and segmental range of motion or straight leg raising tests (Lasegue) in the diagnosis of nonspecific CLBP. Imaging: We do not recommend radiographic imaging (plain radiography, CT or MRI), bone scanning, SPECT, discography or facet nerve blocks for the diagnosis of nonspecific CLBP unless a specific cause is strongly suspected. MRI is the best imaging procedure for use in diagnosing patients with radicular symptoms, or for those in whom discitis or neoplasm is suspected. Plain radiography is recommended for the assessment of structural deformities. Electromyography: We cannot recommend electromyography for the diagnosis of nonspecific CLBP. Prognostic factors We recommend the assessment of work related factors, psychosocial distress, depressive mood, severity of pain and functional impact, prior episodes of LBP, extreme symptom reporting and patient expectations in the assessment of patients with nonspecific CLBP. Summary of the concepts of treatment of chronic lowback pain (CLBP) Conservative treatments: Cognitive behavioural therapy, supervised exercise therapy, brief educational interventions, and multidisciplinary (bio-psycho-social) treatment can each be recommended for nonspecific CLBP. Back schools (for short-term improvement), and short courses of manipulation/mobilisation can also be considered. The use of physical therapies (heat/cold, traction, laser, ultrasound, short wave, interferential, massage, corsets) cannot be recommended. We do not recommend TENS. Pharmacological treatments: The short term use of NSAIDs and weak opioids can be recommended for pain relief. Noradrenergic or noradrenergic-serotoninergic antidepressants, muscle relaxants and capsicum plasters can be considered for pain relief. We cannot recommend the use of Gabapentin. Invasive treatments: Acupuncture, epidural corticosteroids, intra-articular (facet) steroid injections, local facet nerve blocks, trigger point injections, botulinum toxin, radiofrequency facet denervation, intradiscal radiofrequency lesioning, intradiscal electrothermal therapy, radiofrequency lesioning of the dorsal root ganglion, and spinal cord stimulation cannot be recommended for nonspecific CLBP. Intradiscal injections and prolotherapy are not recommended. Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS) and neuroreflexotherapy can be considered where available. Surgery for nonspecific CLBP cannot be recommended unless 2 years of all other recommended conservative treatments - including multidisciplinary approaches with combined programs of cognitive intervention and exercises - have failed, or such combined programs are not available, and only then in carefully selected patients with maximum 2-level degenerative disc disease. Overarching comments In contrast to acute low back pain, only very few guidelines exist for the management of CLBP. CLBP is not a clinical entity and diagnosis, but rather a symptom in patients with very different stages of impairment, disability and chronicity. Therefore assessment of prognostic factors before treatment is essential. Overall, there is limited positive evidence for numerous aspects of diagnostic assessment and therapy in patients with nonspecific CLBP. In cases of low impairment and disability, simple evidence-based therapies (i.e. exercises, brief interventions, and medication) may be sufficient. No single intervention is likely to be effective in treating the overall problem of CLBP of longer duration and more substantial disability, owing to its multidimensional nature. For most therapeutic procedures, the effect sizes are rather modest. The most promising approaches seem to be cognitive-behavioural interventions encouraging activity/exercise. It is important to get all the relevant players onside and to provide a consistent approach. Summary of recommendations for further research In planning further research in the field of chronic nonspecific low back pain, the following issues/areas requiring particular attention should be considered. Methodology Studies of treatment efficacy/effectiveness should be of high quality, i.e. where possible, in the form of randomised controlled trials. Future studies should include cost-benefit and risk-benefit analyses. General considerations Studies are needed to determine how and by whom interventions are best delivered to specific target groups. More research is required to develop tools to improve the classification and, identification of specific clinical sub-groups of CLBP patients. Good quality RCTs are then needed to determine the effectiveness of specific interventions aimed at these specific risk/target groups. More research is required to develop relevant assessments of physical capacity and functional performance in CLBP patients, in order to better understand the relationship between self-rated disability, physical capacity and physical impairment. For many of the conservative treatments, the optimal number of sessions is unknown; this should be evaluated through cost-utility analyses. Specific treatment modalities Physical therapy Further research is needed to evaluate specific components of treatments commonly used by physical therapists, by comparing their individual and combined use. The combination of certain passive physical treatments for symptomatic pain relief with more ``active'' treatments aimed at reducing disability (e.g. massage, hot packs or TENS together with exercise therapy) should be further investigated. The application of cognitive behavioural principles to physiotherapy in general needs to be evaluated. Exercise therapy The effectiveness of specific types of exercise therapy needs to be further evaluated. This includes the evaluation of spinal stabilisation exercises, McKenzie exercises, and other popular exercise regimens that are often used but inadequately researched. The optimal intensity, frequency and duration of exercise should be further researched, as should the issue of individual versus group exercises. The ``active ingredient'' of exercise programmes is largely unknown; this requires considerably more research, in order to allow the development and promotion of a wider variety of low cost, but effective exercise programmes. The application of cognitive behavioural principles to the prescription of exercises needs to be further evaluated. Back schools, brief education The type of advice and information provided, the method of delivery, and its relative effectiveness all need to be further evaluated, in particular with regard to patient characteristics and baseline beliefs/behaviour. The characteristics of patients who respond particularly well to minimal contact, brief educational interventions should be further researched. Cognitive-behavioural therapy The relative value of different methods within cognitive-behavioural treatment needs to be evaluated. The underlying mechanisms of action should also be examined, in order to identify subgroups of patients who will benefit most from cognitive-behavioural therapy and in whom components of pain persistence need addressing. Promising predictors of outcome of behavioural treatment have been suggested and need further assessment, such as treatment credibility, stages of change, expectations regarding outcome, beliefs (coping resources, fear-avoidance) and catastrophising. The use of cognitive behavioural principles by professionals not trained in clinical psychology should be investigated, to find out how the latter can best be educated to provide an effective outcome. Multidisciplinary therapy. The optimal content of multidisciplinary treatment programmes requires further research. More emphasis should be placed on identifying the right treatment for the right patient, especially in relation to the extensiveness of the multidisciplinary treatment administered. This should be accompanied by cost-benefit analyses. Pharmacological approaches Only very few data exist concerning the use of opioids (especially strong opioids) for the treatment of chronic low back pain. Further RCTs are needed. No studies have examined the effects of long term NSAIDs use in the treatment of chronic low back pain; further studies, including evaluation of function, are urgently required. RCTs on the effectiveness of paracetamol and metamicol (also, in comparison with NSAIDs) are also encouraged. The role of muscle relaxants, especially in relation to longer-term use, is unclear and requires further study. Invasive treatments Patient selection (in particular), procedures, practical techniques and choice of drug all need further research. In particular, more high quality studies are required to examine the effectiveness of acupuncture, nerve blocks, and radiofrequency and electrothermal denervation procedures. Surgery Newly emerging surgical methods should be firstly examined within the confines of high quality randomized controlled trials, in which ``gold standard'' evidence-based conservative treatments serve as the control. Patients with failed back surgery should be systematically analysed in order to identify possible erroneous surgical indications and diagnostic procedures. Methods not able to be recommended It is possible that many of the treatments that `we cannot recommend' in these guidelines (owing to lack of/conflicting, evidence of effectiveness) may indeed prove to be effective, when investigated in high quality randomized controlled trials. Many of these treatment methods are used widely; we therefore encourage the execution of carefully designed studies to establish whether the further use of such methods is justified. Non-responders The treatments recommended in these guidelines are by no means effective for all patients with CLBP. Further research should be directed at characterising the subpopulation of CLBP patients that are not helped by any of the treatments considered in these guidelines.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Airaksinen2006,
      author = {Airaksinen, O and Brox, JI and Cedraschi, C and Hildebrandt, J and Klaber-Moffett, J and Kovacs, F and Mannion, AF and Reis, S and Staal, JB and Ursin, H and Zanoli, G and COST B13 Working Grp Guidelines Ch},
      title = {Chapter 4 - European guidelines for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain},
      journal = {EUROPEAN SPINE JOURNAL},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {15},
      number = {Suppl. 2},
      pages = {S192-S300},
      doi = {{10.1007/s00586-006-1072-1}}
    }
    
    AJZEN, I. ATTITUDES, TRAITS, AND ACTIONS - DISPOSITIONAL PREDICTION OF BEHAVIOR IN PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1987} ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {20}, pp. {1-63} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{AJZEN1987,
      author = {AJZEN, I},
      title = {ATTITUDES, TRAITS, AND ACTIONS - DISPOSITIONAL PREDICTION OF BEHAVIOR IN PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {20},
      pages = {1-63}
    }
    
    Akerlof, G. & Kranton, R. Economics and identity {2000} QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS
    Vol. {115}({3}), pp. {715-753} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper considers how identity, a person's sense of self, affects economic outcomes. We incorporate the psychology and sociology of identity into an economic model of behavior. In the utility function we propose, identity is associated with different social categories and how people in these categories should behave. We then construct a simple game-theoretic model showing how identity can affect individual interactions. The paper adapts these models to gender discrimination in the workplace, the economics of poverty and social exclusion, and the household division of labor. In each case, the inclusion of identity substantively changes conclusions of previous economic analysis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Akerlof2000,
      author = {Akerlof, GA and Kranton, RE},
      title = {Economics and identity},
      journal = {QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {115},
      number = {3},
      pages = {715-753}
    }
    
    Allison, P., Locker, D. & Feine, J. Quality of life: A dynamic construct {1997} SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE
    Vol. {45}({2}), pp. {221-230} 
    article  
    Abstract: The principle of Einstein's theory of special relativity is that an observer of an apparently moving body cannot be sure if the body really has moved, if he/she has moved or if both events have occurred. Although Einstein was discussing physical events, a similar hypothesis may apply to quality of life. When using quality of life instruments, one presumes that the point of reference (the observer in Einstein's terms) does not move, i.e. that an individual's attitude towards a particular construct will remain stable. Otherwise, changes in response to particular variables cannot be interpreted. However, attitudes are not constant: they vary with time and experience and are modified by such psychological phenomena as adaptation, coping, expectancy, optimism, self-control and self-concept. For example, eating problems may be extremely important at one point in a person's life. However, when oral discomfort has been diagnosed as cancer and treated with surgery or radiation, the same individual may `'objectively'' demonstrate more problems when eating, but report them as less because they have now become relatively unimportant. Furthermore, paradoxical reports that some groups of ill individuals rate their quality of life higher than do `'healthy'' persons raise similar questions concerning between-group point of reference differences. Investigators in the fields of organisational management, education and psychology have developed techniques such as `'then ratings'', saliency indicators and individualised questionnaires in attempts to quantify within-subject variability and between-group differences pertaining to point of reference; We suggest that similar methods may help us to measure change in the impact of the different items of quality of life instruments; In this paper, we will describe the theories of change associated with quality of life measurement. In addition, we will present evidence suggesting that the point of reference does change, the reasons for this and possible solutions to the problem. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Allison1997,
      author = {Allison, PJ and Locker, D and Feine, JS},
      title = {Quality of life: A dynamic construct},
      journal = {SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {45},
      number = {2},
      pages = {221-230}
    }
    
    AMABILE, T. THE SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF CREATIVITY - A COMPONENTIAL CONCEPTUALIZATION {1983} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {45}({2}), pp. {357-376} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{AMABILE1983,
      author = {AMABILE, TM},
      title = {THE SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF CREATIVITY - A COMPONENTIAL CONCEPTUALIZATION},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {45},
      number = {2},
      pages = {357-376}
    }
    
    AMABILE, T. SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF CREATIVITY - A CONSENSUAL ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUE {1982} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {43}({5}), pp. {997-1013} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{AMABILE1982,
      author = {AMABILE, TM},
      title = {SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF CREATIVITY - A CONSENSUAL ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUE},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {43},
      number = {5},
      pages = {997-1013}
    }
    
    AMABILE, T., HILL, K., HENNESSEY, B. & TIGHE, E. THE WORK PREFERENCE INVENTORY - ASSESSING INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATIONAL ORIENTATIONS {1994} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {66}({5}), pp. {950-967} 
    article  
    Abstract: The Work Preference inventory (WPI) is designed to assess individual differences in intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations. Both the college student and the working adult versions aim to capture the major elements of intrinsic motivation (self-determination, competence, task involvement, curiosity, enjoyment, and interest) and extrinsic motivation (concems with competition, evaluation, recognition, money or other tangible incentives, and constraint by others). The instrument is scored on two primary scales, each subdivided into 2 secondary scales. The WPI has meaningful factor structures, adequate internal consistency, good short-term test-retest reliability, and good longer term stability. Moreover, WPI scores are related in meaningful ways to other questionnaire and behavioral measures of motivation, as well as personality characteristics, attitudes, and behaviors.
    BibTeX:
    @article{AMABILE1994,
      author = {AMABILE, TM and HILL, KG and HENNESSEY, BA and TIGHE, EM},
      title = {THE WORK PREFERENCE INVENTORY - ASSESSING INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATIONAL ORIENTATIONS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {66},
      number = {5},
      pages = {950-967}
    }
    
    AMBADY, N. & ROSENTHAL, R. HALF A MINUTE - PREDICTING TEACHER EVALUATIONS FROM THIN SLICES OF NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR AND PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS {1993} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {64}({3}), pp. {431-441} 
    article  
    Abstract: The accuracy of strangers' consensual judgments of personality based on `'thin slices'' of targets' nonverbal behavior were examined in relation to an ecologically valid criterion variable. In the 1st study, consensual judgments of college teachers' molar nonverbal behavior based on very brief (under 30 s) silent video clips significantly predicted global end-of-semester student evaluations of teachers. In the 2nd study, similar judgments predicted a principal's ratings of high school teachers. In the 3rd study, ratings of even thinner slices (6-s and 15-s clips) were strongly related to the criterion variables. Ratings of specific micrononverbal behaviors and ratings of teachers' physical attractiveness were not as strongly related to the criterion variable. These findings have important implications for the areas of personality judgment, impression formation, and nonverbal behavior.
    BibTeX:
    @article{AMBADY1993,
      author = {AMBADY, N and ROSENTHAL, R},
      title = {HALF A MINUTE - PREDICTING TEACHER EVALUATIONS FROM THIN SLICES OF NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR AND PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {64},
      number = {3},
      pages = {431-441}
    }
    
    AMBADY, N. & ROSENTHAL, R. THIN SLICES OF EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR AS PREDICTORS OF INTERPERSONAL CONSEQUENCES - A METAANALYSIS {1992} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {111}({2}), pp. {256-274} 
    article  
    Abstract: A meta-analysis was conducted on the accuracy of predictions of various objective outcomes in the areas of social and clinical psychology from short observations of expressive behavior (under 5 min). The overall effect size (r) for the accuracy of predictions for 38 different results was .39. Studies using longer periods of behavioral observation did not yield greater predictive accuracy; predictions based on observations under 1/2 min in length did not differ significantly from predictions based on 4- and 5-min observations. The type of behavioral channel (such as the face, speech, the body, tone of voice) on which the ratings were based was not related to the accuracy of predictions. Accuracy did not vary significantly between behaviors manipulated in a laboratory and more naturally occurring behavior. Last, effect sizes did not differ significantly for predictions in the areas of clinical psychology, social psychology, and the accuracy of detecting deception.
    BibTeX:
    @article{AMBADY1992,
      author = {AMBADY, N and ROSENTHAL, R},
      title = {THIN SLICES OF EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR AS PREDICTORS OF INTERPERSONAL CONSEQUENCES - A METAANALYSIS},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {111},
      number = {2},
      pages = {256-274}
    }
    
    Amodio, D. & Frith, C. Meeting of minds: the medial frontal cortex and social cognition {2006} NATURE REVIEWS NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {7}({4}), pp. {268-277} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Social interaction is a cornerstone of human life, yet the neural mechanisms underlying social cognition are poorly understood. Recently, research that integrates approaches from neuroscience and social psychology has begun to shed light on these processes, and converging evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests a unique role for the medial frontal cortex. We review the emerging literature that relates social cognition to the medial frontal cortex and, on the basis of anatomical and functional characteristics of this brain region, propose a theoretical model of medial frontal cortical function relevant to different aspects of social cognitive processing.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Amodio2006,
      author = {Amodio, DM and Frith, CD},
      title = {Meeting of minds: the medial frontal cortex and social cognition},
      journal = {NATURE REVIEWS NEUROSCIENCE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {7},
      number = {4},
      pages = {268-277},
      doi = {{10.1038/nrn1884}}
    }
    
    Andreasen, N. Linking mind and brain in the study of mental illnesses: A project for a scientific psychopathology {1997} SCIENCE
    Vol. {275}({5306}), pp. {1586-1593} 
    article  
    Abstract: Brain research on mental illnesses has made substantial advances in recent years, supported by conceptual and technological developments in cognitive neuroscience. Brain-based cognitive models of illnesses such as schizophrenia and depression have been tested with a variety of techniques, including the lesion method, tract tracing, neuroimaging, animal modeling, single-cell recording, electrophysiology, neuropsychology, and experimental cognitive psychology. A relatively sophisticated picture is emerging that conceptualizes mental illnesses as disorders of mind arising in the brain. Convergent data using multiple neuroscience techniques indicate that the neural mechanisms of mental illnesses can be understood as dysfunctions in specific neural circuits and that their functions and dysfunctions can be influenced or altered by a variety of cognitive and pharmacological factors.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Andreasen1997,
      author = {Andreasen, NC},
      title = {Linking mind and brain in the study of mental illnesses: A project for a scientific psychopathology},
      journal = {SCIENCE},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {275},
      number = {5306},
      pages = {1586-1593}
    }
    
    ANDREWS, D., BONTA, J. & HOGE, R. CLASSIFICATION FOR EFFECTIVE REHABILITATION - REDISCOVERING PSYCHOLOGY {1990} CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {17}({1}), pp. {19-52} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ANDREWS1990,
      author = {ANDREWS, DA and BONTA, J and HOGE, RD},
      title = {CLASSIFICATION FOR EFFECTIVE REHABILITATION - REDISCOVERING PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND BEHAVIOR},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {17},
      number = {1},
      pages = {19-52}
    }
    
    Andrews, K., Murphy, L., Munday, R. & Littlewood, C. Misdiagnosis of the vegetative state: Retrospective study in a rehabilitation unit {1996} BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL
    Vol. {313}({7048}), pp. {13-16} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective-To identify the number of patients who were misdiagnosed as being in the vegetative state and their characteristics. Design-Retrospective study of the clinical records of the medical, occupational therapy, and clinical psychology departments. Setting-20 bed unit specialising in the rehabilitation of patients with profound brain damage, including the vegetative state. Subjects-40 patients admitted between 1992 and 1995 with a referral diagnosis of vegetative state. Outcome measures-Patients who showed an ability to communicate consistently using eye pointing or a touch sensitive single switch buzzer. Results-Of the 40 patients referred as being in the vegetative state, 17 (43 were considered as having been misdiagnosed; seven of these had been presumed to be vegetative for longer than one year, including three for over four years. Most of the misdiagnosed patients were blind or severely visually impaired. All patients remained severely physically disabled, but nearly all were able to communicate their preference in quality of life issues-some to a high level. Conclusions-The vegetative state needs considerable skill to diagnose, requiring assessment over a period of time; diagnosis cannot be made, even by the most experienced clinician, from a bedside assessment. Accurate diagnosis is possible but requires the skills of a multidisciplinary team experienced in the management of people with complex disabilities. Recognition of awareness is essential if an optimal quality of life is to be achieved and to avoid inappropriate approaches to the courts for a declaration for withdrawal of tube feeding.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Andrews1996,
      author = {Andrews, K and Murphy, L and Munday, R and Littlewood, C},
      title = {Misdiagnosis of the vegetative state: Retrospective study in a rehabilitation unit},
      journal = {BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {313},
      number = {7048},
      pages = {13-16}
    }
    
    ARKES, H. COSTS AND BENEFITS OF JUDGMENT ERRORS - IMPLICATIONS FOR DEBIASING {1991} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {110}({3}), pp. {486-498} 
    article  
    Abstract: Some authors questioned the ecological validity of judgmental biases demonstrated in the laboratory. One objection to these demonstrations is that evolutionary pressures would have rendered such maladaptive behaviors extinct if they had any impact in the ``real world.'' I attempt to show that even beneficial adaptations may have costs. I extend this argument to propose three types of judgment errors-strategy-based errors, association-based errors, and psychophysical based errors-each of which is a cost of a highly adaptive system. This taxonomy of judgment behaviors is used to advance hypotheses as to which debiasing techniques are likely to succeed in each category.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ARKES1991,
      author = {ARKES, HR},
      title = {COSTS AND BENEFITS OF JUDGMENT ERRORS - IMPLICATIONS FOR DEBIASING},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {110},
      number = {3},
      pages = {486-498}
    }
    
    ARKES, H. & BLUMER, C. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SUNK COST {1985} ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES
    Vol. {35}({1}), pp. {124-140} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ARKES1985,
      author = {ARKES, HR and BLUMER, C},
      title = {THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SUNK COST},
      journal = {ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {35},
      number = {1},
      pages = {124-140}
    }
    
    ARNOULD, E. & PRICE, L. RIVER MAGIC - EXTRAORDINARY EXPERIENCE AND THE EXTENDED SERVICE ENCOUNTER {1993} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH
    Vol. {20}({1}), pp. {24-45} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article explores the provision of extraordinary hedonic experiences on commercial, multiday river rafting trips in the Colorado River basin. White water river rafting provides a dramatic illustration of some of the complex features of delivering an extraordinary experience. Multiple methods were employed over two years of data collection to articulate the lived meaning of this experience from both the guides' and the consumers' perspectives. Robust quantitative measures were developed from rich qualitative data. Participant observation and interview data enriched the interpretation of quantitative results. Experiential themes of personal growth and self-renewal, `'communitas,'' and harmony with nature are evidenced across the data; they evolve and are woven together over the course of the trip. Together they are significant in explaining overall satisfaction. There is a complex relationship between client expectations and satisfaction. The narrative of the ratting experience rather than relationships between expectations and outcomes is shown to be central to its evaluation. Implications for other services and consumption activities are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ARNOULD1993,
      author = {ARNOULD, EJ and PRICE, LL},
      title = {RIVER MAGIC - EXTRAORDINARY EXPERIENCE AND THE EXTENDED SERVICE ENCOUNTER},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {20},
      number = {1},
      pages = {24-45}
    }
    
    ARROW, K. RISK PERCEPTION IN PSYCHOLOGY AND ECONOMICS {1982} ECONOMIC INQUIRY
    Vol. {20}({1}), pp. {1-9} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ARROW1982,
      author = {ARROW, KJ},
      title = {RISK PERCEPTION IN PSYCHOLOGY AND ECONOMICS},
      journal = {ECONOMIC INQUIRY},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {20},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-9}
    }
    
    Astin, J. Why patients use alternative medicine - Results of a national study {1998} JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
    Vol. {279}({19}), pp. {1548-1553} 
    article  
    Abstract: Context.-Research both in the United States and abroad suggests that significant numbers of people are involved with various forms of alternative medicine. However, the reasons for such use are, at present, poorly understood. Objective.-To investigate possible predictors of alternative health care use. Methods.-Three primary hypotheses were tested. People seek out these alternatives because (1) they are dissatisfied in some way with conventional treatment; (2) they see alternative treatments as offering more personal autonomy and control over health care decisions; and (3) the alternatives are seen as more compatible with the patients' values, worldview, or beliefs regarding the nature and meaning of health and illness. Additional predictor variables explored included demographics and health status. Design.-A written survey examining use of alternative health care, health status, values, and attitudes toward conventional medicine. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used in an effort to identify predictors of alternative health care use. Setting and Participants.-A total of 1035 individuals randomly selected from a panel who had agreed to participate in mail surveys and who live throughout the United States. Main Outcome Measure.-Use of alternative medicine within the previous year. Results.-The response rate was 69 The following variables emerged as predictors of alternative health care use: more education (odds ratio [OR], 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.3); poorer health status (OR, 1.3, 95% CI, 1.1-1.5); a holistic orientation to health (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9); having had a transformational experience that changed the person's worldview (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.5); any of the following health problems: anxiety (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.6-6.0); back problems (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.7-3.2); chronic pain (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5); urinary tract problems (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.5); and classification in a cultural group identifiable by their commitment to environmentalism, commitment to feminism, and interest in spirituality and personal growth psychology (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.7). Dissatisfaction with conventional medicine did not predict use of alternative medicine. Only 4.4% of those surveyed reported relying primarily on alternative therapies. Conclusion.-Along with being more educated and reporting poorer health status, the majority of alternative medicine users appear to be doing so not so much as a result of being dissatisfied with conventional medicine but largely because they find these health care alternatives to be more congruent with their own values, beliefs, and philosophical orientations toward health and life.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Astin1998,
      author = {Astin, JA},
      title = {Why patients use alternative medicine - Results of a national study},
      journal = {JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {279},
      number = {19},
      pages = {1548-1553}
    }
    
    Austin, J. & Vancouver, J. Goal constructs in psychology: Structure, process, and content {1996} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {120}({3}), pp. {338-375} 
    article  
    Abstract: Goals and related constructs are ubiquitous in psychological research and span the history of psychology. Research on goals has accumulated sporadically through research programs in cognition, personality, and motivation. Goals are defined as internal representations of desired states. In this article, the authors review the theoretical development of the structure and properties of goals, goal establishment and striving processes, and goal-content taxonomies. They discuss affect as antecedent, consequence, and content of goals and argue for integrating across psychological content areas to study goal-directed cognition and action more efficiently. They emphasize the structural and dynamic aspects of pursuing multiple goals, parallel processing, and the parsimony provided by the goal construct. Finally, they advocate construct validation of a taxonomy of goals.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Austin1996,
      author = {Austin, JT and Vancouver, JB},
      title = {Goal constructs in psychology: Structure, process, and content},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {120},
      number = {3},
      pages = {338-375}
    }
    
    Baddeley, A. Recent developments in working memory {1998} CURRENT OPINION IN NEUROBIOLOGY
    Vol. {8}({2}), pp. {234-238} 
    article  
    Abstract: Research on the visual and verbal subsystems of working memory has shown vigorous development, with PET, fMRI and behavioural data all supporting separate systems, with further fractionation being likely. Analysis of executive processes is revealing a range of subprocesses, providing a very fruitful field for the interaction of cognitive psychology, neuropsychology and functional imaging.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baddeley1998,
      author = {Baddeley, A},
      title = {Recent developments in working memory},
      journal = {CURRENT OPINION IN NEUROBIOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {234-238}
    }
    
    BAGBY, R., PARKER, J. & TAYLOR, G. THE 20-ITEM TORONTO-ALEXITHYMIA-SCALE .1. ITEM SELECTION AND CROSS-VALIDATION OF THE FACTOR STRUCTURE {1994} JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC RESEARCH
    Vol. {38}({1}), pp. {23-32} 
    article  
    Abstract: Addressing shortcomings of the self-report Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), two studies were conducted to reconstruct the item domain of the scale. The first study resulted in the development of a new twenty-item version of the scale-the TAS-20. The TAS-20 demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and a three-factor structure theoretically congruent with the alexithymia construct. The stability and replicability of this three-factor structure were demonstrated in the second study with both clinical and nonclinical populations by the use of confirmatory factor analysis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BAGBY1994,
      author = {BAGBY, RM and PARKER, JDA and TAYLOR, GJ},
      title = {THE 20-ITEM TORONTO-ALEXITHYMIA-SCALE .1. ITEM SELECTION AND CROSS-VALIDATION OF THE FACTOR STRUCTURE},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC RESEARCH},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {38},
      number = {1},
      pages = {23-32}
    }
    
    BALDWIN, M. RELATIONAL SCHEMAS AND THE PROCESSING OF SOCIAL INFORMATION {1992} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {112}({3}), pp. {461-484} 
    article  
    Abstract: It has long been one of the grand ideas in psychology that people internalize their relationships with significant others, which influences their experience of subsequent relationships and their sense of self. Recent work in social cognition has largely neglected the impact of internally represented interpersonal information, however, with researchers choosing instead to focus on the perception of self and other persons in isolation. After a review of relevant theoretical models, it is proposed that research could profitably examine people's relational schemas, defined as cognitive structures representing regularities in patterns of interpersonal relatedness. The elements of a relational schema include an interpersonal script for the interaction pattern, a self-schema for how self is experienced in that interpersonal situation, and a schema for the other person in the interaction. Research strategies are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BALDWIN1992,
      author = {BALDWIN, MW},
      title = {RELATIONAL SCHEMAS AND THE PROCESSING OF SOCIAL INFORMATION},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {112},
      number = {3},
      pages = {461-484}
    }
    
    Baltes, M. & Carstensen, L. The process of successful ageing {1996} AGEING AND SOCIETY
    Vol. {16}({Part 4}), pp. {397-422} 
    article  
    Abstract: As increasingly more people experience old age as a time of growth and productivity, theoretical attention to successful ageing is needed. In this paper, we overview historical, societal and philosophical evidence for a deep, long-standing ambivalence about human ageing that has influenced even scientific views of old age. In recent years, however, discussion of the psychological and behavioural processes people use to maintain and reach new goals in late life has gained momentum. We contribute to this discussion the metamodel of selective optimisation with compensation, developed by Baltes and Baltes. The model is a metamodel that attempts to represent scientific knowledge about the nature of development and ageing with the focus on successful adaptation. The model takes gains and losses jointly into account, pays attention to the great heterogeneity in ageing and successful ageing, and views successful mastery of goals in the face of losses endemic to advanced age as the result of the interplay of the three processes, selection, compensation, and optimisation. We review evidence from the biological and social science literatures for each component and discuss new research avenues to study the interaction of the three processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baltes1996,
      author = {Baltes, MM and Carstensen, LL},
      title = {The process of successful ageing},
      journal = {AGEING AND SOCIETY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {16},
      number = {Part 4},
      pages = {397-422}
    }
    
    BALTES, P. THEORETICAL PROPOSITIONS OF LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENTAL-PSYCHOLOGY - ON THE DYNAMICS BETWEEN GROWTH AND DECLINE {1987} DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {23}({5}), pp. {611-626} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BALTES1987,
      author = {BALTES, PB},
      title = {THEORETICAL PROPOSITIONS OF LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENTAL-PSYCHOLOGY - ON THE DYNAMICS BETWEEN GROWTH AND DECLINE},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {23},
      number = {5},
      pages = {611-626}
    }
    
    BALTES, P., REESE, H. & LIPSITT, L. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENTAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1980} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {31}, pp. {65-110} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BALTES1980,
      author = {BALTES, PB and REESE, HW and LIPSITT, LP},
      title = {LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENTAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {31},
      pages = {65-110}
    }
    
    Baltes, P. & Staudinger, U. Wisdom - A metaheuristic (pragmatic) to orchestrate mind and virtue toward excellence {2000} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {55}({1}), pp. {122-135} 
    article  
    Abstract: The primary, focus of this article is on the presentation of wisdom research conducted under the heading of the Berlin wisdom paradigm. Informed by a cultural-historical analysis, wisdom in this paradigm is defined as an expert knowledge system concerning the fundamental pragmatics of life. These include knowledge and judgment about the meaning and conduct of life and the orchestration of human development toward excellence while attending conjointly to personal and collective well-being. Measurement includes think-aloud protocols concerning various problems of life associated with life planning, life management, ann life review. Responses are evaluated with reference to a family of 5 criteria: rich factual and procedural knowledge, lifespan contextualism, relativism of values and life priorities, and recognition and management of uncertainty,. A series of studies is reported that aim to describe, explain, and optimize wisdom. The authors conclude with a new theoretical perspective that characterizes wisdom? as a cognitive and motivational metaheuristic (pragmatic) that organizes and orchestrates knowledge toward human excellence in mind and virtue, both individually and collectively.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baltes2000,
      author = {Baltes, PB and Staudinger, UM},
      title = {Wisdom - A metaheuristic (pragmatic) to orchestrate mind and virtue toward excellence},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {55},
      number = {1},
      pages = {122-135}
    }
    
    Baltes, P., Staudinger, U. & Lindenberger, U. Lifespan psychology: Theory and application to intellectual functioning {1999} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {50}, pp. {471-507} 
    article  
    Abstract: The focus of this review is on theory and research of lifespan (lifespan developmental) psychology. The theoretical analysis integrates evolutionary and ontogenetic perspectives on cultural and human development across several levels of analysis. Specific predictions are advanced dealing with the general architecture of lifespan ontogeny, including its directionality and age-differential allocation of developmental resources into the three major goals of developmental adaptation: growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss. Consistent with this general lifespan architecture, a meta-theory of development is outlined that is based on the orchestrated and adaptive interplay between three processes of behavioral regulation: selection, optimization, and compensation. Finally, these propositions and predictions about the general nature of lifespan development are examined and supported by empirical evidence on the development of cognition and intelligence across the life span.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baltes1999,
      author = {Baltes, PB and Staudinger, UM and Lindenberger, U},
      title = {Lifespan psychology: Theory and application to intellectual functioning},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {50},
      pages = {471-507}
    }
    
    Bandura, A. Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective {2001} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {52}, pp. {1-26} 
    article  
    Abstract: The capacity to exercise control over the nature and quality of one's life is the essence of humanness. Human agency is characterized by a number of core features that operate through phenomenal and functional consciousness. These include the temporal extension of agency through intentionality and forethought, self-regulation by self-reactive influence, and self-reflectiveness about one's capabilities, quality of functioning, and the meaning and purpose of one's life pursuits. Personal agency operates within a broad network of sociostructural influences. In these agentic transactions, people are producers as well. as products of social systems. Social cognitive theory distinguishes among three modes of agency: direct personal agency, proxy agency that relies on others to act on one's behest to secure desired outcomes, and collective agency exercised through socially coordinative and interdependent effort. Growing transnational embeddedness and interdependence are placing a premium on collective efficacy to exercise control over personal destinies and national life.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bandura2001,
      author = {Bandura, A},
      title = {Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {52},
      pages = {1-26}
    }
    
    BANDURA, A. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CHANCE ENCOUNTERS AND LIFE PATHS {1982} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {37}({7}), pp. {747-755} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BANDURA1982,
      author = {BANDURA, A},
      title = {THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CHANCE ENCOUNTERS AND LIFE PATHS},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {37},
      number = {7},
      pages = {747-755}
    }
    
    Barberis, N., Huang, M. & Santos, T. Prospect theory and asset prices {2001} QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS
    Vol. {116}({1}), pp. {1-53} 
    article  
    Abstract: We study asset prices in an economy where investors derive direct utility not only from consumption but also from fluctuations in the value of their financial wealth. They are loss averse over these fluctuations, and the degree of loss aversion depends on their prior investment performance. We find that our framework can help explain the high mean, excess volatility, and predictability of stock returns, as well as their low correlation with consumption growth. The design of our model is influenced by prospect theory and by experimental evidence on how prior outcomes affect risky choice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barberis2001,
      author = {Barberis, N and Huang, M and Santos, T},
      title = {Prospect theory and asset prices},
      journal = {QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {116},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-53}
    }
    
    Bargh, J. & Ferguson, M. Beyond behaviorism: On the automaticity of higher mental processes {2000} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {126}({6, Sp. Iss. SI}), pp. {925-945} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The first 100 years of experimental psychology were dominated by 2 major schools of thought: behaviorism and cognitive science. Here the authors consider the common philosophical commitment to determinism by both schools, and how the radical behaviorists' thesis of the determined nature of higher mental processes is being pursued today in social cognition research on automaticity, in harmony with ``dual process'' models in contemporary cognitive science, which equate determined processes with those that are automatic and which require no intervening conscious choice or guidance, as opposed to ``controlled'' processes which do, the social cognition research on the automaticity of higher mental processes provides compelling evidence for the determinism of those processes. This research has revealed that social interaction, evaluation and judgment, and the operation of internal goal structures can all proceed without the intervention of conscious acts of will and guidance of the process.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bargh2000,
      author = {Bargh, JA and Ferguson, MJ},
      title = {Beyond behaviorism: On the automaticity of higher mental processes},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {126},
      number = {6, Sp. Iss. SI},
      pages = {925-945},
      doi = {{10.1037//0033-2909.126.6.925}}
    }
    
    Baruch, Y. Response rate in academic studies - A comparative analysis {1999} HUMAN RELATIONS
    Vol. {52}({4}), pp. {421-438} 
    article  
    Abstract: A study was conducted to explore what could and should be a reasonable response rate in academic studies. One hundred and forty-one papers which included 175 different studies were examined. They were published in the Academy of Management Journal, Human Relations, Journal of Applied Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, and Journal of International Business Studies in the years 1975, 1985, and 1995, covering about 200,000 respondents. The average response rate was 55.6 with a standard deviation of 19.7. Variations among the journals such as the year of publication and other variables were discussed. Most notable is the decline through the years (average 48.4, standard deviation of 20.1, in 1995), the lower level found in studies involving top management or organizational representatives (average 36.1, standard deviation of 13.3), and the predominance of North American studies. It is suggested that the average and standard deviation found in this study should be used as a norm for future studies, bearing in mind the specific reference group. It is also recommended that a distinction is made between surveys directed at individual participants and those targeting organizational representatives.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baruch1999,
      author = {Baruch, Y},
      title = {Response rate in academic studies - A comparative analysis},
      journal = {HUMAN RELATIONS},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {52},
      number = {4},
      pages = {421-438}
    }
    
    Batchelder, W. & Riefer, D. Theoretical and empirical review of multinomial process tree modeling {1999} PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW
    Vol. {6}({1}), pp. {57-86} 
    article  
    Abstract: We review a current and popular class of cognitive models called multinomial processing tree (MPT) models. MPT models are simple, substantively motivated statistical models that can be applied to categorical data. They are useful as data-analysis tools for measuring underlying or latent cognitive capacities and as simple models for representing and testing competing psychological theories. We formally describe the cognitive structure and parametric properties of the class of MPT models and provide an inferential statistical analysis for the entire class. Following this, we provide a comprehensive review of over 80 applications of MPT models to a variety of substantive areas in cognitive psychology, including various types of human memory, visual and auditory perception, and logical reasoning. We then address a number of theoretical issues relevant to the creation and evaluation of MPT models, including model development, model validity, discrete-state assumptions, statistical issues, and the relation between MPT models and other mathematical models. In the conclusion, we consider the current role of MPT models in psychological research and possible future directions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Batchelder1999,
      author = {Batchelder, WH and Riefer, DM},
      title = {Theoretical and empirical review of multinomial process tree modeling},
      journal = {PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {57-86}
    }
    
    BATEMAN, T. & CRANT, J. THE PROACTIVE COMPONENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL-BEHAVIOR - A MEASURE AND CORRELATES {1993} JOURNAL OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {14}({2}), pp. {103-118} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study investigated a personal disposition toward proactive behavior, defined as the relatively stable tendency to effect environmental change. We developed an initial scale to assess the construct and administered it to a sample of 282 undergraduates. Factor analysis led to a revised, unidimensional scale with sound psychometric properties. A second sample of 130 undergraduate students was used to determine the relationships between the proactive scale and the `Big Five' personality domains: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. In a third sample of 148 MBA students, we assessed the proactive scale's relationships with three personality traits and three criterion measures. Consistent with hypotheses, scores on the proactive scale correlated with need for achievement, need for dominance, and independent measures of the nature of subjects' extracurricular and civic activities, the nature of their major personal achievements, and peer nominations of transformational leaders. We discuss the potential of the proactive construct to enhance our understanding of, and ability to predict, a wide range of behaviors.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BATEMAN1993,
      author = {BATEMAN, TS and CRANT, JM},
      title = {THE PROACTIVE COMPONENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL-BEHAVIOR - A MEASURE AND CORRELATES},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {14},
      number = {2},
      pages = {103-118}
    }
    
    Baumeister, R. & Heatherton, T. Self-regulation failure: An overview {1996} PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY
    Vol. {7}({1}), pp. {1-15} 
    article  
    Abstract: The major patterns of self-regulatory failure are reviewed. Underregulation occurs because of deficient standards, inadequate monitoring, or inadequate strength. Misregulation occurs because of false assumptions or misdirected efforts, especially an unwarranted emphasis on emotion. The evidence supports a strength (limited resource) model of self-regulation and suggests that people often acquiesce in losing control. Loss of control of attention, failure of transcendence, and various lapse-activated causes all contribute to regulatory failure.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baumeister1996,
      author = {Baumeister, RF and Heatherton, TF},
      title = {Self-regulation failure: An overview},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-15}
    }
    
    Bergman, L. & Magnusson, D. A person-oriented approach in research on developmental psychopathology {1997} DEVELOPMENT AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
    Vol. {9}({2}), pp. {291-319} 
    article  
    Abstract: There is a growing acceptance of a holistic, interactionistic view in which the individual is seen as an organized whole, functioning and developing as a totality. This view emphasizes the importance of patterns of operating factors, Within this framework. a standard variable-oriented approach, focusing on the variable as the main theoretical and analytical unit. has limitations. A person-oriented approach would often be preferable, where the main theoretical ana analytical unit is the specific pattern of operating factors. Such an approach is presented here. focusing on individual development and psychopathology. A brief theoretical and methodological overview is given and a classification approach is emphasized. Empirical examples concerning the longitudinal study of adjustment problems illustrate a number of issues believed to be important to development and psychopathology: problem gravitation, the significance of single variables and oi patterns, the developmental study of syndromes (=typical patterns). and the detection of ``white spots'' in development.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bergman1997,
      author = {Bergman, LR and Magnusson, D},
      title = {A person-oriented approach in research on developmental psychopathology},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENT AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {9},
      number = {2},
      pages = {291-319}
    }
    
    Berntson, G., Bigger, J., Eckberg, D., Grossman, P., Kaufmann, P., Malik, M., Nagaraja, H., Porges, S., Saul, J., Stone, P. & VanderMolen, M. Heart rate variability: Origins, methods, and interpretive caveats {1997} PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY
    Vol. {34}({6}), pp. {623-648} 
    article  
    Abstract: Components of heart rate variability have attracted considerable attention in psychology and medicine and have become important dependent measures in psychophysiology and behavioral medicine. Quantification and interpretation of heart rate variability, however, remain complex issues and are fraught with pitfalls. The present report (a) examines the physiological origins and mechanisms of heart rate variability, (b) considers quantitative approaches to measurement, and (c) highlights important caveats in the interpretation of heart rate variability. Summary guidelines for research in this area are outlined, and suggestions and prospects for future developments are considered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Berntson1997,
      author = {Berntson, GG and Bigger, JT and Eckberg, DL and Grossman, P and Kaufmann, PG and Malik, M and Nagaraja, HN and Porges, SW and Saul, JP and Stone, PH and VanderMolen, MW},
      title = {Heart rate variability: Origins, methods, and interpretive caveats},
      journal = {PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {34},
      number = {6},
      pages = {623-648}
    }
    
    Berry, J. Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation {1997} APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY-AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW-PSYCHOLOGIE APPLIQUEE-REVUE INTERNATIONALE
    Vol. {46}({1}), pp. {5-34} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cross-cultural psychology has demonstrated important links between cultural context and individual behavioural development. Given this relationship, cross-cultural research has increasingly investigated what happens to individuals who have developed in one cultural context when they attempt to re-establish their lives in another one. The long-term psychological consequences of this process of acculturation are highly variable, depending on social and personal variables that reside in the society of origin, the society of settlement, and phenomena that both exist prior to, and arise during, the course of acculturation. This article outlines a conceptual framework within which acculturation and adaptation can be investigated, and then presents some general findings and conclusions based on a sample of empirical studies. Applications to public policy and programmes are proposed, along with a consideration of the social and psychological costs and benefits of adopting a pluralist and integrationist orientation to these issues.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Berry1997,
      author = {Berry, JW},
      title = {Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation},
      journal = {APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY-AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW-PSYCHOLOGIE APPLIQUEE-REVUE INTERNATIONALE},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {46},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5-34}
    }
    
    BETANCOURT, H. & LOPEZ, S. THE STUDY OF CULTURE, ETHNICITY, AND RACE IN AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGY {1993} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {48}({6}), pp. {629-637} 
    article  
    Abstract: The study of culture and related concepts, such as ethnicity and race, in American psychology are examined in this article. First the conceptual confusion and ways in which culture, ethnicity, and race are used as explanatory factors for intergroup differences in psychological phenomena are discussed. Second, ways in which to study culture in mainstream psychology and to enhance hypothesis testing and theory in cross-cultural psychology are illustrated. Finally, the importance of examining sociocultural variables and considering theory in ethnic minority research is addressed. In general, it is proposed that by including theory, conceptualizing, and measuring cultural and related variables, mainstream, cross-cultural, and ethnic research can advance the understanding of culture in psychology as well as the generality of principles and the cultural sensitivity of applications.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BETANCOURT1993,
      author = {BETANCOURT, H and LOPEZ, SR},
      title = {THE STUDY OF CULTURE, ETHNICITY, AND RACE IN AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {48},
      number = {6},
      pages = {629-637}
    }
    
    Birch, S. & Ladd, G. The teacher-child relationship and children's early school adjustment {1997} JOURNAL OF SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {35}({1}), pp. {61-79} 
    article  
    Abstract: The teacher-child relationship may serve important support functions for young children in their attempts to adjust to the school environment A sample of kindergarten children (N = 206, mean age = 5.58 years) and their teachers participated in the present study, which was designed to examine how three distinct features of the teacher-child relationship (closeness, dependency, and conflict) were related to various aspects of children's school adjustment Dependency in the teacher-child relationship emerged as a strong correlate of school adjustment difficulties, including poorer academic performance, more negative school attitudes, and less positive engagement with the school environment. In addition, teacher-rated conflict was associated with teachers' ratings of children's school liking, school avoidance, self-directedness, and cooperative participation in the classroom. Finally, teacher-child closeness was positively linked with children's academic performance, as well as teachers' ratings of school liking and self-directedness. The findings highlight the importance of considering various features of children's relationships with classroom teachers when examining young children's school adjustment. (C) 1997 Society for the Study of School Psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Birch1997,
      author = {Birch, SH and Ladd, GW},
      title = {The teacher-child relationship and children's early school adjustment},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {35},
      number = {1},
      pages = {61-79}
    }
    
    Bishop, D., North, T. & Donlan, C. Nonword repetition as a behavioural marker for inherited language impairment: Evidence from a twin study {1996} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {37}({4}), pp. {391-403} 
    article  
    Abstract: The Children's Nonword Repetition Test (CNRep) was given to 39 children with persistent language impairment (LI), 13 with a history of having received speech-language therapy (resolved LI), and 79 controls, all aged from 7 to 9 years. The children with LI were twins who had participated in a previous genetic study. Children with resolved LI, as well as those with persistent LI, were significantly impaired on the CNRep. Comparisons of MZ and DZ twins indicated significant heritability of a CNRep deficit. It is concluded that CNRep provides a marker of the phenotype of heritable forms of developmental language impairment. Copyright (C) 1996 Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bishop1996,
      author = {Bishop, DVM and North, T and Donlan, C},
      title = {Nonword repetition as a behavioural marker for inherited language impairment: Evidence from a twin study},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {37},
      number = {4},
      pages = {391-403}
    }
    
    BLOCK, J. ISSUES, PROBLEMS, AND PITFALLS IN ASSESSING SEX-DIFFERENCES - CRITICAL-REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY OF SEX-DIFFERENCES {1976} MERRILL-PALMER QUARTERLY-JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {22}({4}), pp. {283-308} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BLOCK1976,
      author = {BLOCK, JH},
      title = {ISSUES, PROBLEMS, AND PITFALLS IN ASSESSING SEX-DIFFERENCES - CRITICAL-REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY OF SEX-DIFFERENCES},
      journal = {MERRILL-PALMER QUARTERLY-JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1976},
      volume = {22},
      number = {4},
      pages = {283-308}
    }
    
    BOCK, J. TOWARD A COGNITIVE-PSYCHOLOGY OF SYNTAX - INFORMATION-PROCESSING CONTRIBUTIONS TO SENTENCE FORMULATION {1982} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {89}({1}), pp. {1-47} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BOCK1982,
      author = {BOCK, JK},
      title = {TOWARD A COGNITIVE-PSYCHOLOGY OF SYNTAX - INFORMATION-PROCESSING CONTRIBUTIONS TO SENTENCE FORMULATION},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {89},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-47}
    }
    
    BOISSY, A. FEAR AND FEARFULNESS IN ANIMALS {1995} QUARTERLY REVIEW OF BIOLOGY
    Vol. {70}({2}), pp. {165-191} 
    article  
    Abstract: Persistence of individual differences in animal behavior in reactions to various environmental challenges could reflect basic divergences in temperament, which might be used to predict details of adaptive response. Although studies have been carried out on fear and anxiety in various species, including laboratory, domestic and wild animals, no consistent definition of fearfulness as a basic trait of temperament has emerged. After a classification of the events that may produce a state of fear, this article describes the great variability in behavior and in physiological patterns generally associated with emotional reactivity. The difficulties of proposing fearfulness - the general capacity to react to a variety of potentially threatening situations - as a valid basic internal variable are then discussed. Although there are many studies showing covariation among the psychobiological responses to different environmental challenges, other studies find no such correlations and raise doubts about the interpretation of fearfulness as a basic personality trait. After a critical assessment of methodologies used in fear and anxiety studies, it is suggested that discrepancies among results are mainly due to the modulation of emotional responses in animals, which depend on numerous genetic and epigenetic factors. It is difficult to compare results obtained by different methods from animals reared under various conditions and with different genetic origins. The concept of fearfulness as an inner trait is best supported by two kinds of investigations. First, an experimental approach combining ethology and experimental psychology produces undeniable indicators of emotional reactivity. Second, genetic lines selected for psychobiological traits prove useful in establishing relationships between behavioral and neuroendocrine aspects of emotional reactivity. It is suggested that fearfulness could be considered a basic feature of the temperament of each individual, one that predisposes it to respond similarly to a variety of potentially alarming challenges, but is nevertheless continually modulated during development by the interaction of genetic traits of reactivity with environmental factors, particularly in the juvenile period. Such interaction may explain much of the interindividual variability observed in adaptive responses.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BOISSY1995,
      author = {BOISSY, A},
      title = {FEAR AND FEARFULNESS IN ANIMALS},
      journal = {QUARTERLY REVIEW OF BIOLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {70},
      number = {2},
      pages = {165-191}
    }
    
    Bonanno, G. Loss, trauma, and human resilience - Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? {2004} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {59}({1}), pp. {20-28} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Many people are exposed to loss or potentially traumatic events at some point in their, lives, and yet they continue to have positive emotional experiences and show only minor and transient disruptions in their ability to function. Unfortunately, because much of psychology's knowledge about how adults cope with loss or trauma has come from individuals who sought treatment or exhibited great distress, loss and trauma theorists have often viewed this type of resilience as either rare or pathological. The author challenges these assumptions by, reviewing evidence that resilience represents:a distinct trajectory from the process of recovery, that resilience in the face of loss or potential trauma is more common than is often believed, and that there are multiple and sometimes unexpected pathways to resilience.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bonanno2004,
      author = {Bonanno, GA},
      title = {Loss, trauma, and human resilience - Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events?},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {59},
      number = {1},
      pages = {20-28},
      doi = {{10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.20}}
    }
    
    Bond, R. & Smith, P. Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch's (1952b, 1956) Line judgment task {1996} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {119}({1}), pp. {111-137} 
    article  
    Abstract: A meta-analysis of conformity studies using an Asch-type line judgment task (1952b, 1956) was conducted to investigate whether the level of conformity has changed over time and whether it is related cross-culturally to individualism-collectivism. The literature search produced 133 studies drawn from 17 countries. An analysis of U.S. studies found that conformity has declined since the 1950s. Results from 3 surveys were used to assess a country's individualism-collectivism, and for each survey the measures were found to be significantly related to conformity. Collectivist countries tended to show higher levels of conformity than individualist countries. Conformity research must attend more to cultural variables and to their role in the processes involved in social influence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bond1996,
      author = {Bond, R and Smith, PB},
      title = {Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch's (1952b, 1956) Line judgment task},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {119},
      number = {1},
      pages = {111-137}
    }
    
    Bonta, J., Law, M. & Hanson, K. The prediction of criminal and violent recidivism among mentally disordered offenders: A meta-analysis {1998} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {123}({2}), pp. {123-142} 
    article  
    Abstract: A meta-analysis was conducted to examine whether the predictors of recidivism for mentally disordered offenders are different from the predictors for nondisordered offenders. Effect sizes were calculated for 35 predictors of general recidivism and 27 predictors of violent recidivism drawn from 64 unique samples. The results showed that the major predictors of recidivism were the same for mentally disordered offenders as for nondisordered offenders. Criminal history variables were the best predictors, and clinical variables showed the smallest effect sizes. The findings suggest that the. risk assessment of mentally disordered offenders can be enhanced with more attention to the social psychological criminological literature and less reliance on models of psychopathology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bonta1998,
      author = {Bonta, J and Law, M and Hanson, K},
      title = {The prediction of criminal and violent recidivism among mentally disordered offenders: A meta-analysis},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {123},
      number = {2},
      pages = {123-142}
    }
    
    BORGEN, F. & BARNETT, D. APPLYING CLUSTER-ANALYSIS IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH {1987} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {34}({4}), pp. {456-468} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BORGEN1987,
      author = {BORGEN, FH and BARNETT, DC},
      title = {APPLYING CLUSTER-ANALYSIS IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {34},
      number = {4},
      pages = {456-468}
    }
    
    BOSLEY, C., FOSBURY, J. & COCHRANE, G. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL-FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH POOR COMPLIANCE WITH TREATMENT IN ASTHMA {1995} EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL
    Vol. {8}({6}), pp. {899-904} 
    article  
    Abstract: Poor patient compliance with inhaled medication is known to cause morbidity and mortality in asthma, The reasons for nonadherence are not fully understood, We wondered whether psychological factors, such as patient attitudes to asthma and its treatment, anxiety, depression, and interpersonal problems, may be related to asthma self-care and compliance. In a prospective study, 102 patients with asthma, aged 18-70 yrs, requiring treatment with regular inhaled corticosteroids and beta-agonists were recruited from a hospital out-patient clinic and four general practices in South East London, They underwent psychological assessment using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP), and a semi-structured interview focusing on patient attitudes, self-care, compliance, social support and treatment beliefs, Patients were given terbutaline and budesonide turbohalers to use twice daily over 12 weeks, Turbohaler Inhalation Computers (TICs) recorded each inhalation, providing a measurement of compliance. Seventy two patients completed the study, Thirty seven took less than 70% of the prescribed dose over the study period or omitted doses for 1 week and were defined as noncompliant, The noncompliant group had a higher mean (so) score for depression (4.7 (3.3)) than the compliant group (3.2 (2.5)), The sample had a high mean (so) score for anxiety (8.3 (4.4)), but there was no significant difference between the compliant and noncompliant groups, Patients' self-report and clinicians' impressions of compliance were not good predictors of actual compliance, Using discriminant analysis, a model was obtained from the questionnaires and interview items, which correctly classified 74% of the patients as compliant or noncompliant. The study indicates that noncompliance is associated with a complex mix of psychosocial factors. Further investigation into these psychological factors and the possible usefulness of psychological intervention to improve compliance is suggested.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BOSLEY1995,
      author = {BOSLEY, CM and FOSBURY, JA and COCHRANE, GM},
      title = {THE PSYCHOLOGICAL-FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH POOR COMPLIANCE WITH TREATMENT IN ASTHMA},
      journal = {EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {8},
      number = {6},
      pages = {899-904}
    }
    
    Bouchard, T. & Loehlin, J. Genes, evolution, and personality {2001} BEHAVIOR GENETICS
    Vol. {31}({3}), pp. {243-273} 
    article  
    Abstract: There is abundant evidence, some of it reviewed in this paper, that personality traits are substantially influenced by the genes. Much remains to be understood about how and why this is the case. We argue that placing the behavior genetics of personality in the context of epidemiology, evolutionary psychology, and neighboring psychological domains such as interests and attitudes should help lead to new insights. We suggest that important methodological advances, such as measuring traits from multiple viewpoints, using large samples, and analyzing data by modern multivariate techniques, have already led to major changes in our view of such perennial puzzles as the role of ``unshared environment'' in personality. In the long run, but not yet, approaches via molecular genetics and brain physiology may also make decisive contributions to understanding the heritability of personality traits. We conclude that the behavior genetics of personality is alive and flourishing but that there remains ample scope for new growth and that much social science research is seriously compromised if it does not incorporate genetic variation in its explanatory models.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bouchard2001,
      author = {Bouchard, TJ and Loehlin, JC},
      title = {Genes, evolution, and personality},
      journal = {BEHAVIOR GENETICS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {31},
      number = {3},
      pages = {243-273}
    }
    
    BOWERS, K. SITUATIONISM IN PSYCHOLOGY - ANALYSIS AND A CRITIQUE {1973} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {80}({5}), pp. {307-336} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BOWERS1973,
      author = {BOWERS, KS},
      title = {SITUATIONISM IN PSYCHOLOGY - ANALYSIS AND A CRITIQUE},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1973},
      volume = {80},
      number = {5},
      pages = {307-336}
    }
    
    BOYACIGILLER, N. & ADLER, N. THE PAROCHIAL DINOSAUR - ORGANIZATIONAL SCIENCE IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT {1991} ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW
    Vol. {16}({2}), pp. {262-290} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BOYACIGILLER1991,
      author = {BOYACIGILLER, NA and ADLER, NJ},
      title = {THE PAROCHIAL DINOSAUR - ORGANIZATIONAL SCIENCE IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT},
      journal = {ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {16},
      number = {2},
      pages = {262-290},
      note = {MEETING OF THE ACADEMY OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS, TORONTO, CANADA, NOV, 1990}
    }
    
    BRADLEY, M. & LANG, P. MEASURING EMOTION - THE SELF-ASSESSMENT MANNEQUIN AND THE SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL {1994} JOURNAL OF BEHAVIOR THERAPY AND EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {25}({1}), pp. {49-59} 
    article  
    Abstract: The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) is a non-verbal pictorial assessment technique that directly measures the pleasure, arousal, and dominance associated with a person's affective reaction to a wide variety of stimuli. In this experiment, we compare reports of affective experience obtained using SAM, which requires only three simple judgments, to the Semantic Differential scale devised by Mehrabian and Russell (An approach to environmental psychology, 1974) which requires 18 different ratings. Subjective reports were measured to a series of pictures that varied in both affective valence and intensity. Correlations across the two rating methods were high both for reports of experienced pleasure and felt arousal. Differences obtained in the dominance dimension of the two instruments suggest that SAM may better track the personal response to an affective stimulus. SAM is an inexpensive, easy method for quickly assessing reports of affective response in many contexts.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BRADLEY1994,
      author = {BRADLEY, MM and LANG, PJ},
      title = {MEASURING EMOTION - THE SELF-ASSESSMENT MANNEQUIN AND THE SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF BEHAVIOR THERAPY AND EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {25},
      number = {1},
      pages = {49-59}
    }
    
    Bradley, R., Corwyn, R., McAdoo, H. & Coll, C. The home environments of children in the United States part I: Variations by age, ethnicity, and poverty status {2001} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {72}({6}), pp. {1844-1867} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although measures of the home environment have gained wide acceptance in the child development literature, what constitutes the ``average'' or ``typical'' home environment in the United States, and how this differs across ethnic groups and poverty status is not known. Item-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on four age-related versions of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment-Short Form (HOME-SF) from five biennial assessments (1986-1994) were analyzed for the total sample and for four major ethnic groups. European Americans, Asian Americans, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans. The percentages of homes receiving credit on each item of all four versions of the HOME-SF are described. For the majority of items at all four age levels differences between poor and nonpoor families were noted. Differences were also obtained among African American, European American, and Hispanic American families, but the magnitude of the effect for poverty status was greater than for ethnicity, and usually absorbed most of the ethnic group effects on HOME-SF items. For every item at every age, the effects of poverty were proportional across European American, African American, and Hispanic American groups.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bradley2001,
      author = {Bradley, RH and Corwyn, RF and McAdoo, HP and Coll, CG},
      title = {The home environments of children in the United States part I: Variations by age, ethnicity, and poverty status},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {72},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1844-1867}
    }
    
    BRANDTSTADTER, J. & GREVE, W. THE AGING SELF - STABILIZING AND PROTECTIVE PROCESSES {1994} DEVELOPMENTAL REVIEW
    Vol. {14}({1}), pp. {52-80} 
    article  
    Abstract: The transition from middle to later adulthood involves a multitude of changes and losses on physical, psychological, and social levels that impose considerable strain on the individual's construction of self and personal continuity. Widespread assumptions which relate psychological aging to reduced well-being, loss of control, and problems of self-esteem, however, have received astonishingly little empirical support. Recent evidence rather gives testimony to a considerable resourcefulness and adaptive flexibility of the aging self. The present article attempts to lend further substance to this emerging picture of psychological aging. It is argued that preservation and stabilization of a positive view of self and personal development in later life basically involve three functionally interdependent processes: (a) instrumental and compensatory activities that aim at preventing or alleviating losses in domains which are relevant to self-esteem and identity; (b) accommodative changes and readjustments of personal goals and aspirations, which dampen or neutralize negative self-evaluations; (c) immunizing mechanisms, which mitigate the impact of self-discrepant evidence. (C) 1994 Academic Press, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BRANDTSTADTER1994,
      author = {BRANDTSTADTER, J and GREVE, W},
      title = {THE AGING SELF - STABILIZING AND PROTECTIVE PROCESSES},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL REVIEW},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {14},
      number = {1},
      pages = {52-80}
    }
    
    BRANSCOMBE, N. & WANN, D. COLLECTIVE SELF-ESTEEM CONSEQUENCES OF OUTGROUP DEROGATION WHEN A VALUED SOCIAL IDENTITY IS ON TRIAL {1994} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {24}({6}), pp. {641-657} 
    article  
    Abstract: A structural equation model tested the role of degree of identification with a group (Americans) and level of collective self-esteem as determinations of outgroup derogation under identify-threatening and non-threatening conditions. High identification and reductions in collective self-esteem following a threat to that identify lead to outgroup derogation, but level of collective self-esteem did not predict outgroup derogation in the no-threat condition. The consequences of derogating both threat-relevant (Russians) and threat-irrelevant nationalities for subsequent self-esteem were assessed. As predicted by social identify theory, higher amounts of derogation of the threat-relevant outgroup in the identity-threatened condition elevated subsequent collective self-esteem. Derogation of threat-irrelevant outgroups did not have this positive esteem consequence; in fact, increased derogation of irrelevant outgroups reduced subsequent self-esteem. In the no-threat condition, amount of derogation directed towards either type of outgroup did not significantly influence subsequent self-esteem, with the overall pattern being opposite to what was observed in the threat condition. Implications for theories concerning self-processes as instigators of outgroup derogation and the consequences of intergroup comparisons for collective self-esteem are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BRANSCOMBE1994,
      author = {BRANSCOMBE, NR and WANN, DL},
      title = {COLLECTIVE SELF-ESTEEM CONSEQUENCES OF OUTGROUP DEROGATION WHEN A VALUED SOCIAL IDENTITY IS ON TRIAL},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {24},
      number = {6},
      pages = {641-657}
    }
    
    BRECKLER, S. APPLICATIONS OF COVARIANCE STRUCTURE MODELING IN PSYCHOLOGY - CAUSE FOR CONCERN {1990} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {107}({2}), pp. {260-273} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BRECKLER1990,
      author = {BRECKLER, SJ},
      title = {APPLICATIONS OF COVARIANCE STRUCTURE MODELING IN PSYCHOLOGY - CAUSE FOR CONCERN},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {107},
      number = {2},
      pages = {260-273}
    }
    
    Brennan, T., Rothman, D., Blank, L., Blumenthal, D., Chimonas, S., Cohen, J., Goldman, J., Kassirer, J., Kimball, H., Naughton, J. & Smelser, N. Health industry practices that create conflicts of interest - A policy proposal for academic medical centers {2006} JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
    Vol. {295}({4}), pp. {429-433} 
    article  
    Abstract: Conflicts of interest between physicians' commitment to patient care and the desire of pharmaceutical companies and their representatives to sell their products pose challenges to the principles of medical professionalism. These conflicts occur when physicians have motives or are in situations for which reasonable observers could conclude that the moral requirements of the physician's roles are or will be compromised. Although physician groups, the manufacturers, and the federal government have instituted self-regulation of marketing, research in the psychology and social science of gift receipt and giving indicates that current controls will not satisfactorily protect the interests of patients. More stringent regulation is necessary, including the elimination or modification of common practices related to small gifts, pharmaceutical samples, continuing medical education, funds for physician travel, speakers bureaus, ghostwriting, and consulting and research contracts. We propose a policy under which academic medical centers would take the lead in eliminating the conflicts of interest that still characterize the relationship between physicians and the health care industry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brennan2006,
      author = {Brennan, TA and Rothman, DJ and Blank, L and Blumenthal, D and Chimonas, SC and Cohen, JJ and Goldman, J and Kassirer, JP and Kimball, H and Naughton, J and Smelser, N},
      title = {Health industry practices that create conflicts of interest - A policy proposal for academic medical centers},
      journal = {JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {295},
      number = {4},
      pages = {429-433}
    }
    
    Brestan, E. & Eyberg, S. Effective psychosocial treatments of conduct-disordered children and adolescents: 29 years, 82 studies, and 5,272 kids {1998} JOURNAL OF CLINICAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {27}({2}), pp. {180-189} 
    article  
    Abstract: Reviews psychosocial interventions for child and adolescent conduct problems, including oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, to identify empirically supported treatments. Eighty-two controlled research studies were evaluated using the criteria developed by the Division 12 (Clinical Psychology) Task Force an Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. The 82 studies were also examined for specific participant, treatment, and methodological characteristics to describe the treatment literature for child and adolescent conduct problems. Two interventions were identified that met the stringent criteria for well-established treatments. videotape modeling parent training program (Spaccarelli, Cotler, & Penman, 1992; Webster-Stratton, 1984, 1994) and parent-training programs based on Patterson and Gullion's (1968) manual Living With Children (Alexander & Parsons, 1973; Bernal, Klinnert, & Schultz, 1980, Wiltz & Patterson, 1974). Twenty of the 82 studies were identified as supporting the efficacy of probably efficacious treatments.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brestan1998,
      author = {Brestan, EV and Eyberg, SM},
      title = {Effective psychosocial treatments of conduct-disordered children and adolescents: 29 years, 82 studies, and 5,272 kids},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {27},
      number = {2},
      pages = {180-189},
      note = {104th Annual Conference of the American-Psychological-Association, TORONTO, CANADA, AUG 09-13, 1996}
    }
    
    Brewer, M. The psychology of prejudice: Ingroup love or outgroup hate? {1999} JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES
    Vol. {55}({3}), pp. {429-444} 
    article  
    Abstract: Allport (1954) recognized that attachment to one's ingroups does not necessarily require hostility toward outgroups. Yet the prevailing approach to the study of ethnocentrism, ingroup bias, and prejudice presumes that ingroup love and outgroup hate are reciprocally related. Findings from both cross-cultural research and laboratory experiments support the alternative view that ingroup identification is independent of negative attitudes toward outgoups and that much ingroup bias and intergroup discrimination is motivated by preferential treatment of ingroup members rather than direct hostility toward outgroup members. Thus to understand the roots of prejudice and discrimination requires first of all a better understanding of the functions that ingroup formation and identification serve for human beings. This article reviews research anal theory on the motivations for maintenance of ingroup boundaries and the implications of ingroup boundary protection for intergroup relations, conflict, and conflict prevention.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brewer1999,
      author = {Brewer, MB},
      title = {The psychology of prejudice: Ingroup love or outgroup hate?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {55},
      number = {3},
      pages = {429-444},
      note = {Gordon W Allport Centennial Symposium on Prejudice and Intergroup Relations, CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS, OCT 31, 1997}
    }
    
    BREWER, M. & KRAMER, R. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF INTERGROUP ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR {1985} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {36}, pp. {219-243} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BREWER1985,
      author = {BREWER, MB and KRAMER, RM},
      title = {THE PSYCHOLOGY OF INTERGROUP ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {36},
      pages = {219-243}
    }
    
    BROCKNER, J. THE ESCALATION OF COMMITMENT TO A FAILING COURSE OF ACTION - TOWARD THEORETICAL PROGRESS {1992} ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW
    Vol. {17}({1}), pp. {39-61} 
    article  
    Abstract: Escalating commitment (or escalation) refers to the tendency for decision makers to persist with failing courses of action. The present article first reviews evidence suggesting that escalation is determined, at least in part, by decision makers' unwillingness to admit that their prior allocation of resources to the chosen course of action was in vain (the self-justification explanation). A distinction is drawn in the second part of the article between alternative (to self-justification) explanations of escalating commitment: Some are designed to replace self-justification, whereas others are intended to supplement self-justification, that is, to add explanatory power beyond that which can be accounted for by self-justification. There is little evidence that the replacement theories provide a better explanation than does self-justification; however, theories designed to supplement self-justification are likely to lead to a more complete explanation. The article concludes by describing several research strategies that may lead to progress in explaining escalating commitment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BROCKNER1992,
      author = {BROCKNER, J},
      title = {THE ESCALATION OF COMMITMENT TO A FAILING COURSE OF ACTION - TOWARD THEORETICAL PROGRESS},
      journal = {ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {17},
      number = {1},
      pages = {39-61}
    }
    
    BROWN, S. & STAYMAN, D. ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF ATTITUDE TOWARD THE AD - A METAANALYSIS {1992} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH
    Vol. {19}({1}), pp. {34-51} 
    article  
    Abstract: A meta-analysis of pairwise relationships involving attitude toward the ad was conducted. Analyses of correlations across studies are first analyzed and reported. Because significant variance across studies was found, moderator analyses were conducted to account for interstudy variance. The results suggest a number of methodological variables that moderate the strengths of relationships found in studies of ad attitudes. Analyses were also conducted to assess the robustness of the dual-mediation path model of the effects of ad attitudes. Results indicate support for the model as well as a more important role for the indirect influence of ad attitudes on brand attitudes (via brand cognitions) than that found in previous model tests.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BROWN1992,
      author = {BROWN, SP and STAYMAN, DM},
      title = {ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF ATTITUDE TOWARD THE AD - A METAANALYSIS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {19},
      number = {1},
      pages = {34-51}
    }
    
    BURGE, T. INDIVIDUALISM AND PSYCHOLOGY {1986} PHILOSOPHICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {95}({1}), pp. {3-45} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BURGE1986,
      author = {BURGE, T},
      title = {INDIVIDUALISM AND PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {PHILOSOPHICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {95},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-45}
    }
    
    BURKE, M., BRIEF, A. & GEORGE, J. THE ROLE OF NEGATIVE AFFECTIVITY IN UNDERSTANDING RELATIONS BETWEEN SELF-REPORTS OF STRESSORS AND STRAINS - A COMMENT ON THE APPLIED-PSYCHOLOGY LITERATURE {1993} JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {78}({3}), pp. {402-412} 
    article  
    Abstract: On the basis of a brief review of the health, organizational, and personality psychology literatures supportive of the expectation that observed relations between self-reports of stressors and strains are influenced by the mood-dispositional dimension negative affectivity (NA), reanalyses of four data sets were conducted. The results of these reanalyses, contrary to the assertions of several authors in the applied psychology literature, offered further support for the hypothesized `'nuisance'' properties of NA in studies involving relations between self-reports of stressors and strain. A discussion of how NA and other mood-dispositional dimensions may be of interest to investigators concerned with relations between self-reports of any condition of employment and any affective state of workers is presented.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BURKE1993,
      author = {BURKE, MJ and BRIEF, AP and GEORGE, JM},
      title = {THE ROLE OF NEGATIVE AFFECTIVITY IN UNDERSTANDING RELATIONS BETWEEN SELF-REPORTS OF STRESSORS AND STRAINS - A COMMENT ON THE APPLIED-PSYCHOLOGY LITERATURE},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {78},
      number = {3},
      pages = {402-412}
    }
    
    BUSEMEYER, J. & TOWNSEND, J. DECISION FIELD-THEORY - A DYNAMIC COGNITIVE APPROACH TO DECISION-MAKING IN AN UNCERTAIN ENVIRONMENT {1993} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {100}({3}), pp. {432-459} 
    article  
    Abstract: Decision field theory provides for a mathematical foundation leading to a dynamic, stochastic theory of decision behavior in an uncertain environment. This theory is used to explain (a) violations of stochastic dominance, (b) violations of strong stochastic transitivity, (c) violations of independence between alternatives, (d) serial position effects on preference, (e) speed-accuracy tradeoff effects in decision making, (f) the inverse relation between choice probability and decision time, (g) changes in the direction of preference under time pressure, (h) slower decision times for avoidance as compared with approach conflicts, and (i) preference reversals between choice and selling price measures of preference. The proposed theory is compared with 4 other theories of decision making under uncertainty
    BibTeX:
    @article{BUSEMEYER1993,
      author = {BUSEMEYER, JR and TOWNSEND, JT},
      title = {DECISION FIELD-THEORY - A DYNAMIC COGNITIVE APPROACH TO DECISION-MAKING IN AN UNCERTAIN ENVIRONMENT},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {100},
      number = {3},
      pages = {432-459}
    }
    
    BUSS, D. EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY - A NEW PARADIGM FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE {1995} PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY
    Vol. {6}({1}), pp. {1-30} 
    article  
    Abstract: Psychological science is currently in conceptual disarray, characterized by unconnected mini-theories and isolated empirical findings. We lack a theory of the functional properties of the human mind that could provide the needed integration-a theory about what the mechanisms of mind are `'designed'' to do. Evolutionary psychology provides the conceptual tools for emerging from this fragmented state. In this target article, I outline the fundamental premises of evolutionary psychology; illustrate the application of evolutionary psychology to domains such as reasoning, social exchange, language, aggression, jealousy, sex, and status; and then consider the implications of evolutionary psychology for the key branches of social, personality, developmental, and cognitive psychology and suggest ways in which these disciplinary boundaries can be transcended. I conclude by looking at the emergence of evolutionary psychology as our field matures into the 21st century.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BUSS1995,
      author = {BUSS, DM},
      title = {EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY - A NEW PARADIGM FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-30}
    }
    
    BUSS, D. EVOLUTIONARY PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY {1991} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {42}, pp. {459-491} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BUSS1991,
      author = {BUSS, DM},
      title = {EVOLUTIONARY PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {42},
      pages = {459-491}
    }
    
    Buss, D., Haselton, M., Shackelford, T., Bleske, A. & Wakefield, J. Adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels {1998} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {53}({5}), pp. {533-548} 
    article  
    Abstract: Adaptation and natural selection are central concepts in the emerging science of evolutionary psychology: Natural selection is the only blown causal process capable of producing complex functional organic mechanisms. These adaptations, along with their incidental by-products and a residue of noise, comprise all forms of life. Recently, S. J. Gould (1991) proposed that exaptations and spandrels may be more important than adaptations for evolutionary psychology. These refer to features that did not originally arise for their current use but rather were co-opted for new purposes. He suggested that many important phenomena-such as art, language, commerce, and war-although evolutionary in origin, are incidental spandrels of the large human brain. The authors outline the conceptual and evidentiary standards that apply to adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels and discuss the relative utility of these concepts for psychological science.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Buss1998,
      author = {Buss, DM and Haselton, MG and Shackelford, TK and Bleske, AL and Wakefield, JC},
      title = {Adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {53},
      number = {5},
      pages = {533-548}
    }
    
    BUSS, D., LARSEN, R., WESTEN, D. & SEMMELROTH, J. SEX-DIFFERENCES IN JEALOUSY - EVOLUTION, PHYSIOLOGY, AND PSYCHOLOGY {1992} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {3}({4}), pp. {251-255} 
    article  
    Abstract: In species with internal female fertilization, males risk both lowered paternity probability and investment in rival gametes if their mates have sexual contact with other males. Females of such species do not risk lowered maternity probability through partner infidelity, but they do risk the diversion of their mates' commitment and resources to rival females. Three studies tested the hypothesis that sex differences in jealousy emerged in humans as solutions to the respective adaptive problems faced by each sex. In Study 1, men and women selected which event would upset them more-a partner's sexual infidelity or emotional infidelity. Study 2 recorded physiological responses (heart rate, electrodermal response, corrugator supercilii contraction) while subjects imagined separately the two types of partner infidelity. Study 3 tested the effect of being in a committed sexual relationship on the activation of jealousy. All studies showed large sex differences, confirming hypothesized sex linkages in jealousy activation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BUSS1992,
      author = {BUSS, DM and LARSEN, RJ and WESTEN, D and SEMMELROTH, J},
      title = {SEX-DIFFERENCES IN JEALOUSY - EVOLUTION, PHYSIOLOGY, AND PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {3},
      number = {4},
      pages = {251-255}
    }
    
    BUSS, D. & SCHMITT, D. SEXUAL STRATEGIES THEORY - AN EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE ON HUMAN MATING {1993} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {100}({2}), pp. {204-232} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article proposes a contextual-evolutionary theory of human mating strategies. Both men and women are hypothesized to have evolved distinct psychological mechanisms that underlie short-term and long-term strategies. Men and women confront different adaptive problems in short-term as opposed to long-term mating contexts. Consequently, different mate preferences become activated from their strategic repertoires. Nine key hypotheses and 22 predictions from Sexual Strategies Theory are outlined and tested empirically. Adaptive problems sensitive to context include sexual accessibility, fertility assessment, commitment seeking and avoidance, immediate and enduring resource procurement, paternity certainty, assessment of mate value, and parental investment. Discussion summarizes 6 additional sources of behavioral data, outlines adaptive problems common to both sexes, and suggests additional contexts likely to cause shifts in mating strategy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BUSS1993,
      author = {BUSS, DM and SCHMITT, DP},
      title = {SEXUAL STRATEGIES THEORY - AN EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE ON HUMAN MATING},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {100},
      number = {2},
      pages = {204-232}
    }
    
    Byrne, R. & Russon, A. Learning by imitation: A hierarchical approach {1998} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {21}({5}), pp. {667+} 
    article  
    Abstract: To explain social learning without invoking the cognitively complex concept of imitation, many learning mechanisms have been proposed. Borrowing an idea used routinely in cognitive psychology, we argue that most of these alternatives can be subsumed under a single process, priming, in which input increases the activation of stored internal representations. Imitation itself has generally been seen as a ``speciaI faculty'' This has diverted much research towards the all-or-none question of whether an animal can imitate, with disappointingly inconclusive results. In the great apes, however, voluntary learned behaviour is organized hierarchically. This means that imitation can occur at various levers, of which we single out two clearly distinct ones: the ``action level,'' a rather detailed and linear specification of sequential acts, and the ``program level,'' a broader description of subroutine structure and the hierarchical layout of a behavioural ``program.'' Program level imitation is a high-level, constructive mechanism, adapted for the efficient learning of complex skills and thus not evident in the simple manipulations used to test for imitation in the laboratory. As examples, we describe the food preparation techniques of wild mountain gorillas and the imitative behaviour of orangutans undergoing ``rehabilitation'' to the wild. Representing and manipulating relations between objects seems to be one basic building block in their hierarchical programs. There is evidence that great apes suffer from a stricter capacity limit than humans in the hierarchical depth of planning. We re-interpret some chimpanzee behaviour previously described as ``emulation'' and suggest that all great apes may be able to imitate at the program level. Action level imitation is seldom observed in great ape skill learning, and may have a largely social role, even in humans.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Byrne1998,
      author = {Byrne, RW and Russon, AE},
      title = {Learning by imitation: A hierarchical approach},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {21},
      number = {5},
      pages = {667+}
    }
    
    Cabeza, R. Hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults: The HAROLD model {2002} PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING
    Vol. {17}({1}), pp. {85-100} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: A model of the effects of aging on brain activity during cognitive performance is introduced. The model is called HAROLD (hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults), and it states that, under similar circumstances, prefrontal activity during cognitive performances tends to be less lateralized in older adults than in younger adults. The model is supported by functional neuroimaging and other evidence in the domains of episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, perception, and inhibitory control. Age-related hemispheric asymmetry reductions may have a compensatory function or they may reflect a dedifferentiation process. They may have a cognitive or neural origin, and they may reflect regional or network mechanisms. The HAROLD model is a cognitive neuroscience model that integrates ideas and findings from psychology and neuroscience of aging.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cabeza2002,
      author = {Cabeza, R},
      title = {Hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults: The HAROLD model},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {17},
      number = {1},
      pages = {85-100},
      doi = {{10.1037//0882-7974.17.1.85}}
    }
    
    Caggiula, A., Donny, E., White, A., Chaudhri, N., Booth, S., Gharib, M., Hoffman, A., Perkins, K. & Sved, A. Cue dependency of nicotine self-administration and smoking {2001} PHARMACOLOGY BIOCHEMISTRY AND BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {70}({4}), pp. {515-530} 
    article  
    Abstract: A paradox exists regarding the reinforcing properties of nicotine. The abuse liability associated with smoking equals or exceeds that of other addictive drugs, yet the euphoric, reinforcing and other psychological effects of nicotine, compared to these other drugs, are more subtle, are manifest under more restricted conditions, and do not readily predict the difficulty most smokers experience in achieving abstinence. One possible resolution to this apparent inconsistency is that environmental cues associated with drug delivery become conditioned reinforcers and take on powerful incentive properties that are critically important for sustaining smoking in humans and nicotine self-administration in animals. We tested this hypothesis by using a widely employed self-administration paradigm in which rats press a lever at high rates for 1 h/day to obtain intravenous infusions of nicotine that are paired with two types of visual stimuli: a chamber light that when turned on signals drug availability and a 1-s cue light that signals drug delivery. We show that these visual cues are at least as important as nicotine in sustaining a high rate of responding once self-administration has been established, in the degree to which withdrawing nicotine extinguishes the behavior, and in the reinstatement of lever pressing after extinction. Additional studies demonstrated that the importance of these cues was manifest under both fixed ratio and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. The possibility that nicotine-paired cues are as important as nicotine in smoking behavior should refocus our attention on the psychology and neurobiology of conditioned reinforcers in order to stimulate the development of more effective treatment programs for smoking cessation. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Caggiula2001,
      author = {Caggiula, AR and Donny, EC and White, AR and Chaudhri, N and Booth, S and Gharib, MA and Hoffman, A and Perkins, KA and Sved, AF},
      title = {Cue dependency of nicotine self-administration and smoking},
      journal = {PHARMACOLOGY BIOCHEMISTRY AND BEHAVIOR},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {70},
      number = {4},
      pages = {515-530}
    }
    
    Calder, A., Lawrence, A. & Young, A. Neuropsychology of fear and loathing {2001} NATURE REVIEWS NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {2}({5}), pp. {352-363} 
    article  
    Abstract: For over 60 years, ideas about emotion in neuroscience and psychology have been dominated by a debate on whether emotion can be encompassed within a single. unifying model. In neuroscience, this approach is epitomized by the limbic system theory and, in psychology, by dimensional models of emotion. Comparative research has gradually eroded the limbic model, and some scientists have proposed that certain individual emotions are represented separately in the brain. Evidence from humans consistent with this approach has recently been obtained by studies indicating that signals of fear and disgust are processed by distinct neural substrates. We review this research and its implications for theories of emotion.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Calder2001,
      author = {Calder, AJ and Lawrence, AD and Young, AW},
      title = {Neuropsychology of fear and loathing},
      journal = {NATURE REVIEWS NEUROSCIENCE},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {2},
      number = {5},
      pages = {352-363}
    }
    
    Campbell, A. Staying alive: Evolution, culture, and women's intrasexual aggression {1999} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {22}({2}), pp. {203+} 
    article  
    Abstract: Females' tendency to place a high value on protecting their own lives enhanced their reproductive success in the environment of evolutionary adaptation because infant survival depended more upon maternal than on paternal care and defence. The evolved mechanism by which the costs of aggression (and other forms of risk taking) are weighted more heavily for females may be a lower threshold for fear in situations which pose a direct threat of bodily injury. Females concern with personal survival also has implications for sex differences in dominance hierarchies because the risks associated with hierarchy formation in nonbonded exogamous females are not offset by increased reproductive success. Hence among females, disputes do not carry implications for status with them as they do among males, but are chiefly connected with the acquisition and defence of scarce resources. Consequently, female competition is more likely to take the form of indirect aggression or low-level direct combat than among males. Under patriarchy, men have held the power to propagate images and attributions which are favourable to the continuance of their control. Women's aggression has been viewed as a gender-incongruent aberration or dismissed as evidence of irrationality. These cultural interpretations have ``enhanced'' evolutionarily based sex differences by a process of imposition which stigmatises the expression of aggression by females and causes women to offer exculpatory (rather than justificatory) accounts of their own aggression.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Campbell1999,
      author = {Campbell, A},
      title = {Staying alive: Evolution, culture, and women's intrasexual aggression},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {22},
      number = {2},
      pages = {203+}
    }
    
    CAMPBELL, D. CONFLICTS BETWEEN BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL EVOLUTION AND BETWEEN PSYCHOLOGY AND MORAL TRADITION {1975} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {30}({12}), pp. {1103-1126} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{CAMPBELL1975,
      author = {CAMPBELL, DT},
      title = {CONFLICTS BETWEEN BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL EVOLUTION AND BETWEEN PSYCHOLOGY AND MORAL TRADITION},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1975},
      volume = {30},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1103-1126}
    }
    
    CAMPION, M., MEDSKER, G. & HIGGS, A. RELATIONS BETWEEN WORK GROUP CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECTIVENESS - IMPLICATIONS FOR DESIGNING EFFECTIVE WORK GROUPS {1993} PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {46}({4}), pp. {823-850} 
    article  
    Abstract: Five common themes were derived from the literature on effective work groups, and then characteristics representing the themes were related to effectivness criteria. Themes included job design, interdependence, composition, context, and process. They contained 19 group characteristics which were assessed by employees and managers. Effectiveness criteria included productivity, employee satisfaction, and manager judgments. Data were collected from 391 employees, 70 managers, and archival records for 80 work groups in a financial organization. Results showed that all three effectiveness criteria were predicted by the characteristics, and nearly all characteristics predicted some of the effectiveness criteria. The job design and process themes were slightly more predictive than the interdependence, composition, and context themes. Implications for designing effective work groups were discussed, and a 54-item measure of the 19 characteristics was presented for future research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CAMPION1993,
      author = {CAMPION, MA and MEDSKER, GJ and HIGGS, AC},
      title = {RELATIONS BETWEEN WORK GROUP CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECTIVENESS - IMPLICATIONS FOR DESIGNING EFFECTIVE WORK GROUPS},
      journal = {PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {46},
      number = {4},
      pages = {823-850}
    }
    
    Candolin, U. The use of multiple cues in mate choice {2003} BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS
    Vol. {78}({4}), pp. {575-595} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: An increasing number of studies find females to base their mate choice on several cues. Why this occurs is debated and many different hypotheses have been proposed. Here I review the hypotheses and the evidence in favour of them. At the same time I provide a new categorisation based on the adaptiveness of the preferences and the information content of the cues. A few comparative and empirical studies suggest that most multiple cues are Fisherian attractiveness cues or uninformative cues that occur alongside a viability indicator and facilitate detection, improve signal reception, or are remnants from past selection pressures. However, much evidence exists for multiple cues providing additional information and serving as multiple messages that either indicate general mate quality or enable females that differ in mate preferences to choose the most suitable male. Less evidence exists for multiple cues serving as back-up signals. The importance of receiver psychology, multiple sensory environments and signal interaction in the evolution of multiple cues and preferences has received surprisingly little attention but may be of crucial importance. Similarly, sexual conflict has been proposed to result in maladaptive preferences for manipulative cues, and in neutral preferences for threshold cues, but no reliable evidence exists so far. An important factor in the evolution of multiple preferences is the cost of using additional cues. Most theoretical work assumes that the cost of choice increases with the number of cues used, which restricts the conditions under which preferences for multiple cues are expected to evolve. I suggest that in contrast to this expectation, the use of multiple cues can reduce mate choice costs by decreasing the number of mates inspected more closely or the time and energy spent inspecting a set of mates. This may be one explanation for why multiple cues are more common than usually expected. Finally I discuss the consequences that the use of multiple cues may have for the process of sexual selection, the maintenance of genetic variation, and speciation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Candolin2003,
      author = {Candolin, U},
      title = {The use of multiple cues in mate choice},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {78},
      number = {4},
      pages = {575-595},
      doi = {{10.1017/S1464793103006158}}
    }
    
    CARSTENSEN, L. MOTIVATION FOR SOCIAL CONTACT ACROSS THE LIFE-SPAN - A THEORY OF SOCIOEMOTIONAL SELECTIVITY {1993} NEBRASKA SYMPOSIUM ON MOTIVATION
    Vol. {40}, pp. {209-254} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{CARSTENSEN1993,
      author = {CARSTENSEN, LL},
      title = {MOTIVATION FOR SOCIAL CONTACT ACROSS THE LIFE-SPAN - A THEORY OF SOCIOEMOTIONAL SELECTIVITY},
      journal = {NEBRASKA SYMPOSIUM ON MOTIVATION},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {40},
      pages = {209-254}
    }
    
    CARSTENSEN, L. SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL PATTERNS IN ADULTHOOD - SUPPORT FOR SOCIOEMOTIONAL SELECTIVITY THEORY {1992} PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING
    Vol. {7}({3}), pp. {331-338} 
    article  
    Abstract: This investigation explored 2 hypotheses derived from socioemotional selectivity theory: (a) Selective reductions in social interaction begin in early adulthood and (b) emotional closeness to significant others increases rather than decreases in adulthood even when rate reductions occur. Transcribed interviews with 28 women and 22 men from the Child Guidance Study, conducted over 34 years, were reviewed and rated for frequency of interaction, satisfaction with the relationship, and degree of emotional closeness in 6 types of relationships. Interaction frequency with acquaintances and close friends declined from early adulthood on. Interaction frequency with spouses and siblings increased across the same time period and emotional closeness increased throughout adulthood in relationships with relatives and close friends. Findings suggest that individuals begin narrowing their range of social partners long before old age.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CARSTENSEN1992,
      author = {CARSTENSEN, LL},
      title = {SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL PATTERNS IN ADULTHOOD - SUPPORT FOR SOCIOEMOTIONAL SELECTIVITY THEORY},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {331-338}
    }
    
    Carstensen, L., Isaacowitz, D. & Charles, S. Taking time seriously - A theory of socioemotional selectivity {1999} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {54}({3}), pp. {165-181} 
    article  
    Abstract: Socioemotional selectivity theory claims that the perception of time plays a fundamental role in the selection and pursuit of social goals. According to the theory, social motives fall into 1 of 2 general categories-those related to the acquisition of knowledge and those related to the regulation of emotion. When time is perceived as open-ended, knowledge-related goals are prioritized. In contrast when time is perceived as limited, emotional goals assume primacy. The inextricable association between time left in life and chronological age ensures age-related differences in social goals. Nonetheless, the authors show that the perception of time is malleable, and social goals change in both younger and older people when time constraints are imposed The authors argue that time perception is integral to human motivation and suggest potential implications for multiple subdisciplines and research interests in social, developmental, cultural, cognitive, and clinical psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Carstensen1999,
      author = {Carstensen, LL and Isaacowitz, DM and Charles, ST},
      title = {Taking time seriously - A theory of socioemotional selectivity},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {54},
      number = {3},
      pages = {165-181}
    }
    
    Carter, C., Braver, T., Barch, D., Botvinick, M., Noll, D. & Cohen, J. Anterior cingulate cortex, error detection, and the online monitoring of performance {1998} SCIENCE
    Vol. {280}({5364}), pp. {747-749} 
    article  
    Abstract: An unresolved question in neuroscience and psychology is how the brain monitors performance to regulate behavior. It has been proposed that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), on the medial surface of the frontal lobe, contributes to performance monitoring by detecting errors. In this study, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine ACC function. Results confirm that this region shows activity during erroneous responses. However, activity was also observed in the same region during correct responses under conditions of increased response competition. This suggests that the ACC detects conditions under which errors are likely to occur rather than errors themselves.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Carter1998,
      author = {Carter, CS and Braver, TS and Barch, DM and Botvinick, MM and Noll, D and Cohen, JD},
      title = {Anterior cingulate cortex, error detection, and the online monitoring of performance},
      journal = {SCIENCE},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {280},
      number = {5364},
      pages = {747-749}
    }
    
    CARVER, C. & SCHEIER, M. CONTROL-THEORY - A USEFUL CONCEPTUAL-FRAMEWORK FOR PERSONALITY-SOCIAL, CLINICAL, AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY {1982} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {92}({1}), pp. {111-135} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{CARVER1982,
      author = {CARVER, CS and SCHEIER, MF},
      title = {CONTROL-THEORY - A USEFUL CONCEPTUAL-FRAMEWORK FOR PERSONALITY-SOCIAL, CLINICAL, AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {92},
      number = {1},
      pages = {111-135}
    }
    
    CHAPLIN, W. THE NEXT GENERATION OF MODERATOR RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY {1991} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {59}({2}), pp. {143-178} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{CHAPLIN1991,
      author = {CHAPLIN, WF},
      title = {THE NEXT GENERATION OF MODERATOR RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {59},
      number = {2},
      pages = {143-178}
    }
    
    Cheng, P. From covariation to causation: A causal power theory {1997} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {104}({2}), pp. {367-405} 
    article  
    Abstract: Because causal relations are neither observable nor deducible, they must be induced from observable events. The 2 dominant approaches to the psychology of causal induction-the covariation approach and the causal power approach-are each crippled by fundamental problems. This article proposes an integration of these approaches that overcomes these problems. The proposal is that reasoners innately treat the relation between covariation (a function defined in terms of observable events) and causal power(an unobservable entity) as that between scientists' law or model and their theory explaining the model. This solution is formalized in the power PC theory, a causal power theory of the probabilistic contrast model(P. W. Cheng & L. R. Novick, 1990). The article reviews diverse old and new empirical tests discriminating this theory from previous models, none of which is justified by a theory. The results uniquely support the power PC theory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cheng1997,
      author = {Cheng, PW},
      title = {From covariation to causation: A causal power theory},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {104},
      number = {2},
      pages = {367-405},
      note = {Joint Meeting of the European-Association-of-Experimental-Social-Psychology / Society-for-Experimental-Social-Psychology, WASHINGTON, D.C., SEP, 1995}
    }
    
    CHENG, P. & NOVICK, L. COVARIATION IN NATURAL CAUSAL INDUCTION {1992} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {99}({2}), pp. {365-382} 
    article  
    Abstract: The covariation component of everyday causal inference has been depicted, in both cognitive and social psychology as well as in philosophy, as heterogeneous and prone to biases. The models and biases discussed in these domains are analyzed with respect to focal sets: contextually determined sets of events over which covariation is computed. Moreover, these models are compared to our probabilistic contrast model, which specifies causes as first and higher order contrasts computed over events in a focal set. Contrary to the previous depiction of covariation computation, the present assessment indicates that a single normative mechanism-the computation of probabilistic contrasts-underlies this essential component of natural causal induction both in everyday and in scientific situations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CHENG1992,
      author = {CHENG, PW and NOVICK, LR},
      title = {COVARIATION IN NATURAL CAUSAL INDUCTION},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {99},
      number = {2},
      pages = {365-382}
    }
    
    Chiel, H. & Beer, R. The brain has a body: adaptive behavior emerges from interactions of nervous system, body and environment {1997} TRENDS IN NEUROSCIENCES
    Vol. {20}({12}), pp. {553-557} 
    article  
    Abstract: Studies of mechanisms of adaptive behavior generally focus on neurons and circuits. But adaptive behavior also depends on interactions among the nervous system, body and environment: sensory preprocessing and motor post-processing filter inputs to and outputs from the nervous system; co-evolution and co-development of nervous system and periphery create matching and complementarity between them; body structure creates constraints and opportunities for neural control; and continuous feedback between nervous system, body and environment are essential for normal behavior. This broader view of adaptive behavior has been a major underpinning of ecological psychology and has influenced behavior-based robotics. Computational neuroethology, which jointly models neural control and periphery of animals, is a promising methodology for understanding adaptive behavior.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chiel1997,
      author = {Chiel, HJ and Beer, RD},
      title = {The brain has a body: adaptive behavior emerges from interactions of nervous system, body and environment},
      journal = {TRENDS IN NEUROSCIENCES},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {20},
      number = {12},
      pages = {553-557}
    }
    
    Chiles, T. & McMackin, J. Integrating variable risk preferences, trust, and transaction cost economics {1996} ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW
    Vol. {21}({1}), pp. {73-99} 
    article  
    Abstract: Transaction cost economics (TCE) relies on three behavioral assumptions in predicting how firms choose governance structures-bounded rationality. opportunism. and risk neutrality. We explore the implications of the neglected behavioral assumption of risk neutrality. offer am integrative appraisal of the three behavioral assumptions using trust as or unifying perspective. and explicate subjective costs and risks. We illustrate the relative ease with which previous empirical shortcomings can be addressed by incorporating risk and trust in TCE models.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chiles1996,
      author = {Chiles, TH and McMackin, JF},
      title = {Integrating variable risk preferences, trust, and transaction cost economics},
      journal = {ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {21},
      number = {1},
      pages = {73-99}
    }
    
    Chittka, L., Thomson, J. & Waser, N. Flower constancy, insect psychology, and plant evolution {1999} NATURWISSENSCHAFTEN
    Vol. {86}({8}), pp. {361-377} 
    article  
    Abstract: Individuals of some species of pollinating insects tend to restrict their visits to only a few of the available plant species, in the process bypassing valuable food sources. The question of why this flower constancy exists is a rich and important one with implications for the organization of natural communities of plants, floral evolution, and our understanding of the learning processes involved in finding food. Some scientists have assumed that newer constancy is adaptive per se. Others argued that constancy occurs because memory capacity for floral features in insects is limited, but attempts to identify the limitations often remained rather simplistic. We elucidate now different sensory and motor memories from natural foraging tasks are stored and retrieved, using concepts from modern learning science and visual search, and conclude that newer constancy is likely to have multiple causes. Possible constraints favoring constancy are interference sensitivity of short-term memory, and temporal limitations on retrieving information from long-term memory as rapidly as from short-term memory, but further empirical evidence is needed to substantiate these possibilities. In addition, retrieving memories mall be slower and more prone to errors when there are several options than when an insect copes with only a single task. In addition to memory limitations, we also point out alternative explanations for newer constancy. We then consider the way in which floral parameters, such as interplant distances, nectar rewards, flower morphology, and floral color (as seen through bees' eyes) affect constancy. Finally, we discuss the implications of pollinator constancy for plant evolution. To date there is no evidence that flowers have diverged to favor constancy, although the appropriate tests may not have yet been conducted. However, there is good evidence against the notion that pollinator constancy is involved in speciation or maintenance of plant species integrity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chittka1999,
      author = {Chittka, L and Thomson, JD and Waser, NM},
      title = {Flower constancy, insect psychology, and plant evolution},
      journal = {NATURWISSENSCHAFTEN},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {86},
      number = {8},
      pages = {361-377}
    }
    
    CHRISTENSEN, A. & JACOBSON, N. WHO (OR WHAT) CAN DO PSYCHOTHERAPY - THE STATUS AND CHALLENGE OF NONPROFESSIONAL THERAPIES {1994} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {5}({1}), pp. {8-14} 
    article  
    Abstract: Research suggests that paraprofessional therapists usually produce effects that are greater than effects for control conditions and comparable to those for professional therapist treatment. Other nonprofessional psychological treatments, such as self administered materials and self-help groups, have also demonstrated positive effects. Because of the promise of these nonprofessional treatments, their potential for low-cost service delivery, and the important theoretical questions that studies comparing them can answer, psychotherapy outcome research should shift away from comparisons of different professional therapies and instead compare nonprofessional therapies with professional therapy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CHRISTENSEN1994,
      author = {CHRISTENSEN, A and JACOBSON, NS},
      title = {WHO (OR WHAT) CAN DO PSYCHOTHERAPY - THE STATUS AND CHALLENGE OF NONPROFESSIONAL THERAPIES},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {8-14}
    }
    
    CLEGG, C. PSYCHOLOGY OF EMPLOYEE LATENESS, ABSENCE, AND TURNOVER - A METHODOLOGICAL CRITIQUE AND AN EMPIRICAL-STUDY {1983} JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {68}({1}), pp. {88-101} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{CLEGG1983,
      author = {CLEGG, CW},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY OF EMPLOYEE LATENESS, ABSENCE, AND TURNOVER - A METHODOLOGICAL CRITIQUE AND AN EMPIRICAL-STUDY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {68},
      number = {1},
      pages = {88-101}
    }
    
    COHEN, J. THE EARTH IS ROUND (P-LESS-THAN.05) {1994} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {49}({12}), pp. {997-1003} 
    article  
    Abstract: After 4 decades of severe criticism, the ritual of null hypothesis significance testing-mechanical dichotomous decisions around a sacred .05 criterion-still persists. This article reviews the problems with this practice, including its near-universal misinterpretation of p as the probability that H0 is false, the misinterpretation that its complement is the probability of successful replication, and the mistaken assumption that if one rejects H0 one thereby affirms the theory that led to the test. Exploratory data analysis and the use of graphic methods, a steady improvement in and a movement toward standardization in measurement, an emphasis on estimating effect sizes using confidence intervals, and the informed use of available statistical methods is suggested. For generalization, psychologists must finally rely, as has been done in all the older sciences, on replication.
    BibTeX:
    @article{COHEN1994,
      author = {COHEN, J},
      title = {THE EARTH IS ROUND (P-LESS-THAN.05)},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {49},
      number = {12},
      pages = {997-1003},
      note = {Saul B Sells Memorial Lifetime Achievement Award, Society-of-Multivariate-Experimental-Psychology, SAN PEDRO, CA, OCT 29, 1993}
    }
    
    COHEN, J., MACWHINNEY, B., FLATT, M. & PROVOST, J. PSYSCOPE - AN INTERACTIVE GRAPHIC SYSTEM FOR DESIGNING AND CONTROLLING EXPERIMENTS IN THE PSYCHOLOGY LABORATORY USING MACINTOSH COMPUTERS {1993} BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS INSTRUMENTS & COMPUTERS
    Vol. {25}({2}), pp. {257-271} 
    article  
    Abstract: PsyScope is an integrated environment for designing and running psychology experiments on Macintosh computers. The primary goal of PsyScope is to give both psychology students and trained researchers a tool that allows them to design experiments without the need for programming. PsyScope relies on the interactive graphic environment provided by Macintosh computers to accomplish this goal. The standard components of a psychology experiment-groups, blocks, trials, and factors-are all represented graphically, and experiments are constructed by working with these elements in interactive windows and dialogs. In this article, we describe the overall organization of the program, provide an example of how a simple experiment can be constructed within its graphic environment, and discuss some of its technical features (such as its underlying scripting language, timing characteristics, etc.). PsyScope is available for noncommercial purposes free of charge and unsupported to the general research community. Information about how to obtain the program and its documentation is provided.
    BibTeX:
    @article{COHEN1993,
      author = {COHEN, J and MACWHINNEY, B and FLATT, M and PROVOST, J},
      title = {PSYSCOPE - AN INTERACTIVE GRAPHIC SYSTEM FOR DESIGNING AND CONTROLLING EXPERIMENTS IN THE PSYCHOLOGY LABORATORY USING MACINTOSH COMPUTERS},
      journal = {BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS INSTRUMENTS & COMPUTERS},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {25},
      number = {2},
      pages = {257-271},
      note = {22ND ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOC FOR COMPUTERS IN PSYCHOLOGY, ST LOUIS, MO, NOV 12, 1992}
    }
    
    COHEN, M. & BACDAYAN, P. ORGANIZATIONAL ROUTINES ARE STORED AS PROCEDURAL MEMORY - EVIDENCE FROM A LABORATORY STUDY {1994} ORGANIZATION SCIENCE
    Vol. {5}({4}), pp. {554-568} 
    article  
    Abstract: Organizational routines-multi-actor, interlocking, reciprocally-triggered sequences of actions-are a major source of the reliability and speed of organizational performance. Without routines, organizations would lose efficiency as structures for collective action. But these frequently repeated action sequences can also occasionally give rise to serious suboptimality, hampering performance when they are automatically transferred onto inappropriate situations. While the knowledgeable design and redesign of routines presents a likely lever for those wishing to enhance organizational performance, the lever remains difficult to grasp because routines are hard to observe, analyze, and describe. This paper argues that new work in psychology on `'procedural'' memory may help explain how routines arise, stabilize and change. Procedural memory has close links to notions of individual skill and habit. It is memory for how things are done that is relatively automatic and inarticulate, and it encompasses both cognitive and motor activities. We report an experiment in which paired subjects developed interlocked task performance patterns that display the chief characteristics of organizational routines. We show evidence from their behavior supporting the claim that individuals store their components of organizational routines in procedural memory. If routines are stored as distributed procedural memories, this may be the source of distinctive properties reported by observers of organizational routines. The paper concludes with implications for both research and practice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{COHEN1994a,
      author = {COHEN, MD and BACDAYAN, P},
      title = {ORGANIZATIONAL ROUTINES ARE STORED AS PROCEDURAL MEMORY - EVIDENCE FROM A LABORATORY STUDY},
      journal = {ORGANIZATION SCIENCE},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {5},
      number = {4},
      pages = {554-568}
    }
    
    Cohen, S. & Herbert, T. Health psychology: Psychological factors and physical disease from the perspective of human psychoneuroimmunology {1996} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {47}, pp. {113-142} 
    article  
    Abstract: This review addresses the importance of studies of human psychoneuroimmunology in understanding the role of psychological factors in physical illness. First, it provides psychologically and biologically plausible explanations for how psychological factors might influence immunity and immune system-mediated disease. Second, it covers substantial evidence that factors such as stress, negative affect, clinical depression, social support, and repression/denial can influence both cellular and humoral indicators of immune status and function. Third, at least in the case of the less serious infectious diseases (colds, influenza, herpes), it considers consistent and convincing evidence of links between stress and negative affect and disease onset and progression. Although still early in its development, research also suggests a role of psychological factors in autoimmune diseases. Evidence for effects of stress, depression, and repression/denial on onset and progression of AIDS and cancer is less consistent and inconclusive, possibly owing to methodological limitations inherent in studying these complex illnesses, or because psychological influences on immunity are not of the magnitude or type necessary to alter the body's response in these cases. What is missing in this literature, however, is strong evidence that the associations between psychological factors and disease that do exist are attributable to immune changes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cohen1996,
      author = {Cohen, S and Herbert, TB},
      title = {Health psychology: Psychological factors and physical disease from the perspective of human psychoneuroimmunology},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {47},
      pages = {113-142}
    }
    
    COHEN, S. & WILLIAMSON, G. STRESS AND INFECTIOUS-DISEASE IN HUMANS {1991} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {109}({1}), pp. {5-24} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article reviews research on the role of stress in infectious disease as measured either by illness behaviors (symptoms and use of health services) or by verified pathology. Substantial evidence was found for an association between stress and increased illness behaviour, and less convincing but provocative evidence was found for a similar association between stress and infectious pathology. Introverts, isolates, and persons lacking social skills may also be at incresed risk for both illness behaviors and pathology. Psychobiological models of how stress could influence the onset and progression of infections disease and a psychological model of how stress could influence illness behaviors are proposed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{COHEN1991,
      author = {COHEN, S and WILLIAMSON, GM},
      title = {STRESS AND INFECTIOUS-DISEASE IN HUMANS},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {109},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5-24}
    }
    
    COMPEAU, D. & HIGGINS, C. COMPUTER SELF-EFFICACY - DEVELOPMENT OF A MEASURE AND INITIAL TEST {1995} MIS QUARTERLY
    Vol. {19}({2}), pp. {189-211} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper discusses the role of individuals' beliefs about their abilities to competently use computers (computer self-efficacy) in the determination of computer use. A survey of Canadian managers and professionals was conducted to develop and validate a measure of computer self-efficacy and to assess both its impacts and antecedents. Computer self-efficacy was found to exert a significant influence on individuals' expectations of the outcomes of using computers, their emotional reactions to computers (affect and anxiety), as well as their actual computer use. An individual's self-efficacy and outcome expectations were found to be positively influenced by the encouragement of others in their work group, as well as others' use of computers. Thus, self-efficacy represents an important individual trait, which moderates organizational influences (such as encouragement and support) on an individual's decision to use computers. Understanding self-efficacy, then, is important to the successful implementation of systems in organizations. The existence of a reliable and valid measure of self-efficacy makes assessment possible and should have implications for organizational support, training, and implementation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{COMPEAU1995,
      author = {COMPEAU, DR and HIGGINS, CA},
      title = {COMPUTER SELF-EFFICACY - DEVELOPMENT OF A MEASURE AND INITIAL TEST},
      journal = {MIS QUARTERLY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {19},
      number = {2},
      pages = {189-211},
      note = {1991 International Conference on Information Systems, NEW YORK, NY, DEC 16-19, 1991}
    }
    
    COMREY, A. FACTOR-ANALYTIC METHODS OF SCALE DEVELOPMENT IN PERSONALITY AND CLINICAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1988} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {56}({5}), pp. {754-761} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{COMREY1988,
      author = {COMREY, AL},
      title = {FACTOR-ANALYTIC METHODS OF SCALE DEVELOPMENT IN PERSONALITY AND CLINICAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {56},
      number = {5},
      pages = {754-761}
    }
    
    CONNELL, J. & WELLBORN, J. COMPETENCE, AUTONOMY, AND RELATEDNESS - A MOTIVATIONAL ANALYSIS OF SELF-SYSTEM PROCESSES {1991} MINNESOTA SYMPOSIA ON CHILD PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {23}, pp. {43-77} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{CONNELL1991,
      author = {CONNELL, JP and WELLBORN, JG},
      title = {COMPETENCE, AUTONOMY, AND RELATEDNESS - A MOTIVATIONAL ANALYSIS OF SELF-SYSTEM PROCESSES},
      journal = {MINNESOTA SYMPOSIA ON CHILD PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {23},
      pages = {43-77}
    }
    
    COOK, D., GUYATT, G., RYAN, G., CLIFTON, J., BUCKINGHAM, L., WILLAN, A., MCLLROY, W. & OXMAN, A. SHOULD UNPUBLISHED DATA BE INCLUDED IN METAANALYSES - CURRENT CONVICTIONS AND CONTROVERSIES {1993} JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
    Vol. {269}({21}), pp. {2749-2753} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective.-To identify the extent to which meta-analyses currently include unpublished data and whether editors, meta-analysts, and methodologists believe unpublished material should be included. Design.-This article describes two related studies: a literature review and a cross-sectional survey. Sample Selection.-For the literature review, we identified all articles indexed by the key word meta-analysis from January 1989 to February 1991 and determined whether unpublished material had been searched for, obtained, and included in the meta-analyses. For the cross-sectional survey, we surveyed authors of these meta-analyses, authors of articles addressing methodological issues in meta-analysis published during the same period, and editors of journals in which both types of articles were published. Intervention.-We asked the respondents about their attitudes concerning inclusion of unpublished data and publication of articles from which data had previously been included in a scientific overview. Main Outcome Measures.-Inclusion of unpublished data and opinions about whether unpublished material should be included in overviews and whether prior inclusion of data in an overview should bear on publication. Results.-Of 150 meta-analyses, 46 (30.7 included unpublished data in their primary analysis. Of authors surveyed, 85% responded. Of the meta-analysts and methodologists, 77.7% felt that unpublished material should definitely or probably be included in scientific overviews; this was true of 46.9% of the editors. A total of 86.4% of the meta-analysts and methodologists and 53.2% of the editors felt that inclusion of data in a prior overview should have no bearing on full publication of original research. Conclusion.-While inclusion of unpublished data in scientific overviews remains controversial, most investigators directly involved in meta-analysis believe that unpublished data should not be systematically excluded. The most valid synthesis of available information will result when meta-analysts subject published and unpublished material to the same rigorous methodological evaluation and present results with and without unpublished sources of data.
    BibTeX:
    @article{COOK1993,
      author = {COOK, DJ and GUYATT, GH and RYAN, G and CLIFTON, J and BUCKINGHAM, L and WILLAN, A and MCLLROY, W and OXMAN, AD},
      title = {SHOULD UNPUBLISHED DATA BE INCLUDED IN METAANALYSES - CURRENT CONVICTIONS AND CONTROVERSIES},
      journal = {JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {269},
      number = {21},
      pages = {2749-2753}
    }
    
    Corrigan, P. & Penn, D. Lessons from social psychology on discrediting psychiatric stigma {1999} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {54}({9}), pp. {765-776} 
    article  
    Abstract: Advocacy, government, and public-service groups rely on a variety of strategies to diminish the impact of stigma on persons with severe mental illness. These strategies include protest, education, and promoting contact between the general public and persons with these disorders. The authors argue that social psychological research on ethnic minority and other group stereotypes should be considered when implementing these strategies. Such research indicates that (a) attempts to suppress stereotypes through protest can result in a rebound effect; (b) education programs may be limited because many stereotypes are resilient to change; and (c) contact is enhanced by a variety of factors, including equal status, cooperative interaction, and institutional support. Future directions for research and practice to reduce stigma toward persons with severe mental illness are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Corrigan1999,
      author = {Corrigan, PW and Penn, DL},
      title = {Lessons from social psychology on discrediting psychiatric stigma},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {54},
      number = {9},
      pages = {765-776}
    }
    
    Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. Are humans good intuitive statisticians after all? Rethinking some conclusions from the literature on judgment under uncertainty {1996} COGNITION
    Vol. {58}({1}), pp. {1-73} 
    article  
    Abstract: Professional probabilists have long argued over what probability means, with, for example, Bayesians arguing that probabilities refer to subjective degrees of confidence and frequentists arguing that probabilities refer to the frequencies of events in the world. Recently, Gigerenzer and his colleagues have argued that these same distinctions are made by untutored subjects, and that, for many domains, the human mind represents probabilistic information as frequencies. We analyze several reasons why, from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, certain classes of problem-solving mechanisms in the human mind should be expected to represent probabilistic information as frequencies. Then, using a problem famous in the `'heuristics and biases'' literature for eliciting base rate neglect, we show that correct Bayesian reasoning can be elicited in 76% of subjects - indeed, 92% in the most ecologically valid condition - simply by expressing the problem in frequentist terms. This result adds to the growing body of literature showing that frequentist representations cause various cognitive biases to disappear, including overconfidence, the conjunction fallacy, and base-rate neglect. Taken together, these new findings indicate that the conclusion most common in the literature on judgment under uncertainty - that our inductive reasoning mechanisms do not embody a calculus of probability - will have to be re-examined. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, humans may turn out to be good intuitive statisticians after all.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cosmides1996,
      author = {Cosmides, L and Tooby, J},
      title = {Are humans good intuitive statisticians after all? Rethinking some conclusions from the literature on judgment under uncertainty},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {58},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-73}
    }
    
    COSMIDES, L. & TOOBY, J. BEYOND INTUITION AND INSTINCT BLINDNESS - TOWARD AN EVOLUTIONARILY RIGOROUS COGNITIVE SCIENCE {1994} COGNITION
    Vol. {50}({1-3}), pp. {41-77} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cognitive psychology has an opportunity to turn itself into a theoretically rigorous discipline in which a powerful set of theories organize observations and suggest focused new hypotheses. This cannot happen, however, as long as intuition and folk psychology continue to set our research agenda. This is because intuition systematically blinds us to the full universe of problems our minds spontaneously solve, restricting our attention instead to a minute class of unrepresentative `'high-level'' problems. In contrast, evolutionarily rigorous theories of adaptive function are the logical foundation on which to build cognitive theories, because the architecture of the human mind acquired its functional organization through the evolutionary process. Theories of adaptive function specify what problems our cognitive mechanisms were designed by evolution to solve, thereby supplying critical information about what their design features are likely to be. This information can free cognitive scientists from the blinders of intuition and folk psychology, allowing them to construct experiments capable of detecting complex mechanisms they otherwise would not have thought to test for. The choice is not between no-nonsense empiricism and evolutionary theory; it is between folk theory and evolutionary theory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{COSMIDES1994,
      author = {COSMIDES, L and TOOBY, J},
      title = {BEYOND INTUITION AND INSTINCT BLINDNESS - TOWARD AN EVOLUTIONARILY RIGOROUS COGNITIVE SCIENCE},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {50},
      number = {1-3},
      pages = {41-77}
    }
    
    COSMIDES, L. & TOOBY, J. EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY AND THE GENERATION OF CULTURE .2. CASE-STUDY - A COMPUTATIONAL THEORY OF SOCIAL-EXCHANGE {1989} ETHOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY
    Vol. {10}({1-3}), pp. {51-97} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{COSMIDES1989,
      author = {COSMIDES, L and TOOBY, J},
      title = {EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY AND THE GENERATION OF CULTURE .2. CASE-STUDY - A COMPUTATIONAL THEORY OF SOCIAL-EXCHANGE},
      journal = {ETHOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1-3},
      pages = {51-97}
    }
    
    CRITSCHRISTOPH, P. THE EFFICACY OF BRIEF DYNAMIC PSYCHOTHERAPY - A METAANALYSIS {1992} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {149}({2}), pp. {151-158} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: Insurance companies, legislators, and funding agencies have become increasingly concerned with efficacy and accountability in regard to psychotherapy, and psychodynamic therapy is a primary target of concern because it is widely practiced in outpatient settings. This paper is a meta-analytic review of recent well-controlled studies of the efficacy of brief dynamic therapy. Method. The meta-analysis included both published studies, located through an extensive computerized search of psychiatry and psychology journals, and studies reported at conferences. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria: use of a specific form of short-term dynamic psychotherapy as represented in a treatment manual or manual-like guide; comparison of brief dynamic therapy and a waiting list control condition, nonpsychiatric treatment, alternative psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, or other form of dynamic therapy; provision of the information necessary for calculation of effect sizes; at least 12 therapy sessions; and therapists who were trained and experienced in brief dynamic therapy. The outcome measures compared were target symptoms, psychiatric symptoms generally, and social functioning. Results: Brief dynamic therapy demonstrated large effects relative to waiting list conditions but only slight superiority to non-psychiatric treatments. Its effects were about equal to those of other psychotherapies and medication. Conclusions: These data confirm previous indications that various psychotherapies do not differ in effectiveness, although this finding should not be generalized to all patient populations, outcome measures, and treatment types. Also, the highly controlled conditions of these studies limit conclusions about actual practice. Future studies should address various treatment lengths, follow-up assessments, and specific treatments, patient groups, and outcome measures.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CRITSCHRISTOPH1992,
      author = {CRITSCHRISTOPH, P},
      title = {THE EFFICACY OF BRIEF DYNAMIC PSYCHOTHERAPY - A METAANALYSIS},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {149},
      number = {2},
      pages = {151-158}
    }
    
    CROCKER, J., LUHTANEN, R., BLAINE, B. & BROADNAX, S. COLLECTIVE SELF-ESTEEM AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AMONG WHITE, BLACK, AND ASIAN COLLEGE-STUDENTS {1994} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {20}({5}), pp. {503-513} 
    article  
    Abstract: A total of 91 Black, 96 White, and 35 Asian college students completed the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (CSES), as well as measures of psychological well-being (personal self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and hopelessness). Correlations between the Public and Private subscales of the CSES were near zero for Blacks, moderate for Whites, and strong for Asians. The membership and private subscales of the general CSES were related to psychological well-being, even when the effects of personal self-esteem on well-being were partialed out. However, when the three groups were examined separately, the relation of CSE to well-being with personal self-esteem partialed out was nonsignificant for Whites, small for Blacks, and moderate to strong for Asians. General and race-specific CSE were correlated for all three groups, although the correlations were strongest for Asians. Implications for symbolic interactionist views of the self-concept, for formulations of mental health, and for methodological issues concerning the CSES are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CROCKER1994,
      author = {CROCKER, J and LUHTANEN, R and BLAINE, B and BROADNAX, S},
      title = {COLLECTIVE SELF-ESTEEM AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AMONG WHITE, BLACK, AND ASIAN COLLEGE-STUDENTS},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {20},
      number = {5},
      pages = {503-513}
    }
    
    CRONBACH, L. BEYOND 2 DISCIPLINES OF SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY {1975} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {30}({2}), pp. {116-127} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{CRONBACH1975,
      author = {CRONBACH, LJ},
      title = {BEYOND 2 DISCIPLINES OF SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1975},
      volume = {30},
      number = {2},
      pages = {116-127}
    }
    
    CROSS, S. & MARKUS, H. POSSIBLE SELVES ACROSS THE LIFE-SPAN {1991} HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {34}({4}), pp. {230-255} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{CROSS1991,
      author = {CROSS, S and MARKUS, H},
      title = {POSSIBLE SELVES ACROSS THE LIFE-SPAN},
      journal = {HUMAN DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {34},
      number = {4},
      pages = {230-255}
    }
    
    Csibra, G., Gergely, G., Biro, S., Koos, O. & Brockbank, M. Goal attribution without agency cues: the perception of `pure reason' in infancy {1999} COGNITION
    Vol. {72}({3}), pp. {237-267} 
    article  
    Abstract: The proper domain of naive psychological reasoning is human action and human mental states but such reasoning is frequently applied to nora-human phenomena as well. The studies reported in this paper test the validity of the currently widespread belief that this tendency is rooted in the fact that naive psychological reasoning is initially restricted to, and triggered by, the perception of self-initiated movement of agents. We report three habituation experiments which examine the necessary conditions under which infants invoke a psychological principle, namely the principle of rational action, to interpret behaviour as goal directed action. Experiment 1 revealed that the principle of rational action already operates at 9 (but not yet at 6) months of age. Experiment 2 demonstrated that perceptual cues indicating agency, such as self-propulsion, are not necessary prerequisites for interpreting behaviour in terms of the principle of rational action. Experiment 3 confirmed that this effect cannot be attributed to generalisation of agentive properties from one object to another. These results suggest that the domain of naive psychology is initially defined only by the applicability of its core principles and its ontology is not restricted to (featurally identified) object kinds such as persons, animates, or agents. We argue that in its initial state naive psychological reasoning is not a cue-based but a principle-based theory. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V, All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Csibra1999,
      author = {Csibra, G and Gergely, G and Biro, S and Koos, O and Brockbank, M},
      title = {Goal attribution without agency cues: the perception of `pure reason' in infancy},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {72},
      number = {3},
      pages = {237-267}
    }
    
    CUSHMAN, P. WHY THE SELF IS EMPTY - TOWARD A HISTORICALLY SITUATED PSYCHOLOGY {1990} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {45}({5}), pp. {599-611} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{CUSHMAN1990,
      author = {CUSHMAN, P},
      title = {WHY THE SELF IS EMPTY - TOWARD A HISTORICALLY SITUATED PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {45},
      number = {5},
      pages = {599-611}
    }
    
    Daniel, K., Hirshleifer, D. & Subrahmanyam, A. Investor psychology and security market under- and overreactions {1998} JOURNAL OF FINANCE
    Vol. {53}({6}), pp. {1839-1885} 
    article  
    Abstract: We propose a theory of securities market under- and overreactions based on two well-known psychological biases: investor overconfidence about the precision of private information; and biased self-attribution, which causes asymmetric shifts in investors' confidence as a function of their investment outcomes. We show that overconfidence implies negative long-lag autocorrelations, excess volatility, and, when managerial actions are correlated with stock mispricing, public-event-based return predictability. Biased self-attribution adds positive short-lag autocorrelations (''momentum''), short-run earnings ``drift,'' but negative correlation between future returns and long-term past stock market and accounting performance. The theory also offers several untested implications and implications for corporate financial policy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Daniel1998,
      author = {Daniel, K and Hirshleifer, D and Subrahmanyam, A},
      title = {Investor psychology and security market under- and overreactions},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF FINANCE},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {53},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1839-1885}
    }
    
    DAVIDSON, A. & JACCARD, J. POPULATION PSYCHOLOGY - NEW LOOK AT AN OLD PROBLEM {1975} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {31}({6}), pp. {1073-1082} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{DAVIDSON1975,
      author = {DAVIDSON, AR and JACCARD, JJ},
      title = {POPULATION PSYCHOLOGY - NEW LOOK AT AN OLD PROBLEM},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1975},
      volume = {31},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1073-1082}
    }
    
    De Martino, B., Kumaran, D., Seymour, B. & Dolan, R.J. Frames, biases, and rational decision-making in the human brain {2006} SCIENCE
    Vol. {313}({5787}), pp. {684-687} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Human choices are remarkably susceptible to the manner in which options are presented. This so-called ``framing effect'' represents a striking violation of standard economic accounts of human rationality, although its underlying neurobiology is not understood. We found that the framing effect was specifically associated with amygdala activity, suggesting a key role for an emotional system in mediating decision biases. Moreover, across individuals, orbital and medial prefrontal cortex activity predicted a reduced susceptibility to the framing effect. This finding highlights the importance of incorporating emotional processes within models of human choice and suggests how the brain may modulate the effect of these biasing influences to approximate rationality.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DeMartino2006,
      author = {De Martino, Benedetto and Kumaran, Dharshan and Seymour, Ben and Dolan, Raymond J.},
      title = {Frames, biases, and rational decision-making in the human brain},
      journal = {SCIENCE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {313},
      number = {5787},
      pages = {684-687},
      doi = {{10.1126/science.1128356}}
    }
    
    Decety, J. & Sommerville, J. Shared representations between self and other: a social cognitive neuroscience view {2003} TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES
    Vol. {7}({12}), pp. {527-533} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The abilities to identify with others and to distinguish between self and other play a pivotal role in intersubjective transactions. Here, we marshall evidence from developmental science, social psychology and neuroscience (including clinical neuropsychology) that support the view of a common representation network (both at the computational and neural levels) between self and other. However, sharedness does not mean identicality, otherwise representations of self and others would completely overlap, and lead to confusion. We argue that self-awareness and agency are integral components for navigating within these shared representations. We suggest that within this shared neural network the inferior parietal cortex and the prefrontal cortex in the right hemisphere play a special role in interpersonal awareness.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Decety2003,
      author = {Decety, J and Sommerville, JA},
      title = {Shared representations between self and other: a social cognitive neuroscience view},
      journal = {TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {7},
      number = {12},
      pages = {527-533},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.tics.2003.10.004}}
    }
    
    DEGNER, L. & SLOAN, J. DECISION-MAKING DURING SERIOUS ILLNESS - WHAT ROLE DO PATIENTS REALLY WANT TO PLAY {1992} JOURNAL OF CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Vol. {45}({9}), pp. {941-950} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two surveys were conducted to determine what roles people actually want to assume in selecting cancer treatments. 436 newly diagnosed cancer patients and 482 members of the general public participated. Preferences were elicited using two card sort procedures, each of which described five potential roles in decision making. Findings suggested that the impact of being diagnosed with a life-threatening illness may influence preferences to participate. The majority (59 of patients wanted physicians to make treatment decisions on their behalf, but 64% of the public thought they would want to select their own treatment if they developed cancer. Most patients (51 and members of the public (46 wanted their physician and family to share responsibility for decision making if they were too ill to participate. Sociodemographic variables accounted for only 15% of variance in preferences. These variables are not particularly useful in making predictions about which groups want more or less active roles in medical decision making.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DEGNER1992,
      author = {DEGNER, LF and SLOAN, JA},
      title = {DECISION-MAKING DURING SERIOUS ILLNESS - WHAT ROLE DO PATIENTS REALLY WANT TO PLAY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {45},
      number = {9},
      pages = {941-950}
    }
    
    DELITTO, A., ERHARD, R. & BOWLING, R. A TREATMENT-BASED CLASSIFICATION APPROACH TO LOW-BACK SYNDROME - IDENTIFYING AND STAGING PATIENTS FOR CONSERVATIVE TREATMENT {1995} PHYSICAL THERAPY
    Vol. {75}({6}), pp. {470-485} 
    article  
    Abstract: We present a treatment-based classification approach to the conservative management of low back syndrome. The approach has three levels of classification based on historical information, behavior of symptoms, and clinical signs. We first distinguish patients whose conservative care can be managed predominantly, and independently by physical therapists versus patients who require consultation with other services (eg, psychology) or who require referral because of possible serious nonmusculoskeletal pathology. Once patients who can be managed by physical therapists are identified the next level of classification is to stage their condition with regard to severity. We propose three stages: stage I for patients in the acute phase where the therapeutic goal is symptom relief stage II for patients in a subacute phase where symptom relief and quick return to normal function are encouraged, and stage III for selected patients who must return to activities requiring high physical demands and who demonstrate a lack of physical conditioning necessary to perform the desired activities safely. The remainder of the article focuses on a third level of classification for stage I only in which patients are classified into distinct categories that are treatment-based and that specifically guide conservative management. The entire approach is diagnosis based with specific algorithms and decision rules as well as examples presented.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DELITTO1995,
      author = {DELITTO, A and ERHARD, RE and BOWLING, R},
      title = {A TREATMENT-BASED CLASSIFICATION APPROACH TO LOW-BACK SYNDROME - IDENTIFYING AND STAGING PATIENTS FOR CONSERVATIVE TREATMENT},
      journal = {PHYSICAL THERAPY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {75},
      number = {6},
      pages = {470-485}
    }
    
    Dellarocas, C. The digitization of word of mouth: Promise and challenges of online feedback mechanisms {2003} MANAGEMENT SCIENCE
    Vol. {49}({10}), pp. {1407-1424} 
    article  
    Abstract: Online feedback mechanisms harness the bidirectional communication capabilities of the Internet to engineer large-scale, word-of-mouth networks. Best known so far as a technology for building trust and fostering cooperation in online marketplaces, such as eBay, these mechanisms are poised to have a much wider impact on organizations. Their growing popularity has potentially important implications for a wide range of management activities such as brand building, customer acquisition and retention, product development, and quality assurance. This paper surveys our progress in understanding the new possibilities and challenges that these mechanisms represent. It discusses some important dimensions in which Internet-based feedback mechanisms differ from traditional word-of-mouth networks and surveys the most important issues related to their design, evaluation, and use. It provides an overview of relevant work in game theory and economics on the topic of reputation. It discusses how this body of work is being extended and combined with insights from computer science, management science, sociology, and psychology to take into consideration the special properties of online environments. Finally, it identifies opportunities that this new area presents for operations research/management science (OR/MS) research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dellarocas2003,
      author = {Dellarocas, C},
      title = {The digitization of word of mouth: Promise and challenges of online feedback mechanisms},
      journal = {MANAGEMENT SCIENCE},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {49},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1407-1424}
    }
    
    DICKSON, P. TOWARD A GENERAL-THEORY OF COMPETITIVE RATIONALITY {1992} JOURNAL OF MARKETING
    Vol. {56}({1}), pp. {69-83} 
    article  
    Abstract: The author develops a theory of competitive rationality that proposes a firm's success depends on the imperfect procedural rationality of its marketing planners. Theories of economic psychology and information economics are integrated with the Austrian economic school of thought and with marketing management concepts and scholarship. Implications for managers and scholars are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DICKSON1992,
      author = {DICKSON, PR},
      title = {TOWARD A GENERAL-THEORY OF COMPETITIVE RATIONALITY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF MARKETING},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {56},
      number = {1},
      pages = {69-83}
    }
    
    Diener, E. Subjective well-being - The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index {2000} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {55}({1}), pp. {34-43} 
    article  
    Abstract: One area of positive psychology analyzes subjective well-being (SWB), people's cognitive and affective evaluations of their lives. Progress has been made in understanding the components of SWB, the importance of adaptation? ann goals to feelings of well-being, the temperament underpinnings Of SWB, and the cultural influences on well-being. Representative selection of respondents, naturalistic experience sampling measures, and other methodological refinements are now used to study SWB and could be used to produce national indicators of happiness.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Diener2000,
      author = {Diener, E},
      title = {Subjective well-being - The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {55},
      number = {1},
      pages = {34-43}
    }
    
    DIENER, E. ASSESSING SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING - PROGRESS AND OPPORTUNITIES {1994} SOCIAL INDICATORS RESEARCH
    Vol. {31}({2}), pp. {103-157} 
    article  
    Abstract: Subjective well-being (SWB) comprises people's longer-term levels of pleasant affect, lack of unpleasant affect, and life satisfaction. It displays moderately high levels of cross-situational consistency and temporal stability. Self-report measures of SWB show adequate validity, reliability, factor invariance, and sensitivity to change. Despite the success of the measures to date, more sophisticated approaches to defining and measuring SWB are now possible. Affect includes facial, physiological, motivational, behavioral, and cognitive components. Self-reports assess primarily the cognitive component of affect, and thus are unlikely to yield a complete picture of respondents' emotional lives. For example, denial may influence self-reports of SWB more than other components. Additionally, emotions are responses which vary on a number of dimensions such as intensity, suggesting that mean levels of affect as captured by existing measures do not give a complete account of SWB. Advances in cognitive psychology indicate that differences in memory retrieval, mood as information, and scaling processes can influence self-reports of SWB. Finally, theories of communication alert us to the types of information that are likely to be given in self-reports of SWB. These advances from psychology suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing SWB will create a more comprehensive depiction of the phenomenon. Not only will a multifaceted test battery yield more credible data, but inconsistencies between various measurement methods and between the various components of well-being will both help us better understand SWB indictors and group differences in well-being. Knowledge of cognition, personality, and emotion will also aid in the development of sophisticated theoretical definitions of subjective well-being. For example, life satisfaction is theorized to be a judgment that respondents construct based on currently salient information. Finally, it is concluded that measuring negative reactions such as depression or anxiety give an incomplete picture of people's well-being, and that it is imperative to measure life satisfaction and positive emotions as well.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DIENER1994,
      author = {DIENER, E},
      title = {ASSESSING SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING - PROGRESS AND OPPORTUNITIES},
      journal = {SOCIAL INDICATORS RESEARCH},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {31},
      number = {2},
      pages = {103-157}
    }
    
    DiMaggio, P. Culture and cognition {1997} ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY
    Vol. {23}, pp. {263-287} 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent work in cognitive psychology and social cognition bears heavily an concerns of sociologists of culture. Cognitive research confirms views of culture as fragmented; clarifies the roles of institutions and agency; and illuminates supra individual aspects of culture. Individuals experience culture as disparate bits of information and as schematic structures that organize that information. Culture carried by institutions, networks, and social movements diffuses, activates, and selects among available schemata. Implications for the study of identity, collective memory, social classification, and logics of action are developed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DiMaggio1997,
      author = {DiMaggio, P},
      title = {Culture and cognition},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {23},
      pages = {263-287}
    }
    
    DODGSON, M. ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING - A REVIEW OF SOME LITERATURES {1993} ORGANIZATION STUDIES
    Vol. {14}({3}), pp. {375-394} 
    article  
    Abstract: Organizational learning is currently the focus of considerable attention, and it is addressed by a broad range of literatures. Organization theory, industrial economics, economic history, and business, management and innovation studies all approach the question of how organizations learn. A number of branches of psychology are also revealing on the issue. This paper assesses these various literatures by examining the insights they allow in three main areas: first, the goals of organizational learning; second, the learning processes in organizations; and third, the ways in which organizational learning may be facilitated and impeded. It contends that while the various literatures are revealing in particular aspects of organizational learning, a more complete understanding of its complexity requires a multi-disciplinary approach. The contributions of the different approaches are analyzed, and some areas are suggested where the transfer of analytical concepts may improve understanding.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DODGSON1993,
      author = {DODGSON, M},
      title = {ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING - A REVIEW OF SOME LITERATURES},
      journal = {ORGANIZATION STUDIES},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {14},
      number = {3},
      pages = {375-394}
    }
    
    Dole, N., Savitz, D., Hertz-Picciotto, I., Siega-Riz, A., McMahon, M. & Buekens, P. Maternal stress and preterm birth {2003} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Vol. {157}({1}), pp. {14-24} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This study examined a comprehensive array of psychosocial factors, including life events, social support, depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived discrimination, and neighborhood safety in relation to preterm birth (<37 weeks) in a prospective cohort study of 1,962 pregnant women in central North Carolina between 1996 and 2000, in which 12% delivered preterm. There was an increased risk of preterm birth among women with high counts of pregnancy-related anxiety (risk ratio (RR)=2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 3.0), with life events to which the respondent assigned a negative impact weight (RR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7), and with a perception of racial discrimination (RR=1.4, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.0). Different levels of social support or depression were not associated with preterm birth. Preterm birth initiated by labor or ruptured membranes was associated with pregnancy-related anxiety among women assigning a high level of negative impact weights (RR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.7, 5.3). The association between high levels of pregnancy-related anxiety and preterm birth was reduced when restricted to women without medical comorbidities, but the association was not eliminated. The prospective collection of multiple psychosocial measures on a large population of women indicates that a subset of these factors is associated with preterm birth.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dole2003,
      author = {Dole, N and Savitz, DA and Hertz-Picciotto, I and Siega-Riz, AM and McMahon, MJ and Buekens, P},
      title = {Maternal stress and preterm birth},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {157},
      number = {1},
      pages = {14-24},
      doi = {{10.1093/aje/kwf176}}
    }
    
    DONOVAN, R. & ROSSITER, J. STORE ATMOSPHERE - AN ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY APPROACH {1982} JOURNAL OF RETAILING
    Vol. {58}({1}), pp. {34-57} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{DONOVAN1982,
      author = {DONOVAN, RJ and ROSSITER, JR},
      title = {STORE ATMOSPHERE - AN ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY APPROACH},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF RETAILING},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {58},
      number = {1},
      pages = {34-57}
    }
    
    DOOSJE, B., ELLEMERS, N. & SPEARS, R. PERCEIVED INTRAGROUP VARIABILITY AS A FUNCTION OF GROUP STATUS AND IDENTIFICATION {1995} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {31}({5}), pp. {410-436} 
    article  
    Abstract: Judgments of intragroup variability were examined as a function of relative group status and identification with the group. In the first study (n = 131), psychology students received false feedback that their group was more or less intelligent than a comparable outgroup (business students) in order to manipulate relative ingroup status. Subjects were divided into high and low identifiers on the basis of their scores on an ingroup identification measure. As well as rating both groups on a series of comparative dimensions, subjects rated the similarities within their group. Although there was no difference in similarity ratings between high and low identifiers when ingroup status was high, low status subjects who identified weakly with their group rated within-group similarity as significantly less than high identifiers. In the second study (n = 101) both status and group identification were manipulated experimentally. Subjects were categorized as belonging to one of two groups, ostensibly on the basis of their problem solving style, and they received false feedback on a subsequent task indicating that their group had performed better or worse than the other group on a series of personnel decision problems. Group identification was manipulated by means of false feedback reinforced by a `'bogus pipeline'' procedure. Ratings of ingroup (and outgroup) variablility as measured by the perceived range of group scores on various positive dimensions, replicated the interaction obtained the first study. In the high status condition, ingroup identification did not affect the perceived range of group scores whereas under low group status, subjects in the low identification condition perceived greater intragroup variation than did subjects in the high identification condition. The differential perception and use of variability judgments by high and low group identifiers in the face of a threatened group image is discussed in terms of social identity principles. (C) 1995 Academic Press, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DOOSJE1995,
      author = {DOOSJE, B and ELLEMERS, N and SPEARS, R},
      title = {PERCEIVED INTRAGROUP VARIABILITY AS A FUNCTION OF GROUP STATUS AND IDENTIFICATION},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {31},
      number = {5},
      pages = {410-436}
    }
    
    Drent, P., van Oers, K. & van Noordwijk, A. Realized heritability of personalities in the great tit (Parus major) {2003} PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
    Vol. {270}({1510}), pp. {45-51} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Behaviour under conditions of mild stress shows consistent patterns in all vertebrates: exploratory behaviour, boldness, aggressiveness covary in the same way. The existence of highly consistent individual variation in these behavioural strategies, also referred to as personalities or coping styles, allows us to measure the behaviour under standardized conditions on birds bred in captivity, link the standardized measurements to the behaviour under natural conditions and measure natural selection in the field. We have bred the great tit (Parus major), a classical model species for the study of behaviour under natural conditions, in captivity. Here, we report a realized heritability of 54 +/- 5% for early exploratory behaviour, based on four generations of bi-directional artificial selection. In addition to this, we measured hand-reared juveniles and their wild-caught parents in the laboratory. The heritability found in the mid-offspring-mid-parent regression was significantly different from zero. We have thus established the presence of considerable amounts of genetic variation for personality types in a wild bird.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Drent2003,
      author = {Drent, PJ and van Oers, K and van Noordwijk, AJ},
      title = {Realized heritability of personalities in the great tit (Parus major)},
      journal = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {270},
      number = {1510},
      pages = {45-51},
      doi = {{10.1098/rspb.2002.2168}}
    }
    
    DUTTON, J., DUKERICH, J. & HARQUAIL, C. ORGANIZATIONAL IMAGES AND MEMBER IDENTIFICATION {1994} ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE QUARTERLY
    Vol. {39}({2}), pp. {239-263} 
    article  
    Abstract: We develop a model to explain how images of one's work organization shape the strength of his or her identification with the organization. We focus on two key organizational images: one based on what a member believes is distinctive, central, and enduring about his or her organization and one based on a member's beliefs about what outsiders think about the organization. According to the model, members assess the attractiveness of these images by how well the image preserves the continuity of their self-concept, provides distinctiveness, and enhances self-esteem. The model leads to a number of propositions about how organizational identification affects members' patterns of social interaction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DUTTON1994,
      author = {DUTTON, JE and DUKERICH, JM and HARQUAIL, CV},
      title = {ORGANIZATIONAL IMAGES AND MEMBER IDENTIFICATION},
      journal = {ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE QUARTERLY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {39},
      number = {2},
      pages = {239-263}
    }
    
    EAGLY, A. THE SCIENCE AND POLITICS OF COMPARING WOMEN AND MEN {1995} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {50}({3}), pp. {145-158} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article considers scientific evidence relevant to 4 claims that are often made about the findings of research that has compared the sexes. These claims are that the sex-related differences demonstrated by empirical research are small, unusually unstable across studies, very often artifactual, and inconsistent with the content of gender stereotypes. The empirical status of these claims has been seriously weakened by the findings of numerous quantitative syntheses of research that have compared female and male behavior. This weakening of the evidence has jeopardized the feminist political agenda of using empirical research to disconfirm gender stereotypes to raise women's status. Consequently, comparing the sexes has become increasingly controversial among psychologists. To deal responsibly with the issues that have been raised psychologists should consider the role that their research plays in discourse on the status of women in society.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EAGLY1995,
      author = {EAGLY, AH},
      title = {THE SCIENCE AND POLITICS OF COMPARING WOMEN AND MEN},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {50},
      number = {3},
      pages = {145-158}
    }
    
    Eagly, A. & Wood, W. The origins of sex differences in human behavior - Evolved dispositions versus social roles {1999} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {54}({6}), pp. {408-423} 
    article  
    Abstract: The origins of sex differences in human behavior can lie mainly in evolved dispositions that differ by sex or mainly in the differing placement of women and men in the social structure. The present article contrasts these 2 origin theories of sex differences and illustrates the explanatory power of each to account for the overall differences between the mate selection preferences of men and women. Although this research area often has been interpreted as providing evidence for evolved dispositions, a reanalysis of D. M. Buss's (1989a) study of sex differences in the attributes valued in potential mates in 37 cultures yielded cross-cultural variation that supports the social structural account of sex differences in mate preferences.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eagly1999,
      author = {Eagly, AH and Wood, W},
      title = {The origins of sex differences in human behavior - Evolved dispositions versus social roles},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {54},
      number = {6},
      pages = {408-423}
    }
    
    EAKER, E., PINSKY, J. & CASTELLI, W. MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION AND CORONARY DEATH AMONG WOMEN - PSYCHOSOCIAL PREDICTORS FROM A 20-YEAR FOLLOW-UP OF WOMEN IN THE FRAMINGHAM-STUDY {1992} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Vol. {135}({8}), pp. {854-864} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study investigates the relation of psychosocial variables to the 20-year incidence of myocardial infarction or coronary death among women in the Framingham Study. In 1965-1967, a psychosocial interview was given along with the collection of other coronary risk factor data. This study includes 749 women aged 45-64 years who were free of coronary disease at this baseline examination. Demographic variables, psychosocial scales (such as tension and reactions of anger), and individual interview items (such as attitudes toward children, money, and religion) were measured. When age, systolic blood pressure, the ratio of serum total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes, cigarette smoking, and body mass index were controlled for in multivariate proportional hazards models, the predictors of the 20-year incidence of myocardial infarction or coronary death were as follows: among employed women, perceived financial status only; among homemakers, symptoms of tension and anxiety, being lonely during the day, difficulty falling asleep, infrequent vacations, housework affecting health, and believing one is prone to heart disease (p < 0.05 for all variables); and among both groups of women combined, low educational level, tension, and lack of vacations. These results are discussed in relation to previous findings from the Framingham Study.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EAKER1992,
      author = {EAKER, ED and PINSKY, J and CASTELLI, WP},
      title = {MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION AND CORONARY DEATH AMONG WOMEN - PSYCHOSOCIAL PREDICTORS FROM A 20-YEAR FOLLOW-UP OF WOMEN IN THE FRAMINGHAM-STUDY},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {135},
      number = {8},
      pages = {854-864}
    }
    
    EARLEY, P. EAST MEETS WEST MEETS MIDEAST - FURTHER EXPLORATIONS OF COLLECTIVISTIC AND INDIVIDUALISTIC WORK GROUPS {1993} ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL
    Vol. {36}({2}), pp. {319-348} 
    article  
    Abstract: The extent of people's cultural beliefs of individualism or collectivism has been used to predict the effectiveness of many management practices. A key aspect of those characteristics is the relation of individualists and collectivists to members of their ingroup and outgroups. This study examined the implications of group membership for individuals' performance in a group setting through an experiment using Chinese, Israeli, and American subjects. The performance of individualists who thought they were working in an ingroup or an outgroup was lower than the performance of individualists working alone, whereas collectivists' performance was lower in an individual or outgroup context than in an ingroup context. Perceptions of individual and group efficacy and anticipated performance outcomes mediated the effects of the exogenous variables. A follow-up field survey showed support for a conceptual replication of the results.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EARLEY1993,
      author = {EARLEY, PC},
      title = {EAST MEETS WEST MEETS MIDEAST - FURTHER EXPLORATIONS OF COLLECTIVISTIC AND INDIVIDUALISTIC WORK GROUPS},
      journal = {ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {36},
      number = {2},
      pages = {319-348}
    }
    
    Eccles, J. & Wigfield, A. Motivational beliefs, values, and goals {2002} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {53}, pp. {109-132} 
    article  
    Abstract: This chapter reviews the recent research on motivation, beliefs, values, and goals, focusing on developmental and educational psychology. The authors divide the chapter into four major sections: theories focused on expectancies for success (self-efficacy theory and control theory), theories focused on task value (theories focused on intrinsic motivation, self-determination, flow, interest, and goals), theories that integrate expectancies and values (attribution theory, the expectancy-value models of Eccles et al., Feather, and Heckhausen, and self-worth theory), and theories integrating motivation and cognition (social cognitive theories of self-regulation and motivation, the work by Winne & Marx, Borkowski et al., Pintrich et al., and theories of motivation and volition). The authors end the chapter with a discussion of how to integrate theories of self-regulation and expectancy-value models of motivation and suggest new directions for future research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eccles2002,
      author = {Eccles, JS and Wigfield, A},
      title = {Motivational beliefs, values, and goals},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {53},
      pages = {109-132}
    }
    
    ELDER, G. TIME, HUMAN AGENCY, AND SOCIAL-CHANGE - PERSPECTIVES ON THE LIFE-COURSE {1994} SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY
    Vol. {57}({1}), pp. {4-15} 
    article  
    Abstract: The life course has emerged over the past 30 years as a major research paradigm. Distinctive themes include the relation between human lives and a changing society, the timing of lives, linked or interdependent lives, and human agency. Two lines of research converged in the formation of this paradigm during the 1960s; one was associated with an older `'social relationship'' tradition that featured intergenerational studies, and the other with more contemporary thinking about age. The emergence of a life course paradigm has been coupled with a notable decline in socialization as a research framework and with its incorporation by other theories. Also, the field has seen an expanding interest in how social change alters people's lives, an enduring perspective of sociological social psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ELDER1994,
      author = {ELDER, GH},
      title = {TIME, HUMAN AGENCY, AND SOCIAL-CHANGE - PERSPECTIVES ON THE LIFE-COURSE},
      journal = {SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {57},
      number = {1},
      pages = {4-15},
      note = {Cooley-Mead Lecture to the Social-Psychology-Section, at the 1993 Annual Meeting of the American-Sociological-Association, MIAMI BEACH, FL, 1993}
    }
    
    Elliot, A. & Harackiewicz, J. Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis {1996} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {70}({3}), pp. {461-475} 
    article  
    Abstract: Most contemporary achievement goal conceptualizations consist of a performance goal versus mastery goal dichotomy. The present research offers an alternative framework by partitioning the performance goal orientation into independent approach and avoidance motivational orientations. Two experiments investigated the predictive utility of the proposed approach-avoidance achievement goal conceptualization in the intrinsic motivation domain. Results from both experiments supported the proposed framework; only performance goals grounded in the avoidance of failure undermined intrinsic motivation. Task involvement was validated as a mediator of the observed effects on intrinsic motivation. Ramifications for the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation and future research avenues are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Elliot1996,
      author = {Elliot, AJ and Harackiewicz, JM},
      title = {Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {70},
      number = {3},
      pages = {461-475}
    }
    
    Elliott, R., Fischer, C. & Rennie, D. Evolving guidelines for publication of qualitative research studies in psychology and related fields {1999} BRITISH JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {38}({Part 3}), pp. {215-229} 
    article  
    Abstract: We present a set of evolving guidelines for reviewing qualitative research, to serve four functions: to contribute to the process of legitimizing qualitative research; to ensure more appropriate and valid scientific reviews of qualitative manuscripts, theses, and dissertations; to encourage better quality control in qualitative research through better self- and other-monitoring; and to encourage further developments in approach and method. Building on a review of existing principles of good practice in qualitative research, we used an iterative process of revision and feedback from colleagues who engage in qualitative research, resulting in a set of seven guidelines common to both qualitative and quantitative research and seven guidelines especially pertinent to qualitative investigations in psychology and related social sciences. The Evolving Guidelines are subject to continuing revision and should not be used in a rigid manner, in order to avoid stifling creativity in this rapidly evolving, rich research tradition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Elliott1999,
      author = {Elliott, R and Fischer, CT and Rennie, DL},
      title = {Evolving guidelines for publication of qualitative research studies in psychology and related fields},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {38},
      number = {Part 3},
      pages = {215-229}
    }
    
    Ellison, C. & Levin, J. The religion-health connection: Evidence, theory, and future directions {1998} HEALTH EDUCATION & BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {25}({6}), pp. {700-720} 
    article  
    Abstract: The volume and quality of research on what we term the religion-health connection have increased markedly in recent years. This interest in the complex relationships between religion and mental and physical health is being fueled by energetic and innovative research programs in several fields, including sociology, psychology, health behavior and health education, psychiatry, gerontology, and social epidemiology. This article has three main objectives: (1) to briefly review the medical and epidemiologic research on religious factors and both physical health and mental health; (2) to identify the most promising explanatory mechanisms for religious effects on health, giving particular attention to the relationships between religious factors and the central constructs of the life stress paradigm, which guides most current social and behavioral research on health outcomes; and (3) to critique previous work on religion and health, pointing out limitations and promising new research directions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ellison1998,
      author = {Ellison, CG and Levin, JS},
      title = {The religion-health connection: Evidence, theory, and future directions},
      journal = {HEALTH EDUCATION & BEHAVIOR},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {25},
      number = {6},
      pages = {700-720},
      note = {Meetings of the Association-for-the-Sociology-of-Religion, NEW YORK, NEW YORK, AUG 18-20, 1996}
    }
    
    Endler, J. & Basolo, A. Sensory ecology, receiver biases and sexual selection {1998} TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION
    Vol. {13}({10}), pp. {415-420} 
    article  
    Abstract: During courtship, signals are sent between the sexes, and received signals contain information that forms the basis of decision making. Much is known about signal content, but less is known about signal design - what makes signals work efficiently? A consideration of design not only gives new insights into the evolution of signals (including novelty), but also allows the development of specific and testable predictions about the direction of evolution. Recently there has been increased interest in signal design, but this has resulted in same apparently divergent views in the literature.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Endler1998,
      author = {Endler, JA and Basolo, AL},
      title = {Sensory ecology, receiver biases and sexual selection},
      journal = {TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {13},
      number = {10},
      pages = {415-420}
    }
    
    ENDLER, N. & MAGNUSSON, D. TOWARD AN INTERACTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSONALITY {1976} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {83}({5}), pp. {956-974} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ENDLER1976,
      author = {ENDLER, NS and MAGNUSSON, D},
      title = {TOWARD AN INTERACTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSONALITY},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1976},
      volume = {83},
      number = {5},
      pages = {956-974}
    }
    
    Evenden, J. Varieties sf impulsivity {1999} PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
    Vol. {146}({4}), pp. {348-361} 
    article  
    Abstract: The concept of impulsivity covers a wide range of ``actions that are poorly conceived, prematurely expressed, unduly risky, or inappropriate to the situation and that often result in undesirable outcomes''. As such it plays an important role in normal behaviour, as well as, in a pathological form, in many kinds of mental illness such as mania, personality disorders, substance abuse disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Although evidence from psychological studies of human personality suggests that impulsivity may be made up of several independent factors, this has: not made a major impact on biological studies of impulsivity. This may be because there is little unanimity as to which these factors are. The present review summarises evidence for varieties of impulsivity from several different areas of research: human psychology, psychiatry and animal behaviour. Recently, a series of psychopharmacological studies has been carried out by the present author and colleagues using methods proposed to measure selectively different aspects of impulsivity. The results of these studies suggest that several neurochemical mechanisms can influence impulsivity, and that impulsive behaviour has no unique neurobiological basis. Consideration of impulsivity as the result of several different, independent factors which inter act to modulate behaviour may provide better insight into the pathology than current hypotheses based on serotonergic underactivity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Evenden1999,
      author = {Evenden, JL},
      title = {Varieties sf impulsivity},
      journal = {PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {146},
      number = {4},
      pages = {348-361}
    }
    
    Falkenstein, M., Hoormann, J., Christ, S. & Hohnsbein, J. ERP components on reaction errors and their functional significance: a tutorial {2000} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {51}({2-3}), pp. {87-107} 
    article  
    Abstract: Some years ago we described a negative (Ne) and a later positive (Pe) deflection in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) of incorrect choice reactions [Falkenstein, M.: Hohnsbein, J., Hoormann, J., Blanke, L., 1990. In: Brunia, C.H.M., Gaillard, A.W.K., Kok, A. (Eds.), Psychophysiological Brain Research. Tilburg Univesity Press, Tilburg, pp. 192-195. Falkenstein, M., Hohnsbein, J., Hoormann, J., 1991. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 78, 447-455]. Originally we assumed the Ne to represent a correlate of error detection in the sense of a mismatch signal when representations of the actual response and the required response are compared. This hypothesis was supported by the results of a variety of experiments from our own laboratory and that of Goles [Gehring, W.J., Goss, B., Goles, M.G.H., Meyer, D.E., Donchin, E., 1993. Psychological Science 4, 385-390. Bernstein, P.S., Scheffers, M.K., Goles, M.G.H., 1995. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 21, 1312-1322. Scheffers, M.K., Goles, M.G.H., Bernstein, P., Gehring, W.J., Donchin, E., 1996. Psychophysiology 33, 42-54]. However, new data from our laboratory and that of Vidal et al. [Vidal, F., Hasbroucq, T., Bonnet, M., 1999. Biological Psychology, 2000] revealed a small negativity similar to the Ne also after correct responses. Since the above mentioned comparison process is also required after correct responses it is conceivable that the Ne reflects this comparison process itself rather than its outcome. As to the Pe, our results suggest that this is a further error-specific component, which is independent of the Ne, and hence associated with a later aspect of error processing or post-error processing. Our new results with different age groups argue against the hypotheses that the Pe reflects conscious error processing or the post-error adjustment of response strategies. Further research is necessary to specify the functional significance of the Pe. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Falkenstein2000,
      author = {Falkenstein, M and Hoormann, J and Christ, S and Hohnsbein, J},
      title = {ERP components on reaction errors and their functional significance: a tutorial},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {51},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {87-107},
      note = {Workshop on Error Processing and Adaptive Responding, AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS, OCT 01-02, 1998}
    }
    
    Fanselow, M. & Poulos, A. The neuroscience of mammalian associative learning {2005} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {56}, pp. {207-234} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Mammalian associative learning is organized into separate anatomically defined functional systems. We illustrate the organization of two of these systems, Pavlovian fear conditioning and Pavlovian eyeblink conditioning, by describing studies using mutant mice, brain stimulation and recording, brain lesions and direct pharmacological manipulations of specific brain regions. The amygdala serves as the neuroanatomical hub of the former, whereas the cerebellum is the hub of the latter. Pathways that carry information about signals for biologically important events arrive at these hubs by circuitry that depends on stimulus modality and complexity. Within the amygdala and cerebellum, neural plasticity occurs because of convergence of these stimuli and the biologically important information they predict. This neural plasticity is the physical basis of associative memory formation, and although the intracellular mechanisms of plasticity within these structures share some similarities, they differ significantly. The last Annual Review of Psychology article to specifically tackle the question of mammalian associative learning (Lavond et al. 1993) persuasively argued that identifiable ``essential'' circuits encode memories formed during associative learning. The next dozen years saw breathtaking progress not only in detailing those essential circuits but also in identifying the essential processes occurring at the synapses (e.g., Bi & Poo 2001, Martinez & Derrick 1996) and within the neurons (e.g., Malinow & Malenka 2002, Murthy & De Camilli 2003) that make up those circuits. In this chapter, we describe the orientation that the neuroscience of learning has taken and review some of the progress made within that orientation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fanselow2005,
      author = {Fanselow, MS and Poulos, AM},
      title = {The neuroscience of mammalian associative learning},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {56},
      pages = {207-234},
      doi = {{10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070213}}
    }
    
    FAUST, D. & ZISKIN, J. THE EXPERT WITNESS IN PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY {1988} SCIENCE
    Vol. {241}({4861}), pp. {31-35} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{FAUST1988,
      author = {FAUST, D and ZISKIN, J},
      title = {THE EXPERT WITNESS IN PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      journal = {SCIENCE},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {241},
      number = {4861},
      pages = {31-35}
    }
    
    Fein, S. & Spencer, S. Prejudice as self-image maintenance: Affirming the self through derogating others {1997} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {73}({1}), pp. {31-44} 
    article  
    Abstract: The authors argue that self-image maintenance processes play an important role in stereotyping and prejudice. Three studies demonstrated that when individuals evaluated a member of a stereotyped group, they were less likely to evaluate that person negatively if their self-images had been bolstered through a self-affirmation procedure, and they were more likely to evaluate that person stereotypically if their self-images had been threatened by negative feedback. Moreover, among those individuals whose self-image had been threatened, derogating a stereotyped target mediated an increase in their self-esteem. The authors suggest that stereotyping and prejudice may be a common means to maintain one's self-image, and they discuss the role of self-image-maintenance processes in the context of motivational, sociocultural, and cognitive approaches to stereotyping and prejudice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fein1997,
      author = {Fein, S and Spencer, SJ},
      title = {Prejudice as self-image maintenance: Affirming the self through derogating others},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {73},
      number = {1},
      pages = {31-44}
    }
    
    FIDELL, L. EMPIRICAL VERIFICATION OF SEX DISCRIMINATION IN HIRING PRACTICES IN PSYCHOLOGY {1970} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {25}({12}), pp. {1094-\&} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{FIDELL1970,
      author = {FIDELL, LS},
      title = {EMPIRICAL VERIFICATION OF SEX DISCRIMINATION IN HIRING PRACTICES IN PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1970},
      volume = {25},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1094-&}
    }
    
    FISCHHOFF, B. VALUE ELICITATION - IS THERE ANYTHING IN THERE {1991} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {46}({8}), pp. {835-847} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{FISCHHOFF1991,
      author = {FISCHHOFF, B},
      title = {VALUE ELICITATION - IS THERE ANYTHING IN THERE},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {46},
      number = {8},
      pages = {835-847}
    }
    
    Flynn, J. Searching for justice - The discovery of IQ gains over time {1999} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {54}({1}), pp. {5-20} 
    article  
    Abstract: Humane-egalitarian ideals, whose aims are group justice and reducing environmental inequality and privilege, must be rested against reality: as revealed by psychology and other social sciences. Four issues are addressed: the equation between IQ and intelligence, whether group potential is determined by a group's mean Ie, whether the Black-White re gap is genetic, and the meritocratic thesis that genes for Ie,will become highly correlated with class. Massive Ie gains ol er time test the IQ-intelligence equation, reveal groups who achieve far beyond their mean les, and falsify prominent arguments for a genetic racial le gap. Class re trends suggest America is not evolving toward a meritocracy, brit ct core refutation of that thesis is needed and supplied. Finally, the viability of humane ideals is assessed against a worst-case scenario.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Flynn1999,
      author = {Flynn, JR},
      title = {Searching for justice - The discovery of IQ gains over time},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {54},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5-20},
      note = {105th Annual Convention of the American-Psychological-Association, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AUG 14-19, 1997}
    }
    
    FODOR, J. METHODOLOGICAL SOLIPSISM CONSIDERED AS A RESEARCH STRATEGY IN COGNITIVE-PSYCHOLOGY {1980} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {3}({1}), pp. {63-73} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{FODOR1980,
      author = {FODOR, JA},
      title = {METHODOLOGICAL SOLIPSISM CONSIDERED AS A RESEARCH STRATEGY IN COGNITIVE-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {63-73}
    }
    
    FORD, J., MACCALLUM, R. & TAIT, M. THE APPLICATION OF EXPLORATORY FACTOR-ANALYSIS IN APPLIED-PSYCHOLOGY - A CRITICAL-REVIEW AND ANALYSIS {1986} PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {39}({2}), pp. {291-314} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{FORD1986,
      author = {FORD, JK and MACCALLUM, RC and TAIT, M},
      title = {THE APPLICATION OF EXPLORATORY FACTOR-ANALYSIS IN APPLIED-PSYCHOLOGY - A CRITICAL-REVIEW AND ANALYSIS},
      journal = {PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {39},
      number = {2},
      pages = {291-314}
    }
    
    Frazier, P., Tix, A. & Barron, K. Testing moderator and mediator effects in counseling psychology research {2004} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {51}({1}), pp. {115-134} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The goals of this article are to (a) describe differences between moderator and mediator effects; (b) provide nontechnical descriptions of how to examine each type of effect, including study design, analysis, and interpretation of results; (c) demonstrate how to analyze each type of effect; and (d) provide suggestions for further reading. The authors focus on the use of multiple regression because it is an accessible data-analytic technique contained in major statistical packages. When appropriate, they also note limitations of using regression to detect moderator and mediator effects and describe alternative procedures, particularly structural equation modeling. Finally, to illustrate areas of confusion in counseling psychology research, they review research testing moderation and mediation that was published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology during 2001.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Frazier2004,
      author = {Frazier, PA and Tix, AP and Barron, KE},
      title = {Testing moderator and mediator effects in counseling psychology research},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {51},
      number = {1},
      pages = {115-134},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-0167.51.1.115}}
    }
    
    Fredrickson, B. The role of positive emotions in positive psychology - The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions {2001} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {56}({3}), pp. {218-226} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions ma), be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fredrickson2001,
      author = {Fredrickson, BL},
      title = {The role of positive emotions in positive psychology - The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {56},
      number = {3},
      pages = {218-226}
    }
    
    Frese, M., Kring, W., Soose, A. & Zempel, J. Personal initiative at work: Differences between East and West Germany {1996} ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL
    Vol. {39}({1}), pp. {37-63} 
    article  
    Abstract: Personal initiative, a concept akin to entrepreneurship and organizational spontaneity, was compared in East and West Germany, Differences were hypothesized to be the results of occupational socialization, particularly of work control and complexity, rather than of a selection effect. A representative longitudinal study was conducted in the East and a cross-sectional study in the West. Lower initiative at work was found in the East; control and complexity affected changes in initiative, The results speak for socialization and against selection.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Frese1996,
      author = {Frese, M and Kring, W and Soose, A and Zempel, J},
      title = {Personal initiative at work: Differences between East and West Germany},
      journal = {ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {39},
      number = {1},
      pages = {37-63}
    }
    
    Frey, B. & Jegen, R. Motivation crowding theory {2001} JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC SURVEYS
    Vol. {15}({5}), pp. {589-611} 
    article  
    Abstract: The Motivation Crowding Effect suggests that external intervention via monetary incentives or punishments may undermine, and under different identifiable conditions strengthen, intrinsic motivation. As of today, the theoretical possibility of motivation crowding has been the main subject of discussion among economists. This study demonstrates that the effect is also of empirical relevance. There exist a large number of studies, offering empirical evidence in support of the existence of crowding-out and crowding-in. The study is based on circumstantial evidence, laboratory studies by both psychologists and economists, as well as field research by econometric studies. The pieces of evidence presented refer to a wide variety of areas of the economy and society and have been collected for many different countries and periods of time. Crowding effects thus are an empirically relevant phenomenon, which can, in specific cases, even dominate the traditional relative price effect.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Frey2001,
      author = {Frey, BS and Jegen, R},
      title = {Motivation crowding theory},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC SURVEYS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {15},
      number = {5},
      pages = {589-611}
    }
    
    FRIEDMAN, M. & STRICKER, E. PHYSIOLOGICAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF HUNGER - PHYSIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE {1976} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {83}({6}), pp. {409-431} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{FRIEDMAN1976,
      author = {FRIEDMAN, MI and STRICKER, EM},
      title = {PHYSIOLOGICAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF HUNGER - PHYSIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1976},
      volume = {83},
      number = {6},
      pages = {409-431}
    }
    
    Frith, C. & Frith, U. Cognitive psychology - Interacting minds - A biological basis {1999} SCIENCE
    Vol. {286}({5445}), pp. {1692-1695} 
    article  
    Abstract: The ability to ``mentalize,'' that is to understand and manipulate other people's behavior in terms of their mental states, is a major ingredient in successful social interactions. A rudimentary form of this ability may be seen in great apes, but in humans it is developed to a high Level. Specific impairments of mentalizing in both developmental and acquired disorders suggest that this ability depends on a dedicated and circumscribed brain system. Functional imaging studies implicate medial prefrontal cortex and posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) as components of this system. Clues to the specific function of these components in mentalizing come from single cell recording studies: STS is concerned with representing the actions of others through the detection of biological motion; medial prefrontal regions are concerned with explicit representation of states of the self. These observations suggest that the ability to mentalize has evolved from a system for representing actions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Frith1999,
      author = {Frith, CD and Frith, U},
      title = {Cognitive psychology - Interacting minds - A biological basis},
      journal = {SCIENCE},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {286},
      number = {5445},
      pages = {1692-1695}
    }
    
    FROST, R., HEIMBERG, R., HOLT, C., MATTIA, J. & NEUBAUER, A. A COMPARISON OF 2 MEASURES OF PERFECTIONISM {1993} PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
    Vol. {14}({1}), pp. {119-126} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study compares two recently developed measures of perfectionism. College students completed the Frost, Marten, Lahart and Rosenblate (1990; Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14,449-468) Multidimensional Perfectionsim Scale and the Hewitt and Flett (1991; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 456-470) scale of the same name. Their relationship to each other, as well as to measures of affect, were examined. There was considerable overlap in the two measures of perfectionism. Frost et al.'s Total Perfectionism score appears to reflect a global dimension of perfectionism which is correlated with Hewitt and Flett's Self-Oriented and Socially-Prescribed scales, and less closely related to the Other-Oriented scale. Frost et al.'s Personal Standards scale was most closely associated with Hewitt and Flett's Self-Oriented Perfectionism scale. Frost et al.'s Concern over Mistakes, Parental Expectations and Parental Criticism scales were independently correlated with Hewitt and Flett's Socially-Prescribed Perfectionism scale. The subscales from each measure showed differential relationships with measures of positive and negative affect. Those dimensions which have been found to be related to symptoms of psychopathology were most closely related to negative affect (e.g. Concern over Mistakes, Socially-Prescribed Perfectionism), while those which have been found to be related to more `'healthy'' characteristics were associated with positive affect (e.g. Personal Standards, Other-Oriented Perfectionism). A factor analysis using the 9 subscales resulted in a conceptually clean two-factor solution. The first of these reflected maladaptive evaluation concerns, and the second reflected positive achievement strivings. The implications of these findings for the understanding of the construct of perfectionism are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{FROST1993,
      author = {FROST, RO and HEIMBERG, RG and HOLT, CS and MATTIA, JI and NEUBAUER, AL},
      title = {A COMPARISON OF 2 MEASURES OF PERFECTIONISM},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {14},
      number = {1},
      pages = {119-126}
    }
    
    Funder, D. Personality {2001} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {52}, pp. {197-221} 
    article  
    Abstract: Personality psychology is as active today as at any point in its history. The classic psychoanalytic and trait paradigms are active areas of research, the behaviorist paradigm has evolved into a new social-cognitive paradigm, and the humanistic paradigm is a basis of current work on cross-cultural psychology. Biology and evolutionary theory have also attained the status of new paradigms for personality. Three challenges for the next generation of research are to integrate these disparate approaches to personality (particularly the trait and social-cognitive paradigms), to remedy the imbalance in the person-situation-behavior triad by conceptualizing the basic properties of situations and behaviors, and to add to personality psychology's thin inventory of basic facts concerning the relations between personality and behavior.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Funder2001,
      author = {Funder, DC},
      title = {Personality},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {52},
      pages = {197-221}
    }
    
    FURBY, L. & BEYTHMAROM, R. RISK-TAKING IN ADOLESCENCE - A DECISION-MAKING PERSPECTIVE {1992} DEVELOPMENTAL REVIEW
    Vol. {12}({1}), pp. {1-44} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{FURBY1992,
      author = {FURBY, L and BEYTHMAROM, R},
      title = {RISK-TAKING IN ADOLESCENCE - A DECISION-MAKING PERSPECTIVE},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL REVIEW},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {12},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-44}
    }
    
    Gallagher, A., Ritter, E., Champion, H., Higgins, G., Fried, M., Moses, G., Smith, C. & Satava, R. Virtual reality simulation for the operating room - Proficiency-based training as a paradigm shift in surgical skills training {2005} ANNALS OF SURGERY
    Vol. {241}({2}), pp. {364-372} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background Data: To inform surgeons about the practical issues to be considered for successful integration of virtual reality simulation into a surgical training program. The teaming and practice of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) makes unique demands on surgical training programs. A decade ago Satava proposed virtual reality (VR) surgical simulation as a solution for this problem. Only recently have robust scientific studies supported that vision Methods: A review of the surgical education, human-factor, and psychology literature to identify important factors which will impinge on the successful integration of VR training into a surgical training program. Results: VR is more likely to be successful if it is systematically integrated into a well -thought-out education and training program which objectively assesses technical skills improvement proximate to the learning experience. Validated performance metrics should be relevant to the surgical task being trained but in general will require trainees to reach an objectively determined proficiency criterion, based on tightly defined metrics and perform at this level consistently. VR training is more likely to be successful if the training schedule takes place on an interval basis rather than massed into a short period of extensive practice. High-fidelity VR simulations will confer the greatest skills transfer to the in vivo surgical situation, but less expensive VR trainers will also lead to considerably improved skills generalizations. Conclusions: VR for improved performance of MIS is now a reality. However, VR is only a training tool that must be thoughtfully introduced into a surgical training curriculum for it to successfully improve surgical technical skills.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gallagher2005,
      author = {Gallagher, AG and Ritter, EM and Champion, H and Higgins, G and Fried, MP and Moses, G and Smith, CD and Satava, RM},
      title = {Virtual reality simulation for the operating room - Proficiency-based training as a paradigm shift in surgical skills training},
      journal = {ANNALS OF SURGERY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {241},
      number = {2},
      pages = {364-372},
      doi = {{10.1097/01.sla.0000151982.85062.80}}
    }
    
    Gangestad, S. & Simpson, J. The evolution of human mating: Trade-offs and strategic pluralism {2000} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {23}({4}), pp. {573+} 
    article  
    Abstract: During human evolutionary history, there were ``trade-offs'' between expending time and energy on child-rearing and mating, so both men and women evolved conditional mating strategies guided by cues signaling the circumstances. Many short-term matings might be successful for some men; others might try to find and keep a single mate, investing their effort in rearing her offspring. Recent evidence suggests that men with features signaling genetic benefits to offspring should be preferred by women as short-term mates, but there are trade-offs between a mate's genetic fitness and his willingness to help in child-rearing. It is these circumstances and the cues that signal them that underlie the variation in short- and long-term mating strategies between and within the sexes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gangestad2000,
      author = {Gangestad, SW and Simpson, JA},
      title = {The evolution of human mating: Trade-offs and strategic pluralism},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {23},
      number = {4},
      pages = {573+}
    }
    
    GARDNER, W., MULVEY, E. & SHAW, E. REGRESSION-ANALYSES OF COUNTS AND RATES - POISSON, OVERDISPERSED POISSON, AND NEGATIVE BINOMIAL MODELS {1995} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {118}({3}), pp. {392-404} 
    article  
    Abstract: The regression models appropriate for counted data have seen little use in psychology. This article describes problems that occur when ordinary linear regression is used to analyze count data and presents 3 alternative regression models. The simplest, the Poisson regression model, is likely to be misleading unless restrictive assumptions are met because individual counts are usually more variable (''overdispersed'') than is implied by the model. This model can be modified in 2 ways to accomodate this problem. In the overdispersed model, a factor can be estimated that corrects the regression model's inferential statistics. In the second alternative, the negative binomial regression model, a random term reflecting unexplained between-subject differences is included in the regression model. The authors compare the advantages of these approaches.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GARDNER1995,
      author = {GARDNER, W and MULVEY, EP and SHAW, EC},
      title = {REGRESSION-ANALYSES OF COUNTS AND RATES - POISSON, OVERDISPERSED POISSON, AND NEGATIVE BINOMIAL MODELS},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {118},
      number = {3},
      pages = {392-404}
    }
    
    Garry, M., Manning, C., Loftus, E. & Sherman, S. Imagination inflation: Imagining a childhood event inflates confidence that it occurred {1996} PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW
    Vol. {3}({2}), pp. {208-214} 
    article  
    Abstract: Counterfactual imaginings are known to have far-reaching implications. in the present experiment, we ask if imagining events from one's past can affect memory for childhood events, We draw on the social psychology Literature showing that imagining a future event increases the subjective likelihood that the event will occur. The concepts of cognitive availability and the source-monitoring framework pro ride reasons to expect that imagination may inflate confidence that a childhood event; occurred, However, people routinely produce myriad counterfactual imaginings (i.e., daydreams and fantasies) but usually do not confuse them with past experiences. To determine the effects of imagining a childhood event, we pretested subjects on how confident they were that a number of childhood events had happened, asked them to imagine some of those events, and then gathered new confidence measures. For each of the target items, imagination inflated confidence that the event had occurred in childhood. We discuss implications for situations in which imagination is used as an aid in searching far presumably lost memories.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Garry1996,
      author = {Garry, M and Manning, CG and Loftus, EF and Sherman, SJ},
      title = {Imagination inflation: Imagining a childhood event inflates confidence that it occurred},
      journal = {PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {208-214}
    }
    
    GAWIN, F. COCAINE ADDICTION - PSYCHOLOGY AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGY {1991} SCIENCE
    Vol. {251}({5001}), pp. {1580-1586} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cocaine was considered incapable of producing dependence in 1980 but was recently proclaimed the drug of greatest national health concern. Recent clinical and preclinical investigations demonstrate that cocaine produces unique abuse and withdrawal patterns that differ from those of other major abused drugs and suggest that long-term cocaine abuse produces neurophysiological alterations in specific systems in the central nervous system that regulate the capacity to experience pleasure. It will be necessary to develop clinically pertinent research models before these findings can be considered definitive, but these evolving ideas have already led to applications of promising experimental treatments for cocaine abuse.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GAWIN1991,
      author = {GAWIN, FH},
      title = {COCAINE ADDICTION - PSYCHOLOGY AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGY},
      journal = {SCIENCE},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {251},
      number = {5001},
      pages = {1580-1586}
    }
    
    GECAS, V. THE SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF SELF-EFFICACY {1989} ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY
    Vol. {15}, pp. {291-316} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{GECAS1989,
      author = {GECAS, V},
      title = {THE SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF SELF-EFFICACY},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {15},
      pages = {291-316}
    }
    
    Gendreau, P., Little, T. & Goggin, C. A meta-analysis of the predictors of adult offender recidivism: What works {1996} CRIMINOLOGY
    Vol. {34}({4}), pp. {575-607} 
    article  
    Abstract: Meta-analytic techniques were used to determine which predictor domains and actuarial assessment instruments were the best predictors of adult offender recidivism. One hundred and thirty-one studies produced 1,141 correlations with recidivism. The strongest predictor domains were criminogenic needs, criminal history/history of antisocial behavior, social achievement, age/gender/race, and family factors. Less robust predictors included intellectual functioning personal distress factors, and socioeconomic status in the family of origin. Dynamic predictor domains performed at least as well as the static domains. The LSI-R was identified as the most useful actuarial measure. Recommendations for developing sound assessment practices in corrections are provided.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gendreau1996,
      author = {Gendreau, P and Little, T and Goggin, C},
      title = {A meta-analysis of the predictors of adult offender recidivism: What works},
      journal = {CRIMINOLOGY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {34},
      number = {4},
      pages = {575-607}
    }
    
    GERGEN, K. THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONIST MOVEMENT IN MODERN PSYCHOLOGY {1985} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {40}({3}), pp. {266-275} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{GERGEN1985,
      author = {GERGEN, KJ},
      title = {THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONIST MOVEMENT IN MODERN PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {40},
      number = {3},
      pages = {266-275}
    }
    
    GERGEN, K. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AS HISTORY {1973} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {26}({2}), pp. {309-320} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{GERGEN1973,
      author = {GERGEN, KJ},
      title = {SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AS HISTORY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1973},
      volume = {26},
      number = {2},
      pages = {309-320}
    }
    
    Ghoshal, S. Bad management theories are destroying good management practices {2005} ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT LEARNING & EDUCATION
    Vol. {4}({1}), pp. {75-91} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ghoshal2005,
      author = {Ghoshal, S},
      title = {Bad management theories are destroying good management practices},
      journal = {ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT LEARNING & EDUCATION},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {75-91}
    }
    
    Gigerenzer, G. & Goldstein, D. Reasoning the fast and frugal way: Models of bounded rationality {1996} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {103}({4}), pp. {650-669} 
    article  
    Abstract: Humans and animals make inferences about the world under limited time and knowledge. In contrast, many models of rational inference treat the mind as a Laplacean Demon, equipped with unlimited time, knowledge, and computational might. Following H. Simon's notion of satisficing, the authors have proposed a family of algorithms based on a simple psychological mechanism: one-reason decision making. These fast and frugal algorithms violate fundamental tenets of classical rationality: They neither look up nor integrate all information. By computer simulation, the authors held a competition between the satisficing `'Take The Best'' algorithm and various `'rational'' inference procedures(e.g., multiple regression). The Take The Best algorithm matched or outperformed all competitors in inferential speed and accuracy. This result is an existence proof that cognitive mechanisms capable of successful performance in the real world do not need to satisfy the classical norms of rational inference.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gigerenzer1996,
      author = {Gigerenzer, G and Goldstein, DG},
      title = {Reasoning the fast and frugal way: Models of bounded rationality},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {103},
      number = {4},
      pages = {650-669}
    }
    
    GIGERENZER, G. & HOFFRAGE, U. HOW TO IMPROVE BAYESIAN REASONING WITHOUT INSTRUCTION - FREQUENCY FORMATS {1995} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {102}({4}), pp. {684-704} 
    article  
    Abstract: Is the mind, by design, predisposed against performing Bayesian inference? Previous research on base rate neglect suggests that the mind lacks the appropriate cognitive algorithms. However, any claim against the existence of an algorithm, Bayesian or otherwise, is impossible to evaluate unless one specifies the information format in which it is designed to operate. The authors show that Bayesian algorithms are computationally simpler in frequency formats than in the probability formats used in previous research. Frequency formats correspond to the sequential way information is acquired in natural sampling, from animal foraging to neural networks. By analyzing several thousand solutions to Bayesian problems, the authors found that when information was presented in frequency formats, statistically naive participants derived up to 50% of all inferences by Bayesian algorithms. Non-Bayesian algorithms included simple versions of Fisherian and Neyman-Pearsonian inference.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GIGERENZER1995,
      author = {GIGERENZER, G and HOFFRAGE, U},
      title = {HOW TO IMPROVE BAYESIAN REASONING WITHOUT INSTRUCTION - FREQUENCY FORMATS},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {102},
      number = {4},
      pages = {684-704}
    }
    
    GIGERENZER, G., HOFFRAGE, U. & KLEINBOLTING, H. PROBABILISTIC MENTAL MODELS - A BRUNSWIKIAN THEORY OF CONFIDENCE {1991} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {98}({4}), pp. {506-528} 
    article  
    Abstract: Research on people's confidence in their general knowledge has to date produced two fairly stable effects, many inconsistent results, and no comprehensive theory. We propose such a comprehensive framework, the theory of probabilistic mental models (PMM theory). The theory (a) explains both the overconfidence effect (mean confidence is higher than percentage of answers correct) and the hard-easy effect (overconfidence increases with item difficulty) reponed in the literature and (b) predicts conditions under which both effects appear, disappear, or invert. In addition, (c) it predicts a new phenomenon, the confidence-frequency effect, a systematic difference between a judgment of confidence in a single event (i.e., that any given answer is correct) and a judgment of the frequency of correct answers in the long run. Two experiments are reported that support PMM theory by confirming these predictions, and several apparent anomalies reported in the literature are explained and integrated into the present framework.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GIGERENZER1991,
      author = {GIGERENZER, G and HOFFRAGE, U and KLEINBOLTING, H},
      title = {PROBABILISTIC MENTAL MODELS - A BRUNSWIKIAN THEORY OF CONFIDENCE},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {98},
      number = {4},
      pages = {506-528}
    }
    
    GILBERT, D. & MALONE, P. THE CORRESPONDENCE BIAS {1995} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {117}({1}), pp. {21-38} 
    article  
    Abstract: The correspondence bias is the tendency to draw inferences about a person's unique and enduring dispositions from behaviors that can be entirely explained by the situations in which they occur. Although this tendency is one of the most fundamental phenomena in social psychology, its causes and consequences remain poorly understood. This article sketches an intellectual history of the correspondence bias as an evolving problem in social psychology, describes 4 mechanisms (lack of awareness, unrealistic expectations, inflated categorizations, and incomplete corrections) that produce distinct forms of correspondence bias, and discusses how the consequences of correspondence-biased inferences may perpetuate such inferences.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GILBERT1995,
      author = {GILBERT, DT and MALONE, PS},
      title = {THE CORRESPONDENCE BIAS},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {117},
      number = {1},
      pages = {21-38}
    }
    
    GILOVICH, T. & MEDVEC, V. THE EXPERIENCE OF REGRET - WHAT, WHEN, AND WHY {1995} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {102}({2}), pp. {379-395} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article reviews evidence indicating that there is a temporal pattern to the experience of regret. Actions, or errors of commission, generate more regret in the short term; but inactions, or errors of omission, produce more regret in the long run. The authors contend that this temporal pattern is multiply determined, and present a framework to organize the divergent causal mechanisms that are responsible for it. In particular, this article documents the importance of psychological processes that (a) decrease the pain of regrettable action over time, (b) bolster the pain of regrettable inaction over time, and (c) differentially affect the cognitive availability of these two types of regrets. Both the functional and cultural origins of how people think about regret are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GILOVICH1995,
      author = {GILOVICH, T and MEDVEC, VH},
      title = {THE EXPERIENCE OF REGRET - WHAT, WHEN, AND WHY},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {102},
      number = {2},
      pages = {379-395}
    }
    
    GILSTRAP, L., CHRISTENSEN, R., CLEWELL, W., DALTON, M., DAVIDSON, E., ESCOBEDO, M., GJERDINGEN, D., GODDARDFINEGOLD, J., GOLDENBERG, R., GRIMES, D., HANSEN, T., KAUFFMAN, R., KEELER, E., OH, W., SUSMAN, E., VOGEL, M., AVERY, M., BALLARD, P., BALLARD, R., CROWLEY, P., GARITE, T., GOLDENBERG, R., HANKINS, G., JOBE, A., KOPPE, J., MAHER, J., MERKATZ, I., SHANKARAN, S., SIMPSON, K., SINCLAIR, J., SLOTKIN, T., TAEUSCH, H., WRIGHT, L., ALEXANDER, D., BERBERICH, M., BRACKEN, M., COOPER, L., CULPEPPER, L., ELLIOTT, J., FERGUSON, J., FRIGOLETTO, F., GAIL, D., HALL, W., JONES, M., MEDOFFCOOPER, B., MERENSTEIN, G. & WHALEN, J. EFFECT OF CORTICOSTEROIDS FOR FETAL MATURATION ON PERINATAL OUTCOMES {1995} JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
    Vol. {273}({5}), pp. {413-418} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective.-To develop a consensus on the use of antenatal corticosteroids for fetal maturation in preterm infants. Participants.-A nonfederal, nonadvocate, 16-member consensus panel including representatives from neonatology, obstetrics, family medicine, behavioral medicine, psychology, biostatistics, and the public; 19 experts in neonatology, obstetrics, and pharmacology presented data to the consensus panel and a conference audience of approximately 500. Evidence.-An extensive bibliography of references was produced for the consensus panel and the conference audience using a variety of on-line databases including MEDLINE. The consensus panel met several times prior to the conference to review the literature. It also commissioned an updated meta-analysis, a neonatal registry review, and an economic analysis that were presented at the conference. The experts prepared abstracts for distribution at the conference, presented data, and answered questions from the panel and audience. The panel evaluated the strength of the scientific evidence using the grading system developed by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination and adapted by the US Preventive Services Task Force, Consensus.-The consensus panel, answering predefined consensus questions, developed their conclusions based on the scientific evidence presented in open forum and the scientific literature. Consensus Statement.-The consensus panel composed a draft statement that was read in its entirety at the conference for comment. The panel released a revised statement at the end of the conference and finalized the revisions a few weeks after the conference. Conclusions.-Antenatal corticosteroid therapy is indicated for women at risk of premature delivery with few exceptions and will result in a substantial decrease in neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as substantial savings in health care costs, The use of antenatal corticosteroids for fetal maturation is a rare example of a technology that yields substantial cost savings in addition to improving health.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GILSTRAP1995,
      author = {GILSTRAP, LC and CHRISTENSEN, R and CLEWELL, WH and DALTON, ME and DAVIDSON, EC and ESCOBEDO, MB and GJERDINGEN, DK and GODDARDFINEGOLD, J and GOLDENBERG, RK and GRIMES, DA and HANSEN, TN and KAUFFMAN, RE and KEELER, EB and OH, W and SUSMAN, EJ and VOGEL, MG and AVERY, ME and BALLARD, PL and BALLARD, RA and CROWLEY, P and GARITE, T and GOLDENBERG, RL and HANKINS, GDV and JOBE, AH and KOPPE, JG and MAHER, JE and MERKATZ, IR and SHANKARAN, S and SIMPSON, KN and SINCLAIR, JC and SLOTKIN, TA and TAEUSCH, HW and WRIGHT, LL and ALEXANDER, D and BERBERICH, MA and BRACKEN, M and COOPER, L and CULPEPPER, L and ELLIOTT, JM and FERGUSON, JH and FRIGOLETTO, F and GAIL, DB and HALL, WH and JONES, MD and MEDOFFCOOPER, B and MERENSTEIN, GB and WHALEN, JM},
      title = {EFFECT OF CORTICOSTEROIDS FOR FETAL MATURATION ON PERINATAL OUTCOMES},
      journal = {JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {273},
      number = {5},
      pages = {413-418}
    }
    
    Glaser, D. Child abuse and neglect and the brain - A review {2000} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {41}({1}), pp. {97-116} 
    article  
    Abstract: Developmental psychology and the study of behaviour and emotion have tended to be considered in parallel to the study of neurobiological processes. This review explores the effects of child abuse and neglect on the brain, excluding nonaccidental injury that causes gross physical trauma to the brain. It commences with a background summary of the nature, context, and some deleterious effects of omission and commission within child maltreatment. There is no post-maltreatment syndrome, outcomes varying with many factors including nature, duration, and interpersonal context of the maltreatment as well as the nature of later intervention. There then follows a section on environmental influences on brain development, demonstrating the dependence of the orderly process of neurodevelopment on the child's environment. Ontogenesis, or the development of the self through self-determination, proceeds in the context of the nature-nurture interaction. As a prelude to reviewing the neurobiology of child abuse and neglect, the next section is concerned with bridging the mind and the brain. Here, neurobiological processes, including cellular, biochemical, and neurophysiological processes, are examined alongside their behavioural, cognitive, and emotional equivalents and vice versa. Child maltreatment is a potent source of stress and the stress response is therefore discussed in some detail. Evidence is outlined for the buffering effects of a secure attachment on the stress response. The section dealing with actual effects on the brain of child abuse and neglect discusses manifestations of the stress response including dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and parasympathetic and catecholamine responses. Recent evidence about reduction in brain volume following child abuse and neglect is also outlined. Some biochemical, functional, and structural changes in the brain that are not reflections of the stress response are observed following child maltreatment. The mechanisms bringing about these changes are less clearly understood and may well be related to early and more chronic abuse and neglect affecting the process of brain development. The behavioural and emotional concomitants of their neurobiological manifestations are discussed. The importance of early intervention and attention to the chronicity of environmental adversity may indicate the need for permanent alternative caregivers, in order to preserve the development of the most vulnerable children.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Glaser2000,
      author = {Glaser, D},
      title = {Child abuse and neglect and the brain - A review},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {41},
      number = {1},
      pages = {97-116}
    }
    
    GLASER, W. PICTURE NAMING {1992} COGNITION
    Vol. {42}({1-3}), pp. {61-105} 
    article  
    Abstract: Picture naming has become an important experimental paradigm in cognitive psychology. To name a picture can be considered an elementary process in the use of language. Thus, its chronometric analysis elucidates cognitive structures and processes that underlie speaking. Essentially, these analyses compare picture naming with reading, picture categorizing, and word categorizing. Furthermore, techniques of double stimulation such as the paradigms of priming and of Stroop-like interference are used. In this article, recent results obtained with these methods are reviewed and discussed with regard to five hypotheses about the cognitive structures that are involved in picture naming. Beside the older hypotheses of internal coding systems with only verbal or only pictorial format, the hypotheses of an internal dual code with a pictorial and a verbal component, of a common abstract code with logogen and pictogen subsystems, and the so-called lexical hypothesis are discussed. The latter postulates two main components: an abstract semantic memory which, nevertheless, also subserves picture processing, and a lexicon that carries out the huge amount of word processing without semantic interpretation that is necessary in hearing, reading, speaking and writing.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GLASER1992,
      author = {GLASER, WR},
      title = {PICTURE NAMING},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {42},
      number = {1-3},
      pages = {61-105}
    }
    
    Glick, P., Fiske, S., Mladinic, A., Saiz, J., Abrams, D., Masser, B., Adetoun, B., Osagie, J., Akande, A., Alao, A., Brunner, A., Willemsen, T., Chipeta, K., Dardenne, B., Dijksterhuis, A., Wigboldus, D., Eckes, T., Six-Materna, I., Exposito, F., Moya, M., Foddy, M., Kim, H., Lameiras, M., Sotelo, M., Mucchi-Faina, A., Romani, M., Sakall, N., Udegbe, B., Yamamoto, M., Ui, M., Ferreira, M. & Lopez, W. Beyond prejudice as simple antipathy: Hostile and benevolent sexism across cultures {2000} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {79}({5}), pp. {763-775} 
    article  
    Abstract: The authors argue that complementary hostile and benevolent components of sexism exist across cultures. Male dominance creates hostile sexism IHS), but men's dependence on women fosters benevolent sexism (BS)-subjectively positive attitudes that put women on a pedestal but reinforce their subordination. Research with 15,000 men and women in 19 nations showed that (a) HS and BS are coherent constructs that correlate positively across nations, but (b) HS predicts the ascription of negative and BS the ascription of positive traits to women, (c) relative to men, women are more likely to reject HS than BS, especially when overall levels of sexism in a culture are high, and (d) national averages on BS and HS predict gender inequality across nations. These results challenge prevailing notions of prejudice as an antipathy in that BS tan affectionate, patronizing ideology) reflects inequality and is a cross-culturally pervasive complement to HS.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Glick2000,
      author = {Glick, P and Fiske, ST and Mladinic, A and Saiz, JL and Abrams, D and Masser, B and Adetoun, B and Osagie, JE and Akande, A and Alao, A and Brunner, A and Willemsen, TM and Chipeta, K and Dardenne, B and Dijksterhuis, A and Wigboldus, D and Eckes, T and Six-Materna, I and Exposito, F and Moya, M and Foddy, M and Kim, HJ and Lameiras, M and Sotelo, MJ and Mucchi-Faina, A and Romani, M and Sakall, N and Udegbe, B and Yamamoto, M and Ui, M and Ferreira, MC and Lopez, WL},
      title = {Beyond prejudice as simple antipathy: Hostile and benevolent sexism across cultures},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {79},
      number = {5},
      pages = {763-775}
    }
    
    Glimcher, P. & Rustichini, A. Neuroeconomics: The consilience of brain and decision {2004} SCIENCE
    Vol. {306}({5695}), pp. {447-452} 
    article  
    Abstract: Economics, psychology, and neuroscience are converging today into a single, unified discipline with the ultimate aim of providing a single, general theory of human behavior. This is the emerging field of neuroeconomics in which consilience, the accordance of two or more inductions drawn from different groups of phenomena, seems to be operating. Economists and psychologists are providing rich conceptual tools for understanding and modeling behavior, white neurobiologists provide toots for the study of mechanism. The goat of this discipline is thus to understand the processes that connect sensation and action by revealing the neurobiological mechanisms by which decisions are made. This review describes recent developments in neuroeconomics from both behavioral and biological perspectives.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Glimcher2004,
      author = {Glimcher, PW and Rustichini, A},
      title = {Neuroeconomics: The consilience of brain and decision},
      journal = {SCIENCE},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {306},
      number = {5695},
      pages = {447-452}
    }
    
    Gold, J.I. & Shadlen, M.N. The neural basis of decision making {2007} ANNUAL REVIEW OF NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {30}, pp. {535-574} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The study of decision making spans such varied fields as neuroscience, psychology, economics, statistics, political science, and computer science. Despite this diversity of applications, most decisions share common elements including deliberation and commitment. Here we evaluate recent progress in understanding how these basic elements of decision formation are implemented in the brain. We focus on simple decisions that can be studied in the laboratory but emphasize general principles likely to extend to other settings.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gold2007,
      author = {Gold, Joshua I. and Shadlen, Michael N.},
      title = {The neural basis of decision making},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF NEUROSCIENCE},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {30},
      pages = {535-574},
      doi = {{10.1146/annurev.neuro.29.051605.113038}}
    }
    
    GOLDMAN, M., CHRISTIANSEN, B., BROWN, S. & SMITH, G. ALCOHOLISM AND MEMORY - BROADENING THE SCOPE OF ALCOHOL-EXPECTANCY RESEARCH {1991} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {110}({1}), pp. {137-146} 
    article  
    Abstract: Current biopsychosocial research on the etiology of alcoholism has begun to focus on memory processes as a possible common pathway for drinking decisions. The alcohol-expectancy construct is rooted both in cognitive psychology and alcohol research and can serve as a vehicle for this study. Reexamination of one recent review of issues in alcohol-expectancy research provides an opportunity to broaden the scope of this research with theoretical and methodological alternatives to those suggested in that review. Most importantly, this article shows that expectancy findings, discussed by Leigh (1989a) as reflecting ``psychometric'' limitations, are instead quite consistent with recent network models of memory structure. Such models can provide an informative guide to future research activities. It is also recommended that alcohol-expectancy research remain open to inputs from expectancy theories already developed in several psychological domains, as well as to theories of social cognition and attitude structure in addition to those advanced by Leigh.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GOLDMAN1991,
      author = {GOLDMAN, MS and CHRISTIANSEN, BA and BROWN, SA and SMITH, GT},
      title = {ALCOHOLISM AND MEMORY - BROADENING THE SCOPE OF ALCOHOL-EXPECTANCY RESEARCH},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {110},
      number = {1},
      pages = {137-146}
    }
    
    Goldstone, R. Perceptual learning {1998} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {49}, pp. {585-612} 
    article  
    Abstract: Perceptual learning involves relatively long-lasting changes to an organism's perceptual system that improve its ability to respond to its environment. Four mechanisms of perceptual learning are discussed: attention weighting, imprinting, differentiation, and unitization. By attention weighting, perception becomes adapted to tasks and environments by increasing the attention paid to important dimensions and features. By imprinting, receptors are developed that are specialized for stimuli or parts of stimuli. By differentiation, stimuli that were once indistinguishable become psychologically separated. By unitization, tasks that originally required detection of several parts are accomplished by detecting a single constructed unit representing a complex configuration. Research from cognitive psychology, psychophysics, neuroscience, expert/novice differences, development, computer science, and cross-cultural differences is described that relates to these mechanisms. The locus, limits, and applications of perceptual learning are also discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Goldstone1998,
      author = {Goldstone, RL},
      title = {Perceptual learning},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {49},
      pages = {585-612}
    }
    
    GOODNOW, J. PARENTS IDEAS, ACTIONS, AND FEELINGS - MODELS AND METHODS FROM DEVELOPMENTAL AND SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1988} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {59}({2}), pp. {286-320} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{GOODNOW1988,
      author = {GOODNOW, JJ},
      title = {PARENTS IDEAS, ACTIONS, AND FEELINGS - MODELS AND METHODS FROM DEVELOPMENTAL AND SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {59},
      number = {2},
      pages = {286-320}
    }
    
    GOPNIK, A. HOW WE KNOW OUR MINDS - THE ILLUSION OF 1ST-PERSON KNOWLEDGE OF INTENTIONALITY {1993} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {16}({1}), pp. {1-14} 
    article  
    Abstract: As adults we believe that our knowledge of our own psychological states is substantially different from our knowledge of the psychological states of others: First-person knowledge comes directly from experience, but third-person knowledge involves inference. Developmental evidence suggests otherwise. Many 3-year-old children are consistently wrong in reporting some of their own immediately past psychological states and show similar difficulties reporting the psychological states of others. At about age 4 there is an important developmental shift to a representational model of the mind. This affects children's understanding of their own minds as well as the minds of others. Our sense that our perception of our own minds is direct may be analogous to many cases where expertise provides an illusion of direct perception. These empirical findings have important implications for debates about the foundations of cognitive science.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GOPNIK1993,
      author = {GOPNIK, A},
      title = {HOW WE KNOW OUR MINDS - THE ILLUSION OF 1ST-PERSON KNOWLEDGE OF INTENTIONALITY},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {16},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-14}
    }
    
    GORMAN, P. & HELFAND, M. INFORMATION-SEEKING IN PRIMARY-CARE - HOW PHYSICIANS CHOOSE WHICH CLINICAL QUESTIONS TO PURSUE AND WHICH TO LEAVE UNANSWERED {1995} MEDICAL DECISION MAKING
    Vol. {15}({2}), pp. {113-119} 
    article  
    Abstract: Primary care physicians have many questions about optimal care while they are seeing patients, but they pursue only about 30% of their questions. The authors designed a study to determine the factors that motivate physicians to pursue answers to some of their questions, while leaving the majority of their questions unanswered. They interviewed 49 nonacademic primary care physicians during office hours to record clinical questions as they arose in the course of patient care. The physicians then recorded their perceptions of each question with respect to 12 factors expected to motivate information seeking. Two to five days after the interview, each physician was telephoned to determine which questions had been pursued. In a multiple logistic-regression model only two factors were significant predictors of pursuit of new information: the physician's belief that a definitive answer existed, and the urgency of the patient's problem. Other factors, including the difficulty of finding the answer, potential malpractice liability, potential help or harm to the patient, and self-perceived knowledge of the problem, were not significant in the model. Primary care physicians are significantly more likely to pursue answers to their clinical questions when they believe that definitive answers to those questions exist, and when they perceive the patient's problem to be urgent. Medical information systems must be shown to have direct and immediate benefits to solving the problems of patient care if they are to be more widely used by practitioners.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GORMAN1995,
      author = {GORMAN, PN and HELFAND, M},
      title = {INFORMATION-SEEKING IN PRIMARY-CARE - HOW PHYSICIANS CHOOSE WHICH CLINICAL QUESTIONS TO PURSUE AND WHICH TO LEAVE UNANSWERED},
      journal = {MEDICAL DECISION MAKING},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {15},
      number = {2},
      pages = {113-119}
    }
    
    GORSUCH, R. PSYCHOLOGY OF RELIGION {1988} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {39}, pp. {201-221} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{GORSUCH1988,
      author = {GORSUCH, RL},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY OF RELIGION},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {39},
      pages = {201-221}
    }
    
    Gosling, S., Vazire, S., Srivastava, S. & John, O. Should we trust web-based studies? A comparative analysis of six preconceptions about Internet questionnaires {2004} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {59}({2}), pp. {93-104} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The rapid growth of the Internet provides a wealth of new research opportunities for psychologists. Internet data collection methods, with a focus on self-report questionnaires from self-selected samples; are evaluated and compared with traditional paper-and-pencil methods. Six preconceptions about Internet samples and data quality are evaluated by comparing a new large Internet sample (N = 361,703) with a set of 510 published traditional samples. Internet samples are shown to be relatively diverse with respect to gender, socioeconomic status, geographic region, and age. Moreover, Internet findings generalize across presentation formats, are not adversely affected by nonserious or repeat responders, and are consistent with findings from traditional methods. It is concluded that Internet methods can contribute to many areas of psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gosling2004,
      author = {Gosling, SD and Vazire, S and Srivastava, S and John, OP},
      title = {Should we trust web-based studies? A comparative analysis of six preconceptions about Internet questionnaires},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {59},
      number = {2},
      pages = {93-104},
      doi = {{10.1037/0003-066X.59.2.93}}
    }
    
    GOULD, R. PHASES OF ADULT LIFE - STUDY IN DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY {1972} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {129}({5}), pp. {521-\&} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{GOULD1972,
      author = {GOULD, RL},
      title = {PHASES OF ADULT LIFE - STUDY IN DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1972},
      volume = {129},
      number = {5},
      pages = {521-&}
    }
    
    GRAEN, G. & SCANDURA, T. TOWARD A PSYCHOLOGY OF DYADIC ORGANIZING {1987} RESEARCH IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {9}, pp. {175-208} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{GRAEN1987,
      author = {GRAEN, GB and SCANDURA, TA},
      title = {TOWARD A PSYCHOLOGY OF DYADIC ORGANIZING},
      journal = {RESEARCH IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {9},
      pages = {175-208}
    }
    
    GRAHAM, S. MOST OF THE SUBJECTS WERE WHITE AND MIDDLE-CLASS - TRENDS IN PUBLISHED RESEARCH ON AFRICAN-AMERICANS IN SELECTED APA JOURNALS, 1970-1989 {1992} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {47}({5}), pp. {629-639} 
    article  
    Abstract: Six APA journals (Developmental Psychology, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Journal of Counseling Psychology, Journal of Educational Psychology, and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology) were content analyzed for the presence of empirical articles on African Americans during the 1970-1989 publication period. The analysis revealed a declining representation of African-American research in the six journals. In addition, the empirical literature that does exist was found to be lacking in methodological rigor, as defined by characteristics such as the reporting of the socioeconomic status of subjects and experimenter race. Explanations for the decline were suggested, and recommendations were proposed for alleviating the growing marginalization of African-American research in the journals of mainstream psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GRAHAM1992,
      author = {GRAHAM, S},
      title = {MOST OF THE SUBJECTS WERE WHITE AND MIDDLE-CLASS - TRENDS IN PUBLISHED RESEARCH ON AFRICAN-AMERICANS IN SELECTED APA JOURNALS, 1970-1989},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {47},
      number = {5},
      pages = {629-639}
    }
    
    Greene, J. & Haidt, J. How (and where) does moral judgment work? {2002} TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES
    Vol. {6}({12}), pp. {517-523} 
    article  
    Abstract: Moral psychology has long focused on reasoning, but recent evidence suggests that moral judgment is more a matter of emotion and affective intuition than deliberate reasoning. Here we discuss recent findings in psychology and cognitive neuroscience, including several studies that specifically investigate moral judgment. These findings indicate the importance of affect, although they allow that reasoning can play a restricted but significant role in moral judgment. They also point towards a preliminary account of the functional neuroanatomy of moral judgment, according to which many brain areas make important contributions to moral judgment although none is devoted specifically to it.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Greene2002,
      author = {Greene, J and Haidt, J},
      title = {How (and where) does moral judgment work?},
      journal = {TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {6},
      number = {12},
      pages = {517-523}
    }
    
    Greene, J., Nystrom, L., Engell, A., Darley, J. & Cohen, J. The neural bases of cognitive conflict and control in moral judgment {2004} NEURON
    Vol. {44}({2}), pp. {389-400} 
    article  
    Abstract: Traditional theories of moral psychology emphasize reasoning and ``higher cognition,'' while more recent work emphasizes the role of emotion. The present fMRI data support a theory of moral judgment according to which both ``cognitive'' and emotional processes play crucial and sometimes mutually competitive roles. The present results indicate that brain regions associated with abstract reasoning and cognitive control (including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) are recruited to resolve difficult personal moral dilemmas in which utilitarian values require ``personal'' moral violations, violations that have previously been associated with increased activity in emotion-related brain regions. Several regions of frontal and parietal cortex predict intertrial differences in moral judgment behavior, exhibiting greater activity for utilitarian judgments. We speculate that the controversy surrounding utilitarian moral philosophy reflects an underlying tension between competing subsystems in the brain.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Greene2004,
      author = {Greene, JD and Nystrom, LE and Engell, AD and Darley, JM and Cohen, JD},
      title = {The neural bases of cognitive conflict and control in moral judgment},
      journal = {NEURON},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {44},
      number = {2},
      pages = {389-400}
    }
    
    Greene, J., Sommerville, R., Nystrom, L., Darley, J. & Cohen, J. An fMRI investigation of emotional engagement in moral judgment {2001} SCIENCE
    Vol. {293}({5537}), pp. {2105-2108} 
    article  
    Abstract: The long-standing rationalist tradition in moral psychology emphasizes the rote of reason in moral judgment. A more recent trend places increased emphasis on emotion. Although both reason and emotion are likely to play important roles in moral judgment, relatively tittle is known about their neural correlates, the nature of their interaction, and the factors that modulate their respective behavioral influences in the context of moral judgment. In two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using moral dilemmas as probes, we apply the methods of cognitive neuroscience to the study of moral judgment. We argue that moral dilemmas vary systematically in the extent to which they engage emotional processing and that these variations in emotional engagement influence moral judgment. These results may shed light on some puzzling patterns in moral judgment observed by contemporary philosophers.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Greene2001,
      author = {Greene, JD and Sommerville, RB and Nystrom, LE and Darley, JM and Cohen, JD},
      title = {An fMRI investigation of emotional engagement in moral judgment},
      journal = {SCIENCE},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {293},
      number = {5537},
      pages = {2105-2108}
    }
    
    Greeno, J. & Middle Sch Math Applications Project Grp The situativity of knowing, learning, and research {1998} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {53}({1}), pp. {5-26} 
    article  
    Abstract: The situative perspective shifts the focus of analysis from individual behavior and cognition to larger systems that include behaving cognitive agents interacting with each other and with other subsystems in the environment, The first section presents a version of the situative perspective that draws on studies of social interaction, philosophical situation theory, and ecological psychology. Framing assumptions and concepts are proposed for a synthesis of the situative and cognitive theoretical perspectives, and a further situative synthesis is suggested that would draw on dynamic-systems theory. The second section discusses relations between the situative, cognitive, and behaviorist theoretical perspectives and principles of educational practice, The third section discusses an approach to research and social practice called interactive research and design, which fits with the situative perspective and provides a productive, albeit syncretic, combination of theory-oriented and instrumental functions of research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Greeno1998,
      author = {Greeno, JG and Middle Sch Math Applications Project Grp},
      title = {The situativity of knowing, learning, and research},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {53},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5-26}
    }
    
    GREENWALD, A. NEW LOOK-3 - UNCONSCIOUS COGNITION RECLAIMED {1992} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {47}({6}), pp. {766-779} 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent research has established several empirical results that are widely agreed to merit description in terms of unconscious cognition. These findings come from experiments that use indirect tests for immediate or long-term residues of barely perceptible, perceptible-but-unattended, or attended-but-forgotten events. Importantly, these well-established phenomena-insofar as they occur without initially involving focal attention-are limited to relatively minor cognitive feats. Unconscious cognition is now solidly established in empirical research, but it appears to be intellectually much simpler than the sophisticated agency portrayed in psychoanalytic theory. The strengthened position of unconscious cognitive phenomena can be related to their fit with the developing neural network (connectionist) theoretical framework in psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GREENWALD1992,
      author = {GREENWALD, AG},
      title = {NEW LOOK-3 - UNCONSCIOUS COGNITION RECLAIMED},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {47},
      number = {6},
      pages = {766-779}
    }
    
    GREENWALD, A. & BANAJI, M. IMPLICIT SOCIAL COGNITION - ATTITUDES, SELF-ESTEEM, AND STEREOTYPES {1995} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {102}({1}), pp. {4-27} 
    article  
    Abstract: Social behavior is ordinarily treated as being under conscious (if not always thoughtful) control. However, considerable evidence now supports the view that social behavior often operates in an implicit or unconscious fashion. The identifying feature of implicit cognition is that past experience influences judgment in a fashion not introspectively known by the actor. The present conclusion-that attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes have important implicit modes of operation-extends both the construct validity and predictive usefulness of these major theoretical constructs of social psychology. Methodologically, this review calls for increased use of indirect measures-which are imperative in studies of implicit cognition. The theorized ordinariness of implicit stereotyping is consistent with recent findings of discrimination by people who explicitly disavow prejudice. The finding that implicit cognitive effects are often reduced by focusing judges' attention on their judgment task provides a basis for evaluating applications (such as affirmative action) aimed at reducing such unintended discrimination.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GREENWALD1995,
      author = {GREENWALD, AG and BANAJI, MR},
      title = {IMPLICIT SOCIAL COGNITION - ATTITUDES, SELF-ESTEEM, AND STEREOTYPES},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {102},
      number = {1},
      pages = {4-27}
    }
    
    Greenwald, A., Banaji, M., Rudman, L., Farnham, S., Nosek, B. & Mellott, D. A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept {2002} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {109}({1}), pp. {3-25} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This theoretical integration of social psychology's main cognitive and affective constructs was shaped by 3 influences: (a) recent widespread interest in automatic and implicit cognition, (b) development of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. K. Schwartz, 1998), and (c) social psychology's consistency theories of the 1950s, especially F. Heider's (1958) balance theory. The balanced identity design is introduced as a method to test correlational predictions of the theory. Data obtained with this method revealed that predicted consistency patterns were strongly apparent in the data for implicit (IAT) measures but not in those for parallel explicit (self-report) measures. Two additional not-yet-tested predictions of the theory are described.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Greenwald2002,
      author = {Greenwald, AG and Banaji, MR and Rudman, LA and Farnham, SD and Nosek, BA and Mellott, DS},
      title = {A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {109},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-25},
      doi = {{10.1037//0033-295X.109.1.3}}
    }
    
    Griffin, A., Butow, P., Coates, A., Childs, A., Ellis, P., Dunn, S. & Tattersall, M. On the receiving end .5. Patient perceptions of the side effects of cancer chemotherapy in 1993 {1996} ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY
    Vol. {7}({2}), pp. {189-195} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: A study conducted in 1983 to identify and rank the symptoms experienced by patients receiving cancer chemotherapy reported that vomiting; and nausea were the most important symptoms experienced. With the advent of new antiemetic regimens and changes in cancer chemotherapy, it was anticipated that changes may have occurred in patient perception of symptoms. The study was therefore repeated in 1993. Patients and methods: One hundred and fifty-five cancer patients receiving chemotherapy at a large urban teaching hospital participated in the study. Patients selected from cards listing symptoms all those experienced and the five most troublesome. Results: Patients reported experiencing an average of 20 symptoms (13 physical and 7 psychosocial). Nausea was reported as the most severe symptom followed by tiredness and loss of hair. Vomiting, which was the most severe symptom in 1983, now ranked 5th. Differences were detected in the symptoms experienced and reported as most severe, between chemotherapy regimens, between older and younger patients and between males and females. Conclusions: The results suggest a reduction in the severity of some symptoms experienced while receiving chemotherapy and a shift from concerns about physical to psychosocial issues.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Griffin1996,
      author = {Griffin, AM and Butow, PN and Coates, AS and Childs, AM and Ellis, PM and Dunn, SM and Tattersall, MHN},
      title = {On the receiving end .5. Patient perceptions of the side effects of cancer chemotherapy in 1993},
      journal = {ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {189-195}
    }
    
    Gross, J. Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences {2002} PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY
    Vol. {39}({3}), pp. {281-291} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: One of life's great challenges is successfully regulating emotions. Do some emotion regulation strategies have more to recommend them than others'? According to Gross's (1998, Review of General Psychology, 2, 271-299) process model of emotion regulation, strategies that act early in the emotion-generative process should have a different profile of consequences than strategies that act later on. This review focuses on two commonly used strategies for down-regulating emotion. The first, reappraisal, comes early in the emotion-generative process. It consists of changing the way a situation is construed so as to decrease its emotional impact. The second, suppression, comes later in the emotion-generative process. It consists of inhibiting the outward signs of inner feelings. Experimental and individual-difference studies find reappraisal is often more effective than suppression. Reappraisal decreases emotion experience and behavioral expression, and has no impact on memory. By contrast, Suppression decreases behavioral expression, but fails to decrease emotion experience, and actually impairs memory. Suppression also increases physiological responding for suppressors and their social partners. This review concludes with a consideration of five important directions for future research on emotion regulation processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gross2002,
      author = {Gross, JJ},
      title = {Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences},
      journal = {PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {39},
      number = {3},
      pages = {281-291},
      doi = {{10.1017/S0048577201393198}}
    }
    
    GUILFORD, T. & DAWKINS, M. RECEIVER PSYCHOLOGY AND THE EVOLUTION OF ANIMAL SIGNALS {1991} ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR
    Vol. {42}({Part 1}), pp. {1-14} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{GUILFORD1991,
      author = {GUILFORD, T and DAWKINS, MS},
      title = {RECEIVER PSYCHOLOGY AND THE EVOLUTION OF ANIMAL SIGNALS},
      journal = {ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {42},
      number = {Part 1},
      pages = {1-14}
    }
    
    GUILLEMIN, F., BOMBARDIER, C. & BEATON, D. CROSS-CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY-OF-LIFE MEASURES - LITERATURE-REVIEW AND PROPOSED GUIDELINES {1993} JOURNAL OF CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Vol. {46}({12}), pp. {1417-1432} 
    article  
    Abstract: Clinicians and researchers without a suitable health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measure in their own language have two choices: (1) to develop a new measure, or (2) to modify a measure previously validated in another language, known as a cross-cultural adaptation process. We propose a set of standardized guidelines for this process based on previous research in psychology and sociology and on published methodological frameworks. These guidelines include recommendations for obtaining semantic, idiomatic, experiential and conceptual equivalence in translation by using back-translation techniques and committee review, pre-testing techniques and re-examining the weights of scores. We applied these guidelines to 17 cross-cultural adaptation of HRQOL measures identified through a comprehensive literature review. The reporting standards varied across studies but agreement between raters in their ratings of the studies was substantial to almost perfect (weighted kappa = 0.66-0.93) suggesting that the guidelines are easy to apply. Further research is necessary in order to delineate essential versus optional steps in the adaptation process.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GUILLEMIN1993,
      author = {GUILLEMIN, F and BOMBARDIER, C and BEATON, D},
      title = {CROSS-CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY-OF-LIFE MEASURES - LITERATURE-REVIEW AND PROPOSED GUIDELINES},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {46},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1417-1432}
    }
    
    Haidt, J. The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment {2001} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {108}({4}), pp. {814-834} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Research on moral judgment has been dominated by rationalist models, in which moral judgment is thought to be caused by moral reasoning. The author gives 4 reasons for considering the hypothesis that moral reasoning does not cause moral judgment; rather, moral reasoning is usually a post hoc construction, generated after a judgment has been reached. The social intuitionist model is presented as an alternative to rationalist models. The model is a social model in that it deemphasizes the private reasoning done by individuals and emphasizes instead the importance of social and cultural influences. The model is an intuitionist model in that it states that moral judgment is generally the result of quick, automatic evaluations (intuitions). The model is more consistent than rationalist models with recent findings in social, cultural, evolutionary, and biological psychology, as well as in anthropology and primatology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Haidt2001,
      author = {Haidt, J},
      title = {The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {108},
      number = {4},
      pages = {814-834},
      doi = {{10.1037//0033-295X.108.4.814}}
    }
    
    HAIDT, J., KOLLER, S. & DIAS, M. AFFECT, CULTURE, AND MORALITY, OR IS IT WRONG TO EAT YOUR DOG {1993} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {65}({4}), pp. {613-628} 
    article  
    Abstract: Are disgusting or disrespectful actions judged to be moral violations, even when they are harmless? Stories about victimless yet offensive actions (such as cleaning one's toilet with a flag) were presented to Brazilian and U.S. adults and children of high and low socioeconomic status (N = 360). Results show that college students at elite universities judged these stories to be matters of social convention or of personal preference. Most other Ss, especially in Brazil, took a moralizing stance toward these actions. For these latter Ss, moral judgments were better predicted by affective reactions than by appraisals of harmfulness. Results support the claims of cultural psychology (R. A. Shweder, 1991a) and suggest that cultural norms and culturally shaped emotions have a substantial impact on the domain of morality and the process of moral judgment. Suggestions are made for building cross-culturally valid models of moral judgment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HAIDT1993,
      author = {HAIDT, J and KOLLER, SH and DIAS, MG},
      title = {AFFECT, CULTURE, AND MORALITY, OR IS IT WRONG TO EAT YOUR DOG},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {65},
      number = {4},
      pages = {613-628}
    }
    
    HALEBLIAN, J. & FINKELSTEIN, S. TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM SIZE, CEO DOMINANCE, AND FIRM PERFORMANCE - THE MODERATING ROLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL TURBULENCE AND DISCRETION {1993} ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL
    Vol. {36}({4}), pp. {844-863} 
    article  
    Abstract: Adopting an information-processing perspective and drawing on work in social psychology, this study examined the effects of top management team size and chief executive officer (CEO) dominance on firm performance in different environments. Data from 47 organizations revealed that firms with large teams performed better and firms with dominant CEOs performed worse in a turbulent environment than in a stable one. In addition, the association between team size and CEO dominance, and firm performance, is significant in an environment that allows top managers high discretion in making strategic choices but is not significant in a low-discretion environment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HALEBLIAN1993,
      author = {HALEBLIAN, J and FINKELSTEIN, S},
      title = {TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM SIZE, CEO DOMINANCE, AND FIRM PERFORMANCE - THE MODERATING ROLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL TURBULENCE AND DISCRETION},
      journal = {ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {36},
      number = {4},
      pages = {844-863}
    }
    
    Halford, G., Wilson, W. & Phillips, S. Processing capacity defined by relational complexity: Implications for comparative, developmental, and cognitive psychology {1998} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {21}({6}), pp. {803+} 
    article  
    Abstract: Working memory limits are best defined in terms of the complexity of the relations that can be processed in parallel. Complexity is defined as the number of related dimensions or sources of variation. A unary relation has one argument and one source of variation; its argument can be instantiated in only one way at a time. A binary relation has two arguments, two sources of variation, and two instantiations, and so on. Dimensionality is related to the number of chunks, because both attributes on dimensions and chunks are independent units of information of arbitrary size. Studies of working memory limits suggest that there is a soft limit corresponding to the parallel processing of one quaternary relation. More complex concepts are processed by ``segmentation'' or ``conceptual chunking.'' In segmentation, tasks are broken into components that do not exceed processing capacity and can be processed serially. In conceptual chunking, representations are ``collapsed'' to reduce their dimensionality and hence their processing load, but at the cost of making some relational information inaccessible. Neural net models of relational representations show that relations with more arguments have a higher computational cost that coincides with experimental findings on higher processing loads in humans. Relational complexity is related to processing load in reasoning and sentence comprehension and can distinguish between the capacities of higher species. The complexity of relations processed by children increases with ape. Implications for neural net models and theories of cognition and cognitive development are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Halford1998,
      author = {Halford, GS and Wilson, WH and Phillips, S},
      title = {Processing capacity defined by relational complexity: Implications for comparative, developmental, and cognitive psychology},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {21},
      number = {6},
      pages = {803+}
    }
    
    Happe, F. Studying weak central coherence at low levels: Children with autism do not succumb to visual illusions. A research note {1996} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {37}({7}), pp. {873-877} 
    article  
    Abstract: While anecdotal reports of abnormal perceptual experiences in autism abound, there have been to date no experimental studies showing fundamental perceptual peculiarities. The present paper reports results from a first study of low-level visual integration in autism. Twenty-five subjects with autism, 21 normal 7- and 8-year-olds, and 26 children with learning difficulties were asked to make simple judgements about six well-known visual illusions. Two conditions were used, in an attempt to explore group differences; standard two-dimensional black and white line drawings, and the same figures augmented with raised coloured lines. The subjects with autism were less likely to succumb to the two-dimensional illusions than were the other groups, and were less aided by the three-dimensional `disembedded' condition. These striking results are discussed with reference to the `central coherence' account of autism. Copyright (C) 1996 Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Happe1996,
      author = {Happe, FGE},
      title = {Studying weak central coherence at low levels: Children with autism do not succumb to visual illusions. A research note},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {37},
      number = {7},
      pages = {873-877}
    }
    
    Harackiewicz, J., Barron, K. & Elliot, A. Predictors and consequences of achievement goals in the college classroom: Maintaining interest and making the grade {1997} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {73}({6}), pp. {1284-1295} 
    article  
    Abstract: The authors investigated personality predictors of achievement goals in an introductory psychology class, as well as the consequences of these goals for the motivation and performance of 311 undergraduates. Two dimensions of achievement motivation (workmastery and competitive orientations; J. T. Spence & R.L. Helmreich, 1983) predicted the goals endorsed. Individuals high in workmastery were more likely to adopt mastery goals and less Likely to adopt work avoidance goals, whereas competitive individuals were more likely to endorse performance and work avoidance goals. Students adopting mastery goals were more interested in the class, but students adopting performance goals achieved higher levels of performance. These results suggest that both mastery and performance goals can lead to important positive outcomes in college classes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Harackiewicz1997,
      author = {Harackiewicz, JM and Barron, KE and Elliot, AJ},
      title = {Predictors and consequences of achievement goals in the college classroom: Maintaining interest and making the grade},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {73},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1284-1295}
    }
    
    Harackiewicz, J., Barron, K., Tauer, J., Carter, S. & Elliot, A. Short-term and long-term consequences of achievement goals: Predicting interest and performance over time {2000} JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {92}({2}), pp. {316-330} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Why do some students excel in their college classes and develop interest in an academic discipline? The authors examined both the short-term and long-term consequences of students' achievement goals in an introductory psychology course. Mastery goals positively predicted subsequent interest in the course, but not course grades. Performance goals positively predicted grades, but not interest. Three semesters later, the authors obtained measures of continued interest in the discipline and long-term performance. Mastery goals predicted subsequent enrollment in psychology courses, whereas performance goals predicted long-term academic performance. These positive and complementary effects of mastery and performance goals on different measures of academic success are consistent with a multiple-goals perspective in which both goals can have beneficial consequences in college education.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Harackiewicz2000,
      author = {Harackiewicz, JM and Barron, KE and Tauer, JM and Carter, SM and Elliot, AJ},
      title = {Short-term and long-term consequences of achievement goals: Predicting interest and performance over time},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {92},
      number = {2},
      pages = {316-330},
      doi = {{10.1037//0022-0663.92.2.316}}
    }
    
    HAREMUSTIN, R. & MARECEK, J. THE MEANING OF DIFFERENCE - GENDER THEORY, POSTMODERNISM, AND PSYCHOLOGY {1988} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {43}({6}), pp. {455-464} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HAREMUSTIN1988,
      author = {HAREMUSTIN, RT and MARECEK, J},
      title = {THE MEANING OF DIFFERENCE - GENDER THEORY, POSTMODERNISM, AND PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {43},
      number = {6},
      pages = {455-464}
    }
    
    HARTWICK, J. & BARKI, H. EXPLAINING THE ROLE OF USER PARTICIPATION IN INFORMATION-SYSTEM USE {1994} MANAGEMENT SCIENCE
    Vol. {40}({4}), pp. {440-465} 
    article  
    Abstract: Even though user participation in information system development has long been considered to be a critical factor in achieving system success, research has failed to clearly demonstrate its benefits. This paper proposes user involvement as an intervening variable between user participation and system use. Embedding the constructs of participation and involvement into the theoretical framework of Fishbein and Ajzen, a model is developed and tested in a field study of information system projects. Several key findings emerge from the study. User participation and user involvement represent two distinct constructs, with participation leading to involvement, and involvement mediating the relationship between participation and system use. The critical dimension of user participation is overall responsibility. The role of user participation and involvement is different, depending upon whether system use is mandatory or voluntary.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HARTWICK1994,
      author = {HARTWICK, J and BARKI, H},
      title = {EXPLAINING THE ROLE OF USER PARTICIPATION IN INFORMATION-SYSTEM USE},
      journal = {MANAGEMENT SCIENCE},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {40},
      number = {4},
      pages = {440-465}
    }
    
    HASSELBLAD, V. & HEDGES, L. METAANALYSIS OF SCREENING AND DIAGNOSTIC-TESTS {1995} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {117}({1}), pp. {167-178} 
    article  
    Abstract: Screening and diagnostic tests are common in the fields of psychology, medicine, and education. Often there are several competing tests, and decisions must be made about the relative accuracy of those tests. This article describes a general measure that can be used for both continuous and dichotomous outcome measures. It is the standardized distance between the means of the 2 populations. For continuous measures, it is the effect size measure. For dichotomous measures, it is proportional to the logarithm of the odds of the sensitivity plus the logarithm of the odds of the specificity. The measure is easily computed for both kinds of outcomes. Properties of this measure are discussed, and examples are given. The use of this measure to compare the average performance of different tests is described.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HASSELBLAD1995,
      author = {HASSELBLAD, V and HEDGES, LV},
      title = {METAANALYSIS OF SCREENING AND DIAGNOSTIC-TESTS},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {117},
      number = {1},
      pages = {167-178}
    }
    
    Haubl, G. & Trifts, V. Consumer decision making in online shopping environments: The effects of interactive decision aids {2000} MARKETING SCIENCE
    Vol. {19}({1}), pp. {4-21} 
    article  
    Abstract: Despite the explosive growth of electronic commerce and the rapidly increasing number of consumers who use interactive media (such as the World Wide Web) for prepurchase information search and online shopping, very little is known about how consumers make purchase decisions in such settings. A unique characteristic of online shopping environments is that they allow vendors to create retail interfaces with highly interactive features. One desirable form of interactivity from a consumer perspective is the implementation of sophisticated tools to assist shoppers in their purchase decisions by customizing the electronic shopping environment to their individual preferences. The availability of such tools, which we refer to as interactive decision aims for consumers, may lead to a transformation of the way in which shoppers search for product information and make purchase decisions. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the nature of the effects that interactive decision aids may have on consumer decision making in online shopping environments. While making purchase decisions, consumers are often unable to evaluate all available alternatives in great depth and, thus, tend to use two-stage processes to reach their decisions. At the first stage, consumers typically screen a large set of available products and identify a subset of the most promising alternatives. Subsequently, they evaluate the latter in more depth, perform relative comparisons across products on important attributes, and make a purchase decision. Given the different tasks to be performed in such a two-stage process, interactive tools that provide support to consumers in the following respects are particularly valuable: (1) the initial screening of available products to determine which ones are worth considering further, and (2) the in-depth comparison of selected products before making the actual purchase decision. This paper examines the effects of two decision aids, each designed to assist consumers in performing one of the above tasks, on purchase decision making in an online store. The first interactive tool, a recommendation agent (RA), allows consumers to more efficiently screen the (potentially very large) set of alternatives available in an online shopping environment. Based on self-explicated information about a consumer's own utility function (attribute importance weights and minimum acceptable attribute levels), the RA generates a personalized list of recommended alternatives. The second decision aid, a comparison matrix (CM), is designed to help consumers make in-depth comparisons among selected alternatives. The CM allows consumers to organize attribute information about multiple products in an alternatives x attributes matrix and to have alternatives sorted by any attribute. Based on theoretical and empirical work in marketing, judgment and decision making, psychology, and decision support systems, we develop a set of hypotheses pertaining to the effects of these two decision aids on various aspects of consumer decision making In particular, rye focus on how use of the RA and CM affects consumers' search for product information, the size and quality of their consideration sets, and the quality of their purchase decisions in an online shopping environment. A controlled experiment using a simulated online store was conducted to test the hypotheses. The results indicate that both interactive decision aids have a substantial impact on consumer decision making. As predicted, use of the RA reduces consumers' search effort for product information, decreases the size but increases the quality of their consideration sets, and improves the quality of their purchase decisions. Use of the CM also leads to a decrease in the size but an increase in the quality of consumers' consideration sets, and has a favorable effect on some indicators of decision quality. In sum, our findings suggest that interactive tools designed to assist consumers in the initial screening of available alternatives and to facilitate in-depth comparisons among selected alternatives in an online shopping environment may have strong favorable effects on both the quality RA the efficiency of purchase decisions-shoppers can make much better decisions while expending substantially less effort, This suggests that interactive decision aids have the potential to drastically transform the way in which consumers search for product information and make purchase decisions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Haubl2000,
      author = {Haubl, G and Trifts, V},
      title = {Consumer decision making in online shopping environments: The effects of interactive decision aids},
      journal = {MARKETING SCIENCE},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {19},
      number = {1},
      pages = {4-21}
    }
    
    Hauser, M., Chomsky, N. & Fitch, W. The faculty of language: What is it, who has it, and how did it evolve? {2002} SCIENCE
    Vol. {298}({5598}), pp. {1569-1579} 
    article  
    Abstract: We argue that an understanding of the faculty of language requires substantial interdisciplinary cooperation. We suggest how current developments in linguistics can be profitably wedded to work in evolutionary biology, anthropology, psychology, and neuroscience. We submit that a distinction should be made between the faculty of language in the broad sense (FLB) and in the narrow sense (FLN). FLB includes a sensory-motor system, a conceptual-intentional system, and the computational mechanisms for recursion, providing the capacity to generate an infinite range of expressions from a finite set of elements. We hypothesize that FLN only includes recursion and is the only uniquely human component of the faculty of language. We further argue that FLN may have evolved for reasons other than language, hence comparative studies might look for evidence of such computations outside of the domain of communication (for example, number, navigation, and social relations).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hauser2002,
      author = {Hauser, MD and Chomsky, N and Fitch, WT},
      title = {The faculty of language: What is it, who has it, and how did it evolve?},
      journal = {SCIENCE},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {298},
      number = {5598},
      pages = {1569-1579}
    }
    
    Hawe, P. & Shiell, A. Social capital and health promotion: a review {2000} SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE
    Vol. {51}({6}), pp. {871-885} 
    article  
    Abstract: Interest in social capital and health has emerged at an exciting time. In public health, there is a renewed interest in mechanisms that link social inequalities and health. In epidemiology, there has been a critical interrogation of methods and a call for a more explicit use of theory. In health promotion over the last 20-30 years, social health interventions have been somewhat marginalised in an era dominated by interest in traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Now that social hypotheses are being reborn in health, there is a risk that the sophistication that has developed in social health promotion and the literatures that have informed it could be overlooked. In this paper, we present a brief history of social capital and how it has come into recent prominence through the debate linking income inequality and health. We present the background to this, the earlier literatures on social environmental influences on health and the possible processes thought to underlie this relationship. Social capital has relational, material and political aspects. We suggest that, although the relational properties of social capital are important leg, trust, networks), the political aspects of social capital are perhaps under recognised. The paper also reviews how complex social processes at the community level have come to be operationalised by social theorists and intervention agents in other fields. We suggest that social capital research so far has inadequately captured the underlying constructs, in particular the qualitative difference between the macro/context level and the micro/individual level. While being cautious about the science, we conclude that social capital's power as rhetoric and as a metaphor may be of value. We conclude by suggesting that the coalescence of interests in context-level influences on health now invites a revitalisation of theories and interventions inspired by diverse fields, such as geography and ecological community psychology. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hawe2000,
      author = {Hawe, P and Shiell, A},
      title = {Social capital and health promotion: a review},
      journal = {SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {51},
      number = {6},
      pages = {871-885},
      note = {XVth International Conference on the Social Sciences and Medicine - Societies and Health in Transition, EINDHOVEN, NETHERLANDS, OCT 16-20, 2000}
    }
    
    Heine, S., Lehman, D., Peng, K. & Greenholtz, J. What's wrong with cross-cultural comparisons of subjective likert scales?: The reference-group effect {2002} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {82}({6}), pp. {903-918} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Social comparison theory maintains that people think about themselves compared with similar others. Those in one culture, then, compare themselves with different others and standards than do those in another culture, thus potentially confounding cross-cultural comparisons, A pilot study and Study 1 demonstrated the problematic nature of this reference-group effect: Whereas cultural experts agreed that East Asians are more collectivistic than North Americans, cross-cultural comparisons of trait and attitude measures failed to reveal such a pattern. Study 2 found that manipulating reference groups enhanced the expected cultural differences, and Study 3 revealed that people from different cultural backgrounds within the same country exhibited larger differences than did people from different countries. Cross-cultural comparisons using subjective Likert scales are compromised because of different reference groups. Possible solutions are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Heine2002,
      author = {Heine, SJ and Lehman, DR and Peng, KP and Greenholtz, J},
      title = {What's wrong with cross-cultural comparisons of subjective likert scales?: The reference-group effect},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {82},
      number = {6},
      pages = {903-918},
      doi = {{10.1037//0022-3514.82.6.903}}
    }
    
    HELMS, J. WHY IS THERE NO STUDY OF CULTURAL EQUIVALENCE IN STANDARDIZED COGNITIVE-ABILITY TESTING {1992} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {47}({9}), pp. {1083-1101} 
    article  
    Abstract: Black-White differences in performance on cognitive ability tests (CATs) typically have been explained by assumptions inherent in the implicit biological or environmental philosophical perspectives. It is argued that these perspectives are based on deficient conceptualizations of culture. Consequently, neither can provide useful information about the cultural equivalence (meaning) of test scores across racial or ethnic groups. The culturalist perspective is presented as an alternative for investigating racial cultural influences on CATs using Eurocentric and Afrocentric cultural dimensions. Implications and recommendations for examining cultural equivalence in CATs from a culturalist perspective are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HELMS1992,
      author = {HELMS, JE},
      title = {WHY IS THERE NO STUDY OF CULTURAL EQUIVALENCE IN STANDARDIZED COGNITIVE-ABILITY TESTING},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {47},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1083-1101}
    }
    
    Henderson, J. Human gaze control during real-world scene perception {2003} TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES
    Vol. {7}({11}), pp. {498-504} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In human vision, acuity and color sensitivity are best at the point of fixation, and the visual-cognitive system exploits this fact by actively controlling gaze to direct fixation towards important and informative scene regions in real time as needed. How gaze control operates over complex real-world scenes has recently become of central concern in several core cognitive science disciplines including cognitive psychology, visual neuroscience, and machine vision. This article reviews current approaches and empirical findings in human gaze control during real-world scene perception.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Henderson2003,
      author = {Henderson, JM},
      title = {Human gaze control during real-world scene perception},
      journal = {TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {7},
      number = {11},
      pages = {498-504},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.tics.2003.09.006}}
    }
    
    Henson, R. Understanding internal consistency reliability estimates: A conceptual primer on coefficient alpha {2001} MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN COUNSELING AND DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {34}({3}), pp. {177-189} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although often ignored, reliability is critical when interpreting study effects and test results. Accordingly, this article focuses on the most commonly used estimate of reliability, internal consistency coefficients, with emphasis on coefficient alpha. An interpretive framework is provided for applied researchers and others seeking a conceptual understanding of these estimates.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Henson2001,
      author = {Henson, RK},
      title = {Understanding internal consistency reliability estimates: A conceptual primer on coefficient alpha},
      journal = {MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN COUNSELING AND DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {34},
      number = {3},
      pages = {177-189},
      note = {Annual Meeting of the Mid-South-Educational-Research-Association, BOWLING GREEN, KENTUCKY, NOV, 2000}
    }
    
    HENWOOD, K. & PIDGEON, N. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AND PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIZING {1992} BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {83}({Part 1}), pp. {97-111} 
    article  
    Abstract: Unlike other disciplines in the human sciences, psychology has undervalued the role of qualitative research methods in scientific inquiry. This has done a disservice to psychology, depriving its practitioners of skills which can simultaneously liberate and discipline the theoretical imagination. `Grounded theory' is one useful approach to the systematic generation of theory from qualitative data, and alternative criteria can be advanced for judging the adequacy of research where qualitative methods have been used. An advantage of qualitative research is that theory is generated which is contextually sensitive, persuasive, and relevant.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HENWOOD1992,
      author = {HENWOOD, KL and PIDGEON, NF},
      title = {QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AND PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIZING},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {83},
      number = {Part 1},
      pages = {97-111}
    }
    
    Herek, G. The psychology of sexual prejudice {2000} CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {9}({1}), pp. {19-22} 
    article  
    Abstract: Sexual prejudice refers to negative attitudes toward an individual because of her or his sexual orientation. In this article, the term is used to characterize heterosexuals' negative attitudes toward (a) homosexual behavior, (b) people with a homosexual or bisexual orientation, and (c) communities of gay, lesbian, and bisexual people. Sexual prejudice is a preferable term to homophobia because it conveys no assumptions about the motivations underlying negative attitudes, locates the study of attitudes concerning sexual orientation within the broader context of social psychological research on prejudice, and avoids value judgments about such attitudes. Sexual prejudice remains widespread in the United States, although moral condemnation has decreased in the 1990s and opposition to antigay discrimination has increased. The article reviews current knowledge about the prevalence of sexual prejudice, its psychological correlates, its underlying motivations, and its relationship to hate crimes and other antigay behaviors.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Herek2000,
      author = {Herek, GM},
      title = {The psychology of sexual prejudice},
      journal = {CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {19-22}
    }
    
    Hermans, H. & Kempen, H. Moving cultures - The perilous problems of cultural dichotomies in a globalizing society {1998} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {53}({10}), pp. {1111-1120} 
    article  
    Abstract: The accelerating process of globalization and the increasing interconnections between cultures involve an unprecedented challenge to contemporary psychology. In apparent contrast to these trends, academic mainstream conceptions continue to work in a tradition Df cultural dichotomies (e.g,, individualistic vs. collectivistic, independent vs. interdependent), reflecting a classificatory approach to culture and self: Three developments are presented that challenge this approach: (a) cultural connections leading to hybridization, (b) the emergence of a heterogeneous global system, and (c) the increasing cultural complexity. By elaborating on these challenges, a basic assumption of cross-cultural psychology is questioned: culture as geographically localized Finally 3 themes are described as examples of an alternative approach: a focus on the contact zones of cultures rather than on their center the complexities of self and identity, and the experience of uncertainty.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hermans1998,
      author = {Hermans, HJM and Kempen, HJG},
      title = {Moving cultures - The perilous problems of cultural dichotomies in a globalizing society},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {53},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1111-1120}
    }
    
    HERMANS, H., KEMPEN, H. & VANLOON, R. THE DIALOGICAL SELF - BEYOND INDIVIDUALISM AND RATIONALISM {1992} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {47}({1}), pp. {23-33} 
    article  
    Abstract: There is growing awareness among psychologists that the individualistic and rationalistic character of contemporary psychological theories of the self reflect an ethnocentric Western view of personhood. In opposition to this view, it is argued from a constructionist perspective that the self can be conceived of as dialogical, a view that transcends both individualism and rationalism. A comparison of three constructionist forerunners (Vico, Vaihinger, and Kelly) suggests that to transcend individualism and rationalism, the embodied nature of the self must be taken into consideration. Moving through space and time, the self can imaginatively occupy a number of positions that permit mutual dialogical relations. The classic Jamesian distinction between the I and the Me is translated in a narrative framework. The implications for three areas of psychological research-attribution theory, moral development, and the individual differences paradigm-are briefly discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HERMANS1992,
      author = {HERMANS, HJM and KEMPEN, HJG and VANLOON, RJP},
      title = {THE DIALOGICAL SELF - BEYOND INDIVIDUALISM AND RATIONALISM},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {47},
      number = {1},
      pages = {23-33}
    }
    
    Heyes, C. Theory of mind in nonhuman primates {1998} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {21}({1}), pp. {101+} 
    article  
    Abstract: Since the BBS article in which Premack and Woodruff (1978) asked ``does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?'', it has been repeatedly claimed that there is observational and experimental evidence that apes have mental state concepts, such as ``want'' and ``know.'' Unlike research on the development of theory of mind in childhood, however, no substantial progress has been made through this work with nonhuman primates. A survey of empirical studies of imitation, self-recognition, social relationships, deception, role-taking, and perspective-taking suggests that in every case where nonhuman primate behavior has been interpreted as a sign of theory of mind, it could instead have occurred by chance or as a product of nonmentalistic processes such as associative learning or inferences based on nonmental categories. Arguments to the effect that, in spite of this, the theory of mind hypothesis should be accepted because it is more parsimonious than alternatives or because it is supported by convergent evidence are not compelling. Such arguments are based on unsupportable assumptions about the role of parsimony in science and either ignore the requirement that convergent evidence proceed form independent assumptions, or fail to show that it supports the theory of mind hypothesis over nonmentalist alternatives. progress in research on theory of mind requires experimental procedures that can distinguish the theory of mind hypothesis from nonmentalist alternatives. A procedure that may have this potential is proposed. it uses conditional discrimination training and transfer tests to determine whether chimpanzees have the concept ``see.'' Commentators are invited to identify flaws int he procedure and to suggest alternatives.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Heyes1998,
      author = {Heyes, CM},
      title = {Theory of mind in nonhuman primates},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {21},
      number = {1},
      pages = {101+}
    }
    
    Hill, C., Thompson, B. & Williams, E. A guide to conducting consensual qualitative research {1997} COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {25}({4}), pp. {517-572} 
    article  
    Abstract: The authors discuss the components of consensual qualitative research (CQR) using open-ended questions to gather data, using words to describe phenomena, studying a few cases intensively, recognizing the importance of context, using an inductive analytic process, using a team and making decisions by consensus, using auditors, and verifying results by systematically checking against the raw data. The three steps for conducting CQR are developing and coding domains, constructing core ideas, and developing categories to describe consistencies across cares (cross analysis). Criteria for evaluating CQR are trustworthiness of the method, coherence of the results, representativeness of the results to the sample, testimonial validity, applicability of the results and replicability across samples. Finally, the authors discuss implications for research, practice, and training.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hill1997,
      author = {Hill, CE and Thompson, BJ and Williams, EN},
      title = {A guide to conducting consensual qualitative research},
      journal = {COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {25},
      number = {4},
      pages = {517-572}
    }
    
    Hilton, J. & vonHippel, W. Stereotypes {1996} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {47}, pp. {237-271} 
    article  
    Abstract: The stereotyping literature within psychology has grown considerably over the past decade. In large part, this growth can be attributed to progress in understanding the individual mechanisms that give rise to stereotypic thinking. In the current review, the recent psychological literature on stereotypes is reviewed, with particular emphasis given to the cognitive and motivational factors that contribute to stereotype formation, maintenance, application, and change. In addition, the context-dependent function of stereotypes is highlighted, as are the representational issues that various models of stereotypes imply.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hilton1996,
      author = {Hilton, JL and vonHippel, W},
      title = {Stereotypes},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {47},
      pages = {237-271}
    }
    
    Hirschfield, R., Keller, M., Panico, S., Arons, B., Barlow, D., Davidoff, F., Endicott, J., Froom, J., Goldstein, M., Horman, J., Guthrie, D., Marek, R., Maurer, T., Meyer, R., Phillips, K., Ross, J., Schwenk, T., Sharfstein, S., Thase, M. & Wyatt, R. The national depressive and manic-depressive association consensus statement on the undertreatment of depression {1997} JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
    Vol. {277}({4}), pp. {333-340} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective.-A consensus conference on the reasons for the undertreatment of depression was organized by the National Depressive and Manic Depressive Association (NDMDA) on January 17-18, 1996, The target audience included health policymakers, clinicians, patients and their families, and the public at large, Six key questions were addressed: (1) Is depression undertreated in the community and in the clinic? (2) What is the economic cost to society of depression? (3) What have been the efforts in the past to redress undertreatment and how successful have they been? (4) What are the reasons for the gap between our knowledge of the diagnosis and treatment of depression and actual treatment received in this country? (5) What can we do to narrow this gap? (6) What can we do immediately to narrow this gap? Participants.-Consensus panel members were drawn from psychiatry, psychology, family practice, internal medicine, managed care and public health, consumers, and the general public. The panelists listened to a set of presentations with background papers from experts on diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, and cost of treatment. Evidence.-Experts summarized relevant data from the world scientific literature on the 6 questions posed for the conference. Consensus Process.-Panel members discussed openly all material presented to them in executive session. Selected panelists prepared first drafts of the consensus statements for each question. All of these drafts were read by all panelists and were edited and reedited until consensus was achieved. Conclusions.-There is overwhelming evidence that individuals with depression are being seriously undertreated. Safe, effective, and economical treatments are available. The cost to individuals and society of this undertreatment is substantial. Long suffering, suicide, occupational impairment, and impairment in interpersonal and family relationships exist. Efforts to redress this gap have included provider educational programs and public educational programs. Reasons for the continuing gap include patient, provider, and health care system factors. Patient-based reasons include failure to recognize the symptoms, underestimating the severity, limited access, reluctance to see a mental health care specialist due to stigma, noncompliance with treatment, and lack of health insurance. Provider factors include poor professional school education about depression, limited training in interpersonal skills, stigma, inadequate time to evaluate and treat depression, failure to consider psychotherapeutic approaches, and prescription of inadequate doses of antidepressant medication for inadequate durations. Mental health care systems create barriers to receiving optimal treatment. Strategies to narrow the gap include enhancing the role of patients and families as participants in care and advocates; developing performance standards for behavioral health care systems, including incentives for positive identification, assessment, and treatment of depression; enhancing educational programs for providers and the public; enhancing collaboration among provider subtypes (eg, primary care providers and mental health professionals); and conducting research on development and testing of new treatments for depression.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hirschfield1997,
      author = {Hirschfield, RMA and Keller, MB and Panico, S and Arons, BS and Barlow, D and Davidoff, F and Endicott, J and Froom, J and Goldstein, M and Horman, JM and Guthrie, D and Marek, RG and Maurer, TA and Meyer, R and Phillips, K and Ross, J and Schwenk, TL and Sharfstein, SS and Thase, ME and Wyatt, RJ},
      title = {The national depressive and manic-depressive association consensus statement on the undertreatment of depression},
      journal = {JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {277},
      number = {4},
      pages = {333-340}
    }
    
    Hirshleifer, D. Investor psychology and asset pricing {2001} JOURNAL OF FINANCE
    Vol. {56}({4}), pp. {1533-1597} 
    article  
    Abstract: The basic paradigm of asset pricing is in vibrant flux. The purely rational approach is being subsumed by a broader approach based upon the psychology of investors. In this approach, security expected returns are determined by both risk and misvaluation. This survey sketches a framework for understanding decision biases, evaluates the a priori arguments and the capital market evidence bearing on the importance of investor psychology for security prices, and reviews recent models.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hirshleifer2001,
      author = {Hirshleifer, D},
      title = {Investor psychology and asset pricing},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF FINANCE},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {56},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1533-1597},
      note = {Annual Meeting of the American-Finance-Association, NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA, JAN, 2001}
    }
    
    HJORLAND, B. & ALBRECHTSEN, H. TOWARD A NEW HORIZON IN INFORMATION-SCIENCE - DOMAIN-ANALYSIS {1995} JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE
    Vol. {46}({6}), pp. {400-425} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article is a programmatic article, which formulates a new approach to information science (IS): domain-analysis. This approach states that the most fruitful horizon for IS is to study the knowledge-domains as thought or discourse communities, which are parts of society's division of labor. The article is also a review article, providing a multidisciplinary description of research, illuminating this theoretical view. The first section presents contemporary research in IS, sharing the fundamental viewpoint that IS should be seen as a social rather than as a purely mental discipline. In addition, important predecessors to this view are mentioned and the possibilities as well as the limitations of their approaches are discussed. The second section describes recent transdisciplinary tendencies in the understanding of knowledge. In bordering disciplines to IS, such as educational research, psychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of science, an important new view of knowledge is appearing in the 1990s. This new view of knowledge stresses the social, ecological, and content-oriented nature of knowledge. This is opposed to the more formal, computer-like approaches that dominated in the 1980s. The third section compares domain-analysis to other major approaches in IS, such as the cognitive approach. The final section outlines important problems to be investigated, such as how different knowledge-domains affect the informational value of different subject access points in data bases.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HJORLAND1995,
      author = {HJORLAND, B and ALBRECHTSEN, H},
      title = {TOWARD A NEW HORIZON IN INFORMATION-SCIENCE - DOMAIN-ANALYSIS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {46},
      number = {6},
      pages = {400-425}
    }
    
    Hobfoll, S. Social and psychological resources and adaptation {2002} REVIEW OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {6}({4}), pp. {307-324} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Psychology has increasingly turned to the study of psychosocial resources in the examination of well-being. How resources are being studied and resource models that have been proffered are considered, and an attempt is made to examine elements that bridge across models. As resource models span health, community, cognitive, and clinical psychology, the question is raised of whether there is overuse of the resource metaphor or whether there exists some underlying principles that can be gleaned and incorporated to advance research. The contribution of resources for understanding multicultural and pan-historical adaptation in the face of challenge is considered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hobfoll2002,
      author = {Hobfoll, SE},
      title = {Social and psychological resources and adaptation},
      journal = {REVIEW OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {6},
      number = {4},
      pages = {307-324},
      doi = {{10.1037//1089-2680.6.4.307}}
    }
    
    HOGARTH, R. & EINHORN, H. ORDER EFFECTS IN BELIEF UPDATING - THE BELIEF-ADJUSTMENT MODEL {1992} COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {24}({1}), pp. {1-55} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HOGARTH1992,
      author = {HOGARTH, RM and EINHORN, HJ},
      title = {ORDER EFFECTS IN BELIEF UPDATING - THE BELIEF-ADJUSTMENT MODEL},
      journal = {COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {24},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-55}
    }
    
    Hogg, M., Terry, D. & White, K. A tale of two theories: A critical comparison of identity theory with social identity theory {1995} SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY
    Vol. {58}({4}), pp. {255-269} 
    article  
    Abstract: Identity theory and social identity theory are two remarkably similar perspectives on the dynamic mediation of the socially constructed self between individual behavior and social structure. Yet there is almost no systematic communication between these two perspectivies; they occupy parallel but separate universes. This article describes both theories, summarizes their similarities, critically discusses their differences, and outlines some research directions. Against a background of metatheoretical similarity, we find marked differences in terms of 1) level of analysis, 2) the role of intergroup behavior, 3) the relationship between roles and groups, and 4) salience of social context and identity. Differences can be traced largely to the microsociological roots of identity theory and the psychological roots of social identity theory. Identity theory may be mole effective in dealing with chronic identities and with interpersonal social interaction, while social identity theory may be more useful in exploring intergroup dimensions and in specifying the sociocognitive generative details of identity dynamics.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hogg1995,
      author = {Hogg, MA and Terry, DJ and White, KM},
      title = {A tale of two theories: A critical comparison of identity theory with social identity theory},
      journal = {SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {58},
      number = {4},
      pages = {255-269}
    }
    
    Holmbeck, G. Toward terminological, conceptual, and statistical clarity in the study of mediators and moderators: Examples from the child-clinical and pediatric psychology literatures {1997} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {65}({4}), pp. {599-610} 
    article  
    Abstract: Numerous recent attempts to identify mediated and moderated effects in child-clinical and pediatric research on child adjustment have been characterized by terminological, conceptual, and statistical inconsistencies. To promote greater clarity, the terms mediating and moderating are defined and differentiated. Recommended statistical strategies that can be used to test for these effects are reviewed (i.e., multiple regression and structural equation modeling techniques). The distinction between mediated and indirect effects is also discussed. Examples of troublesome and appropriate uses of these terms in the child-clinical and pediatric psychology literatures are highlighted.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Holmbeck1997,
      author = {Holmbeck, GN},
      title = {Toward terminological, conceptual, and statistical clarity in the study of mediators and moderators: Examples from the child-clinical and pediatric psychology literatures},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {65},
      number = {4},
      pages = {599-610}
    }
    
    Homer, C., Baltz, R., Hickson, G., Miles, P., Newman, T., Shook, J., Zurhellen, W., Lowe, B., Schwalenstocker, E., Goldberg, M., Shiffman, R., Berger, J., France, F., Perrin, J., Stein, M., Amler, R., Blondis, T., Feldman, H., Meyer, B., Shaywitz, B., Wolraich, M., DeSpirito, A., Homer, C., Pierce, K., Ganiats, T., Grabert, B., Brown, R. & Comm Quality Improvement Subcomm Clinical practice guideline: Diagnosis and evaluation of the child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder {2000} PEDIATRICS
    Vol. {105}({5}), pp. {1158-1170} 
    article  
    Abstract: This clinical practice guideline provides recommendations for the assessment and diagnosis of school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This guideline, the first of 2 sets of guidelines to provide recommendations on this condition, is intended for use by primary care clinicians working in primary care settings. The second set of guidelines will address the issue of treatment of children with ADHD. The Committee on Quality Improvement of the American Academy of Pediatrics selected a committee composed of pediatricians and other experts in the fields of neurology, psychology, child psychiatry, development, and education, as well as experts from epidemiology and pediatric practice. In addition, this panel consists of experts in education and family practice. The panel worked with Technical Resources International, Washington, DC, under the auspices of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, to develop the evidence base of literature on this topic. The resulting evidence report was used to formulate recommendations for evaluation of the child with ADHD. Major issues contained within the guideline address child and family assessment; school assessment, including the use of various rating scales; and conditions seen frequently among children with ADHD. Information is also included on the use of current diagnostic coding strategies. The deliberations of the committee were informed by a systematic review of evidence about prevalence, coexisting conditions, and diagnostic tests. Committee decisions were made by consensus where definitive evidence was not available. The committee report underwent review by sections of the American Academy of Pediatrics and external organizations before approval by the Board of Directors. The guideline contains the following recommendations for diagnosis of ADHD: 1) in a child 6 to 12 years old who presents with inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, academic underachievement, or behavior problems, primary care clinicians should initiate an evaluation for ADHD; 2) the diagnosis of ADHD requires that a child meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria; 3) the assessment of ADHD requires evidence directly obtained from parents or caregivers regarding the core symptoms of ADHD in various settings, the age of onset, duration of symptoms, and degree of functional impairment; 4) the assessment of ADHD requires evidence directly obtained from the classroom teacher (or other school professional) regarding the core symptoms of ADHD, duration of symptoms, degree of functional impairment, and associated conditions; 5) evaluation of the child with ADHD should include assessment for associated (coexisting) conditions; and 6) other diagnostic tests are not routinely indicated to establish the diagnosis of ADHD but may be used for the assessment of other coexisting conditions (eg, learning disabilities and mental retardation). This clinical practice guideline is not intended as a sole source of guidance in the evaluation of children with ADHD. Rather, it is designed to assist primary care clinicians by providing a framework for diagnostic decisionmaking. It is not intended to replace clinical judgment or to establish a protocol for all children with this condition and may not provide the only appropriate approach to this problem.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Homer2000,
      author = {Homer, CJ and Baltz, RD and Hickson, GB and Miles, PV and Newman, TB and Shook, JE and Zurhellen, WM and Lowe, BA and Schwalenstocker, E and Goldberg, MJ and Shiffman, R and Berger, JE and France, FL and Perrin, JM and Stein, MT and Amler, RW and Blondis, TA and Feldman, HM and Meyer, BP and Shaywitz, BA and Wolraich, ML and DeSpirito, A and Homer, CJ and Pierce, K and Ganiats, TG and Grabert, B and Brown, RT and Comm Quality Improvement Subcomm},
      title = {Clinical practice guideline: Diagnosis and evaluation of the child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder},
      journal = {PEDIATRICS},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {105},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1158-1170}
    }
    
    HORN, J. & MCARDLE, J. A PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL GUIDE TO MEASUREMENT INVARIANCE IN AGING RESEARCH {1992} EXPERIMENTAL AGING RESEARCH
    Vol. {18}({3-4}), pp. {117-144} 
    article  
    Abstract: We describe mathematical and statistical models for factor invariance. We demonstrate that factor invariance is a condition of measurement invariance. In any study of change (as over age) measurement invariance is necessary for valid inference and interpretation. Two important forms of factorial invariance are distinguished: ``configural'' and ``metric.'' Tests for factorial invariance and the range of tests from strong to weak are illustrated with multiple group factor and structural equation modeling analyses (with programs such as LISREL, COSAN, and RAM). The tests are for models of the organization and age changes of intellectual abilities. The models are derived from current theory of fluid (Gf) and crystallized (Gc) abilities. The models are made manifest with measurements of the WAIS-R in the standardization sample. Although this is a methodological paper, the key issues and major principles and conclusions are presented in basic English, devoid of technical details and obscure notation. Conceptual principles of multivariate methods of data analysis are presented in terms of substantive issues of importance for the science of the psychology of aging.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HORN1992,
      author = {HORN, JL and MCARDLE, JJ},
      title = {A PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL GUIDE TO MEASUREMENT INVARIANCE IN AGING RESEARCH},
      journal = {EXPERIMENTAL AGING RESEARCH},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {18},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {117-144}
    }
    
    HOWARD, G. A NARRATIVE APPROACH TO THINKING, CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY, AND PSYCHOTHERAPY {1991} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {46}({3}), pp. {187-197} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HOWARD1991,
      author = {HOWARD, GS},
      title = {A NARRATIVE APPROACH TO THINKING, CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY, AND PSYCHOTHERAPY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {46},
      number = {3},
      pages = {187-197}
    }
    
    HOYLE, R. & SMITH, G. FORMULATING CLINICAL RESEARCH HYPOTHESES AS STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELS - A CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW {1994} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {62}({3}), pp. {429-440} 
    article  
    Abstract: Structural equation modeling is a comprehensive, flexible approach to research design and data analysis. Although in recent years there has been phenomenal growth in the literature on technical aspects of structural equation modeling, relatively little attention has been devoted to conceiving research hypotheses as structural equation models. The aim of this article is to provide a conceptual overview of clinical research hypotheses that invite evaluation as structural equation models. Particular attention is devoted to hypotheses that are not adequately evaluated using traditional statistical models.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HOYLE1994,
      author = {HOYLE, RH and SMITH, GT},
      title = {FORMULATING CLINICAL RESEARCH HYPOTHESES AS STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELS - A CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {62},
      number = {3},
      pages = {429-440}
    }
    
    HUI, C. & TRIANDIS, H. MEASUREMENT IN CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY - A REVIEW AND COMPARISON OF STRATEGIES {1985} JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {16}({2}), pp. {131-152} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HUI1985,
      author = {HUI, CH and TRIANDIS, HC},
      title = {MEASUREMENT IN CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY - A REVIEW AND COMPARISON OF STRATEGIES},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {16},
      number = {2},
      pages = {131-152}
    }
    
    HUSTON, A., MCLOYD, V. & COLL, C. CHILDREN AND POVERTY - ISSUES IN CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH {1994} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {65}({2}), pp. {275-282} 
    article  
    Abstract: The state-of-the-art research in this volume is based on complex, multidimensional conceptions of poverty. Current research goes beyond description to emphasize analysis of processes by which effects occur and variations in effects associated with race, gender, and ethnicity. Child care, school, neighborhood, and community are studied as well as family contexts. The child outcomes investigated include both intellectual development and socioemotional functioning. It is multidisciplinary, using a broad range of analytic frameworks and research methods from economics, sociology, health, psychology, and other disciplines. In this introduction, the overall research trends are described, and new questions for future research are identified.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HUSTON1994,
      author = {HUSTON, AC and MCLOYD, VC and COLL, CG},
      title = {CHILDREN AND POVERTY - ISSUES IN CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {65},
      number = {2},
      pages = {275-282}
    }
    
    JESSOR, R. SUCCESSFUL ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT AMONG YOUTH IN HIGH-RISK SETTINGS {1993} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {48}({2}), pp. {117-126} 
    article  
    Abstract: A new, interdisciplinary paradigm is emerging in developmental psychology. It includes contextual as well as individual variation and is more consonant with the complexity of adolescent behavior and development than traditional research paradigms. Social problems, such as poverty and racial discrimination, and the ways that young people negotiate adolescence successfully, are objects of research. A research program sponsored by the MacArthur Foundation, that embodies the new paradigm, is described.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JESSOR1993,
      author = {JESSOR, R},
      title = {SUCCESSFUL ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT AMONG YOUTH IN HIGH-RISK SETTINGS},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {48},
      number = {2},
      pages = {117-126}
    }
    
    JESSOR, R., JESSOR, S. & FINNEY, J. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF MARIHUANA USE - LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF HIGH-SCHOOL AND COLLEGE YOUTH {1973} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {26}({1}), pp. {1-15} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{JESSOR1973,
      author = {JESSOR, R and JESSOR, SL and FINNEY, J},
      title = {SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF MARIHUANA USE - LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF HIGH-SCHOOL AND COLLEGE YOUTH},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1973},
      volume = {26},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-15}
    }
    
    Johns, G. The essential impact of context on organizational behavior {2006} ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW
    Vol. {31}({2}), pp. {386-408} 
    article  
    Abstract: I argue that the impact of context on organizational behavior is not sufficiently recognized or appreciated by researchers. I define context as situational opportunities and constraints that affect the occurrence and meaning of organizational behavior as well as functional relationships between variables, and I propose two levels of analysis for thinking about context-one grounded in journalistic practice and the other in classic social psychology. Several means of contextualizing research are considered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Johns2006,
      author = {Johns, G},
      title = {The essential impact of context on organizational behavior},
      journal = {ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {31},
      number = {2},
      pages = {386-408}
    }
    
    JONASSEN, D. OBJECTIVISM VERSUS CONSTRUCTIVISM - DO WE NEED A NEW PHILOSOPHICAL PARADIGM {1991} ETR&D-EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {39}({3}), pp. {5-14} 
    article  
    Abstract: Many scholars in the instructional systems field have addressed the paradigm shift in the field of learning psychology and its implications for instructional systems technology (IST). This article analyzes the philosophical assumptions underlying IST and its behavioral and cognitive foundations, each of which is primarily objectivistic, which means that knowing and learning are processes for representing and mirroring reality. The philosophical assumptions of objectivism are then contrasted with constructivism, which holds that knowing is a process of actively interpreting and constructing individual knowledge representations. The implications of constructivism for IST provide a context for asking the reader to consider to what extent our field should consider this philosophical paradigm shift.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JONASSEN1991,
      author = {JONASSEN, DH},
      title = {OBJECTIVISM VERSUS CONSTRUCTIVISM - DO WE NEED A NEW PHILOSOPHICAL PARADIGM},
      journal = {ETR&D-EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {39},
      number = {3},
      pages = {5-14}
    }
    
    Jost, J., Banaji, M. & Nosek, B. A decade of system justification theory: Accumulated evidence of conscious and unconscious bolstering of the status quo {2004} POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {25}({6}), pp. {881-919} 
    article  
    Abstract: Most theories in social and political psychology stress self-interest, intergroup conflict, ethnocentrism, homophily, ingroup bias, outgroup antipathy, dominance, and resistance. System justification theory is influenced by these perspectives-including social identity and social dominance theories-but it departs from them in several respects. Advocates of system justification theory argue that (a) there is a general ideological motive to justify the existing social order, (b) this motive is at least partially responsible for the internalization of inferiority among members of disadvantaged groups, (c) it is observed most readily at an implicit, nonconscious level of awareness and (d) paradoxically, it is sometimes strongest among those who are most harmed by the status quo. This article reviews and integrates 10 years of research on 20 hypotheses derived from a system justification perspective, focusing on the phenomenon of implicit outgroup favoritism among members of disadvantaged groups (including African Americans, the elderly, and gays/lesbians) and its relation to political ideology (especially liberalism-conservatism).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jost2004,
      author = {Jost, JT and Banaji, MR and Nosek, BA},
      title = {A decade of system justification theory: Accumulated evidence of conscious and unconscious bolstering of the status quo},
      journal = {POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {25},
      number = {6},
      pages = {881-919}
    }
    
    Judd, C., Kenny, D. & McClelland, G. Estimating and testing mediation and moderation in within-subject designs {2001} PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS
    Vol. {6}({2}), pp. {115-134} 
    article  
    Abstract: Analyses designed to detect mediation and moderation of treatment effects are increasingly prevalent in research in psychology. The mediation question concerns the processes that produce a treatment effect. The moderation question concerns factors that affect the magnitude of that effect. Although analytic procedures have been reasonably well worked out in the case in which the treatment varies between participants, no systematic procedures for examining mediation and moderation have been developed in the case in which the treatment varies within participants. The authors present an analytic approach to these issues using ordinary least squares estimation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Judd2001,
      author = {Judd, CM and Kenny, DA and McClelland, GH},
      title = {Estimating and testing mediation and moderation in within-subject designs},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {115-134}
    }
    
    Judd, L., Attkisson, C., Berrettini, W., Buc, N., Bunney, B., Dominguez, R., Friedel, R., Gustafson, J., Hedeker, D., Hiatt, H., Mostaghim, R., Petersdorf, R. & Natl Consensus Dev Panel Effect Med Treatmen Effective medical treatment of opiate addiction {1998} JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
    Vol. {280}({22}), pp. {1936-1943} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective.-To provide clinicians, patients, and the general public with a responsible assessment of the effective approaches to treat opiate dependence. Participants.-A nonfederal, nonadvocate, 12-member panel representing the fields of psychology, psychiatry, behavioral medicine, family medicine, drug abuse, epidemiology, and the public. In addition, 25 experts from these same fields presented data to the panel and a conference audience of 600, Presentations and discussions were divided into 3 phases over 2 1/2 days: (1) presentations by investigators working in the areas relevant to the consensus questions during a 2-day public session; (2) questions and statements from conference attendees during open discussion periods that are part of the public session; and (3) closed deliberations by the panel during the remainder of the second day and morning of a third day. The conference was organized and supported by the Office of Medical Applications of Research, National Institutes of Health. Evidence.-The literature was searched through MEDLINE and other National Library of Medicine and online databases from January 1994 through September 1997 and an extensive bibliography of 941 references was provided to the panel and the conference audience. Experts prepared abstracts for their presentations as speakers at the conference with relevant citations from the literature. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. Consensus Process.-The panel, answering predefined questions, developed its conclusions based on the scientific evidence presented in open forum and the scientific literature. The panel composed a draft statement that was read in its entirety and circulated to the experts and the audience for comment. Thereafter, the panel resolved conflicting recommendations and released a revised statement at the end of the conference. The panel finalized the revisions within a few weeks af; ter the conference. The draft statement was made available on the World Wide Web immediately following its release at the conference and was updated with the panel's final revisions. Conclusions-Opiate dependence is a brain-related medical disorder that can be effectively treated with significant benefits for the patient and society, and so ciety must make a commitment to offer effective treatment for opiate dependence to all who need it. All persons dependent on opiates should have access to methadone hydrochloride maintenance therapy under legal supervision, and the US Office of National Drug Control Policy and the US Department of Justice should take the necessary steps to implement this recommendation. There is a need for improved training for physicians and other health care professionals. Training to determine diagnosis and treatment of opiate dependence should also be improved in medical schools. The unnecessary regulations of methadone maintenance therapy and other long-acting opiate agonist treatment programs should be reduced, and coverage for these programs should be a required benefit in public and private insurance programs.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Judd1998,
      author = {Judd, LL and Attkisson, C and Berrettini, W and Buc, NL and Bunney, BS and Dominguez, RA and Friedel, RO and Gustafson, JS and Hedeker, D and Hiatt, HH and Mostaghim, R and Petersdorf, RG and Natl Consensus Dev Panel Effect Med Treatmen},
      title = {Effective medical treatment of opiate addiction},
      journal = {JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {280},
      number = {22},
      pages = {1936-1943}
    }
    
    Judge, T., Erez, A., Bono, J. & Thoresen, C. Are measures of self-esteem, neuroticism, locus of control, and generalized self-efficacy indicators of a common core construct? {2002} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {83}({3}), pp. {693-710} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The authors present results of 4 studies that seek to determine the discriminant and incremental validity of the 3 most widely studied traits in psychology-self-esteem, neuroticism, and locus of control-along with a 4th, closely related trait-generalized self-efficacy. Meta-analytic results indicated that measures of the 4 traits were strongly related. Results also demonstrated that a single factor explained the relationships among measures of the 4 traits. The 4 trait measures display relatively poor discriminant validity, and each accounted for little incremental variance in predicting external criteria relative to the higher order construct. In light of these results, the authors suggest that measures purporting to assess self-esteem, locus of control, neuroticism, and generalized self-efficacy may be markers of the same higher order concept.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Judge2002,
      author = {Judge, TA and Erez, A and Bono, JE and Thoresen, CJ},
      title = {Are measures of self-esteem, neuroticism, locus of control, and generalized self-efficacy indicators of a common core construct?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {83},
      number = {3},
      pages = {693-710},
      doi = {{10.1037//0022-3514.83.3.693}}
    }
    
    Kabat-Zinn, J. Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future {2003} CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY-SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
    Vol. {10}({2}), pp. {144-156} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Baer's review (2003; this issue) suggests that mindfulness-based interventions are clinically efficacious, but that better designed studies are now needed to substantiate the field and place it on a firm foundation for future growth. Her review, coupled with other lines of evidence, suggests that interest in incorporating mindfulness into clinical interventions in medicine - and psychology is growing. It is thus important that professionals coming to this field understand some of the unique factors associated with the delivery of mindfulness-based interventions and the potential conceptual and practical pitfalls of not recognizing the features of this broadly unfamiliar landscape. This commentary highlights and contextualizes (1) what exactly mindfulness is, (2) where it came from, (3) how it came to be introduced into medicine and health care, (4) issues of cross-cultural sensitivity and understanding in the study of meditative practices stemming from other cultures and in applications of them in novel settings, (5) why it is important for people who are teaching mindfulness to practice themselves, (6) results from 3 recent studies from the Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society not reviewed by Baer but which raise a number of key questions about clinical applicability, study design, and mechanism of action, and (7) current opportunities for professional training and development in mindfulness and its clinical applications.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kabat-Zinn2003,
      author = {Kabat-Zinn, J},
      title = {Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future},
      journal = {CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY-SCIENCE AND PRACTICE},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {10},
      number = {2},
      pages = {144-156},
      doi = {{10.1093/clipsy/bpg016}}
    }
    
    Kaelbling, L., Littman, M. & Moore, A. Reinforcement learning: A survey {1996} JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH
    Vol. {4}, pp. {237-285} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper surveys the field of reinforcement learning from a computer-science perspective. It is written to be accessible to researchers familiar with machine learning. Both the historical basis of the field and a broad selection of current work are summarized. Reinforcement learning is the problem faced by an agent that learns behavior through trial-and-error interactions with a dynamic environment. The work described here has a resemblance to work in psychology, but differs considerably in the details and in the use of the word `'reinforcement.'' The paper discusses central issues of reinforcement learning, including trading off exploration and exploitation, establishing the foundations of the field via Markov decision theory, learning from delayed reinforcement, constructing empirical models to accelerate learning, making use of generalization and hierarchy, and coping with hidden state. It concludes with a survey of some implemented systems and an assessment of the practical utility of current methods for reinforcement learning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kaelbling1996,
      author = {Kaelbling, LP and Littman, ML and Moore, AW},
      title = {Reinforcement learning: A survey},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {4},
      pages = {237-285}
    }
    
    KAGAN, J., REZNICK, J. & SNIDMAN, N. THE PHYSIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY OF BEHAVIORAL-INHIBITION IN CHILDREN {1987} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {58}({6}), pp. {1459-1473} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KAGAN1987,
      author = {KAGAN, J and REZNICK, JS and SNIDMAN, N},
      title = {THE PHYSIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY OF BEHAVIORAL-INHIBITION IN CHILDREN},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {58},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1459-1473}
    }
    
    Kahneman, D. Maps of bounded rationality: Psychology for behavioral economics {2003} AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
    Vol. {93}({5}), pp. {1449-1475} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kahneman2003,
      author = {Kahneman, D},
      title = {Maps of bounded rationality: Psychology for behavioral economics},
      journal = {AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {93},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1449-1475}
    }
    
    KAHNEMAN, D. & TVERSKY, A. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PREFERENCES {1982} SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
    Vol. {246}({1}), pp. {160-\&} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KAHNEMAN1982,
      author = {KAHNEMAN, D and TVERSKY, A},
      title = {THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PREFERENCES},
      journal = {SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {246},
      number = {1},
      pages = {160-&}
    }
    
    KAHNEMAN, D. & TVERSKY, A. PSYCHOLOGY OF PREDICTION {1973} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {80}({4}), pp. {237-251} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KAHNEMAN1973,
      author = {KAHNEMAN, D and TVERSKY, A},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY OF PREDICTION},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1973},
      volume = {80},
      number = {4},
      pages = {237-251}
    }
    
    Karmiloff-Smith, A. Development itself is the key to understanding developmental disorders {1998} TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES
    Vol. {2}({10}), pp. {389-398} 
    article  
    Abstract: It is a truism that development involves contributions from both genes and environment, but theories differ with respect to the roles they attribute to each, which deeply affects the ways in which developmental disorders are researched. The strict nativist approach to abnormal phenotypes, inspired by adult neuropsychology and evolutionary psychology, seeks to identify impairments to domain-specific cognitive modules and studies the purported juxtaposition of impaired and intact abilities. The neuroconstructivist approach differs in several respects: (i) it seeks more indirect, lower-level causes of abnormality than impaired cognitive modules; (ii) modules are thought to emerge from a developmental process of modularization; (iii) unlike empiricism, neuroconstructivism accepts some form of innately specified starting points but unlike nativism, these are considered to be initially `domain-relevant', only becoming domain-specific with the process of development and specific environmental interactions; and (iv) different cognitive disorders are considered to lie on a continuum rather than to be truly specific. These alternative theoretical positions are briefly considered as they apply to Specific Language Impairment, and followed by a more detailed case study of a well-defined neurodevelopmental disorder, Williams syndrome. It is argued that development itself play. a crucial role in phenotypical outcomes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Karmiloff-Smith1998,
      author = {Karmiloff-Smith, A},
      title = {Development itself is the key to understanding developmental disorders},
      journal = {TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {2},
      number = {10},
      pages = {389-398}
    }
    
    KASHIMA, Y., KIM, U., GELFAND, M., YAMAGUCHI, S., CHOI, S. & YUKI, M. CULTURE, GENDER, AND SELF - A PERSPECTIVE FROM INDIVIDUALISM-COLLECTIVISM RESEARCH {1995} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {69}({5}), pp. {925-937} 
    article  
    Abstract: Individualism and collectivism are often equated with independent vs. interdependent, agentic vs. communal, and separate vs. relational self-construals. Although these same concepts have been used to characterize both cultural and gender differences, a perspective of cultural evolution suggests it is unlikely. A division of labor within society may produce gender differences, but this cannot explain cultural differences. A study of self-construal involving 5 cultures (Australia, the United States, Hawaii, Japan, and Korea) shows that differences between these cultures are captured mostly by the extent to which people see themselves as acting as independent agents, whereas gender differences are best summarized by the extent to which people regard themselves as emotionally related to others.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KASHIMA1995,
      author = {KASHIMA, Y and KIM, U and GELFAND, MJ and YAMAGUCHI, S and CHOI, SC and YUKI, M},
      title = {CULTURE, GENDER, AND SELF - A PERSPECTIVE FROM INDIVIDUALISM-COLLECTIVISM RESEARCH},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {69},
      number = {5},
      pages = {925-937}
    }
    
    KASS, R. & RAFTERY, A. BAYES FACTORS {1995} JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION
    Vol. {90}({430}), pp. {773-795} 
    article  
    Abstract: In a 1935 paper and in his book Theory of Probability, Jeffreys developed a methodology for quantifying the evidence in favor of a scientific theory. The centerpiece was a number, now called the Bayes factor, which is the posterior odds of the null hypothesis when the prior probability on the null is one-half. Although there has been much discussion of Bayesian hypothesis testing in the context of criticism of P-values, less attention has been given to the Bayes factor as a practical tool of applied statistics. In this article we review and discuss the uses of Bayes factors in the context of five scientific applications in genetics, sports, ecology, sociology, and psychology. We emphasize the following points: From Jeffreys' Bayesian viewpoint, the purpose of hypothesis testing is to evaluate the evidence in favor of a scientific theory. Bayes factors offer a way of evaluating evidence in favor of a null hypothesis. Bayes factors provide a way of incorporating external information into the evaluation of evidence about a hypothesis. Bayes factors are very general and do not require alternative models to be nested. Several techniques are available for computing Bayes factors, including asymptotic approximations that are easy to compute using the output from standard packages that maximize likelihoods. In `'nonstandard'' statistical models that do not satisfy common regularity conditions, it can be technically simpler to calculate Bayes factor; than to derive non-Bayesian significance tests. The Schwarz criterion (or BIG) gives a rough approximation to the logarithm of the Bayes factor, which is easy to use and does not require evaluation of prior distributions. When one is interested in estimation or prediction, Bayes factors may be converted to weights to be attached to various models so that a composite estimate or prediction may be obtained that takes account of structural or model uncertainty. Algorithms have been proposed that allow model uncertainty to be taken into account when the class of models initially considered is very large. Bayes factors are useful for guiding an evolutionary model-building process. It is important, and feasible, to assess the sensitivity of conclusions to the prior distributions used.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KASS1995,
      author = {KASS, RE and RAFTERY, AE},
      title = {BAYES FACTORS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {90},
      number = {430},
      pages = {773-795}
    }
    
    KELLY, J., MURPHY, D., SIKKEMA, K. & KALICHMAN, S. PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS TO PREVENT HIV-INFECTION ARE URGENTLY NEEDED - NEW PRIORITIES FOR BEHAVIORAL-RESEARCH IN THE 2ND DECADE OF AIDS {1993} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {48}({10}), pp. {1023-1034} 
    article  
    Abstract: Behavior change remains the only means for primary prevention of HIV disease. Psychology should take a leading role in efforts to curtail the epidemic, but has not contributed to HIV prevention at a level proportionate to the urgency of the crisis. The authors propose an updated agenda for behavioral research on AIDS-HIV prevention implementing accelerated community trials of promising behavior change models, conducting trials of community-level interventions on a large scale and focused on populations most vulnerable to HIV infections, establishing partnerships between HIV research and community service organizations, integrating efforts from across psychology disciplines to advance and refine HIV prevention interventions, and mobilizing interdisciplinary HIV prevention resources and communication mechanisms to rapidly translate research findings to community and public policy arenas.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KELLY1993,
      author = {KELLY, JA and MURPHY, DA and SIKKEMA, KJ and KALICHMAN, SC},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS TO PREVENT HIV-INFECTION ARE URGENTLY NEEDED - NEW PRIORITIES FOR BEHAVIORAL-RESEARCH IN THE 2ND DECADE OF AIDS},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {48},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1023-1034}
    }
    
    Kempermann, G., Wiskott, L. & Gage, F. Functional significance of adult neurogenesis {2004} CURRENT OPINION IN NEUROBIOLOGY
    Vol. {14}({2}), pp. {186-191} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: `Function' is the key criterion for determining whether adult neurogenesis - be it endogenous, induced, or after transplantation - is successful and has truly generated new nerve cells. Function, however, is an elusive and problematic term. A satisfying statement of function will require evaluation on the three conceptual levels of cells, networks, and systems and potentially even beyond, on the level of psychology. Neuronal development is a lengthy process, a fact that must be considered when judging causes and consequences in experiments that address function and function-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis. Nevertheless, the information that has been obtained and published so far provides ample evidence that neurons generated in the adult can function and even suggests how they might contribute to cognitive processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kempermann2004,
      author = {Kempermann, G and Wiskott, L and Gage, FH},
      title = {Functional significance of adult neurogenesis},
      journal = {CURRENT OPINION IN NEUROBIOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {14},
      number = {2},
      pages = {186-191},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.conb.2004.03.001}}
    }
    
    KENRICK, D. & KEEFE, R. AGE PREFERENCES IN MATES REFLECT SEX-DIFFERENCES IN REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES {1992} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {15}({1}), pp. {75-\&} 
    article  
    Abstract: Findings that women are attracted to men older than themselves whereas men are attracted to relatively younger women have been explained by social psychologists in terms of economic exchange rooted in traditional sex-role norms. An alternative evolutionary model suggests that males and females follow different reproductive strategies, and predicts a more complex relationship between gender and age preferences. In particular, males' preferences for relatively younger females should be minimal during early mating years, but should become more pronounced as the male gets older. Young females are expected to prefer somewhat older males during their early years and to change less as they age. We briefly review relevant theory, and present results of six studies testing this prediction. Study 1 finds support for this gender-differentiated prediction in age preferences expressed in personal advertisements. Study 2 supports the prediction with marriage statistics from two U.S. cities. Study 3 examines the cross-generational robustness of the phenomenon, and finds the same pattern in marriage statistics from 1923. Study 4 replicates Study 1 using matrimonial advertisements from two European countries, and from India. Study 5 finds a consistent pattern in marriages recorded from 1913 through 1939 on a small island in the Philippines. Study 6 reveals the same pattern in singles advertisements placed by financially successful American women and men. We consider the limitations of previous normative and evolutionary explanations of age preferences, and discuss the advantages of expanding previous models to include the life history perspective.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KENRICK1992,
      author = {KENRICK, DT and KEEFE, RC},
      title = {AGE PREFERENCES IN MATES REFLECT SEX-DIFFERENCES IN REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {15},
      number = {1},
      pages = {75-&}
    }
    
    Killeen, P. An alternative to null-hypothesis significance tests {2005} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {16}({5}), pp. {345-353} 
    article  
    Abstract: The statistic p(rep) estimates the probability of replicating an effect. It captures traditional publication criteria for signal-to-noise ratio, while avoiding parametric inference and the resulting Bayesian dilemma. In concert with effect size and replication intervals, p(rep) provides all of the information now used in evaluating research, while avoiding many of the pitfalls of traditional statistical inference.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Killeen2005,
      author = {Killeen, PR},
      title = {An alternative to null-hypothesis significance tests},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {16},
      number = {5},
      pages = {345-353},
      note = {Meeting of the Society-of-Experimental-Psychologists, Ithaca, NY, MAR, 2004}
    }
    
    KIMCHI, R. PRIMACY OF WHOLISTIC PROCESSING AND GLOBAL LOCAL PARADIGM - A CRITICAL-REVIEW {1992} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {112}({1}), pp. {24-38} 
    article  
    Abstract: The question of whether perception is analytic or wholistic is an enduring issue in psychology. The global-precedence hypothesis, considered by many as a modern version of the Gestaltist claim about the perceptual primacy of wholes, has generated a large body of research, but the debate still remains very active. This article reviews the research within the global/local paradigm, and critically analyzes the assumptions underlying this paradigm. The extent to which this line of research contributes to understanding the role of wholistic processing in object perception is discussed. It is concluded that one should be very cautious in making inferences about wholistic processing from the processing advantage of the global level of stimulus structure. A distinction is proposed between global properties, defined by their position in the hierarchical structure of the stimulus, and wholistic properties, defined as a function of interrelations among component parts. It is suggested that a direct comparison between processing of wholistic and component properties is needed to support the hypothesis about the perceptual primacy of wholistic processing.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KIMCHI1992,
      author = {KIMCHI, R},
      title = {PRIMACY OF WHOLISTIC PROCESSING AND GLOBAL LOCAL PARADIGM - A CRITICAL-REVIEW},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {112},
      number = {1},
      pages = {24-38}
    }
    
    Kirk, R. Practical significance: A concept whose time has come {1996} EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT
    Vol. {56}({5}), pp. {746-759} 
    article  
    Abstract: Statistical significance is concerned with whether a research result is due to chance or sampling variability; practical significance is concerned with whether the result is useful in the real world. A growing awareness of the limitations of null hypothesis significance tests has led to a search for ways to supplement these procedures. A variety of supplementary measures of effect magnitude have been proposed. The use of these procedures in four APA journals is examined, and an approach to assessing the practical significance of data is described.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kirk1996,
      author = {Kirk, RE},
      title = {Practical significance: A concept whose time has come},
      journal = {EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {56},
      number = {5},
      pages = {746-759},
      note = {Southwestern-Psychological-Association Meeting, HOUSTON, TX, APR 05, 1996}
    }
    
    Kitayama, S., Markus, H., Matsumoto, H. & Norasakkunkit, V. Individual and collective processes in the construction of the self: Self-enhancement in the United States and self-criticism in Japan {1997} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {72}({6}), pp. {1245-1267} 
    article  
    Abstract: A collective constructionist theory of the self proposes that many psychological processes, including enhancement of the self (pervasive in the United States) and criticism and subsequent improvement of the self (widespread in Japan), result from and support the very ways in which social acts and situations are collectively defined and subjectively experienced in the respective cultural contexts. In support of the theory, 2 studies showed, first, that American situations are relatively conducive to self-enhancement and American people are relatively likely to engage in self-enhancement and, second, that Japanese situations are relatively conducive to self-criticism and Japanese people are relatively likely to engage in self-criticism. Implications are discussed for the collective construction of psychological processes implicated in the self and, more generally, for the mutual constitution of culture and the self.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kitayama1997,
      author = {Kitayama, S and Markus, HR and Matsumoto, H and Norasakkunkit, V},
      title = {Individual and collective processes in the construction of the self: Self-enhancement in the United States and self-criticism in Japan},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {72},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1245-1267}
    }
    
    KITCHENER, K. INTUITION, CRITICAL-EVALUATION AND ETHICAL PRINCIPLES - THE FOUNDATION FOR ETHICAL DECISIONS IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY {1984} COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {12}({3-4}), pp. {43-55} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KITCHENER1984,
      author = {KITCHENER, KS},
      title = {INTUITION, CRITICAL-EVALUATION AND ETHICAL PRINCIPLES - THE FOUNDATION FOR ETHICAL DECISIONS IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {12},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {43-55}
    }
    
    Kivimaki, M., Vahtera, J., Pentti, J. & Ferrie, J. Factors underlying the effect of organisational downsizing on health of employees: longitudinal cohort study {2000} BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL
    Vol. {320}({7240}), pp. {971-975} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective To explore the underlying mechanisms between organisational downsizing and deterioration of health of employees. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Data were assembled from before downsizing (time 1); during major downsizing affecting some job categories (time 2); and after downsizing (time 3), Contributions of changes in work, support, and health related behaviours between time 1 and rime 2 to the relation between downsizing and sickness absence at time 3 were assessed by multilevel modelling. Mean length of follow up was 4.9 years. Setting Raisio, a town in Finland. Subjects 764 municipal employees who remained in employment after downsizing. Main outcome measures Records of absences from work from all causes with medical certificate. Results Downsizing was associated with negative changes in work, impaired support from spouse, and increased prevalence of smoking. Sickness absence rate from all causes was 2.17 (95% confidence inter-val 1.54 to 3.07) times higher after major downsizing than after minor downsizing. Adjustment for changes in work (for instance, physical demands,job control, and job insecurity) diminished the relation between downsizing and sickness absence by 49 Adjustments for impaired social support or increased smoking did not alter. the relation between downsizing and sickness absence. The findings were unaffected by sex and income. Conclusions The exploration of potential mediating factors provides new information about the possible of Applied causal pathways linking organisational do downsizing Psychology, and health. Downsizing results in changes in work, social relationships, and health related behaviours. The observed increase in certificated sickness absence was partially explained by concomitant increases in physical demands and job insecurity and a reduction in job control, A considerable proportion of the increase, however, remained unexplained by the factors measured.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kivimaki2000,
      author = {Kivimaki, M and Vahtera, J and Pentti, J and Ferrie, JE},
      title = {Factors underlying the effect of organisational downsizing on health of employees: longitudinal cohort study},
      journal = {BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {320},
      number = {7240},
      pages = {971-975}
    }
    
    Klimesch, W. Memory processes, brain oscillations and EEG synchronization {1996} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY
    Vol. {24}({1-2}), pp. {61-100} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article tries to integrate results in memory research from divergent disciplines such as cognitive psychology, neuroanatomy, and neurophysiology. The integrating link is seen in more recent findings that provide strong arguments for the assumption that oscillations are a basic form of communication between cortical cell assemblies. It is assumed that synchronous oscillations of large cell assemblies - termed type 1 synchronization - reflect a resting state or possibly even a state of functional inhibition. On the other hand, during mental activity, when different neuronal networks may start to oscillate with different frequencies, each network may still oscillate synchronously (this is termed type 2 synchronization), but as a consequence, the large scale type 1 oscillation disappears. It is argued that these different types of synchronization can be observed in the scalp EEG by calculating event-related power changes within comparatively narrow but individually adjusted frequency bands. Experimental findings are discussed which support the hypothesis that shea-term (episodic) memory demands lead to a synchronization (increase in band power) in the theta band, whereas long-term (semantic) memory demands lead to a task-specific desynchronization (decrease or suppression of power) in the upper alpha band. Based on these and other findings, a new memory model is proposed that is described on three levels: cognitive, anatomical and neurophysiological. It is suggested that short-term (episodic) memory processes are reflected by oscillations in an anterior limbic system, whereas long-term (semantic) memory processes are reflected by oscillations in a posterior-thalamic system. Oscillations in these frequency bands possibly provide the basis for encoding, accessing, and retrieving cortical codes that are stored in the form of widely distributed but intensely interconnected cell assemblies.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Klimesch1996,
      author = {Klimesch, W},
      title = {Memory processes, brain oscillations and EEG synchronization},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {24},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {61-100}
    }
    
    Koob, G. & LeMoal, M. Drug abuse: Hedonic homeostatic dysregulation {1997} SCIENCE
    Vol. {278}({5335}), pp. {52-58} 
    article  
    Abstract: Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction requires an integration of basic neuroscience with social psychology, experimental psychology, and psychiatry. Addition is presented as a cycle of spiralling dysregulation of brain reward systems that progressively increases, resulting in compulsive drug use and a loss of control over drug-taking. Sensitization and counteradaptation are hypothesized to contribute to this hedonic homeostatic dysregulation, and the neurobiological mechanisms involved, such as the mesolimbic dopamine system, opioid peptidergic systems, and brain and hormonal stress systems, are beginning to be characterized. This framework provides a realistic approach to identifying the neurobiological factors that produce vulnerability to addiction and to relapse in individuals with a history of addiction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Koob1997,
      author = {Koob, GF and LeMoal, M},
      title = {Drug abuse: Hedonic homeostatic dysregulation},
      journal = {SCIENCE},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {278},
      number = {5335},
      pages = {52-58}
    }
    
    Korobkin, R. & Ulen, T. Law and behavioral science: Removing the rationality assumption from law and economics {2000} CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW
    Vol. {88}({4}), pp. {1051-1144} 
    article  
    Abstract: As law and economics turns forty years old, its continued vitality is threatened by its unrealistic core behavioral assumption: that people subject to the law act rationally. Professors Korobkin and Ulen argue that law and economics art reinvigorate itself by replacing the rationality assumption with a more nuanced understanding of human behavior that draws on cognitive psychology, sociology, and other behavioral sciences, thus creating a new, scholarly paradigm called ``law, and behavioural science.'' This article provides an early blueprint for research in this paradigm. The authors first explain the various ways the rationality assumption is used in legal scholarship and why it leads to unsatisfying policy prescriptions. They then systematically examine the empirical evidence inconsistent with the rationality assumption and, drawing on a wide range of substantive areas of law, explain how normative policy conclusions of law and economics will change and improve under the law-and-behavioral-science approach.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Korobkin2000,
      author = {Korobkin, RB and Ulen, TS},
      title = {Law and behavioral science: Removing the rationality assumption from law and economics},
      journal = {CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {88},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1051-1144}
    }
    
    Kosslyn, S., Ganis, G. & Thompson, W. Neural foundations of imagery {2001} NATURE REVIEWS NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {2}({9}), pp. {635-642} 
    article  
    Abstract: Mental imagery has, until recently, fallen within the purview of philosophy and cognitive psychology. Both enterprises have raised important questions about imagery, but have not made substantial progress in answering them. With the advent of cognitive neuroscience, these questions have become empirically tractable. Neuroimaging studies, combined with other methods (such as studies of brain-damaged patients and of the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation), are revealing the ways in which imagery draws on mechanisms used in other activities, such as perception and motor control. Because of its close relation to these basic processes, imagery is now becoming one of the best understood `higher' cognitive functions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kosslyn2001,
      author = {Kosslyn, SM and Ganis, G and Thompson, WL},
      title = {Neural foundations of imagery},
      journal = {NATURE REVIEWS NEUROSCIENCE},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {2},
      number = {9},
      pages = {635-642}
    }
    
    Koufaris, M. Applying the technology acceptance model and flow theory to online consumer behavior {2002} INFORMATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH
    Vol. {13}({2}), pp. {205-223} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this study, we consider the online consumer as both a shopper and a computer user. We test constructs from information systems (Technology Acceptance Model), marketing (Consumer Behavior), and psychology (Flow and Environmental Psychology) in an integrated theoretical framework of online consumer behavior. Specifically, we examine how emotional and cognitive responses to visiting a Web-based store for the first time can influence online consumers' intention to return and their likelihood to make unplanned purchases. The instrumentation shows reasonably good measurement properties and the constructs are validated as a nomological network. A questionnaire-based empirical study is used to test this nomological network. Results confirm the double identity of the online consumer as a shopper and a computer user because both shopping enjoyment and perceived usefulness of the site strongly predict intention to return. Our results on unplanned purchases are not conclusive. We also test some individual and Web site factors that can affect the consumer's emotional and cognitive responses. Product involvement, Web skills, challenges, and use of value-added search mechanisms all have a significant impact on the Web consumer. The study provides a more rounded, albeit partial, view of the online consumer and is a significant step towards a better understanding of consumer behavior on the Web. The validated metrics should be of use to researchers and practitioners alike.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Koufaris2002,
      author = {Koufaris, M},
      title = {Applying the technology acceptance model and flow theory to online consumer behavior},
      journal = {INFORMATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {13},
      number = {2},
      pages = {205-223}
    }
    
    Kraemer, H., Stice, E., Kazdin, A., Offord, D. & Kupfer, D. How do risk factors work together? Mediators, moderators, and independent, overlapping, and proxy risk factors {2001} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {158}({6}), pp. {848-856} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: The authors developed a methodological basis for investigating how risk factors work together. Better methods are needed for understanding the etiology of disorders, such as psychiatric syndromes, that presumably are the result of complex causal chains. Method: Approaches from psychology, epidemiology, clinical trials, and basic sciences were synthesized. Results: The authors define conceptually and operationally five different clinically important ways in which two risk factors may work together to influence an outcome: as proxy, overlapping, and independent risk factors and as mediators and moderators. Conclusions: Classifying putative risk factors into these qualitatively different types can help identify high-risk individuals in need of preventive interventions and can help inform the content of such interventions. These methods may also help bridge the gaps between theory, the basic and clinical sciences, and clinical and policy applications and thus aid the search for early diagnoses and for highly effective preventive and treatment interventions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kraemer2001,
      author = {Kraemer, HC and Stice, E and Kazdin, A and Offord, D and Kupfer, D},
      title = {How do risk factors work together? Mediators, moderators, and independent, overlapping, and proxy risk factors},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {158},
      number = {6},
      pages = {848-856}
    }
    
    KRAIGER, K., FORD, J. & SALAS, E. APPLICATION OF COGNITIVE, SKILL-BASED, AND AFFECTIVE THEORIES OF LEARNING OUTCOMES TO NEW METHODS OF TRAINING EVALUATION {1993} JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {78}({2}), pp. {311-328} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although training evaluation is recognized as an important component of the instructional design model, there are no theoretically based models of training evaluation. This article attempts to move toward such a model by developing a classification scheme for evaluating learning outcomes. Learning constructs are derived from a variety of research domains, such as cognitive, social, and instructional psychology and human factors. Drawing from this research, we propose cognitive, skill-based, and affective learning outcomes (relevant to training) and recommend potential evaluation measures. The learning outcomes and associated evaluation measures are organized into a classification scheme. Requirements for providing construct-oriented evidence of validity for the scheme are also discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KRAIGER1993,
      author = {KRAIGER, K and FORD, JK and SALAS, E},
      title = {APPLICATION OF COGNITIVE, SKILL-BASED, AND AFFECTIVE THEORIES OF LEARNING OUTCOMES TO NEW METHODS OF TRAINING EVALUATION},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {78},
      number = {2},
      pages = {311-328}
    }
    
    KRAMER, R. INTERGROUP RELATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONAL DILEMMAS - THE ROLE OF CATEGORIZATION PROCESSES {1991} RESEARCH IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {13}, pp. {191-228} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KRAMER1991,
      author = {KRAMER, RM},
      title = {INTERGROUP RELATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONAL DILEMMAS - THE ROLE OF CATEGORIZATION PROCESSES},
      journal = {RESEARCH IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {13},
      pages = {191-228}
    }
    
    KRANTZ, D. & TVERSKY, A. CONJOINT-MEASUREMENT ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITION RULES IN PSYCHOLOGY {1971} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {78}({2}), pp. {151-\&} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KRANTZ1971,
      author = {KRANTZ, DH and TVERSKY, A},
      title = {CONJOINT-MEASUREMENT ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITION RULES IN PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1971},
      volume = {78},
      number = {2},
      pages = {151-&}
    }
    
    KRIEGER, L. THE CONTENT OF OUR CATEGORIES - A COGNITIVE BIAS APPROACH TO DISCRIMINATION AND EQUAL-EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY {1995} STANFORD LAW REVIEW
    Vol. {47}({6}), pp. {1161-1248} 
    article  
    Abstract: Title VII's disparate treatment model of discrimination is premised on the notion that intergroup bias is motivational in origin. This premise, in turn, is based on a number of assumptions regarding the nature of human inference and the respective roles played by cognition and motivation in social judgment and decisionmaking. Applying insights from cognitive psychology, Professor Krieger examines the assumptions about human inference embedded in current disparate treatment theory and questions the premise that discrimination necessarily manifests intent or motive. She suggests that a large number of biased employment decisions result not from discriminatory motivation, as current legal models presume, but from a variety of unintentional categorization-related judgment errors characterizing normal human cognitive functioning. Because of the lack of fit between the present disparate treatment model and the phenomenon it purports to represent, courts and litigants are presented with a confusing away of increasingly ill-defined and questionably premised analytical paradigms. Worse, as currently constructed, it may be exacerbating intergroup tensions and inflating both social and financial adjudication costs. Searching for solutions, Professor Krieger explores the legal and policy implications of a cognitive process approach to discrimination and equal employment opportunity and evaluates a variety of modifications to existing equal employment opportunity law.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KRIEGER1995,
      author = {KRIEGER, LH},
      title = {THE CONTENT OF OUR CATEGORIES - A COGNITIVE BIAS APPROACH TO DISCRIMINATION AND EQUAL-EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY},
      journal = {STANFORD LAW REVIEW},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {47},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1161-1248}
    }
    
    KRUGLANSKI, A. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF BEING RIGHT - THE PROBLEM OF ACCURACY IN SOCIAL-PERCEPTION AND COGNITION {1989} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {106}({3}), pp. {395-409} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KRUGLANSKI1989,
      author = {KRUGLANSKI, AW},
      title = {THE PSYCHOLOGY OF BEING RIGHT - THE PROBLEM OF ACCURACY IN SOCIAL-PERCEPTION AND COGNITION},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {106},
      number = {3},
      pages = {395-409}
    }
    
    Kuhnen, C. & Knutson, B. The neural basis of financial risk taking {2005} NEURON
    Vol. {47}({5}), pp. {763-770} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Investors systematically deviate from rationality when making financial decisions, yet the mechanisms responsible for these deviations have not been identified. Using event-related fMRI, we examined whether anticipatory neural activity would predict optimal and suboptimal choices in a financial decision-making task. We characterized two types of deviations from the optimal investment strategy of a rational risk-neutral agent as risk-seeking mistakes and risk-aversion mistakes. Nucleus accumbens activation preceded risky choices as well as risk-seeking mistakes, while anterior insula activation preceded riskless choices as well as risk-aversion mistakes. These findings suggest that distinct neural circuits linked to anticipatory affect promote different types of financial choices and indicate that excessive activation of these circuits may lead to investing mistakes. Thus, consideration of anticipatory neural mechanisms may add predictive power to the rational actor model of economic decision making.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kuhnen2005,
      author = {Kuhnen, CM and Knutson, B},
      title = {The neural basis of financial risk taking},
      journal = {NEURON},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {47},
      number = {5},
      pages = {763-770},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neuron.2005.08.008}}
    }
    
    Kuran, T. & Sunstein, C. Availability cascades and risk regulation {1999} STANFORD LAW REVIEW
    Vol. {51}({4}), pp. {683-768} 
    article  
    Abstract: An availability cascade is a self-reinforcing process of collective belief formation by which an expressed perception triggers a chain reaction that gives the perception increasing plausibility through its rising availability in public discourse. The driving mechanism involves a combination of informational and reputational motives. Individuals endorse the perception partly by learning from the apparent beliefs of others and partly by distorting their public responses in the interest of maintaining social acceptance. Availability entrepreneurs-activists who manipulate the content of public discourse-strive to trigger availability cascades likely to advance their agendas. Their availability campaigns may yield social benefits, but sometimes they bring harm, which suggests a need for safeguards. Focusing on the role of mass pressures in the regulation of risks associated with production, consumption, and the environment, Professors Timur Kuran and Cass R. Sunstein analyze availability cascades and suggest reforms to alleviate their potential hazards. Their proposals include new governmental structures designed to give civil servants better insulation against mass demands for regulatory change and an easily accessible scientific database to reduce people's dependence on popular (mis)perceptions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kuran1999,
      author = {Kuran, T and Sunstein, CR},
      title = {Availability cascades and risk regulation},
      journal = {STANFORD LAW REVIEW},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {51},
      number = {4},
      pages = {683-768}
    }
    
    Kwan, V., Bond, M. & Singelis, T. Pancultural explanations for life satisfaction: Adding relationship harmony to self-esteem {1997} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {73}({5}), pp. {1038-1051} 
    article  
    Abstract: The first part of the study confirmed an additive effect of the newly proposed construct of relationship harmony to self-esteem in predicting life satisfaction across student samples from the United States and Hong Kong. As predicted from the dynamics of cultural collectivism, the relative importance of relationship harmony to self-esteem was greater in Hong Kong than in the United States. In the second parr of the study, the independent and interdependent self-construals (H. R. Markus & S. Kitayama, 1991) and the 5 factors of personality (P. T Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) were advanced to be the culture-general determinants of life satisfaction, acting through the mediating variables of self-esteem and relationship harmony. Both self-construals and the 5 factors of personality were shown to influence life satisfaction through the mediating agency of self-esteem and relationship harmony in equivalent ways across these 2 cultural groups.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kwan1997,
      author = {Kwan, VSY and Bond, MH and Singelis, TM},
      title = {Pancultural explanations for life satisfaction: Adding relationship harmony to self-esteem},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {73},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1038-1051}
    }
    
    Laland, K., Odling-Smee, J. & Feldman, M. Niche construction, biological evolution, and cultural change {2000} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {23}({1}), pp. {131+} 
    article  
    Abstract: We propose a conceptual model that maps the causal pathways relating biological evolution to cultural change. It builds on conventional evolutionary theory by placing emphasis on the capacity of organisms to modify sources of natural selection in their environment (niche construction) and by broadening the evolutionary dynamic to incorporate ontogenic and cultural processes. In this model, phenotypes have a much more active role in evolution than generally conceived. This sheds light on hominid evolution, on the evolution of culture, and on altruism and cooperation. Culture amplifies the capacity of human beings to modify sources of natural selection in their environments to the point where that capacity raises some new questions about the processes of human adaptation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Laland2000,
      author = {Laland, KN and Odling-Smee, J and Feldman, MW},
      title = {Niche construction, biological evolution, and cultural change},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {23},
      number = {1},
      pages = {131+}
    }
    
    LAMIELL, J. TOWARD AN IDIOTHETIC PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSONALITY {1981} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {36}({3}), pp. {276-289} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{LAMIELL1981,
      author = {LAMIELL, JT},
      title = {TOWARD AN IDIOTHETIC PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSONALITY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {36},
      number = {3},
      pages = {276-289}
    }
    
    Lamont, M. & Molnar, V. The study of boundaries in the social sciences {2002} ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY
    Vol. {28}, pp. {167-195} 
    article  
    Abstract: In recent years, the concept of boundaries has been at the center of influential research agendas in anthropology, history, political science, social psychology, and sociology. This article surveys some of these developments while describing the value added provided by the concept, particularly concerning the study of relational processes. It discusses literatures on (a) social and collective identity; (b) class, ethnic/racial, and gender/sex inequality; (c) professions, knowledge, and science; and (d) communities, national identities, and spatial boundaries. It points to similar processes at work across a range of institutions and social locations. It also suggests paths for further developments, focusing on the relationship between social and symbolic boundaries, cultural mechanisms for the production of boundaries, difference and hybridity, and cultural membership and group classifications.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lamont2002,
      author = {Lamont, M and Molnar, V},
      title = {The study of boundaries in the social sciences},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {28},
      pages = {167-195}
    }
    
    Larson, R. Toward a psychology of positive youth development {2000} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {55}({1}), pp. {170-183} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article analyzes the development of initiative as art exemplar of one of many learning experiences that should be studied as part of positive youth development. The capacity for initiative is essential for adults in our society and will become more important in the 21st century, yet adolescents have few opportunities to learn it. Their typical experiences during schoolwork and unstructured leisure do not reflect conditions for learning initiative. The context best suited to the development of initiative appears to be that of structured voluntary activities, such as sports, arts, and participation in organizations, in which youths experience the rare combination of intrinsic motivation in combination with deep attention. An incomplete body of outcome research suggests that such activities are associated with positive development, brit the development processes involved are only beginning to be understood. One promising approach has recorded language use and has found that adolescents participating in effective organizations acquire a new operating language that appears to correspond to the development of initiative.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Larson2000,
      author = {Larson, RW},
      title = {Toward a psychology of positive youth development},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {55},
      number = {1},
      pages = {170-183}
    }
    
    LATANE, B. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SOCIAL IMPACT {1981} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {36}({4}), pp. {343-356} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{LATANE1981,
      author = {LATANE, B},
      title = {THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SOCIAL IMPACT},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {36},
      number = {4},
      pages = {343-356}
    }
    
    LEA, S. PSYCHOLOGY AND ECONOMICS OF DEMAND {1978} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {85}({3}), pp. {441-466} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{LEA1978,
      author = {LEA, SEG},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY AND ECONOMICS OF DEMAND},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1978},
      volume = {85},
      number = {3},
      pages = {441-466}
    }
    
    LeCouteur, A., Bailey, A., Goode, S., Pickles, A., Robertson, S., Gottesman, I. & Rutter, M. A broader phenotype of autism: The clinical spectrum in twins {1996} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {37}({7}), pp. {785-801} 
    article  
    Abstract: The diagnostic boundaries of the behavioural phenotype for autism were examined in 28 MZ pairs and 20 DZ same-sex twin pairs, where one or both twins had autism. In the non-autistic cotwin (i.e. in twin pairs discordant for autism) it was common to find language impairments in childhood and social deficits persisting into adulthood. Concordance for this broader phenotype was much greater in MZ pairs than DZ pairs, indicating a strong genetic component. Behavioural and cognitive manifestations of autism were compared both within and between MZ twin pairs. The variation was as great within MZ twin pairs as between pairs, suggesting that it does not index genetic heterogeneity (although aetiological heterogeneity probably exists). Current diagnostic practices need reevaluation. Copyright (C) 1996 Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LeCouteur1996,
      author = {LeCouteur, A and Bailey, A and Goode, S and Pickles, A and Robertson, S and Gottesman, I and Rutter, M},
      title = {A broader phenotype of autism: The clinical spectrum in twins},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {37},
      number = {7},
      pages = {785-801}
    }
    
    LEE, T. & MITCHELL, T. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH - THE UNFOLDING MODEL OF VOLUNTARY EMPLOYEE TURNOVER {1994} ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW
    Vol. {19}({1}), pp. {51-89} 
    article  
    Abstract: The model of employee turnover described in this paper applies constructs and concepts from decision making. statistics, and social psychology to facilitate understanding and to redirect theory development and empirical research. The process of employee turnover is modeled by four distinctive decision paths: each decision path involves distinctive foci, psychological processes, and external events. Further, five specific contributions of the model are suggested, and recommendations for empirical testing and future research are offered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LEE1994,
      author = {LEE, TW and MITCHELL, TR},
      title = {AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH - THE UNFOLDING MODEL OF VOLUNTARY EMPLOYEE TURNOVER},
      journal = {ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {19},
      number = {1},
      pages = {51-89}
    }
    
    LEIDNER, D. & JARVENPAA, S. THE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TO ENHANCE MANAGEMENT SCHOOL EDUCATION - A THEORETICAL VIEW {1995} MIS QUARTERLY
    Vol. {19}({3}), pp. {265-291} 
    article  
    Abstract: To use information technology to improve learning processes, the pedagogical assumptions underlying the design of information technology for educational purposes must be understood. This paper reviews different models of learning, surfaces assumptions of electronic teaching technology, and relates those assumptions to the differing models of learning. Our analysis suggests that initial attempts to bring information technology to management education follow a classic story of automating rather than transforming. IT is primarily used to automate the information delivery function in classrooms. In the absence of fundamental changes to the teaching and learning process, such classrooms may do little but speed up ineffective processes and methods of teaching. Our mapping of technologies to learning models identifies sets of technologies in which management schools should invest in order to informate up and down and ultimately transform the educational environment and processes. For researchers interested in the use of information technology to improve learning processes, the paper provides a theoretical foundation for future work.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LEIDNER1995,
      author = {LEIDNER, DE and JARVENPAA, SL},
      title = {THE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TO ENHANCE MANAGEMENT SCHOOL EDUCATION - A THEORETICAL VIEW},
      journal = {MIS QUARTERLY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {19},
      number = {3},
      pages = {265-291}
    }
    
    LENT, R., BROWN, S. & HACKETT, G. TOWARD A UNIFYING SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY OF CAREER AND ACADEMIC INTEREST, CHOICE, AND PERFORMANCE {1994} JOURNAL OF VOCATIONAL BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {45}({1}), pp. {79-122} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article presents a social cognitive framework for understanding three intricately linked aspects of career development: (a) the formation and elaboration of career-relevant interests, (b) selection of academic and career choice options, and (c) performance and persistence in educational and occupational pursuits. The framework, derived primarily from Bandura's (1986) general social cognitive theory, emphasizes the means by which individuals exercise personal agency in the career development process, as well as extra-personal factors that enhance or constrain agency. In particular, we focus on self-efficacy, expected outcome, and goal mechanisms and how they may interrelate with other person (e.g., gender), contextual (e.g., support system), and experiential/learning factors. Twelve sets of propositions are offered to organize existing findings and guide future research on the theory. We also present a meta-analysis of relevant findings and suggest specific directions for future empirical and theory-extension activity. (C) 1994 Academic Press, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LENT1994,
      author = {LENT, RW and BROWN, SD and HACKETT, G},
      title = {TOWARD A UNIFYING SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY OF CAREER AND ACADEMIC INTEREST, CHOICE, AND PERFORMANCE},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF VOCATIONAL BEHAVIOR},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {45},
      number = {1},
      pages = {79-122}
    }
    
    Lillard, A. Ethnopsychologies: Cultural variations in theories of mind {1998} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {123}({1}), pp. {3-32} 
    article  
    Abstract: A set of basic beliefs about others' minds and behavior, referred to as folk psychology or theory of mind, is often discussed as if it were the same the world over. Yet, certainly variation in folk psychology exists. This article compares several aspects of European American theory of mind with other cultural models, as suggested by experiments and ethnographies, with the purpose of illuminating the degree to which there is variation. After summarizing 4 types of variation, the author explores possible sources of variability, implications for the mindreading process, potential universals, and directions for future research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lillard1998,
      author = {Lillard, A},
      title = {Ethnopsychologies: Cultural variations in theories of mind},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {123},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-32},
      note = {2nd Conference on Socio-Cultural Research, GENEVA, SWITZERLAND, SEP, 1996}
    }
    
    LINDENBERGER, U. & BALTES, P. SENSORY FUNCTIONING AND INTELLIGENCE IN OLD-AGE - A STRONG CONNECTION {1994} PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING
    Vol. {9}({3}), pp. {339-355} 
    article  
    Abstract: Relations among age, sensory functioning (i.e., visual and auditory acuity), and intelligence were examined in a heterogeneous, age-stratified sample of old and very old individuals (N = 156, M age = 84.9 years, age range = 70-103). Intelligence was assessed with 14 tests measuring 5 cognitive abilities (speed, reasoning, memory, knowledge, and fluency). Together, visual and auditory acuity accounted for 49.2% of the total and 93.1% of the age-related reliable variance in intelligence. The data were consistent with structural models in which age differences in intelligence, including speed, are completely mediated by differences in vision and hearing. Results suggest that sensory functioning is a strong late-life predictor of individual differences in intellectual functioning. Explanations are discussed, including the possibility that visual and sensory acuity are indicators of the physiological integrity of the aging brain (common cause hypothesis).
    BibTeX:
    @article{LINDENBERGER1994,
      author = {LINDENBERGER, U and BALTES, PB},
      title = {SENSORY FUNCTIONING AND INTELLIGENCE IN OLD-AGE - A STRONG CONNECTION},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {339-355}
    }
    
    LINDENBERGER, U., MAYR, U. & KLIEGL, R. SPEED AND INTELLIGENCE IN OLD-AGE {1993} PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING
    Vol. {8}({2}), pp. {207-220} 
    article  
    Abstract: Past research suggests that age differences in measures of cognitive speed contribute to differences in intellectual functioning between young and old adults. To investigate whether speed also predicts age-related differences in intellectual performance beyond age 70 years, tests indicating 5 intellectual abilities-speed, reasoning, memory, knowledge, and fluency-were administered to a close-to-representative, age-stratified sample of old and very old adults. Age trends of all 5 abilities were well described by a negative linear function. The speed-mediated effect of age fully explained the relationship between age and both the common and the specific variance of the other 4 abilities. Results offer strong support for the speed hypothesis of old age cognitive decline but need to be qualified by further research on the reasons underlying age differences in measures of speed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LINDENBERGER1993,
      author = {LINDENBERGER, U and MAYR, U and KLIEGL, R},
      title = {SPEED AND INTELLIGENCE IN OLD-AGE},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {207-220}
    }
    
    Link, B. & Phelan, J. Conceptualizing stigma {2001} ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY
    Vol. {27}, pp. {363-385} 
    article  
    Abstract: Social science research on stigma has grown dramatically over the past two decades, particularly in social psychology, where researchers have elucidated the ways in which people construct cognitive categories and link those categories to stereotyped beliefs. In the midst of this growth, the stigma concept has been criticized as being too vaguely defined and individually focused. In response to these criticisms, we define stigma as the co-occurrence of its components-labeling, stereotyping, separation, status loss, and discrimination-and further indicate that for stigmatization to occur, power must be exercised. The stigma concept we construct has implications for understanding several core issues in stigma research, ranging from the definition of the concept to the reasons stigma sometimes represents a very persistent predicament in the lives of persons affected by it. Finally, because there are so many stigmatized circumstances and because stigmatizing processes can affect multiple domains of people's lives, stigmatization probably has a dramatic bearing on the distribution of life chances in such areas as earnings, housing, criminal involvement, health, and life itself. It follows that social scientists who are interested in understanding the distribution of such life chances should also be interested in stigma.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Link2001,
      author = {Link, BG and Phelan, JC},
      title = {Conceptualizing stigma},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {27},
      pages = {363-385}
    }
    
    Loewenstein, G., Weber, E., Hsee, C. & Welch, N. Risk as feelings {2001} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {127}({2}), pp. {267-286} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Virtually all current theories of choice under risk or uncertainty are cognitive and consequentialist. They assume that people assess the desirability and likelihood of possible outcomes of choice alternatives and integrate this information through some type of expectation-based calculus to arrive at a decision. The authors propose an alternative theoretical perspective, the risk-as-feelings hypothesis, that highlights the role of affect experienced at the moment of decision making. Drawing on research from clinical, physiological, and other subfields of psychology, they show that emotional reactions to risky situations often diverge from cognitive assessments of those risks. When such divergence occurs, emotional reactions often drive behavior. The risk-as-feelings hypothesis is shown to explain a wide range of phenomena that have resisted interpretation in cognitive-consequentialist terms.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Loewenstein2001,
      author = {Loewenstein, GF and Weber, EU and Hsee, CK and Welch, N},
      title = {Risk as feelings},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {127},
      number = {2},
      pages = {267-286},
      doi = {{10.1037//0033-2909.127.2.267}}
    }
    
    LOFTUS, E. THE REALITY OF REPRESSED MEMORIES {1993} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {48}({5}), pp. {518-537} 
    article  
    Abstract: Repression is one of the most haunting concepts in psychology. Something shocking happens, and the mind pushes it into some inaccessible corner of the unconscious. Later, the memory may emerge into consciousness. Repression is one of the foundation stones on which the structure of psychoanalysis rests. Recently there has been a rise in reported memories of childhood sexual abuse that were allegedly repressed for many years. With recent changes in legislation, people with recently unearthed memories are suing alleged perpetrators for events that happened 20, 30, even 40 or more years earlier. These new developments give rise to a number of questions: (a) How common is it for memories of child abuse to be repressed? (b) How are jurors and judges likely to react to these repressed memory claims? (c) When the memories surface, what are they like? and (d) How authentic are the memories?
    BibTeX:
    @article{LOFTUS1993,
      author = {LOFTUS, EF},
      title = {THE REALITY OF REPRESSED MEMORIES},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {48},
      number = {5},
      pages = {518-537}
    }
    
    Logothetis, N. & Sheinberg, D. Visual object recognition {1996} ANNUAL REVIEW OF NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {19}, pp. {577-621} 
    article  
    Abstract: Visual object recognition is of fundamental importance to most animals. The diversity of tasks that any biological recognition system must solve suggests that object recognition is not a single, general purpose process. In this review, we consider evidence from the fields of psychology, neuropsychology, and neurophysiology, all of which supports the idea that there are multiple systems for recognition. Data from normal adults, infants, animals, and brain-damaged patients reveal a major distinction between the classification of objects at a basic category level and the identification of individual objects from a homogeneous object class. An additional distinction between object representations used for visual perception and those used for visually guided movements provides further support for a multiplicity of visual recognition systems. Recent evidence from psychophysical and neurophysiological studies indicates that one system may represent objects by combinations of multiple views, or aspects, and another may represent objects by structural primitives and their spatial interrelationships.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Logothetis1996,
      author = {Logothetis, NK and Sheinberg, DL},
      title = {Visual object recognition},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF NEUROSCIENCE},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {19},
      pages = {577-621}
    }
    
    LOPES, L. BETWEEN HOPE AND FEAR - THE PSYCHOLOGY OF RISK {1987} ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {20}, pp. {255-295} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{LOPES1987,
      author = {LOPES, LL},
      title = {BETWEEN HOPE AND FEAR - THE PSYCHOLOGY OF RISK},
      journal = {ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {20},
      pages = {255-295}
    }
    
    Losier, B., McGrath, P. & Klein, R. Error patterns on the continuous performance test in non-medicated and medicated samples of children with and without ADHD: A meta-analytic review {1996} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {37}({8}), pp. {971-987} 
    article  
    Abstract: We systematically reviewed the patterns of Continuous Performance Test (CPT) errors of omission and commission exhibited by normal children and children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) under no drug, placebo and methylphenidate drug conditions. Findings from 26 studies were submitted to a meta-analytic procedure. In contrast to the contradictory findings of individual reports, our results revealed that children with ADHD made significantly more errors of omission and commission than normal children. As well, in children with ADHD and treated with methylphenidate, statistically significant reductions in the rate of both error types were noted. The effects of methylphenidate on the percentage of hits (i.e. 1 - omissions) were greater in experiments using shorter stimulus duration, smaller number of trials and higher probability of a target. Using Signal Detection Theory (SDT) parameters, we found that children with ADHD were less sensitive to the difference between targets and non-targets than their normal counterparts, while showing a comparable response bias. Similarly, the effects of methylphenidate were restricted to improving the sensitivity, while not affecting response bias, in both normal children and those with ADHD. Copyright (C) 1996 Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Losier1996,
      author = {Losier, BJ and McGrath, PJ and Klein, RM},
      title = {Error patterns on the continuous performance test in non-medicated and medicated samples of children with and without ADHD: A meta-analytic review},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {37},
      number = {8},
      pages = {971-987}
    }
    
    Luepker, R., Johnson, S., Breslow, L., Chobanian, A., Davis, C., Duling, B., Kumanyika, S., Lauer, R., Lawson, P., McBride, P., Oparil, S., Prineas, R. & Washington, R. Physical activity and cardiovascular health {1996} JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
    Vol. {276}({3}), pp. {241-246} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective.-To provide physicians and the general public with a responsible assessment of the relationship between physical activity and cardiovascular health. Participants.-A nonfederal, nonadvocate, 13-member panel representing the fields of cardiology, psychology, exercise physiology, nutrition, pediatrics, public health, and epidemiology. In addition, 27 experts in cardiology, psychology, epidemiology, exercise physiology, geriatrics, nutrition, pediatrics, public health, and sports medicine presented data to the panel and a conference audience of 600 during a 2-day public session. Questions and statements from conference attendees were considered during the open session. Closed deliberations by the panel occurred during the remainder of the second day and the morning of the third day. Evidence.-The literature was searched through MEDLINE and an extensive bibliography of references was provided to the panel and the conference audience. Experts prepared abstracts with relevant citations from the literature. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. Consensus Process.-The panel, answering predefined questions, developed their conclusions based on the scientific evidence presented in open forum and the scientific literature. Consensus Statement.-The panel composed a draft statement that was read in its entirety and circulated to the experts and the audience for comment. Thereafter, the panel resolved conflicting recommendations and released a revised statement at the end of the conference. The panel finalized the revisions within a few weeks after the conference. Conclusions.-All Americans should engage in regular physical activity at a level appropriate to their capacity, needs, and interest. Children and adults alike should set a goal of accumulating at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most, and preferably all, days of the week. Most Americans have little or no physical activity in their daily lives, and accumulating evidence indicates that physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, moderate levels of physical activity confer significant health benefits. Even those who currently meet these daily standards may derive additional health and fitness benefits by becoming more physically active or including more vigorous activity. For those with known cardiovascular disease, cardiac rehabilitation programs that combine physical activity with reduction in other risk factors should be more widely used.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Luepker1996,
      author = {Luepker, RV and Johnson, SB and Breslow, L and Chobanian, AV and Davis, CE and Duling, BR and Kumanyika, S and Lauer, RM and Lawson, P and McBride, PE and Oparil, S and Prineas, RJ and Washington, RL},
      title = {Physical activity and cardiovascular health},
      journal = {JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {276},
      number = {3},
      pages = {241-246}
    }
    
    LUHTANEN, R. & CROCKER, J. A COLLECTIVE SELF-ESTEEM SCALE - SELF-EVALUATION OF ONES SOCIAL IDENTITY {1992} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {18}({3}), pp. {302-318} 
    article  
    Abstract: Social identity theory as developed by Tajfel and Turner argues that there are two distinct aspects of the self-concept: personal identity and social identity (in American terminology, collective identity). Although many self-esteem measures are available in the literature, they all focus on individuals' evaluation of their personal identity whether in private or interpersonal domains. No scale currently exists that assesses the positivity of one's social, or collective, identity A scale was constructed to assess individual differences in collective, rather than personal, self-esteem, with four subscales (Membership esteem, Public collective self-esteem, Private collective self-esteem, and Importance to Identity). Evidence for reliability and validity of the scale was provided by three studies, suggesting that the scale can be a useful research tool. Implications for research and social identity theory are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LUHTANEN1992,
      author = {LUHTANEN, R and CROCKER, J},
      title = {A COLLECTIVE SELF-ESTEEM SCALE - SELF-EVALUATION OF ONES SOCIAL IDENTITY},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {18},
      number = {3},
      pages = {302-318}
    }
    
    LYKKEN, D. PSYCHOLOGY AND LIE DETECTOR INDUSTRY {1974} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {29}({10}), pp. {725-739} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{LYKKEN1974,
      author = {LYKKEN, DT},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY AND LIE DETECTOR INDUSTRY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1974},
      volume = {29},
      number = {10},
      pages = {725-739}
    }
    
    MacCallum, R., Zhang, S., Preacher, K. & Rucker, D. On the practice of dichotomization of quantitative variables {2002} PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS
    Vol. {7}({1}), pp. {19-40} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The authors examine the practice of dichotomization of quantitative measures, wherein relationships among variables are examined after I or more variables have been converted to dichotomous variables by splitting the sample at some point on the scale(s) of measurement. A common form of dichotomization is the median split, where the independent variable is split at the median to form high and low groups, which are then compared with respect to their means on the dependent variable. The consequences of dichotomization for measurement and statistical analyses are illustrated and discussed. The use of dichotomization in practice is described, and justifications that are offered for such usage are examined. The authors present the case that dichotomization is rarely defensible and often will yield misleading results.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MacCallum2002,
      author = {MacCallum, RC and Zhang, SB and Preacher, KJ and Rucker, DD},
      title = {On the practice of dichotomization of quantitative variables},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {19-40},
      doi = {{10.1037//1082-989X.7.1.19}}
    }
    
    MACRAE, C., BODENHAUSEN, G., MILNE, A. & JETTEN, J. OUT OF MIND BUT BACK IN SIGHT - STEREOTYPES ON THE REBOUND {1994} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {67}({5}), pp. {808-817} 
    article  
    Abstract: For a variety of reasons, social perceivers may often attempt to actively inhibit stereotypic thoughts before their effects impinge on judgment and behavior. However, research on the psychology of mental control raises doubts about the efficacy of this strategy. Indeed, this work suggests that when people attempt to suppress unwanted thoughts, these thoughts are likely to subsequently reappear with even greater insistence than if they had never been suppressed (i.e., a `'rebound'' effect). The present research comprised an investigation of the extent to which this kind of rebound effect extends to unwanted stereotypic thoughs about others. The results provided strong support for the existence of this effect. Relative to control subjects (i.e., stereotype users), stereotype suppressors responded more pejoratively to a stereotyped target on a range of dependent measures. We discuss our findings in the wider context of models of mind, thought suppression, and social stereotyping.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MACRAE1994,
      author = {MACRAE, CN and BODENHAUSEN, GV and MILNE, AB and JETTEN, J},
      title = {OUT OF MIND BUT BACK IN SIGHT - STEREOTYPES ON THE REBOUND},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {67},
      number = {5},
      pages = {808-817}
    }
    
    MADDEN, T., ELLEN, P. & AJZEN, I. A COMPARISON OF THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR AND THE THEORY OF REASONED ACTION {1992} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {18}({1}), pp. {3-9} 
    article  
    Abstract: Research in social psychology has extensively referenced and used Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action to predict and understand motivational influences on behaviour. Recently Ajzen has proposed an extension of the theory by including perceptions of behavioral control as an additional predictor of intentions and behavior. The present research compared Ajzen's theory of planned behavior with the theory of reasoned action for 10 behaviors chosen to represent a range with respect to control over performing the behavior. The results indicate that inclusion of perceived behavioral control enhances the prediction of behavioral intention and behavior. Consistent with the theory of planned behavior, the effects of perceived behavioral control on a target behavior are most vivid when the behavior presents some problem with respect to control.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MADDEN1992,
      author = {MADDEN, TJ and ELLEN, PS and AJZEN, I},
      title = {A COMPARISON OF THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR AND THE THEORY OF REASONED ACTION},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {18},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-9}
    }
    
    Major, B. & O'Brien, L. The social psychology of stigma {2005} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {56}, pp. {393-421} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This chapter addresses the psychological effects of social stigma. Stigma directly affects the stigmatized via mechanisms of discrimination, expectancy confirmation, and automatic stereotype activation, and indirectly via threats to personal and social identity. We review and organize recent theory and empirical research within an identity threat model of stigma. This model posits that situational cues, collective representations of one's stigma status, and personal beliefs and motives shape appraisals of the significance of stigma-relevant situations for well-being. Identity threat results when stigma-relevant stressors are appraised as potentially harmful to one's social identity and as exceeding one's coping resources. Identity threat creates involuntary stress responses and motivates attempts at threat reduction through coping strategies. Stress responses and coping efforts affect important outcomes such as self-esteem, academic achievement, and health. Identity threat perspectives help to explain the tremendous variability across people, groups, and situations in responses to stigma.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Major2005,
      author = {Major, B and O'Brien, LT},
      title = {The social psychology of stigma},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {56},
      pages = {393-421},
      doi = {{10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070137}}
    }
    
    MALAMUTH, N., SOCKLOSKIE, R., KOSS, M. & TANAKA, J. CHARACTERISTICS OF AGGRESSORS AGAINST WOMEN - TESTING A MODEL USING A NATIONAL SAMPLE OF COLLEGE-STUDENTS {1991} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {59}({5}), pp. {670-681} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MALAMUTH1991,
      author = {MALAMUTH, NM and SOCKLOSKIE, RJ and KOSS, MP and TANAKA, JS},
      title = {CHARACTERISTICS OF AGGRESSORS AGAINST WOMEN - TESTING A MODEL USING A NATIONAL SAMPLE OF COLLEGE-STUDENTS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {59},
      number = {5},
      pages = {670-681}
    }
    
    Mallet, J. & Joron, M. Evolution of diversity in warning color and mimicry: Polymorphisms, shifting balance, and speciation {1999} ANNUAL REVIEW OF ECOLOGY AND SYSTEMATICS
    Vol. {30}, pp. {201-233} 
    article  
    Abstract: Mimicry and warning color are highly paradoxical adaptations. Color patterns in both Mullerian and Batesian mimicry are often determined by relatively few pattern-regulating loci with major effects. Many of these loci are ``supergenes,'' consisting of multiple, tightly linked epistatic elements. On the one hand, strong purifying selection on these genes must explain accurate resemblance (a reduction of morphological diversity between species), as well as monomorphic color patterns within species. On the other hand, mimicry has diversified at every taxonomic level; warning color has evolved from cryptic patterns, and there are mimetic polymorphisms within species, multiple color patterns in different geographic races of the same species, mimetic differences between sister species, and multiple mimicry rings within local communities. These contrasting patterns can be explained, in part, by the shape of a ``number-dependent'' selection function first modeled by Fritz Muller in 1879: Purifying selection against any warning-colored morph is very strong when that morph is rare, but becomes weak in a broad basin of intermediate frequencies, allowing opportunities for polymorphisms and genetic drift. This Mullerian explanation, however, makes unstated assumptions about predator learning and forgetting which have recently been challenged. Today's ``receiver psychology'' models predict that classical Mullerian mimicry could be much rarer than believed previously, and that ``quasi-Batesian mimicry,'' a new type of mimicry intermediate between Mullerian and Batesian, could be common. However, the new receiver psychology theory is untested, and indeed it seems to us unlikely; alternative assumptions could easily lead to a more traditional Mullerian/Batesian mimicry divide.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mallet1999,
      author = {Mallet, J and Joron, M},
      title = {Evolution of diversity in warning color and mimicry: Polymorphisms, shifting balance, and speciation},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF ECOLOGY AND SYSTEMATICS},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {30},
      pages = {201-233}
    }
    
    MALONE, T. & CROWSTON, K. THE INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDY OF COORDINATION {1994} ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
    Vol. {26}({1}), pp. {87-119} 
    article  
    Abstract: This survey characterizes an emerging research area, sometimes called coordination theory, that focuses on the interdisciplinary study of coordination. Research in this area uses and extends ideas about coordination from disciplines such as computer science, organization theory, operations research, economics, linguistics, and psychology. A key insight of the framework presented here is that coordination can be seen as the process of managing dependencies among activities. Further progress, therefore, should be possible by characterizing different kinds of dependencies and identifying the coordination processes that can be used to manage them. A variety of processes are analyzed from this perspective, and commonalities across disciplines are identified. Processes analyzed include those for managing shared resources, producer/consumer relationships, simultaneity constraints, and task/subtask dependencies. Section 3 summarizes ways of applying a coordination perspective in three different domains: (1) understanding the effects of information technology on human organizations and markets, (2) designing cooperative work tools, and (3) designing distributed and parallel computer systems. In the final section, elements of a research agenda in this new area are briefly outlined.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MALONE1994,
      author = {MALONE, TW and CROWSTON, K},
      title = {THE INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDY OF COORDINATION},
      journal = {ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {26},
      number = {1},
      pages = {87-119}
    }
    
    MANICAS, P. & SECORD, P. IMPLICATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGY OF THE NEW PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE {1983} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {38}({4}), pp. {399-413} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MANICAS1983,
      author = {MANICAS, PT and SECORD, PF},
      title = {IMPLICATIONS FOR PSYCHOLOGY OF THE NEW PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {38},
      number = {4},
      pages = {399-413}
    }
    
    MARCUS, G., PINKER, S., ULLMAN, M., HOLLANDER, M., ROSEN, T. & XU, F. OVERREGULARIZATION IN LANGUAGE-ACQUISITION {1992} MONOGRAPHS OF THE SOCIETY FOR RESEARCH IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {57}({4}), pp. {R5-R165} 
    article  
    Abstract: Children extend regular grammatical patterns to irregular words, resulting in overregularizations like comed, often after a period of correct performance (''U-shaped development''). The errors seem paradigmatic of rule use, hence bear on central issues in the psychology of rules: how creative rule application interacts with memorized exceptions in development, how overgeneral rules are unlearned in the absence of parental feedback, and whether cognitive processes involve explicit rules or parallel distributed processing (connectionist) networks. We remedy the lack of quantitative data on overregularization by analyzing 11,521 irregular past tense utterances in the spontaneous speech of 83 children. Our findings are as follows. (1) Overregularization errors are relatively rare (median 2.5% of irregular past tense forms), suggesting that there is no qualitative defect in children's grammars that must be unlearned. (2) Overregularization occurs at a roughly constant low rate from the 2s into the school-age years, affecting most irregular verbs. (3) Although overregularization errors never predominate, one aspect of their purported U-shaped development was confirmed quantitatively: an extended period of correct performance precedes the first error. (4) Overregularization does not correlate with increases in the number or proportion of regular verbs in parental speech, children's speech, or children's vocabularies. Thus, the traditional account in which memory operates before rules cannot be replaced by a connectionist alternative in which a single network displays rotelike or rulelike behavior in response to changes in input statistics. (5) Overregularizations first appear when children begin to mark regular verbs for tense reliably (i.e., when they stop saying Yesterday I walk). (6) The more often a parent uses an irregular form, the less often the child overregularizes it. (7) Verbs are protected from overregularization by similar-sounding irregulars, but they are not attracted to overregularization by similar-sounding regulars, suggesting that irregular patterns are stored in an associative memory with connectionist properties, but that regulars are not. We propose a simple explanation. Children, like adults, mark tense using memory (for irregulars) and an affixation rule that can generate a regular past tense form for any verb. Retrieval of an irregular blocks the rule, but children's memory traces are not strong enough to guarantee perfect retrieval. When retrieval fails, the rule is applied, and overregularization results.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MARCUS1992,
      author = {MARCUS, GF and PINKER, S and ULLMAN, M and HOLLANDER, M and ROSEN, TJ and XU, F},
      title = {OVERREGULARIZATION IN LANGUAGE-ACQUISITION},
      journal = {MONOGRAPHS OF THE SOCIETY FOR RESEARCH IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {57},
      number = {4},
      pages = {R5-R165}
    }
    
    MARKUS, H. & KITAYAMA, S. A COLLECTIVE FEAR OF THE COLLECTIVE - IMPLICATIONS FOR SELVES AND THEORIES OF SELVES {1994} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {20}({5}), pp. {568-579} 
    article  
    Abstract: Drawing on recent analyses of the self in many cultures, the authors suggest that the cultural ideal of independence of the self from the collective has dominated European-American social psychological theorizing. As a consequence, the existence of considerable interdependence between the self and the collective has been relatively neglected in current conceptual analysis. The authors (a) argue that a group's cultural ideal of the relation between the self and the collective is pervasive because it is rooted in institutions, practices, and scripts, not just in ideas and values; (b) show how a given cultural ideal, whether it is independence or interdependence, can shape the individual's experience and expression of the self; and (c) discuss how a comparative approach may enrich and expand current theory and research on the interdependence between the self and the collective.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MARKUS1994,
      author = {MARKUS, HR and KITAYAMA, S},
      title = {A COLLECTIVE FEAR OF THE COLLECTIVE - IMPLICATIONS FOR SELVES AND THEORIES OF SELVES},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {20},
      number = {5},
      pages = {568-579}
    }
    
    MARKUS, H. & KITAYAMA, S. CULTURE AND THE SELF - IMPLICATIONS FOR COGNITION, EMOTION, AND MOTIVATION {1991} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {98}({2}), pp. {224-253} 
    article  
    Abstract: People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very nature of individual experience, including cognition, emotion, and motivation. Many Asian cultures have distinct conceptions of individuality that insist on the fundamental relatedness of individuals to each other. The emphasis is on attending to others, fitting in, and harmonious interdependence with them. American culture neither assumes nor values such an overt connectedness among individuals. In contrast, individuals seek to maintain their independence from others by attending to the self and by discovering and expressing their unique inner attributes. As proposed herein, these construals are even more powerful than previously imagined. Theories of the self from both psychology and anthropology are integrated to define in detail the difference between a construal of the self as independent and a construal of the self as interdependent. Each of these divergent construals should have a set of specific consequences for cognition, emotion, and motivation; these consequences are proposed and relevant empirical literature is reviewed. Focusing on differences in self-construals enables apparently inconsistent empirical findings to be reconciled, and raises questions about what have been thought to be culture-free aspects of cognition, emotion, and motivation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MARKUS1991,
      author = {MARKUS, HR and KITAYAMA, S},
      title = {CULTURE AND THE SELF - IMPLICATIONS FOR COGNITION, EMOTION, AND MOTIVATION},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {98},
      number = {2},
      pages = {224-253}
    }
    
    Masson, M. & Loftus, G. Using confidence intervals for graphically based data interpretation {2003} CANADIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-REVUE CANADIENNE DE PSYCHOLOGIE EXPERIMENTALE
    Vol. {57}({3}), pp. {203-220} 
    article  
    Abstract: As a potential alternative to standard null hypothesis significance testing, we describe methods for graphical presentation of data - particularly condition means and their corresponding confidence intervals - for a wide range of factorial designs used in experimental psychology. We describe and illustrate confidence intervals specifically appropriate for between-subject versus within-subject factors. For designs involving more than two levels of a factor, we describe the use of contrasts for graphical illustration of theoretically meaningful components of main effects and interactions. These graphical techniques lend themselves to a natural and straightforward assessment of statistical power.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Masson2003,
      author = {Masson, MEJ and Loftus, GR},
      title = {Using confidence intervals for graphically based data interpretation},
      journal = {CANADIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-REVUE CANADIENNE DE PSYCHOLOGIE EXPERIMENTALE},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {57},
      number = {3},
      pages = {203-220}
    }
    
    MATARAZZO, J. BEHAVIORAL HEALTH AND BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE - FRONTIERS FOR A NEW HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY {1980} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {35}({9}), pp. {807-817} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MATARAZZO1980,
      author = {MATARAZZO, JD},
      title = {BEHAVIORAL HEALTH AND BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE - FRONTIERS FOR A NEW HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {35},
      number = {9},
      pages = {807-817}
    }
    
    McAdams, D. Personality, modernity, and the storied self: A contemporary framework for studying persons {1996} PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY
    Vol. {7}({4}), pp. {295-321} 
    article  
    Abstract: As the scientific study of the individual person, personality psychology historically has struggled to provide the kind of broad conceptual framework capable of orienting theory and research around human individuality in cultural context. This article presents a new integrative framework for studying persons that brings together recent advances in the field of personality with the emerging social science emphasis on the narrative study of lives, while situating personality inquiry within the cultural context of contemporary modernity and the unique problems of the modem self The framework builds on a clear distinction between the `'I'' and the `'Me'' features of personality in the modem world and the delineation of three relatively independent levels on which modern persons may be described. In personality, the I may be viewed as the process of `'selfing,'' of narrating experience to create a modern self whereas the Me may be viewed as the self that the I constructs. Personality traits, like those included within the Big Five taxonomy, reside at Level I of personality description and provide a general, comparative, and nonconditional dispositional signature for the person. Level II subsumes tasks, goals, projects, tactics, defenses, values, and other developmental, motivational, and/or strategic concerns that contextualize a person's life in time, place, and role. Speaking directly to the modern problem of reflexively creating a unified and purposeful configuration of the Me, life stories reside at the third level of personality, as internalized integrative narrations of the personal past, present, and future. It is mainly through the psychosocial construction of life stories that modern adults create identity in the Me. Life stories may be examined in terms of their structure and content, function, development, individual differences, and relation to mental health and psychosocial adaptation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McAdams1996,
      author = {McAdams, D},
      title = {Personality, modernity, and the storied self: A contemporary framework for studying persons},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {7},
      number = {4},
      pages = {295-321}
    }
    
    MCADAMS, D. WHAT DO WE KNOW WHEN WE KNOW A PERSON {1995} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {63}({3}), pp. {365-396} 
    article  
    Abstract: Individual differences in personality may be described at three different levels. Level I consists of those broad, decontextualized, and relatively nonconditional constructs called `'traits,'' which provide a dispositional signature for personality description. No description of a person is adequate without trait attributions, but trait attributions themselves yield little beyond a `'psychology of the stranger.'' At Level II (called `'personal concerns''), personality descriptions invoke personal strivings, life tasks, defense mechanisms, coping strategies, domain-specific skills and values, and a wide assortment of other motivational, developmental, or strategic constructs that are contextualized in time, place, or role. While dispositional traits and personal concerns appear to have near-universal applicability, Level III presents frameworks and constructs that may be uniquely relevant to adulthood only, and perhaps only within modern societies that put a premium on the individuation of the self. Thus, in contemporary Western societies, a full description of personality commonly requires a consideration of the extent to which a human life expresses unity and purpose, which are the hallmarks of identity. Identity in adulthood is an inner story of the self that integrates the reconstructed past, perceived present, and anticipated future to provide a life with unity, purpose, and meaning. At Level III, psychologists may explore the person's identity as an internalized and evolving life story. Each of the three levels has its own geography and requires its own indigenous nomenclatures, taxonomies, theories, frameworks, and laws.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MCADAMS1995,
      author = {MCADAMS, DP},
      title = {WHAT DO WE KNOW WHEN WE KNOW A PERSON},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {63},
      number = {3},
      pages = {365-396}
    }
    
    MCADAMS, D. THE 5-FACTOR MODEL IN PERSONALITY - A CRITICAL-APPRAISAL {1992} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {60}({2}), pp. {329-361} 
    article  
    Abstract: This critical appraisal aims to position the five-factor model within the multifaceted field of personality psychology by highlighting six important limitations of the model. These are the model's (a) inability to address core constructs of personality functioning beyond the level of traits; (b) limitations with respect to the prediction of specific behavior and the adequate description of persons' lives; (c) failure to provide compelling causal explanations for human behavior and experience; (d) disregard of the contextual and conditional nature of human experience; (e) failure to offer an attractive program for studying personality organization and integration; and (f) reliance on simple, noncontingent, and implicitly comparative statements about persons. The five-factor model is essentially a ``psychology of the stranger,'' providing information about persons that one would need to know when one knows nothing else about them. It is argued that because of inherent limitations, the Big Five may be viewed as one important model in personality studies but not the integrative model of personality.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MCADAMS1992,
      author = {MCADAMS, DP},
      title = {THE 5-FACTOR MODEL IN PERSONALITY - A CRITICAL-APPRAISAL},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {60},
      number = {2},
      pages = {329-361}
    }
    
    MCCALL, R. CHALLENGES TO A SCIENCE OF DEVELOPMENTAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1977} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {48}({2}), pp. {333-344} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MCCALL1977,
      author = {MCCALL, RB},
      title = {CHALLENGES TO A SCIENCE OF DEVELOPMENTAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1977},
      volume = {48},
      number = {2},
      pages = {333-344}
    }
    
    McCrae, R. & Costa, P. Personality trait structure as a human universal {1997} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {52}({5}), pp. {509-516} 
    article  
    Abstract: Patterns of covariation among personality traits in English-speaking populations can be summarized by the Jive-factor model (FFM). To assess the cross-cultural generalizability of the FFM, data from studies using 6 translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) were compared with the American factor structure. German, Portuguese; Hebrew, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese samples (N = 7,134) showed similar structures after varimax rotation of 5 factors. When targeted rotations were used, the American factor structure was closely reproduced, even at the level of secondary loadings. Because the samples studied represented highly diverse cultures with languages from 5 distinct language families, these data strongly suggest that personality trait structure is universal.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McCrae1997,
      author = {McCrae, RR and Costa, PT},
      title = {Personality trait structure as a human universal},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {52},
      number = {5},
      pages = {509-516}
    }
    
    MCGUE, M., BACON, S. & LYKKEN, D. PERSONALITY STABILITY AND CHANGE IN EARLY ADULTHOOD - A BEHAVIORAL GENETIC-ANALYSIS {1993} DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {29}({1}), pp. {96-109} 
    article  
    Abstract: Seventy-nine monozygotic and 48 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire twice, averaging 20 years of age at first and 30 years at second testing. There were significant mean decreases in measures of Negative Emotionality (NE), increases in measures of Constraint (CO), but no significant mean changes for measures of Positive Emotionality (PE). Variance decreased for measures of NE but remained stable for measures of PE and CO. Biometrical analyses revealed that (a) NE variance reduction was due to diminishing genetic influences, (b) personality stability was due largely to genetic factors, and (c) although some evidence for genetic influence on personality change was observed, change was determined largely by environmental factors. It is concluded that the stable core of personality is strongly associated with genetic factors but that personality change largely reflects environmental factors.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MCGUE1993,
      author = {MCGUE, M and BACON, S and LYKKEN, DT},
      title = {PERSONALITY STABILITY AND CHANGE IN EARLY ADULTHOOD - A BEHAVIORAL GENETIC-ANALYSIS},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {29},
      number = {1},
      pages = {96-109}
    }
    
    MCGUIRE, W. YIN AND YANG OF PROGRESS IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY - 7 KOAN {1973} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {26}({3}), pp. {446-456} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MCGUIRE1973,
      author = {MCGUIRE, WJ},
      title = {YIN AND YANG OF PROGRESS IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY - 7 KOAN},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1973},
      volume = {26},
      number = {3},
      pages = {446-456}
    }
    
    McKenna, K. & Bargh, J. Plan 9 from cyberspace: The implications of the internet for personality and social psychology {2000} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {4}({1}), pp. {57-75} 
    article  
    Abstract: Just as with most other communication breakthroughs before it, the initial media and popular reaction to the Internet has been largely negative, if not apocalyptic. For example, it has been described as ``awash in pornography, `` and more recently as making people ``sad and lonely. `` Yet counter to the initial and widely publicized claim that Internet use causes depression and social isolation, the body of evidence (even in the initial study on which the claim was based) is mainly to the contrary. More than this, however, it is argued that like the telephone and television before it, the Internet by itself is not a main effect cause of anything, and that psychology must move beyond this notion to an informed analysis of how social identity, social interaction, and relationship formation may be different on the Internet than in veal life. Four major differences and their implications for self and identity, social interaction, and relationships are identified: one's greater anonymity, the greatly reduced importance of physical appearance and physical distance as ``gating features'' to relationship development, and one's greater control over the time and pace of interactions. Existing research is reviewed along these lines and some promising directions for future research are described.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McKenna2000,
      author = {McKenna, KYA and Bargh, JA},
      title = {Plan 9 from cyberspace: The implications of the internet for personality and social psychology},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {57-75}
    }
    
    MEALEY, L. THE SOCIOBIOLOGY OF SOCIOPATHY - AN INTEGRATED EVOLUTIONARY MODEL {1995} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {18}({3}), pp. {523-541} 
    article  
    Abstract: Sociopaths are `'outstanding'' members of society in two senses: politically, they draw our attention because of the inordinate amount of crime they commit, and psychologically, they hold our fascination because most of us cannot fathom the cold, detached way they repeatedly harm and manipulate others. Proximate explanations from behavior genetics, child development, personality theory, learning theory, and social psychology describe a complex interaction of genetic and physiological risk factors with demographic and micro environmental variables that predispose a portion of the population to chronic antisocial behavior. More recent, evolutionary and game theoretic models have tried to present an ultimate explanation of sociopathy as the expression of a frequency-dependent life strategy which is selected, in dynamic equilibrium, in response to certain varying environmental circumstances. This paper tries to integrate the proximate, developmental models with the ultimate, evolutionary ones, suggesting that two developmentally different etiologies of sociopathy emerge from two different evolutionary mechanisms. Social strategies for minimizing the incidence of sociopathic behavior in modem society should consider the two different etiologies and the factors that contribute to them.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MEALEY1995,
      author = {MEALEY, L},
      title = {THE SOCIOBIOLOGY OF SOCIOPATHY - AN INTEGRATED EVOLUTIONARY MODEL},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {18},
      number = {3},
      pages = {523-541}
    }
    
    MEEHL, P. THEORETICAL RISKS AND TABULAR ASTERISKS - KARL, RONALD, AND SLOW PROGRESS OF SOFT PSYCHOLOGY {1978} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {46}({4}), pp. {806-834} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MEEHL1978,
      author = {MEEHL, PE},
      title = {THEORETICAL RISKS AND TABULAR ASTERISKS - KARL, RONALD, AND SLOW PROGRESS OF SOFT PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1978},
      volume = {46},
      number = {4},
      pages = {806-834}
    }
    
    MELTZOFF, A. UNDERSTANDING THE INTENTIONS OF OTHERS - REENACTMENT OF INTENDED ACTS BY 18-MONTH-OLD CHILDREN {1995} DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {31}({5}), pp. {838-850} 
    article  
    Abstract: Investigated was whether children would re-enact what an adult actually did or what the adult intended to do. In Experiment 1 children were shown an adult who tried, but failed, to perform certain target acts. Completed target acts were thus not observed. Children in comparison groups either saw the full target act or appropriate controls. Results showed that children could infer the adult's intended act by watching the failed attempts. Experiment 2 tested children's understanding of an inanimate object that traced the same movements as the person had followed. Children showed a completely different reaction to the mechanical device than to the person: They did not produce the target acts in this case. Eighteen-month-olds situate people within a psychological framework that differentiates between the surface behavior of people and a deeper level involving goals and intentions. They have already adopted a fundamental aspect of folk psychology-persons (but not inanimate objects) are understood within a framework involving goals and intentions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MELTZOFF1995,
      author = {MELTZOFF, AN},
      title = {UNDERSTANDING THE INTENTIONS OF OTHERS - REENACTMENT OF INTENDED ACTS BY 18-MONTH-OLD CHILDREN},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {31},
      number = {5},
      pages = {838-850}
    }
    
    Meltzoff, A. & Moore, M. Explaining facial imitation: A theoretical model {1997} EARLY DEVELOPMENT & PARENTING
    Vol. {6}({3-4}), pp. {179-192} 
    article  
    Abstract: A long-standing puzzle in developmental psychology is how infants imitate gestures they cannot see themselves perform (facial gestures). Two critical issues are: (a) the metric infants use to detect cross-modal equivalences in human acts and (b) the process by which they correct their imitative errors. We address these issues in a detailed model of the mechanisms underlying facial imitation. The model can be extended to encompass other types of imitation. The model capitalizes on three new theoretical concepts. First, organ identification is the means by which infants relate parts of their own bodies to corresponding ones of the adult's. Second, body babbling (infants' movement practice gained through self-generated activity) provides experience mapping movements to the resulting body configurations. Third, organ relations provide the metric by which infant and adult acts are perceived in commensurate terms. In imitating, infants attempt to match the organ relations they see exhibited by the adults with those they feel themselves make. We show how development restructures the meaning and function of early imitation. We argue that important aspects of later social cognition are rooted in the initial cross-modal equivalence between self and other found in newborns. (C) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Meltzoff1997,
      author = {Meltzoff, AN and Moore, MK},
      title = {Explaining facial imitation: A theoretical model},
      journal = {EARLY DEVELOPMENT & PARENTING},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {179-192}
    }
    
    Merikle, P., Smilek, D. & Eastwood, J. Perception without awareness: perspectives from cognitive psychology {2001} COGNITION
    Vol. {79}({1-2}), pp. {115-134} 
    article  
    Abstract: Four basic approaches that have been used to demonstrate perception without awareness are described. Each approach reflects one of two types of experimental logic and one of two possible methods for controlling awareness. The experimental logic has been either to demonstrate a dissociation between a measure of perception with awareness and a measure that is sensitive to perception without awareness or to demonstrate a qualitative difference between the consequences of perception with and without awareness. Awareness has been controlled either by manipulating the stimulus conditions or by instructing observers on how to distribute their attention. The experimental findings based on all four approaches lead to the same conclusion; namely, stimuli are perceived even when observers are unaware of the stimuli. This conclusion is supported by results of studies in which awareness has been assessed with either objective measures of forced-choice discriminations or measures based on verbalizations of subjective conscious experiences. Given this solid empirical support for the concept of perception without awareness, a direction for future research studies is to assess the functions of information perceived without awareness in determining what is perceived with awareness. The available evidence suggests that information perceived without awareness both biases what stimuli are perceived with awareness and influences how stimuli perceived with awareness are consciously experienced, (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Merikle2001,
      author = {Merikle, PM and Smilek, D and Eastwood, JD},
      title = {Perception without awareness: perspectives from cognitive psychology},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {79},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {115-134}
    }
    
    Mick, D. & Fournier, S. Paradoxes of technology: Consumer cognizance, emotions, and coping strategies {1998} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH
    Vol. {25}({2}), pp. {123-143} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although technological products are unavoidable in contemporary life, studies focusing on them in the consumer behavior field have been few and narrow. In this article, we investigate consumers' perspectives, meanings, and experiences in relation to a range of technological products, emphasizing lengthy and repeated interviews with 29 households, including a set of first-time owners. We draw on literatures spanning from technology, paradox, and postmodernism to clinical and social psychology, and combine them with data collection and analysis in the spirit of grounded theory. The outcome is a new conceptual framework on the paradoxes of technological products and their influences on emotional reactions and behavioral coping strategies. We discuss the findings in terms of implications for theories of technology, innovation diffusion, and human coping, and an expanded role for the paradox construct in consumer research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mick1998,
      author = {Mick, DG and Fournier, S},
      title = {Paradoxes of technology: Consumer cognizance, emotions, and coping strategies},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {25},
      number = {2},
      pages = {123-143}
    }
    
    Miller, W. & Thoresen, C. Spirituality, religion, and health - An emerging research field {2003} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {58}({1}), pp. {24-35} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The investigation of spiritual/religious factors in health is clearly warranted and clinically relevant. This special section explores the persistent predictive relationship between religious variables and health, and its implications for future research and practice. The section reviews epidemiological evidence linking religiousness to morbidity and mortality, possible biological pathways linking spirituality/ religiousness to health, and advances in the assessment of spiritual/religious variables in research and practice. This introduction provides an overview of this field of research and addresses 3 related methodological issues: definitions of terms, approaches to statistical control, and criteria used to judge the level of supporting evidence for specific hypotheses. The study of spirituality and health is a true frontier for psychology and one with high public interest.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Miller2003,
      author = {Miller, WR and Thoresen, CE},
      title = {Spirituality, religion, and health - An emerging research field},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {58},
      number = {1},
      pages = {24-35},
      doi = {{10.1037/0003-066X.58.1.24}}
    }
    
    Mischel, W. & Shoda, Y. Reconciling processing dynamics and personality dispositions {1998} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {49}, pp. {229-258} 
    article  
    Abstract: Developments in personality-social psychology, in social cognition, and in cognitive neuroscience have led to an emerging conception of personality dynamics and dispositions that builds on diverse contributions from the past three decades. Recent findings demonstrating a previously neglected but basic type of personality stability allow a reconceptualization of classic issues in personality and social psychology. It reconstrues the nature and role of situations and links contextually sensitive processing dynamics to stable dispositions. It thus facilitates the reconciliation within a unitary framework of dispositional (trait) and processing (social cognitive-affective-dynamic) approaches that have long been separated. Given their history, however, the realization of this promise remains to be seen.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mischel1998,
      author = {Mischel, W and Shoda, Y},
      title = {Reconciling processing dynamics and personality dispositions},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {49},
      pages = {229-258}
    }
    
    Montero, I. & Leon, O. A classification system for method within research reports in Psychology {2005} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {5}({1}), pp. {115-127} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this work, we amplify and review a classification system for research methods in Psychology previously published by the authors in this journal in the year 2002. We first shortly argue on that we consider the advantages of using it and then we advise for potential misadvantages. Based on classification of the research plan, in a first level the system are composed by nine main categories: 1) theoretical studies, 2) observational descriptive studies, 3) survey descriptive studies, 4) qualitative studies, 5) experiments, 6) cuasi experiments, 7) << ex post facto >> studies, 8) single case experimental studies, and 9) instrumental studies. We present the main characteristics for each of these nine categories and, within a category, we describe the cues which permit to identify their subtypes, illustrating all of them with actual publications in diverse fields of research in Psychology. The classification system we propose here will be used as model for research reports in order to be published in this journal.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Montero2005,
      author = {Montero, I and Leon, OG},
      title = {A classification system for method within research reports in Psychology},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {115-127}
    }
    
    MORRIS, M. & PENG, K. CULTURE AND CAUSE - AMERICAN AND CHINESE ATTRIBUTIONS FOR SOCIAL AND PHYSICAL EVENTS {1994} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {67}({6}), pp. {949-971} 
    article  
    Abstract: The authors argue that attribution patterns reflect implicit theories acquired from induction and socialization and hence differentially distributed across human cultures. In particular, the authors tested the hypothesis that dispositionalism in attribution for behavior reflects a theory of social behavior more widespread in individualist than collectivist cultures. Study 1 demonstrated that causal perceptions of social events but not physical events differed between American and Chinese students. Study 2 found English-language newspapers were more dispositional and Chinese-language newspapers were more situational in explanations of the same crimes. Study 3 found that Chinese survey respondents differed in weightings of personal dispositions and situational factors as causes of recent murders and in counterfactual judgments about how murders might have been averted by changed situations. Implications for issues in cognitive, social, and organizational psychology are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MORRIS1994,
      author = {MORRIS, MW and PENG, K},
      title = {CULTURE AND CAUSE - AMERICAN AND CHINESE ATTRIBUTIONS FOR SOCIAL AND PHYSICAL EVENTS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {67},
      number = {6},
      pages = {949-971}
    }
    
    MOSSMAN, D. ASSESSING PREDICTIONS OF VIOLENCE - BEING ACCURATE ABOUT ACCURACY {1994} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {62}({4}), pp. {783-792} 
    article  
    Abstract: The prediction of violence occupies a prominent and controversial place in public mental health practice. Productive debate about the validity of violence predictions has been hampered by the use of methods for quantifying accuracy that do not control for base rates or biases in favor of certain outcomes. This article describes these problems and shows how receiver-operating characteristic analysis can be used to solve them. The article also reanalyzes 58 data sets from 44 published studies of violence prediction. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that mental health professionals' violence predictions are substantially more accurate than chance. Short-term (1-7 day) clinical predictions seem no more accurate than long-term (> 1 year) predictions. Past behavior alone appears to be a better long-term predictor of future behavior than clinical judgments and may also be a better indicator than cross-validated actuarial techniques.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MOSSMAN1994,
      author = {MOSSMAN, D},
      title = {ASSESSING PREDICTIONS OF VIOLENCE - BEING ACCURATE ABOUT ACCURACY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {62},
      number = {4},
      pages = {783-792}
    }
    
    MOWDAY, R. & SUTTON, R. ORGANIZATIONAL-BEHAVIOR - LINKING INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS TO ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXTS {1993} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {44}, pp. {195-229} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MOWDAY1993,
      author = {MOWDAY, RT and SUTTON, RI},
      title = {ORGANIZATIONAL-BEHAVIOR - LINKING INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS TO ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXTS},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {44},
      pages = {195-229}
    }
    
    Neisser, U., Boodoo, G., Bouchard, T., Boykin, A., Brody, N., Ceci, S., Halpern, D., Loehlin, J., Perloff, R., Sternberg, R. & Urbina, S. Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns {1996} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {51}({2}), pp. {77-101} 
    article  
    Abstract: In the fall of 1994, the publication of Herrnstein and Murray's book The Bell Curve sparked a new round of debate about the meaning of intelligence test scores and the nature of intelligence. The debate was characterized by strong assertions as well as by strong feelings; Unfortunately, those assertions often revealed serious misunderstandings of what has (and has not) been demonstrated by scientific research in this field. Although a great deal is now known, the issues remain complex and in many cases still unresolved. Another unfortunate aspect of the debate was that many participants made little effort to distinguish scientific issues from political ones. Research findings were often assessed not so much on their merits or their scientific standing as on their supposed political implications. In such a climate, individuals who wish to make their own judgments find it hard to know what to believe. Reviewing the intelligence debate at its meeting of November 1994, the Board of Scientific Affairs (BSA) of the American Psychological Association (APA) concluded that there was urgent need for an authoritative report on these issues-one that all sides could we as a basis for discussion; Acting by unanimous vote BSA established a Task Force charged with preparing such a report. Ulric Neisser, Professor of Psychology at Emery University and a member of BSA, was appointed Chair The APA Board on the Advancement of Psychology, in the Public Interest, which was consulted extensively during this process, nominated one member of the Task Force, the Committee on Psychological Tests and Assessment nominated another, a third was nominated by the Council of Representatives. Other members were chosen by an extended consultative process, with the aim of representing a broad range of expertise and opinion. The Task Force met twice, in January and March of 1995. Between and after these meetings, drafts of the various sections were circulated, revised, and revised yet again. Disputes were resolved by discussion. As a result, the report presented here has the unanimous support of the entire Task Force.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Neisser1996,
      author = {Neisser, U and Boodoo, G and Bouchard, TJ and Boykin, AW and Brody, N and Ceci, SJ and Halpern, DF and Loehlin, JC and Perloff, R and Sternberg, RJ and Urbina, S},
      title = {Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {51},
      number = {2},
      pages = {77-101}
    }
    
    Nezlek, J. Multilevel random coefficient analyses of event- and interval-contingent data in social and personality psychology research {2001} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {27}({7}), pp. {771-785} 
    article  
    Abstract: Increasingly, social and personality psychologists are conducting studies in which data are collected simultaneously at multiple levels, with hypotheses concerning effects that involve multiple levels of analysis. In studies of naturally occurring social interaction, data describing people and their social interactions are collected simultaneously. This article discuses how to analyze such data using random coefficient modeling. Analyzing data describing day-to-day social interaction is used to illustrate the analysis of event-contingent data (when specific events trigger or organize data collection), and analyzing data describing reactions to daily events is used to illustrate the analysis of interval-contingent data (when data are collected at intervals). Different analytic strategies are presented, the shortcomings of ordinary least squares analyses are described, and the use of multilevel random coefficient modeling is discussed in detail. Different modeling techniques, the specifics of formulating and testing hypotheses, and the differences between fixed and random effects are also considered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nezlek2001,
      author = {Nezlek, JB},
      title = {Multilevel random coefficient analyses of event- and interval-contingent data in social and personality psychology research},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {27},
      number = {7},
      pages = {771-785}
    }
    
    Nickerson, R. Null hypothesis significance testing: A review of an old and continuing controversy {2000} PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS
    Vol. {5}({2}), pp. {241-301} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is arguably the most widely used approach to hypothesis evaluation among behavioral and social scientists. It is also very controversial. A major concern expressed by critics is that such testing is misunderstood by many of those who use it. Several other objections to its use have also been raised. In this article the author reviews and comments on the claimed misunderstanding as well as on other criticisms of the approach, and he notes arguments that have been advanced in support of NHST. Alternatives and supplements to NHST are considered, as are several related recommendations regarding the interpretation of experimental data. The concluding opinion is that NHST is easily misunderstood and misused but that when applied with good judgment it can be an effective aid to the interpretation of experimental data.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nickerson2000,
      author = {Nickerson, RS},
      title = {Null hypothesis significance testing: A review of an old and continuing controversy},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {5},
      number = {2},
      pages = {241-301},
      doi = {{10.1037//1082-989X.5.2.241}}
    }
    
    Niedenthal, P., Barsalou, L., Winkielman, P., Krauth-Gruber, S. & Ric, F. Embodiment in attitudes, social perception, and emotion {2005} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {9}({3}), pp. {184-211} 
    article  
    Abstract: Findings in the social psychology literatures on attitudes, social perception, and emotion demonstrate that social information processing involves embodiment, where embodiment refers both to actual bodily states and to simulations of experience in the brain's modality-specific systems for perception, action, and introspection. We show that embodiment underlies social information processing when the perceiver interacts with actual social objects (online cognition) and when the perceiver represents social objects in their absence (offline cognition). Although many empirical demonstrations of social embodiment exist, no particularly compelling account of them has been offered. We propose that theories of embodied cognition, such as the Perceptual Symbol Systems (PSS) account (Barsalou, 1999), explain and integrate these findings, and that they also suggest exciting new directions for research. We compare the PSS account to a variety of related proposals and show how it addresses criticisms that have previously posed problems for the general embodiment approach.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Niedenthal2005,
      author = {Niedenthal, PM and Barsalou, LW and Winkielman, P and Krauth-Gruber, S and Ric, F},
      title = {Embodiment in attitudes, social perception, and emotion},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {184-211}
    }
    
    Nigg, J. On inhibition/disinhibition in developmental psychopathology: Views from cognitive and personality psychology and a working inhibition taxonomy {2000} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {126}({2}), pp. {220-246} 
    article  
    Abstract: Disinhibition is a common focus in psychopathology research. However, use of inhibition models often is piecemeal, Lacking an overarching taxonomy of inhibitory processes. The author organizes key concepts and models pertaining to different binds of inhibitory control from the cognitive and temperament/personality literatures. Within the rubrics of executive inhibitory processes, motivational inhibitory processes, and automatic attentional inhibition processes, 8 kinds of inhibition are distinguished. Three basic temperament traits may address key executive and motivational inhibitory processes. Future developmental psychopathology research should be based on a systematic conceptual taxonomy of the kinds of inhibitory function relevant to a given disorder. Such an approach can clarify which inhibition distinctions are correct and which inhibition deficits go with which disorders.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nigg2000,
      author = {Nigg, JT},
      title = {On inhibition/disinhibition in developmental psychopathology: Views from cognitive and personality psychology and a working inhibition taxonomy},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {126},
      number = {2},
      pages = {220-246}
    }
    
    NISBETT, R. & BORGIDA, E. ATTRIBUTION AND PSYCHOLOGY OF PREDICTION {1975} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {32}({5}), pp. {932-943} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{NISBETT1975,
      author = {NISBETT, RE and BORGIDA, E},
      title = {ATTRIBUTION AND PSYCHOLOGY OF PREDICTION},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1975},
      volume = {32},
      number = {5},
      pages = {932-943}
    }
    
    Norman, G. & Schmidt, H. Effectiveness of problem-based learning curricula: theory, practice and paper darts {2000} MEDICAL EDUCATION
    Vol. {34}({9}), pp. {721-728} 
    article  
    Abstract: In a recent review article, Colliver concluded that there was no convincing evidence that problem-based learning was more effective than conventional methods. He then went on to lay part of the blame on cognitive psychology, claiming that `the theory is weak, its theoretical concepts are imprecise... the basic research is contrived and ad hoc'. This paper challenges these claims and presents evidence that (a) cognitive research is not contrived and irrelevant, (b) curriculum level interventions are doomed to fail and (c) education needs more theory-based research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Norman2000,
      author = {Norman, GR and Schmidt, HG},
      title = {Effectiveness of problem-based learning curricula: theory, practice and paper darts},
      journal = {MEDICAL EDUCATION},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {34},
      number = {9},
      pages = {721-728}
    }
    
    NORMAN, G. & SCHMIDT, H. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL BASIS OF PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING - A REVIEW OF THE EVIDENCE {1992} ACADEMIC MEDICINE
    Vol. {67}({9}), pp. {557-565} 
    article  
    Abstract: Several potential advantages for students' learning are claimed for problem-based learning (PBL). Students in PBL curricula may be more highly motivated; they may be better problem solvers and self-directed learners; they may be better able to learn and recall information; and they may be better able to integrate basic science knowledge into the solutions of clinical problems. Although some of these claims find theoretical support from the literature on the psychology of learning, to date there has been no review of the experimental evidence supporting the possible differences in students' learning that can be attributed to PBL. In this review article, the authors examine each claim critically in light of that evidence. They conclude that (1) there is no evidence that PBL curricula result in any improvement in general, content-free problem-solving skills; (2) learning in a PBL format may initially reduce levels of learning but may foster, over periods up to several years, increased retention of knowledge; (3) some preliminary evidence suggests that PBL curricula may enhance both transfer of concepts to new problems and integration of basic science concepts into clinical problems; (4) PBL enhances intrinsic interest in the subject matter; and (5) PBL appears to enhance self-directed learning skills, and this enhancement may be maintained.
    BibTeX:
    @article{NORMAN1992,
      author = {NORMAN, GR and SCHMIDT, HG},
      title = {THE PSYCHOLOGICAL BASIS OF PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING - A REVIEW OF THE EVIDENCE},
      journal = {ACADEMIC MEDICINE},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {67},
      number = {9},
      pages = {557-565}
    }
    
    Norman, G., Sloan, J. & Wyrwich, K. Interpretation of changes in health-related quality of life - The remarkable universality of half a standard deviation {2003} MEDICAL CARE
    Vol. {41}({5}), pp. {582-592} 
    article  
    Abstract: BACKGROUND. A number of studies have computed the minimally important difference (MID) for health-related quality of life instruments. OBJECTIVE. To determine whether there is consistency in the magnitude of MID estimates from different instruments. METHODS. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify studies that computed an MID and contained sufficient information to compute an effect size (ES). Thirty-eight studies fulfilled the criteria, resulting in 62 ESs. RESULTS. For all but 6 studies, the MID estimates were close to one half a SD (mean = 0.495, SD = 0.155). There was no consistent relationship with factors such as disease-specific or generic instrument or the number of response options. Negative changes were not associated with larger ESs. Population-based estimation procedures and brief follow-up were associated with smaller ESs, and acute conditions with larger ESs. An explanation for this consistency is that research in psychology has shown that the limit of people's ability to discriminate over a wide range of tasks is approximately 1 part in 7, which is very close to half a SD. CONCLUSION. In most circumstances, the threshold of discrimination for changes in health-related quality of life for chronic diseases appears to be approximately half a SD.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Norman2003,
      author = {Norman, GR and Sloan, JA and Wyrwich, KW},
      title = {Interpretation of changes in health-related quality of life - The remarkable universality of half a standard deviation},
      journal = {MEDICAL CARE},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {41},
      number = {5},
      pages = {582-592}
    }
    
    NOVAK, J. CONCEPT MAPPING - A USEFUL TOOL FOR SCIENCE-EDUCATION {1990} JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN SCIENCE TEACHING
    Vol. {27}({10}), pp. {937-949} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{NOVAK1990,
      author = {NOVAK, JD},
      title = {CONCEPT MAPPING - A USEFUL TOOL FOR SCIENCE-EDUCATION},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN SCIENCE TEACHING},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {27},
      number = {10},
      pages = {937-949}
    }
    
    Padoa-Schioppa, C. & Assad, J. Neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex encode economic value {2006} NATURE
    Vol. {441}({7090}), pp. {223-226} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Economic choice is the behaviour observed when individuals select one among many available options. There is no intrinsically `correct' answer: economic choice depends on subjective preferences. This behaviour is traditionally the object of economic analysis(1) and is also of primary interest in psychology(2). However, the underlying mental processes and neuronal mechanisms are not well understood. Theories of human and animal choice(1-3) have a cornerstone in the concept of `value'. Consider, for example, a monkey offered one raisin versus one piece of apple: behavioural evidence suggests that the animal chooses by assigning values to the two options(4). But where and how values are represented in the brain is unclear. Here we show that, during economic choice, neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex(5-18) (OFC) encode the value of offered and chosen goods. Notably, OFC neurons encode value independently of visuospatial factors and motor responses. If a monkey chooses between A and B, neurons in the OFC encode the value of the two goods independently of whether A is presented on the right and B on the left, or vice versa. This trait distinguishes the OFC from other brain areas in which value modulates activity related to sensory or motor processes(19-25). Our results have broad implications for possible psychological models, suggesting that economic choice is essentially choice between goods rather than choice between actions. In this framework, neurons in the OFC seem to be a good candidate network for value assignment underlying economic choice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Padoa-Schioppa2006,
      author = {Padoa-Schioppa, C and Assad, JA},
      title = {Neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex encode economic value},
      journal = {NATURE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {441},
      number = {7090},
      pages = {223-226},
      doi = {{10.1038/nature04676}}
    }
    
    Parker, R., Williams, M., Weiss, B., Baker, D., Davis, T., Doak, C., Doak, L., Hein, K., Meade, C., Nurss, J., Schwartzberg, J., Somers, S., Davis, R., Riggs, J., Champion, H., Howe, J., Altman, R., Deitchman, S., Genel, M., Karlan, M., Khan, M., Nielsen, N., Williams, M., Young, D., Schwartzberg, J., Bresolin, L., Dickinson, B. & Amer Med Assoc Health literacy - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs {1999} JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
    Vol. {281}({6}), pp. {552-557} 
    article  
    Abstract: Context Patients with the greatest health care needs may have the least ability to read and comprehend information needed to function successfully as patients. Objective To examine the scope and consequences of poor hearth literacy in the United States, characterize its implications for patients and physicians, and identify policy and research issues. Participants The 12 members of the Ad Hoc Committee on Health Literacy, American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs, were selected by a key informant process as experts in the field of health literacy from a variety of backgrounds in clinical medicine, medical and health services research, medical education, psychology, adult literacy, nursing, and health education. Evidence Literature review using the MEDLINE database for January 1966 through October 1, 1996, searching Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) reading combined with text words health or literacy in the title, abstract, or MeSH. A subsequent search using reading as a search term identified articles published between 1993 and August 1998. Authors of relevant published abstracts were asked to provide manuscripts. Experts in health services research, health education, and medical law identified proprietary and other unpublished references. Consensus Process Consensus among committee members was reached through review of 216 published articles and additional unpublished manuscripts and telephone and Internet conferencing. All committee members approved the final report. Conclusions Patients with inadequate health literacy have a complex array of communications difficulties, which may interact to influence health outcome. These patients report worse health status and have less understanding about their medical conditions and treatment. Preliminary studies indicate inadequate health literacy may increase the risk of hospitalization. Professional and public awareness of the health literacy issue must be increased, beginning with education of medical students and physicians and improved patient-physician communication skills. Future research should focus on optimal methods of screening patients to identify those with poor health literacy, effective health education techniques, outcomes and costs associated with poor health literacy, and the causal pathway of how poor health literacy influences health.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Parker1999,
      author = {Parker, RM and Williams, MV and Weiss, BD and Baker, DW and Davis, TC and Doak, CC and Doak, LG and Hein, K and Meade, CD and Nurss, J and Schwartzberg, JG and Somers, SA and Davis, RM and Riggs, JA and Champion, HC and Howe, JP and Altman, RD and Deitchman, SD and Genel, M and Karlan, MS and Khan, MK and Nielsen, NH and Williams, MA and Young, DC and Schwartzberg, J and Bresolin, LB and Dickinson, BD and Amer Med Assoc},
      title = {Health literacy - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs},
      journal = {JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {281},
      number = {6},
      pages = {552-557}
    }
    
    Paulhus, D. & John, O. Egoistic and moralistic biases in self-perception: The interplay of self-deceptive styles with basic traits and motives {1998} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {66}({6}), pp. {1025-1060} 
    article  
    Abstract: The literature on personality traits and defense mechanisms suggests individual differences in two self-favoring tendencies, which we label ``egoistic bias'' and ``moralistic bias.'' The two biases are self-deceptive in nature and can be traced to two fundamental values, agency and communion, that impel two corresponding motives, nPower and nApproval. The two sequences of values, motives, and biases form two personality constellations, Alpha and Gamma. Associated with Alpha is an egoistic bias, a self-deceptive tendency to exaggerate one's social and intellectual status. This tendency leads to unrealistically positive self-perceptions on such traits as dominance, fearlessness, emotional stability, intellect, and creativity. Self-perceptions of high Alpha scorers have a narcissistic, ``superhero'' quality. Associated with Gamma is a moralistic bias, a self-deceptive tendency to deny socially deviant impulses and to claim sanctimonious ``saint-like'' attributes. This tendency is played out in overly positive self-perceptions on such traits as agreeableness, dutifulness, and restraint. The Alpha-Gamma conception provides an integrative framework for a number of central issues in personality psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Paulhus1998,
      author = {Paulhus, DL and John, OP},
      title = {Egoistic and moralistic biases in self-perception: The interplay of self-deceptive styles with basic traits and motives},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {66},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1025-1060}
    }
    
    Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W. & Perry, R. Academic emotions in students' self-regulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research {2002} EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {37}({2}), pp. {91-105} 
    article  
    Abstract: Academic emotions have largely been neglected by educational psychology, with the exception of test anxiety. In 5 qualitative studies, it was found that students experience a rich diversity of emotions in academic settings. Anxiety was reported most often, but overall, positive emotions were described no less frequently than negative emotions. Based on the studies in this article, taxonomies of different academic emotions and a self-report instrument measuring students' enjoyment, hope, pride, relief, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom (Academic Emotions Questionnaire [AEQ]) were developed. Using the AEQ, assumptions of a cognitive-motivational model of the achievement effects of emotions, and of a control/value theory of their antecedents (Pekrun, 1992b, 2000), were tested in 7 cross-sectional, 3 longitudinal, and I diary study using samples of university and school students. Results showed that academic emotions are significantly related to students' motivation, learning strategies, cognitive resources, self-regulation, and academic achievement, as well as to personality and classroom antecedents. The findings indicate that affective research in educational psychology should acknowledge emotional diversity in academic settings by addressing the full range of emotions experienced by students at school and university.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pekrun2002,
      author = {Pekrun, R and Goetz, T and Titz, W and Perry, RP},
      title = {Academic emotions in students' self-regulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research},
      journal = {EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {37},
      number = {2},
      pages = {91-105}
    }
    
    Penton-Voak, I., Perrett, D., Castles, D., Kobayashi, T., Burt, D., Murray, L. & Minamisawa, R. Menstrual cycle alters face preference {1999} NATURE
    Vol. {399}({6738}), pp. {741-742} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Penton-Voak1999,
      author = {Penton-Voak, IS and Perrett, DI and Castles, DL and Kobayashi, T and Burt, DM and Murray, LK and Minamisawa, R},
      title = {Menstrual cycle alters face preference},
      journal = {NATURE},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {399},
      number = {6738},
      pages = {741-742}
    }
    
    Perrett, D., Lee, K., Penton-Voak, I., Rowland, D., Yoshikawa, S., Burt, D., Henzi, S., Castles, D. & Akamatsu, S. Effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness {1998} NATURE
    Vol. {394}({6696}), pp. {884-887} 
    article  
    Abstract: Testosterone-dependent secondary sexual characteristics in males may signal immunological competence(1) and are sexually selected for in several species(2,3). In humans, oestrogen-dependent characteristics of the female body correlate with health and reproductive fitness and are found attractive(4-6). Enhancing the sexual dimorphism of human faces should raise am-activeness by enhancing sex-hormone-related cues to youth and fertility in females(5,7-11), and to dominance and immunocompetence in males(5,12,13). Here we report the results of asking subjects to choose the most attractive faces from continua that enhanced or diminished differences between the average shape of female and male faces. As predicted, subjects preferred feminized ta, average shapes of a female face. This preference applied across UK and Japanese populations but was stronger for within-population judgements, which indicates that attractiveness cues are learned. Subjects preferred feminized to average or masculinized shapes of a male face. Enhancing masculine facial characteristics increased both perceived dominance and negative attributions (for example, coldness or dishonesty) relevant to relationships and paternal investment. These results indicate a selection pressure that limits sexual dimorphism and encourages neoteny in humans.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Perrett1998,
      author = {Perrett, DI and Lee, KJ and Penton-Voak, I and Rowland, D and Yoshikawa, S and Burt, DM and Henzi, SP and Castles, DL and Akamatsu, S},
      title = {Effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness},
      journal = {NATURE},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {394},
      number = {6696},
      pages = {884-887}
    }
    
    Perrin, J., Stein, M., Amler, R., Blondis, T., Feldman, H., Meyer, B., Shaywitz, B., Wolraich, M., DeSpirito, A., Homer, C., Wender, E., Brown, R., Ganiats, T., Grabert, B., Pierce, K., Herrerias, C., Homer, C., Baltz, R., Hickson, G., Miles, P., Newman, T., Shook, J., Zurhellen, W., Lowe, B., Schwalenstocker, E., Goldberg, M., Shiffman, R., Berger, J., France, F. & Subcomm Attention-Deficit Hyperact Clinical practice guideline: Treatment of the school-aged child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder {2001} PEDIATRICS
    Vol. {108}({4}), pp. {1033-1044} 
    article  
    Abstract: This clinical practice guideline provides evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This guideline, the second in a set of policies on this condition, is intended for use by clinicians working in primary care settings. The initiation of treatment requires the accurate establishment of a diagnosis of ADHD; the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) clinical practice guideline on diagnosis of children with ADHD(1) provides direction in appropriately diagnosing this disorder. The AAP Committee on Quality Improvement selected a subcommittee composed of primary care and developmental-behavioral pediatricians and other experts in the fields of neurology, psychology, child psychiatry, education, family practice, and epidemiology. The subcommittee partnered with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Evidence-based Practice Center at McMaster University, Ontario, Canada, to develop the evidence base of literature on this topic.(2) The resulting systematic review, along with other major studies in this area, was used to formulate recommendations for treatment of children with ADHD. The subcommittee also reviewed the multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD(3) and the Canadian Coordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment report (CCOHTA).(4) Subcommittee decisions were made by consensus where definitive evidence was not available. The subcommittee report underwent extensive review by sections and committees of the AAP as well as by numerous external organizations before approval from the AAP Board of Directors. The guideline contains the following recommendations for the treatment of a child diagnosed with ADHD: Primary care clinicians should establish a treatment program that recognizes ADHD as a chronic condition. The treating clinician, parents, and child, in collaboration with school personnel, should specify appropriate target outcomes to guide management. The clinician should recommend stimulant medication and/or behavior therapy as appropriate to improve target outcomes in children with ADHD. When the selected management for a child with ADHD has not met target outcomes, clinicians should evaluate the original diagnosis, use of all appropriate treatments, adherence to the treatment plan, and presence of coexisting conditions. The clinician should periodically provide a systematic follow-up for the child with ADHD. Monitoring should be directed to target outcomes and adverse effects, with information gathered from parents, teachers, and the child. This guideline is intended for use by primary care clinicians for the management of children between 6 and 12 years of age with ADHD. In light of the high prevalence of ADHD in pediatric practice, the guideline should assist primary care clinicians in treatment. Although many of the recommendations here also may apply to children with coexisting conditions, this guideline primarily addresses children with ADHD but without major coexisting conditions. The guideline is not intended for use in the treatment of children with mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorder, moderate to severe sensory deficits such as visual and hearing impairment, chronic disorders associated with medications that may affect behavior, and those who have experienced child abuse and sexual abuse. This guideline is not intended as a sole source of guidance for the treatment of children with ADHD. Rather, it is designed to assist the primary care clinician by providing a framework for decision-making. It is not intended to replace clinical judgment or to establish a protocol for all children with this condition, and may not provide the only appropriate approach to this problem.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Perrin2001,
      author = {Perrin, JM and Stein, MT and Amler, RW and Blondis, TA and Feldman, HM and Meyer, BP and Shaywitz, BA and Wolraich, ML and DeSpirito, A and Homer, CJ and Wender, E and Brown, RT and Ganiats, TG and Grabert, B and Pierce, K and Herrerias, CT and Homer, CJ and Baltz, RD and Hickson, GB and Miles, PV and Newman, TB and Shook, JE and Zurhellen, WM and Lowe, BA and Schwalenstocker, E and Goldberg, MJ and Shiffman, R and Berger, JE and France, FL and Subcomm Attention-Deficit Hyperact},
      title = {Clinical practice guideline: Treatment of the school-aged child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder},
      journal = {PEDIATRICS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {108},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1033-1044}
    }
    
    PETERS, J. CHILDREN WHO ARE VICTIMS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT AND PSYCHOLOGY OF OFFENDERS {1976} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY
    Vol. {30}({3}), pp. {398-421} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{PETERS1976,
      author = {PETERS, JJ},
      title = {CHILDREN WHO ARE VICTIMS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT AND PSYCHOLOGY OF OFFENDERS},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY},
      year = {1976},
      volume = {30},
      number = {3},
      pages = {398-421}
    }
    
    Phinney, J. When we talk about American ethnic groups, what do we mean? {1996} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {51}({9}), pp. {918-927} 
    article  
    Abstract: American ethnic groups are often thought of as discrete categories to which people belong and that explain some aspects of psychological functioning. However, ethnicity is a complex multidimensional construct that, by itself, explain little. To understand its psychological implications, it is necessary to identify and assess those aspects of ethnicity that may have an impact on outcomes of interest. In this article, the author examines 3 key aspects of ethnicity: cultural norms and values; the strength, salience, and meaning of ethnic identity; and the experiences and attitudes associated with minority status. These aspects are best understood in terms of dimensions along which individuals and samples vary, rather than as categories into which individuals can be classified.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Phinney1996,
      author = {Phinney, JS},
      title = {When we talk about American ethnic groups, what do we mean?},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {51},
      number = {9},
      pages = {918-927}
    }
    
    Pickering, M. & Garrod, S. Toward a mechanistic psychology of dialogue {2004} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {27}({2}), pp. {169+} 
    article  
    Abstract: Traditional mechanistic accounts of language processing derive almost entirely from the study of monologue. Yet, the most natural and basic form of language use is dialogue. As a result, these accounts may only offer limited theories of the mechanisms that underlie language processing in general. We propose a mechanistic account of dialogue, the interactive alignment account, and use it to derive a number of predictions about basic language processes. The account assumes that, in dialogue, the linguistic representations employed by the interlocutors become aligned at many levels, as a result of a largely automatic process. This process greatly simplifies production and comprehension in dialogue. After considering the evidence for the interactive alignment model, we concentrate on three aspects of processing that follow from it. It makes use of a simple interactive inference mechanism, enables the development of local dialogue routines that greatly simplify language processing, and explains the origins of self-monitoring in production. We consider the need for a grammatical framework that is designed to deal with language in dialogue rather than monologue, and discuss a range of implications of the account.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pickering2004,
      author = {Pickering, MJ and Garrod, S},
      title = {Toward a mechanistic psychology of dialogue},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {27},
      number = {2},
      pages = {169+}
    }
    
    Pintrich, P. A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts {2003} JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {95}({4}), pp. {667-686} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: A motivational science perspective on student motivation in learning and teaching contexts is developed that highlights 3 general themes for motivational research. The 3 themes include the importance of a general scientific approach for research on student motivation, the utility of multidisciplinary perspectives, and the importance of use-inspired basic research on motivation. Seven substantive questions are then suggested as important directions for current and future motivational science research efforts. They include (1) What do students want? (2) What motivates students in classrooms? (3) How do students get what they want? (4) Do students know what they want or what motivates them? (5) How does motivation lead to cognition and cognition to motivation? (6) How does motivation change and develop? and (7) What is the role of context and culture? Each of the questions is addressed in terms of current knowledge claims and future directions for research in motivational science.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pintrich2003,
      author = {Pintrich, PR},
      title = {A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {95},
      number = {4},
      pages = {667-686},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-0663.95.4.667}}
    }
    
    PINTRICH, P., MARX, R. & BOYLE, R. BEYOND COLD CONCEPTUAL CHANGE - THE ROLE OF MOTIVATIONAL BELIEFS AND CLASSROOM CONTEXTUAL FACTORS IN THE PROCESS OF CONCEPTUAL CHANGE {1993} REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
    Vol. {63}({2}), pp. {167-199} 
    article  
    Abstract: Conceptual change models of student learning are useful for explicating the role of prior knowledge in students' learning and are very popular in the research on learning in the subject areas. This article presents an analysis of a conceptual change model for describing student learning by applying research on student motivation to the process of conceptual change. Four general motivational constructs (goals, values, self-efficacy, and control beliefs) are suggested as potential mediators of the process of conceptual change. In addition, there is a discussion Of the role of classroom contextual factors as moderators of the relations between student motivation and conceptual change. The article highlights the theoretical difficulties of a cold, or overly rational, model of conceptual change that focuses only on student cognition without considering the ways in which students' motivational beliefs about themselves as learners and the roles of individuals in a classroom learning community can facilitate or hinder conceptual change.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PINTRICH1993,
      author = {PINTRICH, PR and MARX, RW and BOYLE, RA},
      title = {BEYOND COLD CONCEPTUAL CHANGE - THE ROLE OF MOTIVATIONAL BELIEFS AND CLASSROOM CONTEXTUAL FACTORS IN THE PROCESS OF CONCEPTUAL CHANGE},
      journal = {REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {63},
      number = {2},
      pages = {167-199},
      note = {SYMP ON BEYOND PRIOR KNOWLEDGE : ISSUES IN COMPREHENSION, LEARNING, AND CONCEPTUAL CHANGE, AT THE 1992 ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN-EDUCATIONAL-RESEARCH-ASSOC, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, APR, 1992}
    }
    
    Podsakoff, P., Ahearne, M. & MacKenzie, S. Organizational citizenship behavior and the quantity and quality of work group performance {1997} JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {82}({2}), pp. {262-270} 
    article  
    Abstract: Despite the widespread interest in the topic of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), little empirical research has tested the fundamental assumption that these forms of behavior improve the effectiveness of work groups or organizations in which they are exhibited. In the present study, the effects of OCBs on the quantity and quality of the performance of 218 people working in 40 machine crews in a paper mill located in the Northeastern United States were examined. The results indicate that helping behavior and sportsmanship had significant effects on performance quantity and that helping behavior had a significant impact on performance quality. However, civic virtue had no effect on either performance measure.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Podsakoff1997,
      author = {Podsakoff, PM and Ahearne, M and MacKenzie, SB},
      title = {Organizational citizenship behavior and the quantity and quality of work group performance},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {82},
      number = {2},
      pages = {262-270}
    }
    
    POLLATSEK, A. & WELL, A. ON THE USE OF COUNTERBALANCED DESIGNS IN COGNITIVE RESEARCH - A SUGGESTION FOR A BETTER AND MORE POWERFUL ANALYSIS {1995} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION
    Vol. {21}({3}), pp. {785-794} 
    article  
    Abstract: Counterbalanced designs are ubiquitous in cognitive psychology. Researchers, however, rarely perform optimal analyses of these designs and, as a result, reduce the power of their experiments. In the context of a simple priming experiment, several idealized data sets are used to illustrate the possible costs of ignoring counterbalancing, and recommendations are made for more appropriate analyses. These recommendations apply to assessment of both reliability of effects over subjects and reliability of effects over stimulus items.
    BibTeX:
    @article{POLLATSEK1995,
      author = {POLLATSEK, A and WELL, AD},
      title = {ON THE USE OF COUNTERBALANCED DESIGNS IN COGNITIVE RESEARCH - A SUGGESTION FOR A BETTER AND MORE POWERFUL ANALYSIS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {21},
      number = {3},
      pages = {785-794}
    }
    
    POPE, K., LEVENSON, H. & SCHOVER, L. SEXUAL INTIMACY IN PSYCHOLOGY TRAINING - RESULTS AND IMPLICATIONS OF A NATIONAL SURVEY {1979} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {34}({8}), pp. {682-689} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{POPE1979,
      author = {POPE, KS and LEVENSON, H and SCHOVER, LR},
      title = {SEXUAL INTIMACY IN PSYCHOLOGY TRAINING - RESULTS AND IMPLICATIONS OF A NATIONAL SURVEY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1979},
      volume = {34},
      number = {8},
      pages = {682-689}
    }
    
    POSNER, M. ATTENTION - THE MECHANISMS OF CONSCIOUSNESS {1994} PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
    Vol. {91}({16}), pp. {7398-7403} 
    article  
    Abstract: A number of recent papers and books discuss theoretical efforts toward a scientific understanding of consciousness. Progress in imaging networks of brain areas active when people perform simple tasks may provide a useful empirical background for distinguishing conscious and unconscious information processing. Attentional networks include those involved in orienting to sensory stimuli, activating ideas from memory, and maintaining the alert state. This paper reviews recent findings in relation to classical issues in the study of attention and anatomical and physical theories of the nature of consciousness.
    BibTeX:
    @article{POSNER1994,
      author = {POSNER, MI},
      title = {ATTENTION - THE MECHANISMS OF CONSCIOUSNESS},
      journal = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {91},
      number = {16},
      pages = {7398-7403}
    }
    
    POWERS, W. QUANTITATIVE-ANALYSIS OF PURPOSIVE SYSTEMS - SOME SPADEWORK AT FOUNDATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY {1978} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {85}({5}), pp. {417-435} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{POWERS1978,
      author = {POWERS, WT},
      title = {QUANTITATIVE-ANALYSIS OF PURPOSIVE SYSTEMS - SOME SPADEWORK AT FOUNDATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1978},
      volume = {85},
      number = {5},
      pages = {417-435}
    }
    
    Preacher, K. & Hayes, A. SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models {2004} BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS INSTRUMENTS & COMPUTERS
    Vol. {36}({4}), pp. {717-731} 
    article  
    Abstract: Researchers often conduct mediation analysis in order to indirectly assess the effect of a proposed cause on some outcome through a proposed mediator. The utility of mediation analysis stems from its ability to go beyond the merely descriptive to a more functional understanding of the relationships among variables. A necessary component of mediation is a statistically and practically significant indirect effect. Although mediation hypotheses are frequently explored in psychological research, formal significance tests of indirect effects are rarely conducted. After a brief overview of mediation, we argue the importance of directly testing the significance of indirect effects and provide SPSS and SAS macros that facilitate estimation of the indirect effect with a normal theory approach and a bootstrap approach to obtaining confidence intervals, as well as the traditional approach advocated by Baron and Kenny (1986). We hope that this discussion and the macros will enhance the frequency of formal mediation tests in the psychology literature. Electronic copies of these macros may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society's Web archive at www.psychonomic.org/archive/.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Preacher2004,
      author = {Preacher, KJ and Hayes, AF},
      title = {SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models},
      journal = {BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS INSTRUMENTS & COMPUTERS},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {36},
      number = {4},
      pages = {717-731}
    }
    
    PROCHASKA, J. STRONG AND WEAK PRINCIPLES FOR PROGRESSING FROM PRECONTEMPLATION TO ACTION ON THE BASIS OF 12 PROBLEM BEHAVIORS {1994} HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {13}({1}), pp. {47-51} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two principles for progressing from the precontemplation stage of change to the action stage were discovered. The strong principle states that progression from precontemplation to action is a function of approximately a 1 standard deviation increase in the pros of a health behavior change. The weak principle states that progression from precontemplation to action is a function of approximately a 1/2 standard deviation decrease in the cons of a health behavior change. In Study 1, these principles were derived from cross-sectional data on 12 problem behaviors relating the pros and cons of changing to the stages of change. In Study 2, these principles were validated on cross-sectional data from an independent sample of 1,466 smokers. Discussion focuses on the implications of these principles for individual psychology and public health policy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PROCHASKA1994,
      author = {PROCHASKA, JO},
      title = {STRONG AND WEAK PRINCIPLES FOR PROGRESSING FROM PRECONTEMPLATION TO ACTION ON THE BASIS OF 12 PROBLEM BEHAVIORS},
      journal = {HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {47-51}
    }
    
    Quintana, S. & Maxwell, S. Implications of recent developments in structural equation modeling for counseling psychology {1999} COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {27}({4}), pp. {485-527} 
    article  
    Abstract: We review recent developments in structural equation modeling (SEM) since Fassinger's (1987) introductory article. We discuss issues critical to designing and evaluating SEM studies. Our review includes recent technological developments in SEM such as new approaches from hypothesis resting to determining statistical power and assessing model fit. Moreover, we discuss innovations in applying SEM to different research contexts and designs (e.g., experimental and longitudinal designs and interactions among latent variables). Finally, we discuss procedures for redressing common problems and misunderstandings in the application of SEM procedures to counseling research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Quintana1999,
      author = {Quintana, SM and Maxwell, SE},
      title = {Implications of recent developments in structural equation modeling for counseling psychology},
      journal = {COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {27},
      number = {4},
      pages = {485-527}
    }
    
    Rabin, M. Psychology and economics {1998} JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC LITERATURE
    Vol. {36}({1}), pp. {11-46} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rabin1998,
      author = {Rabin, M},
      title = {Psychology and economics},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC LITERATURE},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {36},
      number = {1},
      pages = {11-46}
    }
    
    RACHLIN, H. SELF-CONTROL - BEYOND COMMITMENT {1995} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {18}({1}), pp. {109-121} 
    article  
    Abstract: Self-control, so important in the theory and practice of psychology, has usually been understood introspectively. This target article adopts a behavioral view of the self (as an abstract class of behavioral actions) and of self-control (as an abstract behavioral pattern dominating a particular act) according to which the development of self-control is a molar/molecular conflict in the development of behavioral patterns. This subsumes the more typical view of self-control as a now/later conflict in which an act of self-control is a choice of a larger but later reinforcer over a smaller but sooner reinforcer. If at some future time the smaller-sooner reinforcer will be more valuable than the larger-later reinforcer, self-control may be achieved through a commitment to the larger-later reinforcer prior to that point. According to some, there is a progressive internalization of commitment in the development of self-control. This presents theoretical and empirical problems. In two experiments - one with pigeons choosing between smaller-sooner and larger-later reinforcers, the other with adult humans choosing between short-term particular and long-term abstract reinforcers - temporal patterning of choices increased self-control.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RACHLIN1995,
      author = {RACHLIN, H},
      title = {SELF-CONTROL - BEYOND COMMITMENT},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {18},
      number = {1},
      pages = {109-121}
    }
    
    RACHLIN, H., BATTALIO, R., KAGEL, J. & GREEN, L. MAXIMIZATION THEORY IN BEHAVIORAL PSYCHOLOGY {1981} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {4}({3}), pp. {371-388} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{RACHLIN1981,
      author = {RACHLIN, H and BATTALIO, R and KAGEL, J and GREEN, L},
      title = {MAXIMIZATION THEORY IN BEHAVIORAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {4},
      number = {3},
      pages = {371-388}
    }
    
    Ramsay, D., Bowman, M., Greenman, P., Jiang, S., Kushi, L., Leeman, S., Lin, K., Moerman, D., Schnoll, S., Walker, M., Waternaux, C., Wisneski, L. & NIN Consensus Dev Panel Acupuncture Acupuncture {1998} JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
    Vol. {280}({17}), pp. {1518-1524} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective.-To provide clinicians, patients, and the general public with a responsible assessment of the use and effectiveness of acupuncture to treat a variety of conditions. Participants.-A nonfederal, nonadvocate, 12-member panel representing the fields of acupuncture, pain, psychology, psychiatry, physical medicine and rehabilitation, drug abuse, family practice, internal medicine, health policy, epidemiology, statistics, physiology, biophysics, and the representatives of the public. In addition, 25 experts from these same fields presented data to the panel and a conference audience of 1200. Presentations and discussions were divided into 3 phases over 2 1/2 days: (1) presentations by investigators working in areas relevant to the consensus questions during a 2-day public session; (2) questions and statements from conference attendees during open discussion periods that were part of the public session; and (3) closed deliberations by the panel during the remainder of the second day and morning of the third. The conference was organized and supported by the Office of Alternative Medicine and the Office of Medical Applications of Research, National institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. Evidence.-The literature, produced from January 1970 to October 1997, was searched through MEDLINE, Allied and Alternative Medicine, EMBASE, and MANTIS, as well as through a hand search of 9 journals that were not indexed by the National Library of Medicine. An extensive bibliography of 2302 references was provided to the panel and the conference audience. Expert speakers prepared abstracts of their own conference presentations with relevant citations from the literature. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. Consensus Process.-The panel, answering predefined questions, developed their conclusions based on the scientific evidence presented in the open forum and scientific literature. The panel composed a draft statement, which was read in its entirety and circulated to the experts and the audience for comment. Thereafter, the panel resolved conflicting recommendations and released a revised statement at the end of the conference. The panel finalized the revisions within a few weeks after the conference. The draft statement was made available on the World Wide Web immediately following its release at the conference and was updated with the panel's final revisions within a few weeks of the conference. The statement is available at http://consensus.nih.gov. Conclusions.-Acupuncture as a therapeutic intervention is widely practiced in the United States. Although there have been many studies of its potential usefulness, many of these studies provide equivocal results because of design, sample size, and other factors. The issue is further complicated by inherent difficulties in the use of appropriate controls, such as placebos and sham acupuncture groups. However, promising results have emerged, for example, showing efficacy of acupuncture in adult postoperative and chemotherapy nausea and vomiting and in postoperative dental pain. There are other situations, such as addiction, stroke rehabilitation, headache, menstrual cramps, tennis elbow, fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, osteoarthritis, low back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and asthma, in which acupuncture may be useful as an adjunct treatment or an acceptable alternative or be included in a comprehensive management program. Further research is likely to uncover additional areas where acupuncture interventions will be useful.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ramsay1998,
      author = {Ramsay, DJ and Bowman, MA and Greenman, PE and Jiang, SP and Kushi, LH and Leeman, S and Lin, KM and Moerman, DE and Schnoll, SH and Walker, M and Waternaux, C and Wisneski, LA and NIN Consensus Dev Panel Acupuncture},
      title = {Acupuncture},
      journal = {JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {280},
      number = {17},
      pages = {1518-1524}
    }
    
    RAPPAPORT, J. TERMS OF EMPOWERMENT EXEMPLARS OF PREVENTION - TOWARD A THEORY FOR COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY {1987} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {15}({2}), pp. {121-148} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{RAPPAPORT1987,
      author = {RAPPAPORT, J},
      title = {TERMS OF EMPOWERMENT EXEMPLARS OF PREVENTION - TOWARD A THEORY FOR COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {15},
      number = {2},
      pages = {121-148}
    }
    
    REDELMEIER, D., ROZIN, P. & KAHNEMAN, D. UNDERSTANDING PATIENTS DECISIONS - COGNITIVE AND EMOTIONAL PERSPECTIVES {1993} JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
    Vol. {270}({1}), pp. {72-76} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective.-To describe ways in which intuitive thought processes and feelings may lead patients to make suboptimal medical decisions. Design.-Review of past studies from the psychology literature. Results.-Intuitive decision making is often appropriate and results in reasonable choices; in some situations, however, intuitions lead patients to make choices that are not in their best interests. People sometimes treat safety and danger categorically, undervalue the importance of a partial risk reduction, are influenced by the way in which a problem is framed, and inappropriately evaluate an action by its subsequent outcome. These strategies help explain examples where risk perceptions conflict with standard scientific analyses. In the domain of emotions, people tend to consider losses as more significant than the corresponding gains, are imperfect at predicting future preferences, distort their memories of past personal experiences, have difficulty resolving inconsistencies between emotions and rationality, and worry with an intensity disproportionate to the actual danger. In general, such intangible aspects of clinical care have received little attention in the medical literature. Conclusion.-We suggest that an awareness of how people reason is an important clinical skill that can be promoted by knowledge of selected past studies in psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{REDELMEIER1993,
      author = {REDELMEIER, DA and ROZIN, P and KAHNEMAN, D},
      title = {UNDERSTANDING PATIENTS DECISIONS - COGNITIVE AND EMOTIONAL PERSPECTIVES},
      journal = {JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {270},
      number = {1},
      pages = {72-76}
    }
    
    Regehr, G. & Norman, G. Issues in cognitive psychology: Implications for professional education {1996} ACADEMIC MEDICINE
    Vol. {71}({9}), pp. {988-1001} 
    article  
    Abstract: Education and cognitive psychology have tended to pursue parallel rather than overlapping paths. Yet there is, or should be, considerable common ground, since both have major interests in learning and memory. This paper presents a number of topics in cognitive psychology, summarizes the findings in the field, and explores the implications for teaching and learning. The organization of long-term memory. The acquisition of expertise in an area can be characterized by the development of idiosyncratic memory structures called semantic networks, which are meaningful sets of connections among abstract concepts and/or specific experiences. Information (such as the assumptions and hypotheses that are necessary to diagnose and manage cases) is retrieved through the activation of these networks. Thus, when teaching, new information must be embedded meaningfully in relevant, previously existing knowledge to ensure that it will be retrievable when necessary. Influences on storage and retrieval from memory. A wide variety of variables affect the capacity to store and retrieve information from memory, including meaning, the context and manner in which information is learned, and relevant practice in retrieval. Educational strategies must, therefore, be directed at three goals-to enhance meaning, to reduce dependence on context, and to provide repeated relevant practice in retrieving information. Problem solving and transfer. Much of the development of expertise involves the transition from using general problem-solving routines to using specialized knowledge that reduces the need for classic `'problem solving.'' Two manifestations of this specialized knowledge are the use of analogy and the specialization of general routines in specific domains. To develop these specialized forms of knowledge, the learner must have extensive practice in using relevant problem-solving routines and in identifying the situations in which a particular routine is likely to be useful. Concept formation. Experts possess both abstract prototypical information about categories and an extensive set of separate, specific examples of categories, which have been obtained through individual experience. Both these sources of information are used in categorization and diagnostic classifications. Thus, it is important for educators to be aware that experience with sample cases is not just an opportunity to apply and practice the rules `'at the end of the chapter.'' Instead, experience with cases provides an alternative method of reasoning that is independent of, but equally useful to, analytical rules. Decision making. Experts clearly do not use classic formal decision theory, but rather make use of heuristics, or shortcuts, when making decisions. Nonetheless, experts generally make appropriate decisions. This suggests that the shortcuts are useful more often than not. Rather than teaching learners to avoid heuristics, then, it might be more reasonable to help them recognize those relatively in-frequent situations where their heuristics are likely to fail.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Regehr1996,
      author = {Regehr, G and Norman, GR},
      title = {Issues in cognitive psychology: Implications for professional education},
      journal = {ACADEMIC MEDICINE},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {71},
      number = {9},
      pages = {988-1001}
    }
    
    RENIK, O. ANALYTIC INTERACTION - CONCEPTUALIZING TECHNIQUE IN LIGHT OF THE ANALYSTS IRREDUCIBLE SUBJECTIVITY {1993} PSYCHOANALYTIC QUARTERLY
    Vol. {62}({4}), pp. {553-571} 
    article  
    Abstract: Every aspect of an analyst's clinical activity is determined in part by his or her personal psychology. The implications for our theory of technique of taking the analyst's subjectivity fully into account-which we have tended not to do-are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RENIK1993,
      author = {RENIK, O},
      title = {ANALYTIC INTERACTION - CONCEPTUALIZING TECHNIQUE IN LIGHT OF THE ANALYSTS IRREDUCIBLE SUBJECTIVITY},
      journal = {PSYCHOANALYTIC QUARTERLY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {62},
      number = {4},
      pages = {553-571}
    }
    
    RENNIE, D., PHILLIPS, J. & QUARTARO, G. GROUNDED THEORY - A PROMISING APPROACH TO CONCEPTUALIZATION IN PSYCHOLOGY {1988} CANADIAN PSYCHOLOGY-PSYCHOLOGIE CANADIENNE
    Vol. {29}({2}), pp. {139-150} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{RENNIE1988,
      author = {RENNIE, DL and PHILLIPS, JR and QUARTARO, GK},
      title = {GROUNDED THEORY - A PROMISING APPROACH TO CONCEPTUALIZATION IN PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {CANADIAN PSYCHOLOGY-PSYCHOLOGIE CANADIENNE},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {29},
      number = {2},
      pages = {139-150}
    }
    
    REZNICK, R. TEACHING AND TESTING TECHNICAL SKILLS {1993} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY
    Vol. {165}({3}), pp. {358-361} 
    article  
    Abstract: Teaching technical skills is one of the most important tasks of a surgeon. This article discusses current issues in teaching and testing technical skills. For the most part, the level of technical skills cannot be predicted before a surgical resident starts a program. Different methods of teaching technical skills are reviewed (in and out of the operating room). For optimal effectiveness in teaching residents, we must apply principles of adult learning to the surgical domain. A methodologic framework for skill acquisition, adapted from the educational psychology literature, is discussed. Five methods of assessing technical skills are presented. Structuring the assessment process has resulted in higher levels of reliability and improved validity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{REZNICK1993,
      author = {REZNICK, RK},
      title = {TEACHING AND TESTING TECHNICAL SKILLS},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {165},
      number = {3},
      pages = {358-361}
    }
    
    Rhodes, G. The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty {2006} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {57}, pp. {199-226} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: What makes a face attractive and why do we have the preferences we do? Emergence of preferences early in development and cross-cultural agreement on attractiveness challenge a long-held view that our preferences reflect arbitrary standards of beauty set by cultures. Averageness, symmetry, and sexual dimorphism are good candidates for biologically based standards of beauty. A critical review and meta-analyses indicate that all three are attractive in both male and female faces and across cultures. Theorists have proposed that face preferences may be adaptations for mate choice because attractive traits signal important aspects of mate quality, such as health. Others have argued that they may simply be by-products of the way brains process information. Although often presented as alternatives, I argue that both kinds of selection pressures may have shaped our perceptions of facial beauty.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rhodes2006,
      author = {Rhodes, G},
      title = {The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {57},
      pages = {199-226},
      doi = {{10.1146/annurev.psych.57.102904.190208}}
    }
    
    RICE, M. & HARRIS, G. VIOLENT RECIDIVISM - ASSESSING PREDICTIVE-VALIDITY {1995} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {63}({5}), pp. {737-748} 
    article  
    Abstract: Until very recently, there has been little evidence of the ability of either clinicians or actuarial instruments to predict violent behavior. Moreover, a confusing variety of measures have been proposed for the evaluation of the accuracy of predictions. This report demonstrates that receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) have advantages over other measures inasmuch as they are simultaneously independent of the base rate for violence in the populations studied and of the particular cutoff score chosen to classify cases as likely to be violent. In an illustration of the value of this approach, the base rates of violence were altered with the use of data from 3.5-, 6-, and 10-year follow-ups of 799 previously violent men. Base rates for the 10-year follow-up were also altered by changing the definition of violent recidivism and by examining a high-risk subgroup. The report also shows how ROC methods can be used to compare the performance of different instruments for the prediction of violence. The report illustrates how ROCs facilitate decisions about whether, at a particular base rate, the use of a prediction instrument is warranted. Finally, some of the limitations of ROCs are outlined, and some cautionary remarks are made with regard to their use.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RICE1995,
      author = {RICE, ME and HARRIS, GT},
      title = {VIOLENT RECIDIVISM - ASSESSING PREDICTIVE-VALIDITY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {63},
      number = {5},
      pages = {737-748}
    }
    
    RICHINS, M. & DAWSON, S. A CONSUMER VALUES ORIENTATION FOR MATERIALISM AND ITS MEASUREMENT - SCALE DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION {1992} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH
    Vol. {19}({3}), pp. {303-316} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article reviews the construct and measurement of materialism and concludes that materialism is appropriately conceptualized as a consumer value. The development of a values-oriented materialism scale with three components-acquisition centrality, acquisition as the pursuit of happiness, and possession-defined success-is described. In validation tests high scorers (compared with low scorers) desired a higher level of income, placed greater emphasis on financial security and less on interpersonal relationships, preferred to spend more on themselves and less on others, engaged in fewer voluntary simplicity behaviors, and were less satisfied with their lives.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RICHINS1992,
      author = {RICHINS, ML and DAWSON, S},
      title = {A CONSUMER VALUES ORIENTATION FOR MATERIALISM AND ITS MEASUREMENT - SCALE DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {19},
      number = {3},
      pages = {303-316}
    }
    
    Richmond, J., Berman, B., Docherty, J., Goldstein, L., Kaplan, G., Keil, J., Krippner, S., Lyne, S., Mosteller, F., OConnor, B., Rudy, E., Schatzberg, A., Friedman, R., Altman, F., Benson, H., Elliott, J., Ferguson, J., Gracely, R., Greene, A., Haddox, J., Hall, W., Hauri, P., Helzner, E., Kaufmann, P., Kiley, J., Leveck, M., McCutchen, C., Monjan, A., Pillemer, S., MacArthur, J., Sherman, C., Spencer, J. & Varricchio, C. Integration of behavioral and relaxation approaches into the treatment of chronic pain and insomnia {1996} JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
    Vol. {276}({4}), pp. {313-318} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective.-To provide physicians with a responsible assessment of the integration of behavioral and relaxation approaches into the treatment of chronic pain and insomnia. Participants.-A nonfederal, nonadvocate, 12-member panel representing the fields of family medicine, social medicine, psychiatry, psychology, public health, nursing, and epidemiology. In addition, 23 experts in behavioral medicine, pain medicine, sleep medicine, psychiatry, nursing, psychology, neurology, and behavioral and neurosciences presented data to the panel and a conference audience of 528 during a 1 1/2-day public session. Questions and statements from conference attendees were considered during the open session. Closed deliberations by the panel occurred during the remainder of the second day and the morning of the third day. Evidence.-The literature was searched through MEDLINE, and an extensive bibliography of references was provided to the panel and the conference audience. Experts prepared abstracts with relevant citations from the literature. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. Assessment Process.-The panel, answering predefined questions, developed their conclusions based on the scientific evidence presented in open forum and the scientific literature. The panel composed a draft statement that was read in its entirety and circulated to the experts and the audience for comment. Thereafter, the panel resolved conflicting recommendations and released a revised statement at the end of the conference. The panel finalized the revisions within a few weeks after the conference. Conclusions.-A number of well-defined behavioral and relaxation interventions now exist and are effective in the treatment of chronic pain and insomnia. The panel found strong evidence for the use of relaxation techniques in reducing chronic pain in a variety of medical conditions as well as strong evidence for the use of hypnosis in alleviating pain associated with cancer. The evidence was moderate for the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral techniques and biofeedback in relieving chronic pain. Regarding insomnia, behavioral techniques, particularly relaxation and biofeedback, produce improvements in some aspects of sleep, but it is questionable whether the magnitude of the improvement in sleep onset and total sleep time are clinically significant.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Richmond1996,
      author = {Richmond, J and Berman, BM and Docherty, JP and Goldstein, LB and Kaplan, G and Keil, JE and Krippner, S and Lyne, S and Mosteller, F and OConnor, BB and Rudy, EB and Schatzberg, AF and Friedman, R and Altman, F and Benson, H and Elliott, JM and Ferguson, JH and Gracely, R and Greene, A and Haddox, JD and Hall, WH and Hauri, PJ and Helzner, EC and Kaufmann, PG and Kiley, JP and Leveck, MD and McCutchen, CB and Monjan, AA and Pillemer, SR and MacArthur, JD and Sherman, C and Spencer, J and Varricchio, CG},
      title = {Integration of behavioral and relaxation approaches into the treatment of chronic pain and insomnia},
      journal = {JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {276},
      number = {4},
      pages = {313-318}
    }
    
    Roberts, S. & Pashler, H. How persuasive is a good fit? A comment on theory testing {2000} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {107}({2}), pp. {358-367} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Quantitative theories with free parameters often gain credence when they closely fit data. This is a mistake. A good fit reveals nothing about the flexibility of the theory (how much it cannot fit), the variability of the data (how firmly the data rule out what the theory cannot fit), or the likelihood of other outcomes (perhaps the theory could have fit any plausible result), and a reader needs all 3 pieces of information to decide how much the fit should increase belief in the theory. The use of good fits as evidence is not supported by philosophers of science nor by the history of psychology; there seem to be no examples of a theory supported mainly by good fits that has led to demonstrable progress. A better way to test a theory with free parameters is to determine how the theory constrains possible outcomes (i.e., what it predicts), assess how firmly actual outcomes agree with those constraints, and determine if plausible alternative outcomes would have been inconsistent with the theory, allowing for the variability of the data.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Roberts2000,
      author = {Roberts, S and Pashler, H},
      title = {How persuasive is a good fit? A comment on theory testing},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {107},
      number = {2},
      pages = {358-367},
      doi = {{10.1037//0033-295X.107.2.358}}
    }
    
    Robinson, T. & Berridge, K. The psychology and neurobiology of addiction: an incentive-sensitization view {2000} ADDICTION
    Vol. {95}({8, Suppl. 2}), pp. {S91-S117} 
    article  
    Abstract: The question of addiction specifically concerns (1), the process by which drug-taking behavior, in certain individuals, evolves into compulsive patterns of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior that take place at the expense of most other activities and (2), the inability to cease drug-taking; the problem of relapse. In this paper current biopsychological views of addiction are critically evaluated in light of the ``incentive-sensitization theory of addiction'', which we first proposed in 1993, and new developments in research are incorporated. We argue that traditional negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, and hedonic accounts of addiction are neither necessary nor sufficient to account for compulsive patterns of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. Four major tenets of the incentive-sensitization view are discussed. These are: (1) Potentially addictive drugs share the ability to produce long-lasting adaptations in neural systems. (2) The brain systems that are changed include those normally involved in the process of incentive motivation and reward. (3) The critical neuroadaptations for addiction render these brain reward systems hypersensitive (''sensitized'') to drugs and drug-associated stimuli. (4) The brain systems that are sensitized do not mediate the pleasurable or euphoric effects of drugs (drug ``liking''), but instead they mediate a subcomponent of reward we have termed incentive salience (drug ``wanting''). We also discuss the role that mesolimbic dopamine systems play in reward, evidence that neural sensitization happens in humans, and the implications of incentive-sensitization for the development of therapies in the treatment of addiction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Robinson2000,
      author = {Robinson, TE and Berridge, KC},
      title = {The psychology and neurobiology of addiction: an incentive-sensitization view},
      journal = {ADDICTION},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {95},
      number = {8, Suppl. 2},
      pages = {S91-S117}
    }
    
    ROBINSON, T. & BERRIDGE, K. THE NEURAL BASIS OF DRUG CRAVING - AN INCENTIVE-SENSITIZATION THEORY OF ADDICTION {1993} BRAIN RESEARCH REVIEWS
    Vol. {18}({3}), pp. {247-291} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper presents a biopsychological theory of drug addiction, the `Incentive-Sensitization Theory'. The theory addresses three fundamental questions. The first is: why do addicts crave drugs? That is, what is the psychological and neurobiological basis of drug craving? The second is: why does drug craving persist even after long periods of abstinence? The third is whether `wanting' drugs (drug craving) is attributable to `liking' drugs (to the subjective pleasurable effects of drugs)? The theory posits the following. (1) Addictive drugs share the ability to enhance mesotelencephalic dopamine neurotransmission. (2) One psychological function of this neural system is to attribute `incentive salience' to the perception and mental representation of events associated with activation of the system. Incentive salience is a psychological process that transforms the perception of stimuli, imbuing them with salience, making them attractive, `wanted', incentive stimuli. (3) In some individuals the repeated use of addictive drugs produces incremental neuroadaptations in this neural system, rendering it increasingly and perhaps permanently, hypersensitive ('sensitized') to drugs and drug-associated stimuli. The sensitization of dopamine systems is gated by associative learning, which causes excessive incentive salience to be attributed to the act of drug taking and to stimuli associated with drug taking. It is specifically the sensitization of incentive salience, therefore, that transforms ordinary `wanting' into excessive drug craving. (4) It is further proposed that sensitization of the neural systems responsible for incentive salience (for `wanting') can occur independently of changes in neural systems that mediate the subjective pleasurable effects of drugs (drug `liking') and of neural systems that mediate withdrawal. Thus, sensitization of incentive salience can produce addictive behavior (compulsive drug seeking and drug taking) even if the expectation of drug pleasure or the aversive properties of withdrawal are diminished and even in the face of strong disincentives, including the loss of reputation, job, home and family. We review evidence for this view of addiction and discuss its implications for understanding the psychology and neurobiology of addiction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ROBINSON1993,
      author = {ROBINSON, TE and BERRIDGE, KC},
      title = {THE NEURAL BASIS OF DRUG CRAVING - AN INCENTIVE-SENSITIZATION THEORY OF ADDICTION},
      journal = {BRAIN RESEARCH REVIEWS},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {18},
      number = {3},
      pages = {247-291}
    }
    
    Roediger, H. Memory illusions {1996} JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE
    Vol. {35}({2}), pp. {76-100} 
    article  
    Abstract: Memory illusions may be defined as cases in which a rememberer's report of a past event seriously deviates from the event's actual occurrence. This article introduces the special issue of the Journal of Memory and Language that is devoted to memory illusions by grounding their study in the context of perceptual illusions. Perceptual illusions have been investigated since the 1850s, whereas memory illusions have been systematically investigated only since the late 1960s or early 1970s (despite some pioneering research and writing before this time). I suggest possible reasons for this discrepancy in research activity, sketch a brief history of the study of memory illusions, and then consider the variety of memory illusions that are studied in contemporary psychology. The papers composing the special issue are introduced during this brief cataloging of memory illusions. Related areas of research are discussed in the concluding remarks. (C) 1996 Academic Press, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Roediger1996,
      author = {Roediger, HL},
      title = {Memory illusions},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF MEMORY AND LANGUAGE},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {35},
      number = {2},
      pages = {76-100}
    }
    
    ROSENTHAL, R. HOW ARE WE DOING IN SOFT PSYCHOLOGY {1990} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {45}({6}), pp. {775-777} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ROSENTHAL1990,
      author = {ROSENTHAL, R},
      title = {HOW ARE WE DOING IN SOFT PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {45},
      number = {6},
      pages = {775-777}
    }
    
    Rosenthal, R. & DiMatteo, M. Meta-analysis: Recent developments in quantitative methods for literature reviews {2001} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {52}, pp. {59-82} 
    article  
    Abstract: We describe the history and current status of the meta-analytic enterprise. The advantages and historical criticisms of meta-analysis are described, as are the basic steps in a meta-analysis and the role of effect sizes as chief coins of the meta-analytic realm. Advantages of the meta-analytic procedures include seeing the ``landscape'' of a research domain, keeping statistical significance in perspective, minimizing wasted data, becoming intimate with the data summarized, asking focused research questions, and finding moderator variables. Much of the criticism of metaanalysis has been based on simple misunderstanding of how meta-analyses are actually carried out. Criticisms of meta-analysis that are applicable are equally applicable to traditional, nonquantitative, narrative reviews of the literature. Much of the remainder of the chapter deals with the processes of effect size estimation, the understanding of the heterogeneity of the obtained effect sizes, and the practical and scientific importance of the effect sizes obtained.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rosenthal2001,
      author = {Rosenthal, R and DiMatteo, MR},
      title = {Meta-analysis: Recent developments in quantitative methods for literature reviews},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {52},
      pages = {59-82}
    }
    
    Rosnow, R. & Rosenthal, R. Computing contrasts, effect sizes, and counternulls on other people's published data: General procedures for research consumers {1996} PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS
    Vol. {1}({4}), pp. {331-340} 
    article  
    Abstract: We describe convenient statistical procedures that will enable research consumers (e.g., professional psychologists, graduate students, and researchers themselves) to reach beyond the published conclusions and make an independent assessment of the reported results. Appropriately conceived contrasts accompanied by effect size estimates often allow researchers to address precise predictions that the authors of the published report may have ignored or abandoned prematurely. We describe the use of t, F, and Z to compute contrasts with different raw ingredients, and we review 3 effect size indices (Cohen's d, Hedges's g, and the Pearson r) and a way of displaying the magnitude of any effect size r. We also describe how to construct confidence limits for the obtained effect as well as its null-counternull interval.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rosnow1996,
      author = {Rosnow, RL and Rosenthal, R},
      title = {Computing contrasts, effect sizes, and counternulls on other people's published data: General procedures for research consumers},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {1},
      number = {4},
      pages = {331-340}
    }
    
    ROTH, A. & EREV, I. LEARNING IN EXTENSIVE-FORM GAMES - EXPERIMENTAL-DATA AND SIMPLE DYNAMIC-MODELS IN THE INTERMEDIATE-TERM {1995} GAMES AND ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {8}({1}), pp. {164-212} 
    article  
    Abstract: We use simple learning models to track the behavior observed in experiments concerning three extensive form games with similar perfect equilibria. In only two of the games does observed behavior approach the perfect equilibrium as players gain experience. We examine a family of learning models which possess some of the robust properties of learning noted in the psychology literature. The intermediate term predictions of these models track well the observed behavior in all three games, even though the models considered differ in their very long term predictions. We argue that for predicting observed behavior the intermediate term predictions of dynamic learning models may be even more important than their asymptotic properties. (C) 1995 Academic Press, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ROTH1995,
      author = {ROTH, AE and EREV, I},
      title = {LEARNING IN EXTENSIVE-FORM GAMES - EXPERIMENTAL-DATA AND SIMPLE DYNAMIC-MODELS IN THE INTERMEDIATE-TERM},
      journal = {GAMES AND ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {8},
      number = {1},
      pages = {164-212},
      note = {Nobel Symposium on Game Theory, BIORKBORN, SWEDEN, JUN 18-20, 1993}
    }
    
    ROTH, P. MISSING DATA - A CONCEPTUAL REVIEW FOR APPLIED PSYCHOLOGISTS {1994} PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {47}({3}), pp. {537-560} 
    article  
    Abstract: There has been conspicuously little research concerning missing data problems in the applied psychology literature. Fortunately, other fields have begun to investigate this issue. These include survey research, marketing, statistics, economics, and biometrics. A review of this literature suggests several trends for applied psychologists. For example, listwise deletion of data is often the least accurate technique to deal with missing data. Other methods for estimating missing data scores may be more accurate and preserve more data for investigators to analyze. Further, the literature reveals that the amount of missing data and the reasons for deletion of data impact how investigators should handle the problem. Finally, there is a great need for more investigation of strategies for dealing with missing data, especially when data are missing in nonrandom or systematic patterns.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ROTH1994,
      author = {ROTH, PL},
      title = {MISSING DATA - A CONCEPTUAL REVIEW FOR APPLIED PSYCHOLOGISTS},
      journal = {PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {47},
      number = {3},
      pages = {537-560}
    }
    
    Rothbart, M., Ahadi, S. & Evans, D. Temperament and personality: Origins and outcomes {2000} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {78}({1}), pp. {122-135} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article reviews how a temperament approach emphasizing biological and developmental processes can integrate constructs from subdisciplines of psychology to further the study of personality. Basic measurement strategies and findings in the investigation of temperament in infancy and childhood are reviewed. These include linkage of temperament dimensions with basic affective-motivational and attentional systems, including positive affect/approach, fear, frustration/anger, and effortful control. Contributions of biological models that may support these processes are then reviewed. Research indicating how a temperament approach can lead researchers of social and personality development to investigate important person-environment interactions is also discussed. Lastly, adult research suggesting links between temperament dispositions and the Big Five personality factors is described.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rothbart2000,
      author = {Rothbart, MK and Ahadi, SA and Evans, DE},
      title = {Temperament and personality: Origins and outcomes},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {78},
      number = {1},
      pages = {122-135}
    }
    
    ROTHMAN, A., SALOVEY, P., ANTONE, C., KEOUGH, K. & MARTIN, C. THE INFLUENCE OF MESSAGE FRAMING ON INTENTIONS TO PERFORM HEALTH BEHAVIORS {1993} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {29}({5}), pp. {408-433} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ROTHMAN1993,
      author = {ROTHMAN, AJ and SALOVEY, P and ANTONE, C and KEOUGH, K and MARTIN, CD},
      title = {THE INFLUENCE OF MESSAGE FRAMING ON INTENTIONS TO PERFORM HEALTH BEHAVIORS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {29},
      number = {5},
      pages = {408-433},
      note = {1992 ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL SOC, SAN DIEGO, CA, JUN 22, 1992}
    }
    
    Rowe, C. Receiver psychology and the evolution of multicomponent signals {1999} ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR
    Vol. {58}({Part 5}), pp. {921-931} 
    article  
    Abstract: Many animals produce and respond to signals made up of multiple components; For example, many avian sexual displays are highly extravagant combinations of visual and acoustic elements, and are: described as being `multicomponent'. One possible reason for the evolution of such complex signals is that they provide more reliable information for receivers. However, receivers also influence signal evolution in another important way, by how they perceive and process signals: signallers will be selected to produce signals that are more easily received. The potential, role of receiver psychology in the evolution of multicomponent signals has not previously been considered; in this review I present psychological results that support the notion that two components are better received than one alone. Detection can be improved by producing two components together, thus reducing the reaction:time, increasing the probability of detection and lowering the intensity at which detection occurs. Discriminability of multicomponent stimuli is also made easier through better recognition, faster discrimination learning and multidimensional generalization. In addition, multicomponent stimuli also improve associative learning. I show that multicomponency does indeed improve signal reception in receivers, although the benefits of producing components in two sensory modalities (bimodal multicomponent signals) may be larger and more robust than producing them in just one (unimodal multicomponent signals). This highlights the need for consideration of receiver psychology in the evolution of multicomponent signals, and suggests that where signal components do not appear to be informative, they may instead be performing an important psychological function. (C) 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rowe1999,
      author = {Rowe, C},
      title = {Receiver psychology and the evolution of multicomponent signals},
      journal = {ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {58},
      number = {Part 5},
      pages = {921-931}
    }
    
    Rozanski, A., Blumenthal, J. & Kaplan, J. Impact of psychological factors on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and implications for therapy {1999} CIRCULATION
    Vol. {99}({16}), pp. {2192-2217} 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent studies provide clear and convincing evidence that psychosocial factors contribute significantly to the pathogenesis and: expression of coronary artery disease (CAD). This evidence is composed largely of data relating CAD risk to 5 specific psychosocial domains: (1) depression, (2) anxiety, (3) personality factors and character traits, (4) social isolation, and (5) chronic Life stress. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between these entities and CAD can be divided into behavioral mechanisms, whereby psychosocial conditions contribute to a higher frequency of: adverse-health behaviors, such as poor diet and smoking, and direct pathophysiological mechanisms, such as neuroendocrine and platelet activation. An extensive body of evidence from animal models (especially the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis) reveals chat chronic psychosocial stress can lead, probably via a mechanism involving excessive sympathetic nervous system activation, to exacerbation of coronary artery atherosclerosis as well as to transient endothelial dysfunction and even necrosis. Evidence from monkeys also indicates that psychosocial stress reliably induces ovarian dysfunction, hypercortisolemia, and excessive adrenergic activation in,premenopausal females, leading to accelerated atherosclerosis. Also reviewed are data relating CAD to acute stress and individual differences in sympathetic nervous system responsivity, New technologies and research from animal models demonstrate that acute stress triggers myocardial ischemia; promotes arrhythmogenesis, stimulates platelet function, and increases blood viscosity through hemoconcentration,In the presence of underlying atherosclerosis (eg, in CAD patients), acute stress also causes coronary vasoconstriction; Recent data indicate that the foregoing effects result,at least in part, from the endothelial dysfunction and injury induced-by acute stress. Hyperresponsivity of the sympathetic nervous system, manifested by exaggerated heart rate and blood pressure responses to psychological stimuli, is an intrinsic characteristic among some individuals. Current data link sympathetic nervous system hyperresponsivity to accelerated development of carotid atherosclerosis in human subjects and to exacerbated coronary and carotid atherosclerosis in monkeys. Thus far, intervention trials designed to reduce psychosocial stress have been limited in size and number. Specific suggestions to improve the assessment of behavioral interventions include:more complete delineation of the physiological mechanisms by which such interventions might work; increased use of new, more convenient ``alternative'' end points for behavioral intervention trials; development of specifically targeted behavioral interventions (based on profiling of patient factors); and evaluation of previously developed models of predicting behavioral change. The importance of maximizing the efficacy of behavioral interventions is underscored by the recognition that psychosocial stresses tend to cluster together. When they do so, the resultant risk for cardiac events is often substantially elevated, equaling that;associated with previously established risk factors for CAD, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rozanski1999,
      author = {Rozanski, A and Blumenthal, JA and Kaplan, J},
      title = {Impact of psychological factors on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and implications for therapy},
      journal = {CIRCULATION},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {99},
      number = {16},
      pages = {2192-2217}
    }
    
    Rugg, M. & Yonelinas, A. Human recognition memory: a cognitive neuroscience perspective {2003} TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES
    Vol. {7}({7}), pp. {313-319} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: For many years the cognitive processes underlying recognition memory have been the subject of considerable interest in experimental psychology. To account for a broad range of behavioral findings, psychologists have put forward a variety of `dual-process' models, all of which propose that recognition memory is supported by two forms of memory - familiarity and recollection - that differ in their speed of operation and the specificity of the retrieved information. More recently, the dual-process framework has been extended to encompass findings from studies investigating the neural basis of recognition memory. Results from neuropsychological, ERP and functional neuroimaging studies can be accommodated within the framework, and suggest that familiarity and recollection are supported by distinct neural mechanisms.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rugg2003,
      author = {Rugg, MD and Yonelinas, AP},
      title = {Human recognition memory: a cognitive neuroscience perspective},
      journal = {TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {7},
      number = {7},
      pages = {313-319},
      doi = {{10.1016/S1364-6613(03)00131-1}}
    }
    
    Rugulies, R. Depression as a predictor for coronary heart disease - A review and meta-analysis {2002} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
    Vol. {23}({1}), pp. {51-61} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To review and quantify the impact of depression on the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) in initially healthy subjects. Data sources: Cohort studies on depression and CHD were searched in MEDLINE (1966-2000) and PSYCHINFO (1887-2000), bibliographies, expert consultation, and personal reference files. Data selection: Cohort studies with clinical depression or depressive mood as the exposure, and myocardial infarction or coronary death as the outcome. Data extraction: Information on study design, sample size and characteristics, assessment of depression, outcome, number of cases, crude and most-adjusted relative risks, and variables used in multivariate adjustments were abstracted. Data synthesis: Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall relative risk [RR] for the development of CHD in depressed subjects was 1.64 (95% confidence interval [Cl]=1.29-2.08, p<0.001). A sensitivity analysis showed that clinical depression (RR=2.69, 95% CI=1.63-4.43, p<0.001) was a stronger predictor than depressive mood (RR=1.49, 95% CI=1.16-1.92, p=0.02). Conclusion: It is concluded that depression predicts the development of CHD in initially healthy people. The stronger effect size for clinical depression compared to depressive mood points out that there might be a dose-response relationship between depression and CHD. Implications of the findings for a broader bio-psycho-social framework are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rugulies2002,
      author = {Rugulies, R},
      title = {Depression as a predictor for coronary heart disease - A review and meta-analysis},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {23},
      number = {1},
      pages = {51-61}
    }
    
    RUNCIMAN, W., SELLEN, A., WEBB, R., WILLIAMSON, J., CURRIE, M., MORGAN, C. & RUSSELL, W. ERRORS, INCIDENTS AND ACCIDENTS IN ANESTHETIC PRACTICE {1993} ANAESTHESIA AND INTENSIVE CARE
    Vol. {21}({5}), pp. {506-519} 
    article  
    Abstract: Human error is a pervasive and normal part of everyday life and is of interest to the anaesthetist because errors may lead to accidents. Definitions of, and the relationships between, errors, incidents and accidents are provided as the basis to this introduction to the psychology of human error in the context of the work of the anaesthetist. Examples are drawn from the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS). An argument is put forward for the use of contemporaneous incident reporting (eliciting relevant contextual information as well as details of use to cognitive psychologists), rather than the use of accident investigation after the event (with the inherent problems of scant information, altered perception and outcome bias). A classification of errors is provided. `'Active'' errors may be classified into knowledge-based, rule-based, skill-based and technical errors. Different strategies are required for the prevention of each type and it may now be useful to place more emphasis in anaesthetic practice on categories to which little attention has been directed in the past. `'Latent'' errors make an enormous contribution to problems in anaesthesia and several categories are discussed (eg. environment, physiological state, equipment, work practices, personnel training, social and cultural factors). An approach is provided for the prevention and management of errors, incidents and accidents which allows clinical problems to be categorized, the relative importance of various contributing factors to be established, and appropriate preventative strategies to be devised and implemented on the basis of priorities determined from the AIMS data. Accidents cannot be abolished; however, an understanding of the factors underlying them can lead to the rational direction of resources and effort to prevent them and minimise their effects.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RUNCIMAN1993,
      author = {RUNCIMAN, WB and SELLEN, A and WEBB, RK and WILLIAMSON, JA and CURRIE, M and MORGAN, C and RUSSELL, WJ},
      title = {ERRORS, INCIDENTS AND ACCIDENTS IN ANESTHETIC PRACTICE},
      journal = {ANAESTHESIA AND INTENSIVE CARE},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {21},
      number = {5},
      pages = {506-519}
    }
    
    RYFF, C. PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING IN ADULT LIFE {1995} CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {4}({4}), pp. {99-104} 
    article  
    Abstract: Knowledge of psychological well-being persistently lags behind knowledge of psychological dysfunction. The imbalance is evident in magnitude of research-studies of psychological problems dwarf the literature on positive psychological functioning-and in the meaning of basic terms (e.g., typical usage equates health with the absence of illness). A person is viewed as mentally sound if he or she does not suffer from anxiety, depression, or other forms of psychological symptomatology. This prevailing formulation never gets to the heart of wellness; to do so, we must define mental health as the presence of the positive. To explicate the positive is, however, to grapple with basic values and ideals of the human experience. These values are no less evident in definitions of human suffering, although consensus in identification of the negative is somehow easier to achieve. Despite these challenges, much has been written, within the field of psychology and outside it, regarding the contours of positive psychological functioning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RYFF1995,
      author = {RYFF, CD},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING IN ADULT LIFE},
      journal = {CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {4},
      number = {4},
      pages = {99-104}
    }
    
    Sallis, J., Prochaska, J. & Taylor, W. A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents {2000} MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE
    Vol. {32}({5}), pp. {963-975} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Understanding the factors that influence physical activity can aid the design of more effective interventions. Previous reviews of correlates of youth physical activity have produced conflicting results. Methods: A comprehensive review of correlates of physical activity was conducted, and semiquantitative results were summarized separately for children (ages 3-12) and adolescents (ages 13-18). The 108 studies evaluated 40 variables for children and 48 variables for adolescents. Results: About 60% of all reported associations with physical activity were statistically significant. Variables that were consistently associated with children's physical activity were sex (male), parental overweight status, physical activity preferences, intention to be active, perceived barriers (inverse), previous physical activity, healthy diet, program/facility access, and time spent outdoors. Variables that were consistently associated with adolescents' physical activity were sex (male), ethnicity (white), age (inverse), perceived activity competence, intentions, depression (inverse), previous physical activity, community sports, sensation seeking, sedentary after school and on weekends (inverse), parent support, support from others, sibling physical activity, direct help from parents, and opportunities to exercise. Conclusion: These consistently related variables should be confirmed in prospective studies, and interventions to improve the modifiable variables should be developed and evaluated.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sallis2000,
      author = {Sallis, JF and Prochaska, JJ and Taylor, WC},
      title = {A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents},
      journal = {MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {32},
      number = {5},
      pages = {963-975}
    }
    
    SAMPSON, E. COGNITIVE-PSYCHOLOGY AS IDEOLOGY {1981} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {36}({7}), pp. {730-743} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SAMPSON1981,
      author = {SAMPSON, EE},
      title = {COGNITIVE-PSYCHOLOGY AS IDEOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {36},
      number = {7},
      pages = {730-743}
    }
    
    SAMPSON, E. PSYCHOLOGY AND AMERICAN IDEAL {1977} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {35}({11}), pp. {767-782} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SAMPSON1977,
      author = {SAMPSON, EE},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY AND AMERICAN IDEAL},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1977},
      volume = {35},
      number = {11},
      pages = {767-782}
    }
    
    Saxe, R., Carey, S. & Kanwisher, N. Understanding other minds: Linking developmental psychology and functional neuroimaging {2004} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {55}, pp. {87-124} 
    article  
    Abstract: Evidence from developmental psychology suggests that understanding other minds constitutes a special domain of cognition with at least two components: an early-developing system for reasoning about goals, perceptions, and emotions, and a later-developing system for representing the contents of beliefs. Neuroimaging reinforces and elaborates upon this view by providing evidence that (a) domain-specific brain regions exist for representing belief contents, (b) these regions are apparently distinct from other regions engaged in reasoning about goals and actions (suggesting that the two developmental stages reflect the emergence of two distinct systems, rather than the elaboration of a single system), and (c) these regions are distinct from brain regions engaged in inhibitory control and in syntactic processing. The clear neural distinction between these processes is evidence that belief attribution is not dependent on either inhibitory control or syntax, but is subserved by a specialized neural system for theory of mind.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Saxe2004,
      author = {Saxe, R and Carey, S and Kanwisher, N},
      title = {Understanding other minds: Linking developmental psychology and functional neuroimaging},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {55},
      pages = {87-124}
    }
    
    SCARR, S. DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES FOR THE 1990S - DEVELOPMENT AND INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES {1992} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {63}({1}), pp. {1-19} 
    article  
    Abstract: Understanding both typical human development and individual differences within the same theoretical framework has been difficult because the 2 orientations arise from different philosophical traditions. It is argued that an evolutionary perspective can unite the study of both species-typical development and individual variation. Research on determinants of development from many perspectives can be understood within an evolutionary framework in which organism and environment combine to produce development. Species-normal genes and environments and individual variations in genes and environments both affect personality, social, and intellectual development. These domains are used as examples to integrate theories of normal development and individual differences. Within the usual samples of European, North American, and developed Asian countries, the results of family and twin studies show that environments within the normal species range are crucial to normal development. Given a wide range of environmental opportunities and emotional supports, however, most children in these societies grow up to be individually different based on their individual genotypes. Understanding the ways in which genes and environments work together helps developmentalists to identify children in need of intervention and to tailor interventions to their particular needs.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SCARR1992,
      author = {SCARR, S},
      title = {DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES FOR THE 1990S - DEVELOPMENT AND INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {63},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-19}
    }
    
    SCARR, S. CONSTRUCTING PSYCHOLOGY - MAKING FACTS AND FABLES FOR OUR TIMES {1985} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {40}({5}), pp. {499-512} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SCARR1985,
      author = {SCARR, S},
      title = {CONSTRUCTING PSYCHOLOGY - MAKING FACTS AND FABLES FOR OUR TIMES},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {40},
      number = {5},
      pages = {499-512}
    }
    
    Schacter, D. The seven sins of memory - Insights from psychology and cognitive neuroscience {1999} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {54}({3}), pp. {182-203} 
    article  
    Abstract: Though often reliable, human memory is also fallible, This article examines how and why memory can get us into trouble. It is suggested that memory's misdeeds can be classified into 7 basic ``sins'': transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias, and persistence. The first three sins involve different types of forgetting, the next three refer to different types of distortions. and the final sin concerns intrusive recollections that are difficult to forget. Evidence is reviewed concerning each of the 7 sins from relevant sectors of psychology (cognitive, social, and clinical) and from cognitive neuroscience studies that include patients with focal brain damage or make use of recently developed neuroimaging techniques. Although the 7 sins may appear to reflect flaws in system design, it is argued instead that they are by-products of otherwise adaptive features of memory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schacter1999,
      author = {Schacter, DL},
      title = {The seven sins of memory - Insights from psychology and cognitive neuroscience},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {54},
      number = {3},
      pages = {182-203}
    }
    
    Schelling, G., Stoll, C., Haller, M., Briegel, J., Manert, W., Hummel, T., Lenhart, A., Heyduck, M., Polasek, J., Meier, M., Preuss, U., Bullinger, M., Schuffel, R. & Peter, K. Health-related quality of life and posttraumatic stress disorder in survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome {1998} CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
    Vol. {26}({4}), pp. {651-659} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objectives: Despite considerable progress in intensive care management of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), little is known about health-related quality of life in long term survivors. In addition, intensive care treatment can be extremely stressful, and many survivors of ARDS report adverse experiences such as respiratory distress, anxiety, or pain during intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. This study was performed to assess health related quality of life in survivors of ARDS and to test the hypothesis that adverse experiences during ICU treatment result in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and negative effects on health related quality of life. Design: Retrospective, cohort, case controlled analyses. Setting: A 12-bed multidisciplinary ICU of a tertiary cake university hospital, capable of providing extracorporeal life support for adults with severe ARDS. Patients: We studied 80 patients who were admitted to our hospital from 1985 to 1995 and who survived an episode of ARDS. ARDS was defined according to the criteria of the American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS. Interventions: Health-related quality of life was measured us ing the Health Status Questionnaire of the self-administered Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Survey that consists of 36 questions (SF-36) and the German version of the Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome 10-Questions Inventory (PTSS-10), a sell report scale for the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (Third Edition) criteria (American Psychiatric Association). The number of adverse experiences (anxiety, respiratory distress, pain, and nightmares) during intensive care was evaluated by means of a structured questionnaire. For each patient with ARDS, three age and gender-comparable con trols were randomly selected from databases providing normal values for the SF-36 and PTSS-10 scores in populations at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder. Measurements and Main Results: Survivors of ARDS showed statistically significant impairments in all eight health dimensions of the SF-36 when compared with normal controls (median reduction 21.3 p <.006) with maximal impairments in physical function (median reduction 28.9 p =.000) and a 38% higher frequency of chronic pain (p =.0001). Three of 34 patients reporting none, or one, adverse experience had evidence of posttraumatic stress disorder vs. 19 of 46 patients remembering multiple traumatic episodes (p =.007). Patients reporting multiple adverse experiences described the lowest health-related quality of life, with maximal impairments in psychosocial functioning (p <.005) and only small limitations in physical function. Conclusions: Long-term survivors of ARDS describe a good overall health related quality of life. Major impairments in mental health domains of health-related quality of life are associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder and are a possible result of traumatic experiences during ICU therapy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schelling1998,
      author = {Schelling, G and Stoll, C and Haller, M and Briegel, J and Manert, W and Hummel, T and Lenhart, A and Heyduck, M and Polasek, J and Meier, M and Preuss, U and Bullinger, M and Schuffel, R and Peter, K},
      title = {Health-related quality of life and posttraumatic stress disorder in survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome},
      journal = {CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {26},
      number = {4},
      pages = {651-659}
    }
    
    Schmidt, F. Statistical significance testing and cumulative knowledge in psychology: Implications for training of researchers {1996} PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS
    Vol. {1}({2}), pp. {115-129} 
    article  
    Abstract: Data analysis methods in psychology still emphasize statistical significance testing, despite numerous articles demonstrating its severe deficiencies. It is now possible to use meta-analysis to show that reliance on significance testing retards the development of cumulative knowledge. But reform of teaching and practice will also require that researchers learn that the benefits that they believe flow from use of significance testing are illusory. Teachers must revamp their courses to bring students to understand that (a) reliance on significance testing retards the growth of cumulative research knowledge; (b) benefits widely believed to flow from significance testing do not in fact exist; and (c) significance testing methods must be replaced with point estimates and confidence intervals in individual studies and with meta-analyses in the integration of multiple studies. This reform is essential to the future progress of cumulative knowledge in psychological research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schmidt1996,
      author = {Schmidt, FL},
      title = {Statistical significance testing and cumulative knowledge in psychology: Implications for training of researchers},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {1},
      number = {2},
      pages = {115-129},
      note = {102nd Annual Convention of the American-Psychological-Association, LOS ANGELES, CA, AUG 12-16, 1994}
    }
    
    SCHMIDT, F. WHAT DO DATA REALLY MEAN - RESEARCH FINDINGS, METAANALYSIS, AND CUMULATIVE KNOWLEDGE IN PSYCHOLOGY {1992} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {47}({10}), pp. {1173-1181} 
    article  
    Abstract: How should data be interpreted to optimize the possibilities for cumulative scientific knowledge? Many believe that traditional data interpretation procedures based on statistical significance tests reduce the impact of sampling error on scientific inference. Meta-analysis shows that the significance test actually obscures underlying regularities and processes in individual studies and in research literatures, leading to systematically erroneous conclusions. Meta-analysis methods can solve these problems--and have done so in some areas. However, meta-analysis represents more than merely a change in methods of data analysis. It requires major changes in the way psychologists view the general research process. Views of the scientific value of the individual empirical study, the current reward structure in research, and even the fundamental nature of scientific discovery may change.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SCHMIDT1992,
      author = {SCHMIDT, FL},
      title = {WHAT DO DATA REALLY MEAN - RESEARCH FINDINGS, METAANALYSIS, AND CUMULATIVE KNOWLEDGE IN PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {47},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1173-1181},
      note = {2ND ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL SOC, DALLAS, TX, JUN 08, 1990}
    }
    
    Schmidt, F. & Hunter, J. The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings {1998} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {124}({2}), pp. {262-274} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article summarizes the practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research in personnel selection. On the basis of meta-analytic findings, this article presents the validity of 19 selection procedures for predicting job performance and training performance and the validity of paired combinations of general mental ability (GMA) and the 18 other selection procedures. Overall, the 3 combinations with the highest multivariate validity and utility for job performance were GMA plus a work sample test (mean validity of .63), GMA plus an integrity test (mean validity of .65), and GMA plus a structured interview (mean validity of .63). A further advantage of the latter 2 combinations is that they can be used for both entry level selection and selection of experienced employees. The practical utility implications of these summary findings are substantial. The implications of these research findings for the development of theories of job performance are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schmidt1998,
      author = {Schmidt, FL and Hunter, JE},
      title = {The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {124},
      number = {2},
      pages = {262-274},
      note = {Meeting of the Korean Human Resource Managers, SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA, JUN 11, 1996}
    }
    
    Schmidt, F. & Hunter, J. Measurement error in psychological research: Lessons from 26 research scenarios {1996} PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS
    Vol. {1}({2}), pp. {199-223} 
    article  
    Abstract: As research in psychology becomes more sophisticated and more oriented toward the development and testing of theory, it becomes more important to eliminate biases in data caused by measurement error. Both failure to correct for biases induced by measurement error and improper corrections can lead to erroneous conclusions that retard progress toward cumulative knowledge. Corrections for attenuation due to measurement error are common in the literature today and are becoming more common, yet errors are frequently made in this process. Technical psychometric presentations of abstract measurement theory principles have proved inadequte in improving the practices of working researchers. As an alternative, this article uses realistic research scenarios (cases) to illustrate and explain appropriate and inappropriate instances of correction for measurement error in commonly occurring research situations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schmidt1996a,
      author = {Schmidt, FL and Hunter, JE},
      title = {Measurement error in psychological research: Lessons from 26 research scenarios},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {1},
      number = {2},
      pages = {199-223}
    }
    
    Schwartz, L., Woloshin, S., Black, W. & Welch, H. The role of numeracy in understanding the benefit of screening mammography {1997} ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE
    Vol. {127}({11}), pp. {966-972} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Quantitative information about risks and benefits may be meaningful only to patients who have some facility with basic probability and numerical concepts, a construct called numeracy. Objective: To assess the relation between numeracy and the ability to make use of typical risk reduction expressions about the benefit of screening mammography. Design: Randomized, cross-sectional survey Setting: A simple random sample of 500 female veterans drawn from a New England registry. Intervention: One of four questionnaires, which differed only in how the same information on average risk reduction with mammography was presented. Measurements: Numeracy was scored as the total number of correct responses to three simple tasks. Participants estimated their risk for death from breast cancer with and without mammography. Accuracy was judged as each woman's ability to adjust her perceived risk in accordance with the risk reduction data presented. Results: 61% of eligible women completed the questionnaire. The median age of these women was 68 years (range, 27 to 88 years), and 96% were high school graduates. Both accuracy in applying risk reduction information and numeracy were poor (one third of respondents thought that 1000 flips of a fair coin would result in <300 heads). Accuracy was strongly related to numeracy: The accuracy rate was 5.8% (95% CI, 0.8% to 10.7 for a numeracy score of 0, 8.9% (CI, 2.5% to 15.3 for a score of 1, 23.7% (CI, 13.9% to 33.5 for a score of 2, and 40% (CI, 25.1% to 54.9 for a score of 3. Conclusions: Regardless of how information was presented, numeracy was strongly related to accurately gauging the benefit of mammography. More effective formats are needed to communicate quantitative information about risks and benefits.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schwartz1997,
      author = {Schwartz, LM and Woloshin, S and Black, WC and Welch, HG},
      title = {The role of numeracy in understanding the benefit of screening mammography},
      journal = {ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {127},
      number = {11},
      pages = {966-972}
    }
    
    SEARS, D. COLLEGE SOPHOMORES IN THE LABORATORY - INFLUENCES OF A NARROW DATABASE ON SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY VIEW OF HUMAN-NATURE {1986} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {51}({3}), pp. {515-530} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SEARS1986,
      author = {SEARS, DO},
      title = {COLLEGE SOPHOMORES IN THE LABORATORY - INFLUENCES OF A NARROW DATABASE ON SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY VIEW OF HUMAN-NATURE},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {51},
      number = {3},
      pages = {515-530}
    }
    
    Sedikides, C., Gaertner, L. & Toguchi, Y. Pancultural self-enhancement {2003} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {84}({1}), pp. {60-79} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The culture movement challenged the universality of the self-enhancement motive by proposing that the motive is pervasive in individualistic cultures (the West) but absent in collectivistic cultures (the East). The present research posited that Westerners and Easterners use different tactics to achieve the same goal: positive self-regard. Study I tested participants from differing cultural backgrounds (the United States vs. Japan), and Study 2 tested participants of differing self-construals (independent vs. interdependent). Americans and independents self-enhanced on individualistic attributes. whereas Japanese and interdependents self-enhanced on collectivistic attributes. Independents regarded individualistic attributes, whereas interdependents regarded collectivistic attributes, as personally important. Attribute importance mediated self-enhancement. Regardless of cultural background or self-construal. people self-enhance on personally important dimensions. Self-enhancement is a universal human motive.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sedikides2003,
      author = {Sedikides, C and Gaertner, L and Toguchi, Y},
      title = {Pancultural self-enhancement},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {84},
      number = {1},
      pages = {60-79},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-3514.84.1.60}}
    }
    
    Seligman, M. & Csikszentmihalyi, M. Positive psychology - An introduction {2000} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {55}({1}), pp. {5-14} 
    article  
    Abstract: A science of positive subjective experience, positive indi- vidual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility: and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self-regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Seligman2000,
      author = {Seligman, MEP and Csikszentmihalyi, M},
      title = {Positive psychology - An introduction},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {55},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5-14}
    }
    
    Seligman, M., Steen, T., Park, N. & Peterson, C. Positive psychology progress - Empirical validation of interventions {2005} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {60}({5}), pp. {410-421} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Positive psychology has flourished in the last 5 years. The authors review recent developments in the field, including books, meetings, courses, and conferences. They also discuss the newly created classification of character strengths and virtues, a positive complement to the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (e. g., American Psychiatric Association, 1994), and present some cross-cultural findings that suggest a surprising ubiquity of strengths and virtues. Finally, the authors focus on psychological interventions that increase individual happiness. In a 6-group, random-assignment, placebo-controlled Internet study, the authors tested 5 purported happiness interventions and I plausible control exercise. They found that 3 of the interventions lastingly increased happiness and decreased depressive symptoms. Positive interventions can supplement traditional interventions that relieve suffering and may someday be the practical legacy of positive psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Seligman2005,
      author = {Seligman, MEP and Steen, TA and Park, N and Peterson, C},
      title = {Positive psychology progress - Empirical validation of interventions},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {60},
      number = {5},
      pages = {410-421},
      doi = {{10.1037/0003-066X.60.5.410}}
    }
    
    Sergeant, J. The cognitive-energetic model: an empirical approach to Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder {2000} NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS
    Vol. {24}({1}), pp. {7-12} 
    article  
    Abstract: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a childhood psychiatric disorder which when carefully defined, affects around 1% of the childhood population [Swanson JM, Sergeant JA, Taylor E, Sonuga-Barke US, Jensen PS, Canwell DP. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and hyperkinetic disorder. Lancet 1998;351:429-433]. The primary symptoms: distractibility, impulsivity and overactivity vary in degree and association in such children, which led DSM IV to propose three subgroups. Only one of these subgroups, the combined subtype: deficits in all three areas, meets the ICD-10 criteria. Since the other two subtypes are used extensively in North America (but not in Europe), widely different results between centres are to be expected and have been reported, Central to the ADHD syndrome is the idea of an attention deficit. In order to investigate attention, it is necessary to define what one means by this term and to operationalize it in such a manner that others can rest and replicate findings. We have advocated the use of a cognitive-energetic model [Sanders, AF. Towards a model of stress and performance. Acta Psychologica 1983;53, 61-97]. The cognitive-energetic model of ADHD approaches the ADHD deficiency at three distinct levels. First, a lower set of cognitive processes: encoding, central processing and response organisation is postulated. Study of these processes has indicated that there are no deficits of processing at encoding or central processing but are present in motor organisation [Sergeant JA, van der Meere JJ. Convergence of approaches in localizing the hyperactivity deficit. In Lahey BE, Kazdin AE, editors. Advancements in clinical child psychology, vol. 13. New York: Plenum press, 1990. p. 207-45; Sergeant, JA, van der Meere JJ. Additive factor methodology applied to psychopathology with special reference to hyperactivity. Acta Psychologica 1990;74.277-295]. A second level of the cognitive-energetic model consists of the energetic pools: arousal, activation and effort. At this level, the primary deficits of ADHD are associated with the activation pool and (to some extent) effort. The third level of the model contains a management or executive function system. Barkley [Barkley RA, Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin 1997;121:65-94] reviewed the literature and concluded that executive function deficiencies were primarily due to a failure of inhibition. Oosterlaan, Logan and Sergeant [Oosterlaan J, Logan GD, Sergeant JA. Response inhibition in ADHD, CD, comorbid ADHD + CD, anxious and normal children: a meta-analysis of studies with the stop task. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1998;39:411-426] demonstrated that this explanation was not specific to ADHD but also applied to children with the associated disorders of oppositional defiant and conduct disorder. Other executive functions seem to be intact, while others, are deficient, It is argued here that the cognitive-energetic model is a useful guide for determining not only ADHD deficiencies and associated disorders but also linking human cognitive neuroscience studies with neurobiological models of ADHD using animals [Sadile AG. Multiple evidence of a segmental defect in the anterior forebrain of an animal model of hyperactivity and attention defects. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, in press; Sagvolden T, Sergeant JA, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: from brain dysyfunctions to behaviour. Behavioural Brain Research 1998;94:1-10]. A plea for an integrated attack on this research problem is made and the suggestion that conceptual refinement between levels of analysis is essential for further fundamental work to succeed is offered here. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sergeant2000,
      author = {Sergeant, J},
      title = {The cognitive-energetic model: an empirical approach to Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder},
      journal = {NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {24},
      number = {1},
      pages = {7-12},
      note = {Symposium on What can Genetic Models tell us about Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, HAMILTON, CANADA, DEC 07-16, 1998}
    }
    
    Shapleske, J., Rossell, S., Woodruff, P. & David, A. The planum temporale: a systematic, quantitative review of its structural, functional and clinical significance {1999} BRAIN RESEARCH REVIEWS
    Vol. {29}({1}), pp. {26-49} 
    article  
    Abstract: The planum temporale (PT) is a triangular area situated on the superior temporal gyrus (STG), which has enjoyed a resurgence of interest across several disciplines, including neurology, psychiatry and psychology. Traditionally, the planum is thought to be larger on the left side of the brain in the majority of normal subjects [N. Geschwind, W. Levitsky, Human brain: left-right asymmetries in temporal speech regions, Science 161 (1968) 186-87.]. It coincides with part of Wernicke's area and it is believed to consist cytoarchitectonically of secondary auditory cortex. Consequently, it has long been thought to be intimately involved in language function. The PT is, therefore, of relevance to disorders where language function is impaired, such as schizophrenia and dyslexia. The gross anatomical boundaries remain in dispute, and only recently has its cytoarchitecture begun to be studied again after 60 years silence, and finally its functional significance is only now being explored. In the first part of this review the structural aspects and anatomical boundaries of the PT in the normal brain from post mortem and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and methods of measurement are discussed. In the second part, studies of the functional significance of the PT in the normal brain are reviewed critically. Finally a meta-analysis of MRI measurements of the distribution of planum anatomy in normal subjects is presented. Comparison is made with clinical populations, including schizophrenia and dyslexia, and the influence of handedness and gender on such measurements is quantified. Although there are many ways of defining and measuring the PT with a wide variety of results, overall there is a significant leftward asymmetry in normals, which is reduced in left handers and females. The leftward asymmetry is much reduced in patients with schizophrenia due to a relatively larger right PT than normal controls. The review is intended to guide future researchers in this area. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Shapleske1999,
      author = {Shapleske, J and Rossell, SL and Woodruff, PWR and David, AS},
      title = {The planum temporale: a systematic, quantitative review of its structural, functional and clinical significance},
      journal = {BRAIN RESEARCH REVIEWS},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {29},
      number = {1},
      pages = {26-49}
    }
    
    SIMON, H. HUMAN-NATURE IN POLITICS - THE DIALOG OF PSYCHOLOGY WITH POLITICAL-SCIENCE {1985} AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW
    Vol. {79}({2}), pp. {293-304} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SIMON1985,
      author = {SIMON, HA},
      title = {HUMAN-NATURE IN POLITICS - THE DIALOG OF PSYCHOLOGY WITH POLITICAL-SCIENCE},
      journal = {AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {79},
      number = {2},
      pages = {293-304}
    }
    
    Slovic, P., Finucane, M., Peters, E. & MacGregor, D. Risk as analysis and risk as feelings: Some thoughts about affect, reason, risk, and rationality {2004} RISK ANALYSIS
    Vol. {24}({2}), pp. {311-322} 
    article  
    Abstract: Modern theories in cognitive psychology and neuroscience indicate that there are two fundamental ways in which human beings comprehend risk. The ``analytic system'' uses algorithms and normative rules, such as probability calculus, formal logic, and risk assessment. It is relatively slow, effortful, and requires conscious control. The ``experiential system'' is intuitive, fast, mostly automatic, and not very accessible to conscious awareness. The experiential system enabled human beings to survive during their long period of evolution and remains today the most natural and most common way to respond to risk. It relies on images and associations, linked by experience to emotion and affect (a feeling that something is good or bad). This system represents risk as a feeling that tells us whether it is safe to walk down this dark street or drink this strange-smelling water. Proponents of formal risk analysis tend to view affective responses to risk as irrational. Current wisdom disputes this view. The rational and the experiential systems operate in parallel and each seems to depend on the other for guidance. Studies have demonstrated that analytic reasoning cannot be effective unless it is guided by emotion and affect. Rational decision making requires proper integration of both modes of thought. Both systems have their advantages, biases, and limitations. Now that we are beginning to understand the complex interplay between emotion and reason that is essential to rational behavior, the challenge before us is to think creatively about what this means for managing risk. On the one hand, how do we apply reason to temper the strong emotions engendered by some risk events? On the other hand, how do we infuse needed ``doses of feeling'' into circumstances where lack of experience may otherwise leave us too ``coldly rational''? This article addresses these important questions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Slovic2004,
      author = {Slovic, P and Finucane, ML and Peters, E and MacGregor, DG},
      title = {Risk as analysis and risk as feelings: Some thoughts about affect, reason, risk, and rationality},
      journal = {RISK ANALYSIS},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {24},
      number = {2},
      pages = {311-322}
    }
    
    SLOVIC, P. & FISCHHOFF, B. PSYCHOLOGY OF EXPERIMENTAL SURPRISES {1977} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE
    Vol. {3}({4}), pp. {544-551} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SLOVIC1977,
      author = {SLOVIC, P and FISCHHOFF, B},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY OF EXPERIMENTAL SURPRISES},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE},
      year = {1977},
      volume = {3},
      number = {4},
      pages = {544-551}
    }
    
    Small, G., Rabins, P., Barry, P., Buckholtz, N., DeKosky, S., Ferris, S., Finkel, S., Gwyther, L., Khachaturian, Z., Lebowitz, B., McRae, T., Morris, J., Oakley, F., Schneider, L., Streim, J., Sunderland, T., Teri, L. & Tune, L. Diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer disease and related disorders - Consensus statement of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, the Alzheimer's Association, and the American Geriatrics Society {1997} JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
    Vol. {278}({16}), pp. {1363-1371} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective.-A consensus conference on the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD) and related disorders was organized by the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, the Alzheimer's Association, and the American Geriatrics Society on January 4 and 5, 1997, The target audience was primary care physicians, and the following questions were addressed: (1) How prevalent is AD and what are its risk factors? What is its impact on society? (2) What are the different forms of dementia and how can they be recognized? (3) What constitutes safe and effective treatment for AD? What are the indications and contraindications for specific treatments? (4) What management strategies are available to the primary care practitioner? (5) What are the available medical specialty and community resources? (6) What are the important policy issues and how can policymakers improve access to care for dementia patients? (7) What are the most promising questions for future research? Participants.-Consensus panel members and expert presenters were drawn from psychiatry, neurology, geriatrics, primary care, psychology, nursing, social work, occupational therapy, epidemiology, and public health and policy. Evidence.-The expert presenters summarized data from the world scientific literature on the questions posed to the panel. Consensus Process.-The panelists listened to the experts' presentations, reviewed their background papers, and then provided responses to the questions based on these materials, The panel chairs prepared the initial drafts of the consensus statement, and these drafts were read by all panelists and edited until consensus was reached. Conclusions.-Alzheimer disease is the most common disorder causing cognitive decline in old age and exacts a substantial cost on society, Although the diagnosis of AD is often missed or delayed, it is primarily one of inclusion, not exclusion, and usually can be made using standardized clinical criteria, Most cases can be diagnosed and managed in primary care settings, yet some patients with atypical presentations, severe impairment, or complex comorbidity benefit from specialist referral, Alzheimer disease is progressive and irreversible, but pharmacologic therapies for cognitive impairment and nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments for the behavioral problems associated with dementia can enhance quality of life, Psychotherapeutic intervention with family members is often indicated, as nearly half of all caregivers become depressed, Health care delivery to these patients is fragmented and inadequate, and changes in disease management models are adding stresses to the system, New approaches are needed to ensure patients' access to essential resources, and future research should aim to improve diagnostic and therapeutic effectiveness.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Small1997,
      author = {Small, GW and Rabins, PV and Barry, PP and Buckholtz, NS and DeKosky, ST and Ferris, SH and Finkel, SI and Gwyther, LP and Khachaturian, ZS and Lebowitz, BD and McRae, TD and Morris, JC and Oakley, F and Schneider, LS and Streim, JE and Sunderland, T and Teri, LA and Tune, LE},
      title = {Diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer disease and related disorders - Consensus statement of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, the Alzheimer's Association, and the American Geriatrics Society},
      journal = {JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {278},
      number = {16},
      pages = {1363-1371}
    }
    
    SMETS, E., GARSSEN, B., BONKE, B. & DEHAES, J. THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL FATIGUE INVENTORY (MFI) PSYCHOMETRIC QUALITIES OF AN INSTRUMENT TO ASSESS FATIGUE {1995} JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC RESEARCH
    Vol. {39}({3}), pp. {315-325} 
    article  
    Abstract: The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) is a 20-item self-report instrument designed to measure fatigue. It covers the following dimensions: General Fatigue, Physical Fatigue, Mental Fatigue, Reduced Motivation and Reduced Activity. This new instrument was tested for its psychometric properties in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy, patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome, psychology students, medical students, army recruits and junior physicians. We determined the dimensional structure using confirmatory factor analyses (LISREL's unweighted least squares method). The hypothesized five-factor model appeared to fit the data in all samples tested (AGFIs>0.93). The instrument was found to have good internal consistency, with an average Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.84. Construct validity was established after comparisons between and within groups, assuming differences in fatigue based on differences in circumstances and/or activity level. Convergent validity was investigated by correlating the MFI-scales with a Visual Analogue Scale measuring fatigue (0.22
    BibTeX:
    @article{SMETS1995,
      author = {SMETS, EMA and GARSSEN, B and BONKE, B and DEHAES, JCJM},
      title = {THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL FATIGUE INVENTORY (MFI) PSYCHOMETRIC QUALITIES OF AN INSTRUMENT TO ASSESS FATIGUE},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC RESEARCH},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {39},
      number = {3},
      pages = {315-325}
    }
    
    Smith, E. & DeCoster, J. Dual-process models in social and cognitive psychology: Conceptual integration and links to underlying memory systems {2000} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {4}({2}), pp. {108-131} 
    article  
    Abstract: Models postulating 2 distinct processing modes have been proposed in several topic areas within social and cognitive psychology. We advance a new conceptual model of the 2 processing modes. The structural basis of the new model is the idea, supported by psychological and neuropsychological evidence, that humans possess 2 memory systems. One system slowly teams general regularities, whereas the other can quickly form representations of unique or novel events. Associative retrieval or pattern completion in the slow-learning system elicited by a salient cue constitutes the effortless processing mode. The second processing mode is more conscious and effortful; it involves the intentional retrieval of explicit, symbolically represented rules from either memory system and their use to guide processing. After presenting our model, we review existing dual-process models in several areas, emphasizing their similar assumptions afa quick, effortless processing mode that rests on well-learned prior associations and a second, more effortful processing mode that involves rule-based inferences and is employed only when people have both cognitive capacity and motivation. New insights mid implications of the model for several topic areas are outlined.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Smith2000,
      author = {Smith, ER and DeCoster, J},
      title = {Dual-process models in social and cognitive psychology: Conceptual integration and links to underlying memory systems},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {4},
      number = {2},
      pages = {108-131}
    }
    
    Smith, J. Beyond the divide between cognition and discourse: Using interpretative phenomenological analysis in health psychology {1996} PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH
    Vol. {11}({2}), pp. {261-271} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper introduces interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) and discusses the particular contribution it can make to health psychology. This is contextualized within current debates, particularly in social psychology, between social cognition and discourse analysis and the significance for health psychology of such debates is considered. The paper outlines the theoretical roots of IPA in phenomenology and symbolic interactionism and argues the case for a role for IPA within health psychology. Discussion then focuses on one area in the hearth field, the patient's conception of chronic illness and research in medical sociology from a similar methodological and epistemological orientation to IPA is introduced. The paper concludes with an illustration of IPA from the author's own work on the patient's perception of renal dialysis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Smith1996,
      author = {Smith, JA},
      title = {Beyond the divide between cognition and discourse: Using interpretative phenomenological analysis in health psychology},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {11},
      number = {2},
      pages = {261-271}
    }
    
    Smith, L., Thelen, E., Titzer, R. & McLin, D. Knowing in the context of acting: The task dynamics of the A-not-B error {1999} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {106}({2}), pp. {235-260} 
    article  
    Abstract: The A-not-B error is one of the most robust and highly studied phenomena in developmental psychology. The traditional Piagetian interpretation is that the error reflects the immaturity of infants' understanding of objects as permanent entities. More recently, the error has been interpreted in terms of changes in representation, in memory, in spatial knowledge, and in inhibitory processes. Each account may be partially right but none offers a unified account of the many accumulated facts about this error. This article presents and tests a new unified explanation. The authors propose that the perseverative reach back to A is the product of the processes that take a hand to a location in visual space: the body-centered nature of the spatial code, memories for previous reaching activity, and the close coupling of looking and reaching. The results from 6 experiments support this explanation. The results are used to challenge the idea of knowledge independent of and distinct from behavior.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Smith1999,
      author = {Smith, LB and Thelen, E and Titzer, R and McLin, D},
      title = {Knowing in the context of acting: The task dynamics of the A-not-B error},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {106},
      number = {2},
      pages = {235-260}
    }
    
    Smith, P. & Ratcliff, R. Psychology and neurobiology of simple decisions {2004} TRENDS IN NEUROSCIENCES
    Vol. {27}({3}), pp. {161-168} 
    article  
    Abstract: Patterns of neural firing linked to eye movement decisions show that behavioral decisions are predicted by the differential firing rates of cells coding selected and nonselected stimulus alternatives. These results can be interpreted using models developed in mathematical psychology to model behavioral decisions. Current models assume that decisions are made by accumulating noisy stimulus information until sufficient information for a response is obtained. Here, the models, and the techniques used to test them against response-time distribution and accuracy data, are described. Such models provide a quantitative link between the time-course of behavioral decisions and the growth of stimulus information in neural firing data.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Smith2004,
      author = {Smith, PL and Ratcliff, R},
      title = {Psychology and neurobiology of simple decisions},
      journal = {TRENDS IN NEUROSCIENCES},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {27},
      number = {3},
      pages = {161-168}
    }
    
    SNYDER, M. & DEBONO, K. APPEALS TO IMAGE AND CLAIMS ABOUT QUALITY - UNDERSTANDING THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING {1985} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {49}({3}), pp. {586-597} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SNYDER1985,
      author = {SNYDER, M and DEBONO, KG},
      title = {APPEALS TO IMAGE AND CLAIMS ABOUT QUALITY - UNDERSTANDING THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {49},
      number = {3},
      pages = {586-597}
    }
    
    SOMERS, M. THE NARRATIVE CONSTITUTION OF IDENTITY - A RELATIONAL AND NETWORK APPROACH {1994} THEORY AND SOCIETY
    Vol. {23}({5}), pp. {605-649} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article argues for reconfiguring the study of identity formation through the concept of narrative. It is motivated by two recent but seemingly unrelated developments in social theory and society. One is the emergence of a wide-spread `'identity politics'' and a concomitant scholarly focus on the `'social construction of identity.'' The other is the reconfigured approach to the concept of narrative that researchers from many disciplines have been formulating in recent years. Both are important developments not to be overlooked by social scientists and social theorists; both, however, have problems and limitations as they now stand. I argue in this article that the limitations of each potentially can be overcome by bringing the two thematics together. The key concept I propose to achieve this reconfiguration is that of narrative identity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SOMERS1994,
      author = {SOMERS, MR},
      title = {THE NARRATIVE CONSTITUTION OF IDENTITY - A RELATIONAL AND NETWORK APPROACH},
      journal = {THEORY AND SOCIETY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {23},
      number = {5},
      pages = {605-649}
    }
    
    SPEARS, R. & LEA, M. PANACEA OR PANOPTICON - THE HIDDEN POWER IN COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION {1994} COMMUNICATION RESEARCH
    Vol. {21}({4}), pp. {427-459} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article examines how interaction by means of computer-mediated communication (CMC) affects the operation of both status differentials and power relations. The authors attempt to provide a corrective to the dominant assessment, particularly within social psychological analyses, that CMC tends to equalize status, decentralize and democratize decision making, and thus empower and liberate the individual user This emphasis contrasts with sociological critiques employing the Foucauldian metaphor of the panopticon, claiming that power relations can actually be reinforced in CMC. The authors argue that prevailing conceptualizations of influence and power within social psychology have tended to prefigure the more optimistic account, and outline a theoretical framework in which processes of `'panoptic power'' in CMC are given a more concrete social psychological foundation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SPEARS1994,
      author = {SPEARS, R and LEA, M},
      title = {PANACEA OR PANOPTICON - THE HIDDEN POWER IN COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION},
      journal = {COMMUNICATION RESEARCH},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {21},
      number = {4},
      pages = {427-459}
    }
    
    SPERBER, D. ANTHROPOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY - TOWARDS AN EPIDEMIOLOGY OF REPRESENTATIONS {1985} MAN
    Vol. {20}({1}), pp. {73-89} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SPERBER1985,
      author = {SPERBER, D},
      title = {ANTHROPOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY - TOWARDS AN EPIDEMIOLOGY OF REPRESENTATIONS},
      journal = {MAN},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {20},
      number = {1},
      pages = {73-89}
    }
    
    Spitzer, M. A cognitive neuroscience view of schizophrenic thought disorder {1997} SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN
    Vol. {23}({1}), pp. {29-50} 
    article  
    Abstract: The experimental association psychology approach to mental associations has been the conceptual background for the concept of schizophrenia. Cognitive neuroscience methods and concepts can be used to study various forms of schizophrenic thought disorder. In particular, the concepts of semantic associative and working memory can be applied fruitfully to schizophrenia research. Semantic associative networks can be simulated with self-organizing feature maps. Dysfunctional lexical access can be modeled in terms of low signal-to-noise ratio in intra- or between-network information processing. Evidence for the crucial role of dopamine in this function is presented, and a general neurocomputational model of schizophrenic thought disorder is developed. This model capitalizes on basic aspects of neural information processing (i.e., neuromodulation and neuroplasticity) and allows a parsimonious explanation of a number of otherwise inexplicable or unrelated clinical phenomena and experimental results.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Spitzer1997,
      author = {Spitzer, M},
      title = {A cognitive neuroscience view of schizophrenic thought disorder},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {23},
      number = {1},
      pages = {29-50}
    }
    
    Sprangers, M. & Schwartz, C. Integrating response shift into health-related quality of life research: a theoretical model {1999} SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE
    Vol. {48}({11}), pp. {1507-1515} 
    article  
    Abstract: Patients confronted with a life-threatening or chronic disease are faced with the necessity to accommodate to their illness, An important mediator of this adaptation process is `response shift' which involves changing internal standards, values and the conceptualization of quality of life (QOL). Integrating response shift into QOL research would allow a better understanding of how QOL is affected by changes in health status and would direct the development of reliable and valid measures for assessing changes in QOL, A theoretical model is proposed to clarify and predict changes in QOL as a result of the interaction of: (a) a catalyst, referring to changes in the respondent's health status; (b) antecedents, pertaining to stable or dispositional characteristics of the individual (e.g. personality) (c) mechanisms, encompassing behavioral, cognitive, or affective processes to accommodate the changes in health status (e.g, initiating social comparisons, reordering goals); and (d) response shift, defined as changes in the meaning of one's self-evaluation of QOL resulting from changes in internal standards, values, or conceptualization. A dynamic feedback loop aimed at maintaining or improving the perception of QOL is also postulated. This model is illustrated and the underlying assumptions are discussed. Future research directions are outlined that may further the investigation of response shift, by testing specific hypotheses and predictions about the QOL domains and the clinical and psychosocial conditions that would potentiate or prevent response shift effects. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd, All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sprangers1999,
      author = {Sprangers, MAG and Schwartz, CE},
      title = {Integrating response shift into health-related quality of life research: a theoretical model},
      journal = {SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {48},
      number = {11},
      pages = {1507-1515}
    }
    
    Stacey, J. & Biblarz, T. (How) does the sexual orientation of parents matter? {2001} AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {66}({2}), pp. {159-183} 
    article  
    Abstract: Opponents of lesbian and gay parental rights claim that children with lesbigay parents are at higher risk for a variety of negative outcomes. Yet most research in psychology concludes that there are no differences in developmental outcomes between children raised by lesbigay. parents and those raised by heterosexual parents. The analysis here challenges this defensive conceptual framework and analyzes how heterosexism has hampered intellectual progress in the field. The authors discuss limitations in the definitions, samples, and analyses of the studies to date. Next they explore findings from 21 studies and demonstrate that researchers frequently downplay findings indicating difference regarding children's gender and sexual preferences and behavior that could stimulate important theoretical questions. A less defensive, more sociologically informed analytic framework is proposed for investigating these issues. The framework focuses on (I) whether selection effects produced by homophobia account for associations between parental sexual orientations and child outcomes; (2) the role of parental gender vis-a-vis sexual orientation in influencing children's gender development: and (3) the relationship between parental sexual orientations and children's sexual preferences and behaviors.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Stacey2001,
      author = {Stacey, J and Biblarz, TJ},
      title = {(How) does the sexual orientation of parents matter?},
      journal = {AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {66},
      number = {2},
      pages = {159-183}
    }
    
    STANGOR, C., SULLIVAN, L. & FORD, T. AFFECTIVE AND COGNITIVE DETERMINANTS OF PREJUDICE {1991} SOCIAL COGNITION
    Vol. {9}({4}), pp. {359-380} 
    article  
    Abstract: According to traditional theories, prejudice toward national, racial, and ethnic groups was considered to consist largely of a negative affective response toward the group or toward members of the group. More recently, however, the general approach to the study of prejudice within social psychology has been to emphasize its cognitive determinants, particularly in terms of the formation and maintenance of social stereotypes. The present research compared the importance of stereotypical beliefs about and affective responses to national, ethnic, and religious groups as predictors of favorability and preferred social distance toward the groups. In two studies, emotional responses to the target groups were found to be a more consistent and stronger predictor of attitudes and social distance than were social stereotypes. This was true whether stereotypes were assessed in terms of percentage assignment, as a likelihood ratio, or as personal beliefs about group characteristics. It is suggested that future research should carefully consider the joint roles of affect and cognition as determinants of prejudice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{STANGOR1991,
      author = {STANGOR, C and SULLIVAN, LA and FORD, TE},
      title = {AFFECTIVE AND COGNITIVE DETERMINANTS OF PREJUDICE},
      journal = {SOCIAL COGNITION},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {359-380}
    }
    
    Stanislaw, H. & Todorov, N. Calculation of signal detection theory measures {1999} BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS INSTRUMENTS & COMPUTERS
    Vol. {31}({1}), pp. {137-149} 
    article  
    Abstract: Signal detection theory (SDT) may be applied to any area of psychology in which two different types of stimuli must be discriminated. We describe several of these areas and the advantages that can be realized through the application of SDT Three of the most popular tasks used to study discriminability are then discussed, together with the measures that SDT prescribes for quantifying performance in these tasks. Mathematical formulae for the measures are presented, as are methods for calculating the measures with lookup tables, computer software specifically developed for SDT applications, and general purpose computer software (including spreadsheets and statistical analysis software).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Stanislaw1999,
      author = {Stanislaw, H and Todorov, N},
      title = {Calculation of signal detection theory measures},
      journal = {BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS INSTRUMENTS & COMPUTERS},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {31},
      number = {1},
      pages = {137-149}
    }
    
    STAW, B., SUTTON, R. & PELLED, L. EMPLOYEE POSITIVE EMOTION AND FAVORABLE OUTCOMES AT THE WORKPLACE {1994} ORGANIZATION SCIENCE
    Vol. {5}({1}), pp. {51-71} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper draws on writings in psychology, sociology and organizational behavior to develop a conceptual framework that specifies how positive emotion helps employees obtain favorable outcomes at work. We propose that feeling and expressing positive emotions on the job have favorable consequences on: (1) employees independent of their relationships with others (e.g., greater persistence), (2) reactions of others to employees (e.g., `'halo,'' or overgeneralization to other desirable traits), and (3) reactions of employees to others (e.g., helping others). These three sets of intervening processes are proposed, in turn, to lead to work achievement, job enrichment and a higher quality social context. A partial test of this framework is made in an 18-month study of 272 employees. Results indicate that positive emotion on the job at time 1 is associated with evidence of work achievement (more favorable supervisor evaluations and higher pay) and a supportive social context (more support from supervisors and coworkers) at time 2. But positive emotion at time 1 is not significantly associated with job enrichment at time 2.
    BibTeX:
    @article{STAW1994,
      author = {STAW, BM and SUTTON, RI and PELLED, LH},
      title = {EMPLOYEE POSITIVE EMOTION AND FAVORABLE OUTCOMES AT THE WORKPLACE},
      journal = {ORGANIZATION SCIENCE},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {51-71}
    }
    
    STEELE, C. & SOUTHWICK, L. ALCOHOL AND SOCIAL-BEHAVIOR .1. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DRUNKEN EXCESS {1985} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {48}({1}), pp. {18-34} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{STEELE1985,
      author = {STEELE, CM and SOUTHWICK, L},
      title = {ALCOHOL AND SOCIAL-BEHAVIOR .1. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DRUNKEN EXCESS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {48},
      number = {1},
      pages = {18-34}
    }
    
    Steele, C., Spencer, S. & Aronson, J. Contending with group image: The psychology of stereotype and social identity threat {2002}
    Vol. {34}ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, VOL 34, pp. {379-440} 
    incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{Steele2002,
      author = {Steele, CM and Spencer, SJ and Aronson, J},
      title = {Contending with group image: The psychology of stereotype and social identity threat},
      booktitle = {ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, VOL 34},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {34},
      pages = {379-440}
    }
    
    STEPTOE, A., POLLARD, T. & WARDLE, J. DEVELOPMENT OF A MEASURE OF THE MOTIVES UNDERLYING THE SELECTION OF FOOD - THE FOOD CHOICE QUESTIONNAIRE {1995} APPETITE
    Vol. {25}({3}), pp. {267-284} 
    article  
    Abstract: A number of factors are thought to influence people's dietary choices, including health, cost, convenience and taste, but there are no measures that address health-related and non-health-related factors in a systematic fashion. This paper describes the development of a multidimensional measure of motives related to food choice. The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) was developed through factor analysis of responses from a sample of 358 adults ranging in age from 18 to 87 years. Nine factors emerged, and were labelled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity and ethical concern. The questionnaire structure was verified using confirmatory factor analysis in a second sample (n = 358), and test-retest reliability over a 2- to 3-week period was satisfactory. Convergent validity was investigated by testing associations between FCQ scales and measures of dietary restraint, eating style, the value of health, health locus of control and personality factors. Differences in motives for food choice associated with sex, age and income were found. The potential uses of this measure in health psychology and other areas are discussed. (C) 1995 Academic Press Limited
    BibTeX:
    @article{STEPTOE1995,
      author = {STEPTOE, A and POLLARD, TM and WARDLE, J},
      title = {DEVELOPMENT OF A MEASURE OF THE MOTIVES UNDERLYING THE SELECTION OF FOOD - THE FOOD CHOICE QUESTIONNAIRE},
      journal = {APPETITE},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {25},
      number = {3},
      pages = {267-284}
    }
    
    Stern, D., Sander, L., Nahum, J., Harrison, A., Lyons-Ruth, K., Morgan, A., Bruschweiler-Stern, N., Tronick, E. & Change Study Grp Non-interpretive mechanisms in psychoanalytic therapy - The `something more' than interpretation {1998} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHO-ANALYSIS
    Vol. {79}({Part 5}), pp. {903-921} 
    article  
    Abstract: It is by now generally accepted that something more than interpretation is necessary to bring about therapeutic change. Using an approach based on recent studies of mother-infant interaction and non-linear dynamic systems and their relation to theories of mind, the authors propose that the something more resides in interactional intersubjective process that give rise to what they will call `implicit relational knowing'. This relational procedural domain is intrapsychically distinct from the symbolic domain. In the analytic relationship it comprises intersubjective moments occurring between patient and analyst that can create new organisations in, or reorganise not only the relationship between the interactants, but more importantly the patient's implicit procedural knowledge, his ways of being with others. The distinct qualities and consequences of these moments (now moments, `moments of meeting') are modelled and discussed in terms of a sequencing process that they call moving along. Conceptions of the shared implicit relationship, transference and countertransference are discussed within the parameters of this perspective, which is distinguished from other relational theories and self-psychology. In sum, powerful therapeutic action occurrs within implicit relational knowledge. They propose that much of what is observed to be lasting therapeutic effect results from such changes in this intersubjective relational domain.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Stern1998,
      author = {Stern, DN and Sander, LW and Nahum, JP and Harrison, AM and Lyons-Ruth, K and Morgan, AC and Bruschweiler-Stern, N and Tronick, EZ and Change Study Grp},
      title = {Non-interpretive mechanisms in psychoanalytic therapy - The `something more' than interpretation},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHO-ANALYSIS},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {79},
      number = {Part 5},
      pages = {903-921}
    }
    
    Sternberg, R. & Lubart, T. Investing in creativity {1996} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {51}({7}), pp. {677-688} 
    article  
    Abstract: Why do some seemingly interesting, important topics receive relatively little research attention, whereas other topics are given center stage? Taking the topic of creativity as an example, we consider several reasons why psychologists may have underinvested in the study of creativity, relative to its importance both to the field of psychology and to the world in general. We propose six reasons for this under investment. Confluence theories, representing various multidisciplinary approaches to creativity are proposed as offering a more promising approach to the study of creativity than do the uniperspective views.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sternberg1996,
      author = {Sternberg, RJ and Lubart, TI},
      title = {Investing in creativity},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {51},
      number = {7},
      pages = {677-688}
    }
    
    STERNBERG, R. & LUBART, T. AN INVESTMENT THEORY OF CREATIVITY AND ITS DEVELOPMENT {1991} HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {34}({1}), pp. {1-31} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{STERNBERG1991,
      author = {STERNBERG, RJ and LUBART, TI},
      title = {AN INVESTMENT THEORY OF CREATIVITY AND ITS DEVELOPMENT},
      journal = {HUMAN DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {34},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-31}
    }
    
    STEVENSON, J. & MEARES, R. AN OUTCOME STUDY OF PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR PATIENTS WITH BORDERLINE PERSONALITY-DISORDER {1992} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {149}({3}), pp. {358-362} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of well-defined outpatient psychotherapy for patients with borderline personality disorder. Method: Thirty patients with borderline personality disorder diagnosed according to the DSM-III criteria were given twice weekly outpatient psychotherapy for 12 months by trainee therapists who were closely supervised. The treatment approach was based on a psychology of self (this term being used in its broad sense), and strong efforts were made to ensure that all therapists adhered to the treatment model. Outcome measures included frequency of use of drugs (both prescribed and illegal), number of visits to medical professionals, number of episodes of violence and self-harm, time away from work, number of hospital admissions, time spent as an inpatient, score on a self-report index of symptoms, and number of DSM-III criteria (weighted for frequency, severity, and duration) fulfilled. Results: The subjects showed statistically significant improvement from the initial assessment to the end of the year of follow-up on every measure. Moreover, 30% of the subjects no longer fulfilled the DSM-III criteria for borderline personality disorder. This improvement had persisted 1 year after the cessation of therapy. Conclusions: The results suggest that a specific form of psychotherapy is of benefit for patients with borderline personality disorder.
    BibTeX:
    @article{STEVENSON1992,
      author = {STEVENSON, J and MEARES, R},
      title = {AN OUTCOME STUDY OF PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR PATIENTS WITH BORDERLINE PERSONALITY-DISORDER},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {149},
      number = {3},
      pages = {358-362}
    }
    
    Strack, F. & Deutsch, R. Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior {2004} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {8}({3}), pp. {220-247} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article describes a 2-systems model that explains social behavior as ajoint function of reflective and impulsive processes. In particular it is assumed that social behavior is controlled by 2 interacting systems that follow different operating principles. The reflective system generates behavioral decisions that are based on knowledge about facts and values, whereas the impulsive system elicits behavior through associative links and motivational orientations. The proposed model describes how the 2 systems interact at various stages of processing, and how their outputs may determine behavior in a synergistic or antagonistic fashion. It extends previous models by integrating motivational components that allow more precise predictions of behavior The implications of this reflective-impulsive model are applied to various phenomena from social psychology and beyond. Extending previous dual-process accounts, this model is not limited to specific domains of mental functioning and attempts to integrate cognitive, motivational, and behavioral mechanisms.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Strack2004,
      author = {Strack, F and Deutsch, R},
      title = {Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {220-247}
    }
    
    Stryker, S. & Burke, P. The past, present, and future of an identity theory {2000} SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY
    Vol. {63}({4}), pp. {284-297} 
    article  
    Abstract: Among the many traditions of research on ``identity,'' two somewhat different yet strongly related strands of identity theory have developed. The first, reflected in the work of Stryker and colleagues, focuses on the linkages of social structures with identities. The second, reflected in the work of Burke and colleagues, focuses on the internal process of self-verification. In the present paper we review each of these strands and then discuss ways in which the two relate to and complement one another. Each provides a context for the other: the relation of social structures to identities influences the process of self-verification, while the process of self-verification creates and sustains social structures. The paper concludes with examples of potentially useful applications of identity theory to other arenas of social psychology, and with a discussion of challenges that identity theory must meet to provide a clear understanding of the relation between self and society.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Stryker2000,
      author = {Stryker, S and Burke, PJ},
      title = {The past, present, and future of an identity theory},
      journal = {SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {63},
      number = {4},
      pages = {284-297}
    }
    
    SUE, D., ARREDONDO, P. & MCDAVIS, R. MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING COMPETENCES AND STANDARDS - A CALL TO THE PROFESSION {1992} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING AND DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {70}({4}), pp. {477-486} 
    article  
    Abstract: In April 1991, the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD) approved a document outlining the need and rationale for a multicultural perspective in counseling. The work of the Professional Standards committee went much further in proposing 31 multicultural counseling competencies and strongly encouraged the American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) and the counseling profession to adopt these competencies in accreditation criteria. The hope was to have the competencies eventually become a standard for curriculum reform and training of helping professionals.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SUE1992,
      author = {SUE, DW and ARREDONDO, P and MCDAVIS, RJ},
      title = {MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING COMPETENCES AND STANDARDS - A CALL TO THE PROFESSION},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING AND DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {70},
      number = {4},
      pages = {477-486}
    }
    
    Sue, S. Science, ethnicity, and bias - Where have we gone wrong? {1999} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {54}({12}), pp. {1070-1077} 
    article  
    Abstract: The quality, quantity, and finding of ethnic,minority research have been inadequate. One factor that has contributed to this inadequacy is the practice of scientific psychology. Although principles of psychological science involve internal and external validity, in practice psychology emphasizes internal validity in research studies. Because many psychological principles and measures have not been cross-validated with different populations, chose conducting ethnic minority research often have a more difficult time demonstrating rigorous internal validity. Thus, psychology's overemphasis of internal as opposed to external validity has differentially hindered the development of ethnic minority research. To develop stronger research knowledge on ethnic minority groups, it is important that (a) all research studies address external validity issues and explicitly specify the populations to which the findings are applicable; (b) different research approaches, including the use of qualitative and ethnographic methods, be appreciated; and (c) the psychological meaning of ethnicity or race be examined in ethnic comparisons.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sue1999,
      author = {Sue, S},
      title = {Science, ethnicity, and bias - Where have we gone wrong?},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {54},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1070-1077},
      note = {National Multicultural Conference and Summit, NEWPORT BEACH, CALIFORNIA, JAN, 1999}
    }
    
    Suh, E., Diener, E., Oishi, S. & Triandis, H. The shifting basis of life satisfaction judgments across cultures: Emotions versus norms {1998} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {74}({2}), pp. {482-493} 
    article  
    Abstract: The relative importance of emotions versus normative beliefs for life satisfaction judgments was compared among individualist and collectivist nations in 2 large sets of international data (in total, 61 nations, N = 62,446). Among nations, emotions and life satisfaction correlated significantly more strongly in more individualistic nations (r = .52 in Study 1; r = .48 in Study 2). At the individual level, emotions were far superior predictors of life satisfaction to norms (social approval of life satisfaction) in individualist cultures, whereas norms and emotions were equally strong predictors of Life satisfaction in collectivist cultures. The present findings have implications for future studies on cultural notions of well-being, the functional value of emotional experiences, and individual differences in life satisfaction profiles.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Suh1998,
      author = {Suh, E and Diener, E and Oishi, S and Triandis, HC},
      title = {The shifting basis of life satisfaction judgments across cultures: Emotions versus norms},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {74},
      number = {2},
      pages = {482-493}
    }
    
    Suls, J. & Bunde, J. Anger, anxiety, and depression as risk factors for cardiovascular disease: The problems and implications of overlapping affective dispositions {2005} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {131}({2}), pp. {260-300} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Several recent reviews (e.g., L. C. Gallo & K. Matthews, 2003; A. Rozanski, J. A. Blumenthal, & J. Kaplan, 1999; R. Rugulies, 2002) have identified 3 affective dispositions-depression, anxiety, and anger-hostility-as putative risk factors for coronary heart disease. There are, however, mixed and negative results. Following a critical summary of epidemiological findings, the present article discusses the construct and measurement overlap among the 3 negative affects. Recognition of the overlap necessitates the development of more complex affect-disease models and has implications for the interpretation of prior studies, statistical analyses, prevention, and intervention in health psychology and behavioral medicine. The overlap among the 3 negative dispositions also leaves open the possibility that a general disposition toward negative affectivity may be more important for disease risk than any specific negative affect.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Suls2005,
      author = {Suls, J and Bunde, J},
      title = {Anger, anxiety, and depression as risk factors for cardiovascular disease: The problems and implications of overlapping affective dispositions},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {131},
      number = {2},
      pages = {260-300},
      doi = {{10.1037/0033-2909.131.2.260}}
    }
    
    SWETS, J. RELATIVE OPERATING CHARACTERISTIC IN PSYCHOLOGY {1973} SCIENCE
    Vol. {182}({4116}), pp. {990-1000} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SWETS1973,
      author = {SWETS, JA},
      title = {RELATIVE OPERATING CHARACTERISTIC IN PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {SCIENCE},
      year = {1973},
      volume = {182},
      number = {4116},
      pages = {990-1000}
    }
    
    SZAPOCZNIK, J. & KURTINES, W. FAMILY PSYCHOLOGY AND CULTURAL-DIVERSITY - OPPORTUNITIES FOR THEORY, RESEARCH, AND APPLICATION {1993} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {48}({4}), pp. {400-407} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article builds on the authors' work with troubled Hispanic youth and their families to extend the concept of contextualism. First, it discusses family and culture as literatures that have emerged from a contextualist perspective but are separate from each other. Second, it integrates these literatures by introducing the concept of the embeddedness of the individual within the context of the family within the context of culture. Finally, this concept of the embeddedness of contexts is extended to encompass a view of families embedded within culturally diverse contexts.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SZAPOCZNIK1993,
      author = {SZAPOCZNIK, J and KURTINES, WM},
      title = {FAMILY PSYCHOLOGY AND CULTURAL-DIVERSITY - OPPORTUNITIES FOR THEORY, RESEARCH, AND APPLICATION},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {48},
      number = {4},
      pages = {400-407},
      note = {100TH Annual Convention of the American-Psychological-Association, WASHINGTON, DC, AUG, 1992}
    }
    
    TAJFEL, H. SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF INTER-GROUP RELATIONS {1982} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {33}, pp. {1-39} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{TAJFEL1982,
      author = {TAJFEL, H},
      title = {SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF INTER-GROUP RELATIONS},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {33},
      pages = {1-39}
    }
    
    TATUM, B. TALKING ABOUT RACE, LEARNING ABOUT RACISM - THE APPLICATION OF RACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT THEORY IN THE CLASSROOM {1992} HARVARD EDUCATIONAL REVIEW
    Vol. {62}({1}), pp. {1-24} 
    article  
    Abstract: The inclusion of race-related content in college courses often generates emotional responses in students that range from guilt and shame to anger and despair. The discomfort associated with these emotions can lead students to resist the learning process. Based on her experience teaching a course on the psychology of racism and an application of racial identity development theory, Beverly Daniel Tatum identifies three major sources of student resistance to talking about race and learning about racism, as well as some strategies for overcoming this resistance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{TATUM1992,
      author = {TATUM, BD},
      title = {TALKING ABOUT RACE, LEARNING ABOUT RACISM - THE APPLICATION OF RACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT THEORY IN THE CLASSROOM},
      journal = {HARVARD EDUCATIONAL REVIEW},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {62},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-24}
    }
    
    Taylor, S., Repetti, R. & Seeman, T. Health psychology: What is an unhealthy environment and how does it get under the skin? {1997} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {48}, pp. {411-447} 
    article  
    Abstract: This review explores the role of environments in creating chronic and acute health disorders. A general framework for studying the nesting of social environments and the multiple pathways by which environmental factors may adversely affect health is offered. Treating socioeconomic status (SES) and race as contextual factors, we examine characteristics of the environments of community, work, family, and peer interaction for predictors of positive and adverse health outcomes across the lifespan. We consider chronic stress/allostatic load, mental distress, coping skills and resources, and health habits and behaviors as classes of mechanisms that address how unhealthy environments get `'under the skin,'' to create health disorders. Across multiple environments, unhealthy environments are those that threaten safety, that undermine the creation of social ties, and that are conflictual, abusive, or violent. A healthy environment, in contrast, provides safety, opportunities for social integration, and the ability to predict and/or control aspects of that environment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Taylor1997,
      author = {Taylor, SE and Repetti, RL and Seeman, T},
      title = {Health psychology: What is an unhealthy environment and how does it get under the skin?},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {48},
      pages = {411-447}
    }
    
    Tedeschi, R. & Calhoun, L. Posttraumatic growth: Conceptual foundations and empirical evidence {2004} PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY
    Vol. {15}({1}), pp. {1-18} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article describes the concept of posttraumatic growth, its conceptual foundations, and supporting empirical evidence. Posttraumatic growth is the experience of positive change that occurs as a result of the struggle with highly challenging life crises. It is manifested in a variety of ways; including all increased appreciation for life in general, more meaningful interpersonal relationships, an increased sense of personal strength, changed priorities, and a richer existential and spiritual life. Although the term is new, the idea that great good can come from great suffering is ancient. We propose a model for understanding the process of posttraumatic growth in, which individual characteristics, support and disclosure, and more centrally, significant cognitive processing involving cognitive structures threatened or nullified by the traumatic events, play an important role. It is also suggested that posttraumatic growth mutually interacts with life wisdom and the development of the life narrative, and that it is an ongoing process, not a static outcome.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tedeschi2004,
      author = {Tedeschi, RG and Calhoun, LG},
      title = {Posttraumatic growth: Conceptual foundations and empirical evidence},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {15},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-18}
    }
    
    Tennen, H., Affleck, G., Armeli, S. & Carney, M. A daily process approach to coping - Linking theory, research, and practice {2000} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {55}({6}), pp. {626-636} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: For decades, coping researchers have used between-person designs to address inherently within-person questions derived from theory and clinical practice. The authors describe recent developments in the use of within-person, process-oriented methods that examine individuals intensively over time. Ongoing studies of stress and alcohol consumption, the effects of depression on adaptational processes, and the temporal dynamics of coping with chronic pain demonstrate that by tracking rapidly fluctuating processes such as mood and coping close to their real-time occurrence, daily process designs offer unique insights into conceptually and clinically challenging questions. Suck designs also provide new opportunities to examine the purported mechanisms of therapeutic interventions. Despite its demands on participants and investigators, daily process research offers fresh opportunities to link psychological theory, research, and practice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tennen2000,
      author = {Tennen, H and Affleck, G and Armeli, S and Carney, MA},
      title = {A daily process approach to coping - Linking theory, research, and practice},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {55},
      number = {6},
      pages = {626-636},
      doi = {{10.1037//0003-066X.55.6.626}}
    }
    
    Tetlock, P., Kristel, O., Elson, S., Green, M. & Lerner, J. The psychology of the unthinkable: Taboo trade-offs, forbidden base rates, and heretical counterfactuals {2000} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {78}({5}), pp. {853-870} 
    article  
    Abstract: Five studies explored cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses to proscribed forms of social cognition. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that people responded to taboo trade-offs that monetized sacred values with moral outrage and cleansing. Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that racial egalitarians were least likely to use, and angriest at those who did use, race-tainted base rates and that egalitarians who inadvertently used such base rates tried to reaffirm their fair-mindedness. Experiment 5 revealed that Christian fundamentalists were most likely to reject heretical counterfactuals that applied everyday causal schemata to Biblical narratives and to engage in moral cleansing after merely contemplating such possibilities. Although the results fit the sacred-value-protection model (SVPM) better than rival formulations, the SVPM must draw on cross-cultural taxonomies of relational schemata to specify normative boundaries on thought.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tetlock2000,
      author = {Tetlock, PE and Kristel, OV and Elson, SB and Green, MC and Lerner, JS},
      title = {The psychology of the unthinkable: Taboo trade-offs, forbidden base rates, and heretical counterfactuals},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {78},
      number = {5},
      pages = {853-870}
    }
    
    TETLOCK, P. & MANSTEAD, A. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT VERSUS INTRAPSYCHIC EXPLANATIONS IN SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY - A USEFUL DICHOTOMY {1985} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {92}({1}), pp. {59-77} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{TETLOCK1985,
      author = {TETLOCK, PE and MANSTEAD, ASR},
      title = {IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT VERSUS INTRAPSYCHIC EXPLANATIONS IN SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY - A USEFUL DICHOTOMY},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {92},
      number = {1},
      pages = {59-77}
    }
    
    Thaler, R. Mental accounting matters {1999} JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL DECISION MAKING
    Vol. {12}({3}), pp. {183-206} 
    article  
    Abstract: Mental accounting is the set of cognitive operations used by individuals and households to organize, evaluate, and keep track of financial activities. Making use of research on this topic over the past decade, this paper summarizes the current state of our knowledge about how people engage in mental accounting activities. Three components of mental accounting receive the most attention. This first captures how outcomes are perceived and experienced, and how decisions are made and subsequently evaluated. The accounting system provides the inputs to be both ex ante and ex post cost-benefit analyses. A second component of mental accounting involves the assignment of activities to specific accounts. Both the sources and uses of funds are labeled in real as well as in mental accounting systems. Expenditures are grouped into categories (housing, food, etc.) and spending is sometimes constrained by implicit or explicit budgets. The third component of mental accounting concerns the frequency with which accounts are evaluated and `choice bracketing'. Accounts can be balanced daily, weekly, yearly, and so on, and can be defined narrowly or broadly. Each of the components of mental accounting violates the economic principle of fungibility. As a result, mental accounting influences choice, that is, it matters. Copyright (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Thaler1999,
      author = {Thaler, RH},
      title = {Mental accounting matters},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL DECISION MAKING},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {12},
      number = {3},
      pages = {183-206},
      note = {SPUDM Conference, AIX PROVENCE, FRANCE, 1993}
    }
    
    THELEN, E. MOTOR DEVELOPMENT - A NEW SYNTHESIS {1995} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {50}({2}), pp. {79-95} 
    article  
    Abstract: The study of the acquisition of motor skills, long moribund in developmental psychology, has seen a renaissance in the last decade. Inspired by contemporary work in movement science, perceptual psychology, neuroscience, and dynamic systems theory, multidisciplinary approaches are affording new insights into the processes by which infants and children learn to control their bodies. In particular, the new synthesis emphasizes the multicausal, fluid, contextual, and self-organizing nature of developmental change, the unity of perception, action, and cognition, and the role of exploration and selection in the emergence of new behavior. Studies are concerned less with how children perform and more with how the components cooperate to produce stability or engender change. Such process approaches make moot the traditional nature-nurture debates.
    BibTeX:
    @article{THELEN1995,
      author = {THELEN, E},
      title = {MOTOR DEVELOPMENT - A NEW SYNTHESIS},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {50},
      number = {2},
      pages = {79-95}
    }
    
    Thornhill, R. & Gangestad, S. Facial attractiveness {1999} TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES
    Vol. {3}({12}), pp. {452-460} 
    article  
    Abstract: Humans in societies around the world discriminate between potential mates on the basis of attractiveness in ways that can dramatically affect their lives. From an evolutionary perspective, a reasonable working hypothesis is that the psychological mechanisms underlying attractiveness judgments are adaptations that have evolved in the service of choosing a mate so as to increase gene propagation throughout evolutionary history. The main hypothesis that has directed evolutionary psychology research into facial attractiveness is that these judgments reflect information about what can be broadly defined as an individual's health. This has been investigated by examining whether attractiveness judgments show special design for detecting cues that allow us to make assessments of overall phenotypic condition. This review examines the three major lines of research that have been pursued in order to answer the question of whether attractiveness reflects non-obvious indicators of phenotypic condition. These are studies that have examined facial symmetry, averageness, and secondary sex characteristics as hormone markers.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Thornhill1999,
      author = {Thornhill, R and Gangestad, SW},
      title = {Facial attractiveness},
      journal = {TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {3},
      number = {12},
      pages = {452-460}
    }
    
    TINSLEY, H. & TINSLEY, D. USES OF FACTOR-ANALYSIS IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH {1987} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {34}({4}), pp. {414-424} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{TINSLEY1987,
      author = {TINSLEY, HEA and TINSLEY, DJ},
      title = {USES OF FACTOR-ANALYSIS IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {34},
      number = {4},
      pages = {414-424}
    }
    
    Tomasello, M., Carpenter, M., Call, J., Behne, T. & Moll, H. Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition {2005} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {28}({5}), pp. {675+} 
    article  
    Abstract: We propose that the crucial difference between human cognition and that of other species is the ability to participate with others in collaborative activities with shared goals and intentions: shared intentionality. Participation in such activities requires not only especially powerful forms of intention reading and cultural learning, but also a unique motivation to share psychological states with others and unique forms of cognitive representation for doing so. The result of participating in these activities is species-unique forms of cultural cognition and evolution, enabling everything from the creation and use of linguistic symbols to the construction of social norms and individual beliefs to the establishment of social institutions. In support of this proposal we argue and present evidence that great apes (and some children with autism) understand the basics of intentional action, but they still do not participate in activities involving joint intentions and attention (shared intentionality). Human children's skills of shared intentionality develop gradually during the first 14 months of life as two ontogenetic pathways intertwine: (1) the general ape line of understanding others as animate, goal-directed, and intentional agents; and (2) a species-unique motivation to share emotions, experience, and activities with other persons. The developmental outcome is children's ability to construct dialogic cognitive representations, which enable them to participate in earnest in the collectivity that is human cognition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tomasello2005,
      author = {Tomasello, M and Carpenter, M and Call, J and Behne, T and Moll, H},
      title = {Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {28},
      number = {5},
      pages = {675+}
    }
    
    TOOBY, J. & COSMIDES, L. EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY AND THE GENERATION OF CULTURE .1. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS {1989} ETHOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY
    Vol. {10}({1-3}), pp. {29-49} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{TOOBY1989,
      author = {TOOBY, J and COSMIDES, L},
      title = {EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY AND THE GENERATION OF CULTURE .1. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS},
      journal = {ETHOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1-3},
      pages = {29-49}
    }
    
    Torrubia, R., Avila, C., Molto, J. & Caseras, X. The Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) as a measure of Gray's anxiety and impulsivity dimensions {2001} PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
    Vol. {31}({6}), pp. {837-862} 
    article  
    Abstract: Gray [In H. J. Eysenck, A model for personality (pp. 246-276). New York: Springer; 1981; The neuropsychology of anxiety: an enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1982] has described two motivational systems, the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and the Behavioural Activation System (BAS), that control aversive and appetitive behaviour, respectively. Research on Gray's model of personality has been hindered by the lack of specific self-report measures of the reactivity and responsivity of these systems. We describe a set of studies that illustrate the main psychometrical characteristics of the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). The two scales of the questionnaire were developed by writing items to assess BIS and BAS functioning, respectively. Results showed that both scales were independent, and presented satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Studies 2-5 reported data related to convergent and discriminant validity of the scales. The Sensitivity to Punishment scale was: (1) positively related to Eysenck's neuroticism dimension; (2) negatively related to extraversion; (3) not related to psychoticism; (4) significantly related to the STAI-Trait scale of Spielberger; and (5) related to the somatic, behavioral, and cognitive anxiety scales of Lehrer and Woolfolk [Behavioral Assessment, 4, (1982) 167-177.]. The Sensitivity to Reward scale was: (1) positively related to Eysenck's extraversion and neuroticism; (2) moderately related to psychoticism; (3) positively related to the Eysenck's Impulsiveness scale [Psychological Reports, 43, (1978) 1247-1255] and the Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scales [Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, (1978) 139-149]. Although future construct validity studies are needed, discussion is focused on the importance of using specific designed measures to evaluate and develop Gray's model. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Torrubia2001,
      author = {Torrubia, R and Avila, C and Molto, J and Caseras, X},
      title = {The Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) as a measure of Gray's anxiety and impulsivity dimensions},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {31},
      number = {6},
      pages = {837-862}
    }
    
    TVERSKY, A. & KAHNEMAN, D. THE FRAMING OF DECISIONS AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CHOICE {1981} SCIENCE
    Vol. {211}({4481}), pp. {453-458} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{TVERSKY1981,
      author = {TVERSKY, A and KAHNEMAN, D},
      title = {THE FRAMING OF DECISIONS AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CHOICE},
      journal = {SCIENCE},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {211},
      number = {4481},
      pages = {453-458}
    }
    
    Twenge, J. Changes in masculine and feminine traits over time: A meta-analysis {1997} SEX ROLES
    Vol. {36}({5-6}), pp. {305-325} 
    article  
    Abstract: Sixty-three samples providing single-sex means on the Bem Sex-Role Inventory [BSRI; S. L. Bem (1974) `'The Measurement of Psychological Androgyny,'' Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 42, pp. 155-162] and 40 reporting similar data on the Personal Attributes questionnaire [PAQ; J. T. Spence and R. L. Helmreich (1978) Masculinity and Femininity, Austin University of Texas Press] for American undergraduates were located and analyzed. Women's scores on the BSRI-M and PAQ-M (masculine) scales have increased steadily over time (r's = .74 and .43, respectively). Women's BSRI-F and PAQ-F (feminine) scale scores do not correlate with year Men's BSRI-M scores show a weaker positive relationship with year of administration (r = .47). The effect size for sex differences on the BSRI-M has also changed over time, showing a significant decrease over the twenty-year period. The results suggest that cultural change and environment may affect individual personalities; these changes in BSRI and PAQ means demonstrate women's increased endorsement of masculine-stereotyped traits and men's continued nonendorsement of feminine-stereotyped traits.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Twenge1997,
      author = {Twenge, JM},
      title = {Changes in masculine and feminine traits over time: A meta-analysis},
      journal = {SEX ROLES},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {36},
      number = {5-6},
      pages = {305-325},
      note = {103rd Annual Meeting of the American-Psychological-Association, NEW YORK, NY, AUG 11-15, 1995}
    }
    
    TYLER, T. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PROCEDURAL JUSTICE - A TEST OF THE GROUP-VALUE MODEL {1989} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {57}({5}), pp. {830-838} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{TYLER1989,
      author = {TYLER, TR},
      title = {THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PROCEDURAL JUSTICE - A TEST OF THE GROUP-VALUE MODEL},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {57},
      number = {5},
      pages = {830-838}
    }
    
    Tyler, T. & Blader, S. The group engagement model: Procedural justice, social identity, and cooperative behavior {2003} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {7}({4}), pp. {349-361} 
    article  
    Abstract: The group engagement model expands the insights of the group-value model of procedural justice and the relational model of authority into an explanation for why procedural justice shapes cooperation in groups, organizations, and societies. It hypothesizes that procedures are important because they shape people's social identity within groups, and social identity in turn influences attitudes, values, and behaviors. The model further hypothesizes that resource judgments exercise their influence indirectly by shaping social identity. This social identity mediation hypothesis explains why people focus on procedural justice, and in particular on procedural elements related to the quality of their interpersonal treatment, because those elements carry the most social identity-relevant information. In this article, we review several key insights of the group engagement model, relate these insights to important trends in psychological research on justice, and discuss implications of the model for the future of procedural justice research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tyler2003,
      author = {Tyler, TR and Blader, SL},
      title = {The group engagement model: Procedural justice, social identity, and cooperative behavior},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {7},
      number = {4},
      pages = {349-361}
    }
    
    VALENTIN, D., ABDI, H., OTOOLE, A. & COTTRELL, G. CONNECTIONIST MODELS OF FACE PROCESSING - A SURVEY {1994} PATTERN RECOGNITION
    Vol. {27}({9}), pp. {1209-1230} 
    article  
    Abstract: Connectionist models of face recognition, identification, and categorization have appeared recently in several disciplines, including psychology, computer science, and engineering. We present a review of these models with the goal of complementing a recent survey by Samal and lyengar [Pattern Recognition 25, 65-77 (1992)] of nonconnectionist approaches to the problem of the automatic face recognition. We concentrate on models that use linear autoassociative networks, nonlinear autoassociative (or compression) and/or heteroassociative backpropagation networks. One advantage of these models over some nonconnectionist approaches is that analyzable features emerge naturally from image-based codes, and hence the problem of feature selection and segmentation from faces can be avoided.
    BibTeX:
    @article{VALENTIN1994,
      author = {VALENTIN, D and ABDI, H and OTOOLE, AJ and COTTRELL, GW},
      title = {CONNECTIONIST MODELS OF FACE PROCESSING - A SURVEY},
      journal = {PATTERN RECOGNITION},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {27},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1209-1230}
    }
    
    Van Ree, J., Gerrits, M. & Vanderschuren, L. Opioids, reward and addiction: An encounter of biology, psychology, and medicine {1999} PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEWS
    Vol. {51}({2}), pp. {341-396} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{VanRee1999,
      author = {Van Ree, JM and Gerrits, MAFM and Vanderschuren, LJMJ},
      title = {Opioids, reward and addiction: An encounter of biology, psychology, and medicine},
      journal = {PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEWS},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {51},
      number = {2},
      pages = {341-396}
    }
    
    VANHAMME, L. & WASSERMAN, E. CUE COMPETITION IN CAUSALITY JUDGMENTS - THE ROLE OF NONPRESENTATION OF COMPOUND STIMULUS ELEMENTS {1994} LEARNING AND MOTIVATION
    Vol. {25}({2}), pp. {127-151} 
    article  
    Abstract: College students rated the causal efficacy of Elements X, A, and B of food compounds AX and BX in producing the allergic reaction of a hypothetical patient. The results of a 16-day allergy test were presented to subjects in a serial, trial-by-trial manner. The response format used was a running estimate, in which subjects were asked to rate all of the three foods after each of the 16 trials. Ratings of distinctive Elements A and B diverged and ratings of common Element X decreased as the difference in the correlation of AX and BX with the occurrence and nonoccurrence of the allergic reaction increased. These human causal judgments closely correspond with stimulus selection effects observed in the conditioned responses of animals in associative learning studies. The experiment also directly demonstrated the fact that significant changes in the causal ratings of a stimulus occur on trials in which the cue is not presented. Associative theories such as that of Rescorla and Wagner (1972) predict changes in associative strength only for those stimulus elements that are presented on a particular trial. A modification of the Rescorla-Wagner model is described that correctly predicts immediate changes in the associative strengths of all relevant cues on each trial-whether presented or not. (C) 1994 Academic Press, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{VANHAMME1994,
      author = {VANHAMME, LJ and WASSERMAN, EA},
      title = {CUE COMPETITION IN CAUSALITY JUDGMENTS - THE ROLE OF NONPRESENTATION OF COMPOUND STIMULUS ELEMENTS},
      journal = {LEARNING AND MOTIVATION},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {25},
      number = {2},
      pages = {127-151}
    }
    
    VICKREY, B., HAYS, R., GRABER, J., RAUSCH, R., ENGEL, J. & BROOK, R. A HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY-OF-LIFE INSTRUMENT FOR PATIENTS EVALUATED FOR EPILEPSY SURGERY {1992} MEDICAL CARE
    Vol. {30}({4}), pp. {299-319} 
    article  
    Abstract: The goals of surgery in treating intractable epilepsy are to eliminate seizures and improve quality of life. This report describes the development of the Epilepsy Surgery Inventory (ESI)-55, a 55-item measure of health-related quality of life for epilepsy patients. The ESI-55 includes the following scales (number of items in parentheses): health perceptions (9), energy/fatigue (4), overall quality of life (2), social function (2), emotional well-being (5), cognitive function (5), physical function (10), pain (2), and three separate scales of role limitations due to emotional, physical, or memory problems (5 items each). Also included is one change in health item. The ESI-55 was completed by 89% of 224 adults who had undergone a protocol evaluation for epilepsy surgery since 1974. Alpha internal consistency reliability coefficients ranged from 0.76 to 0.88 except for social function (alpha = 0.68). Multitrait scaling analyses supported item discrimination across scales. Factor analysis confirmed previously identified mental and physical health factors, and yielded a third factor defined by cognitive function and role limitations scales. Construct validity was supported by correlations of the ESI-55 with a mood profile instrument. Analysis of ESI-55 scale scores by seizure classification showed that the 44 patients who were seizure-free following surgery scored higher than did 55 patients who continued to have seizures (P < 0.05 for all comparisons); 43 patients having seizures without loss of consciousness scored in between. Results of this study indicate that the ESI-55 is reliable, valid, and sensitive to differences in seizure status.
    BibTeX:
    @article{VICKREY1992,
      author = {VICKREY, BG and HAYS, RD and GRABER, J and RAUSCH, R and ENGEL, J and BROOK, RH},
      title = {A HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY-OF-LIFE INSTRUMENT FOR PATIENTS EVALUATED FOR EPILEPSY SURGERY},
      journal = {MEDICAL CARE},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {30},
      number = {4},
      pages = {299-319}
    }
    
    Viswesvaran, C. & Ones, D. Theory testing: Combining psychometric meta-analysis and structural equations modeling {1995} PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {48}({4}), pp. {865-885} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper presents an overview of a useful approach for theory testing in the social sciences that combines the principles of psychometric meta-analysis and structural equations modeling. In this approach to theory testing, the estimated true score correlations between the constructs of interest are established through the application of metaanalysis (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990), and structural equations modeling is then applied to the matrix of estimated true score correlations. The potential advantages and limitations of this approach are presented. The approach enables researchers to test complex theories involving several constructs that cannot all be measured in a single study. Decision points are identified, the options available to a researcher are enumerated, and the potential problems as well as the prospects of each are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Viswesvaran1995,
      author = {Viswesvaran, C and Ones, DS},
      title = {Theory testing: Combining psychometric meta-analysis and structural equations modeling},
      journal = {PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {48},
      number = {4},
      pages = {865-885}
    }
    
    Wade, M. & Hulland, J. Review: The resource-based view and information systems research: Review, extension, and suggestions for future research {2004} MIS QUARTERLY
    Vol. {28}({1}), pp. {107-142} 
    article  
    Abstract: Information systems researchers have a long tradition of drawing on theories from disciplines such as economics, computer science, psychology, and general management and using them in their own research. Because of this, the information systems field has become a rich tapestry of theoretical and conceptual foundations. As new theories are brought into the field, particularly theories that have become dominant in other areas, there maybe a benefit in pausing to assess their use and contribution in an IS context. The purpose of this paper is to explore and critically evaluate use of the resource-based view of the firm (RBV) by IS researchers. The paper provides a brief review of resource-based theory and then suggests extensions to make the RBV more useful for empirical IS research. First, a typology of key IS resources is presented, and these are then described using six traditional resource attributes. Second, we emphasize the particular importance of looking at both resource complementarity and moderating factors when studying IS resource effects on firm performance. Finally, we discuss three considerations that IS researchers need to address when using the RBV empirically. Eight sets of propositions are advanced to help guide future research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wade2004,
      author = {Wade, M and Hulland, J},
      title = {Review: The resource-based view and information systems research: Review, extension, and suggestions for future research},
      journal = {MIS QUARTERLY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {28},
      number = {1},
      pages = {107-142}
    }
    
    WARE, J., KELLER, S., GANDEK, B., BRAZIER, J. & SULLIVAN, M. EVALUATING TRANSLATIONS OF HEALTH-STATUS QUESTIONNAIRES - METHODS FROM THE IQOLA PROJECT {1995} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN HEALTH CARE
    Vol. {11}({3}), pp. {525-551} 
    article  
    Abstract: There is growing demand for translations of health status questionnaires for use in multinational drug therapy studies and for population comparisons of health statistics. The International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) Project is conducting a three-stage research program to determine the feasibility of translating the SF-36 Health Survey, widely used in English-speaking countries, into other languages. In stage 1, the conceptual equivalence and acceptability of translated questionnaires are evaluated and improved using qualitative and quantitative methods. In stage 2, assumptions underlying the construction and scoring of questionnaire scales are tested empirically. In stage 3, the equivalence of the interpretation of questionnaire scores across countries is tested using methods that closely approximate their intended use, and empirical results are compared. Data analyses from Sweden and the United Kingdom, as well as other research cited, support the feasibility of cross-cultural health measurement using the SF-36.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WARE1995,
      author = {WARE, JE and KELLER, SD and GANDEK, B and BRAZIER, JE and SULLIVAN, M},
      title = {EVALUATING TRANSLATIONS OF HEALTH-STATUS QUESTIONNAIRES - METHODS FROM THE IQOLA PROJECT},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN HEALTH CARE},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {11},
      number = {3},
      pages = {525-551}
    }
    
    Watson, D. & Clark, L. Measurement and mismeasurement of mood: Recurrent and emergent issues {1997} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT
    Vol. {68}({2}), pp. {267-296} 
    article  
    Abstract: The `'affective explosion'' in psychology has led to tremendous advances in mood measurement. Mood ratings reflect a hierarchical structure consisting of two broad dimensions-Positive Affect and Negative Affect-and multiple specific states. Brief scales have been developed that reliably assess Positive and Negative Affect across different populations and time frames, in both between- and within-subject data. We examine controversies related to (a) the content of these higher order scales and (b) the independence of Positive and Negative Affect. Regarding the latter, we show that Positive and Negative Affect scales remain largely independent across a wide range of conditions, even after controlling for random and systematic error. Finally, there remains little consensus regarding the lower order structure of affect. This lack of a compelling taxonomy has substantially slowed progress in assessing mood at the specific affect level.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Watson1997,
      author = {Watson, D and Clark, LA},
      title = {Measurement and mismeasurement of mood: Recurrent and emergent issues},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {68},
      number = {2},
      pages = {267-296}
    }
    
    Webb, T. & Sheeran, P. Does changing behavioral intentions engender bahaviour change? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence {2006} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {132}({2}), pp. {249-268} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Numerous theories in social and health psychology assume that intentions cause behaviors. However, most tests of the intention-behavior relation involve correlational studies that preclude causal inferences. In order to determine whether changes in behavioral intention engender behavior change, participants should be assigned randomly to a treatment that significantly increases the strength of respective intentions relative to a control condition, and differences in subsequent behavior should be compared. The present research obtained 47 experimental tests of intention-behavior relations that satisfied these criteria. Meta-analysis showed that a medium-to-large change in intention (d = 0.66) leads to a small-to-medium change in behavior (d = 0.36). The review also identified several conceptual factors, methodological features, and intervention characteristics that moderate intention-behavior consistency.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Webb2006,
      author = {Webb, TL and Sheeran, P},
      title = {Does changing behavioral intentions engender bahaviour change? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {132},
      number = {2},
      pages = {249-268},
      doi = {{10.1037/0033-2909.132.2.249}}
    }
    
    WEISZ, J., ROTHBAUM, F. & BLACKBURN, T. STANDING OUT AND STANDING IN - THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CONTROL IN AMERICA AND JAPAN {1984} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {39}({9}), pp. {955-969} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{WEISZ1984,
      author = {WEISZ, JR and ROTHBAUM, FM and BLACKBURN, TC},
      title = {STANDING OUT AND STANDING IN - THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CONTROL IN AMERICA AND JAPAN},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {39},
      number = {9},
      pages = {955-969}
    }
    
    WELLMAN, H. & WOOLLEY, J. FROM SIMPLE DESIRES TO ORDINARY BELIEFS - THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF EVERYDAY PSYCHOLOGY {1990} COGNITION
    Vol. {35}({3}), pp. {245-275} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{WELLMAN1990,
      author = {WELLMAN, HM and WOOLLEY, JD},
      title = {FROM SIMPLE DESIRES TO ORDINARY BELIEFS - THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF EVERYDAY PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {35},
      number = {3},
      pages = {245-275}
    }
    
    Wells, G., Small, M., Penrod, S., Malpass, R., Fulero, S. & Brimacombe, C. Eyewitness identification procedures: Recommendations for lineups and photospreads {1998} LAW AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {22}({6}), pp. {603-647} 
    article  
    Abstract: There is increasing evidence that false eyewitness identification is the primary cause of the conviction of innocent people. In 1996, the American Psychology/Law Society and Division 41 of the American Psychological Association appointed a subcommittee to review scientific evidence and make recommendations regarding the best procedures for constructing and conducting lineups and photospreads. Three important themes from the scientific literature relevant to lineup methods were identified and reviewed, namely relative-judgment processes, the lineups-as-experiments analogy, and confidence malleability. Recommendations are made that double-blind lineup testing should be used, that eyewitnesses should be forewarned that the culprit might not be present, that distracters should be selected based on the eyewitness's verbal description of the perpetrator; and that confidence should be assessed and recorded at the time of identification. The potential costs and benefits of these recommendations are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wells1998,
      author = {Wells, GL and Small, M and Penrod, S and Malpass, RS and Fulero, SM and Brimacombe, CAE},
      title = {Eyewitness identification procedures: Recommendations for lineups and photospreads},
      journal = {LAW AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {22},
      number = {6},
      pages = {603-647},
      note = {Biennial Meeting of the American-Psychology-Law-Society, REDONDO BEACH, CALIFORNIA, MAR, 1998}
    }
    
    WELSH, M. & PENNINGTON, B. ASSESSING FRONTAL-LOBE FUNCTIONING IN CHILDREN - VIEWS FROM DEVELOPMENTAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1988} DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {4}({3}), pp. {199-230} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{WELSH1988,
      author = {WELSH, MC and PENNINGTON, BF},
      title = {ASSESSING FRONTAL-LOBE FUNCTIONING IN CHILDREN - VIEWS FROM DEVELOPMENTAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {4},
      number = {3},
      pages = {199-230}
    }
    
    WELSH, M., PENNINGTON, B. & GROISSER, D. A NORMATIVE DEVELOPMENTAL-STUDY OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTION - A WINDOW ON PREFRONTAL FUNCTION IN CHILDREN {1991} DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {7}({2}), pp. {131-149} 
    article  
    Abstract: Normative-developmental performance on a battery of executive function tasks was investigated. Executive function was defined as goal-directed behavior, including planning, organized search, and impulse control. Measures were drawn from clinical neuropsychology (visual search, verbal fluency, motor sequencing, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Task [WCST]) and from developmental psychology (Tower of Hanoi [TOH] and Matching Familiar Figures Test [MFFT]). A discriminant task, recognition memory, was administered, and IQ scores were available on a subset of the sample. One hundred subjects ranging from 3 to 12 years old participated; an adult group was also studied. Three major results were found: (a) adult-level performance on different subsets of the executive function tasks was achieved at three different ages-6 years old, 10 years old, and adolescence; (b) the measures clustered into three different factors reflecting speeded responding, set maintenance, and planning; and (c) most of the executive function tasks were uncorrelated with IQ. The implications of these results for our understanding of the development of prefrontal lobe functions are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WELSH1991,
      author = {WELSH, MC and PENNINGTON, BF and GROISSER, DB},
      title = {A NORMATIVE DEVELOPMENTAL-STUDY OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTION - A WINDOW ON PREFRONTAL FUNCTION IN CHILDREN},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {131-149}
    }
    
    WENDT, A. ANARCHY IS WHAT STATES MAKE OF IT - THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF POWER-POLITICS {1992} INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION
    Vol. {46}({2}), pp. {391-425} 
    article  
    Abstract: The claim that international institutions can transform state interests is central to neoliberal challenges to the realist assumption that ``process'' (interaction and learning among states) cannot fundamentally affect system ``structure'' (anarchy and the distribution of capabilities). Systematic development of this claim, however, has been hampered by the neoliberals' commitment to rational choice theory, which treats interests as exogenously given and thus offers only a weak form of institutional analysis. A growing body of international relations scholarship points to ways in which the identities and interests of states are socially constructed by knowledgeable practice. This article builds a bridge between this scholarship and neoliberalism by developing a theory of identity- and interest-formation in support of the neoliberal claim that international institutions can transform state interests. Its substantive focus is the realist view that anarchies are necessarily self-help systems, which justifies disinterest in processes of identity- and interest-formation. Self-help is a function not of anarchy but of process and, as such, is itself an institution that determines the meaning of anarchy and the distribution of power for state action. The article concludes with an examination of how this institution can be transformed by practices of sovereignty, by an evolution of cooperation, and by critical strategic practice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WENDT1992,
      author = {WENDT, A},
      title = {ANARCHY IS WHAT STATES MAKE OF IT - THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF POWER-POLITICS},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {46},
      number = {2},
      pages = {391-425}
    }
    
    Wetherell, M. Positioning and interpretative repertoires: conversation analysis and post-structuralism in dialogue {1998} DISCOURSE & SOCIETY
    Vol. {9}({3}), pp. {387-412} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article focuses on Schegloff's (1997) comments on critical discourse analysis and evaluates their force in relation to the analysis of a segment of a group discussion with three young white middle-class men concerning an episode in one of the participant's recent sexual history. The post-structuralist-influenced writings of Laclau and Mouffe (1985, 1987) are presented as an alternative analytic frame for the same data. The analysis examines the contextualization of the event which is the topic of the conversation and the positioning taken up and offered to the young man involved, drawing on the analytic concepts of interpretative repertoire and ideological dilemma. A critique of the post-structuralist concept of subject positions is developed and also of the methodological prescriptions Schegloff proposes for critical discourse analysis. The implications for critical discursive research in social psychology are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wetherell1998,
      author = {Wetherell, M},
      title = {Positioning and interpretative repertoires: conversation analysis and post-structuralism in dialogue},
      journal = {DISCOURSE & SOCIETY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {387-412}
    }
    
    WHARTON, A. THE AFFECTIVE CONSEQUENCES OF SERVICE WORK - MANAGING EMOTIONS ON THE JOB {1993} WORK AND OCCUPATIONS
    Vol. {20}({2}), pp. {205-232} 
    article  
    Abstract: Understanding the social-psychology effects of frontline service work requires attention to the emotional labor performed by incumbents of these positions. Using Hochschild's 1983 classification of jobs requiring emotional labor, this study examines the effects of emotional labor on workers employed in the banking and hospital industries. The results suggest that performance of emotional labor does not have uniformly negative consequences for workers, as some accounts imply. Instead, the effects of emotional labor are conditioned by workers' level of job autonomy and job involvement, and their self-monitoring abilities. The conditions under which emotional labor has negative and positive social-psychological consequences are discussed
    BibTeX:
    @article{WHARTON1993,
      author = {WHARTON, AS},
      title = {THE AFFECTIVE CONSEQUENCES OF SERVICE WORK - MANAGING EMOTIONS ON THE JOB},
      journal = {WORK AND OCCUPATIONS},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {20},
      number = {2},
      pages = {205-232},
      note = {1992 ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL ASSOC, PITTSBURGH, PA, 1992}
    }
    
    Wheeler, M., Stuss, D. & Tulving, E. Toward a theory of episodic memory: The frontal lobes and autonoetic consciousness {1997} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {121}({3}), pp. {331-354} 
    article  
    Abstract: Adult humans are capable of remembering prior events by mentally traveling back in time to reexperience those events. In this review, the authors discuss this and other related capabilities, considering evidence from such diverse sources as brain imaging, neuropsychological experiments, clinical observations, and developmental psychology. The evidence supports a preliminary theory of episodic remembering, which holds that the prefrontal cortex plays a critical, supervisory role in empowering healthy adults with autonoetic consciousness-the capacity to mentally represent and become aware of subjective experiences in the past, present, and future. When a rememberer mentally travels back in subjective time to re-experience his or her personal past, the result is an act of retrieval from episodic memory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wheeler1997,
      author = {Wheeler, MA and Stuss, DT and Tulving, E},
      title = {Toward a theory of episodic memory: The frontal lobes and autonoetic consciousness},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {121},
      number = {3},
      pages = {331-354}
    }
    
    WIDIGER, T. & FRANCES, A. THE DSM-III PERSONALITY-DISORDERS - PERSPECTIVES FROM PSYCHOLOGY {1985} ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {42}({6}), pp. {615-623} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{WIDIGER1985,
      author = {WIDIGER, TA and FRANCES, A},
      title = {THE DSM-III PERSONALITY-DISORDERS - PERSPECTIVES FROM PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {42},
      number = {6},
      pages = {615-623}
    }
    
    WIDIGER, T. & TRULL, T. PERSONALITY AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY - AN APPLICATION OF THE 5-FACTOR MODEL {1992} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {60}({2}), pp. {363-393} 
    article  
    Abstract: Our review is concerned with the relationship of the five-factor model of personality to psychopathology, focusing in particular on Axis II personality disorders and depression. The five factors provide a particularly compelling model for interpreting the Axis II personality disorders as maladaptive variants of normal personality traits. However, we also discuss methodological and conceptual limitations of this application. There has been little research on the relationship of Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness to Axis I mental disorders, but considerable attention has been given to Neuroticism and Extraversion. We focus in particular on the difficulty in distinguishing between the various ways in which personality can relate to depression, either as a predisposition to, a complication of, a pathoplastic effect upon, or a spectrum variant of the mental disorder. We conclude with recommendations for future research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WIDIGER1992,
      author = {WIDIGER, TA and TRULL, TJ},
      title = {PERSONALITY AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY - AN APPLICATION OF THE 5-FACTOR MODEL},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {60},
      number = {2},
      pages = {363-393}
    }
    
    Wilkinson, L. & Task Force Stat Inference Statistical methods in psychology journals - Guidelines and explanations {1999} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {54}({8}), pp. {594-604} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wilkinson1999,
      author = {Wilkinson, L and Task Force Stat Inference},
      title = {Statistical methods in psychology journals - Guidelines and explanations},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {54},
      number = {8},
      pages = {594-604}
    }
    
    WILLS, T. DOWNWARD COMPARISON PRINCIPLES IN SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1981} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {90}({2}), pp. {245-271} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{WILLS1981,
      author = {WILLS, TA},
      title = {DOWNWARD COMPARISON PRINCIPLES IN SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {90},
      number = {2},
      pages = {245-271}
    }
    
    Wolpaw, J., Birbaumer, N., McFarland, D., Pfurtscheller, G. & Vaughan, T. Brain-computer interfaces for communication and control {2002} CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY
    Vol. {113}({6}), pp. {767-791} 
    article  
    Abstract: For many years people have speculated that electroencephalographic activity or other electrophysiological measures of brain function might provide a new non-muscular channel for sending messages and commands to the external world - a brain-computer interface (BCI). Over the past 15 years, productive BCI research programs have arisen. Encouraged by new understanding of brain function, by the advent of powerful low-cost computer equipment, and by growing recognition of the needs and potentials of people with disabilities, these programs concentrate on developing new augmentative communication and control technology for those with severe neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brainstem stroke, and spinal cord injury. The immediate goal is to provide these users, who may be completely paralyzed, or `locked in', with basic communication capabilities so that they can express their wishes to caregivers or even operate word processing programs or neuroprostheses. Present-day BCIs determine the intent of the user from a variety of different electrophysiological signals. These signals include slow cortical potentials, P300 potentials, and mu or beta rhythms recorded from the scalp, and cortical neuronal activity recorded by implanted electrodes. They are translated in real-time into commands that operate a computer display or other device. Successful operation requires that the user encode commands in these signals and that the BCI derive the commands from the signals. Thus, the user and the BCI system need to adapt to each other both initially and continually so as to ensure stable performance. Current BCIs have maximum information transfer rates up to 10-25 bits/min. This limited capacity can be valuable for people whose severe disabilities prevent them from using conventional augmentative communication methods. At the same time, many possible applications of BCI technology, such as neuroprosthesis control, may require higher information transfer rates. Future progress will depend on: recognition that BCI research and development is an interdisciplinary problem, involving neurobiology, psychology, engineering, mathematics, and computer science; identification of those signals, whether evoked potentials, spontaneous rhythms, or neuronal firing rates, that users are best able to control independent of activity in conventional motor output pathways; development of training methods for helping users to gain and maintain that control; delineation of the best algorithms for translating these signals into device commands; attention to the identification and elimination of artifacts such as electromyographic and electro-oculographic activity; adoption of precise and objective procedures for evaluating BCI performance; recognition of the need for long-term as well as short-term assessment of BCI performance; identification of appropriate BCI applications and appropriate matching of applications and users; and attention to factors that affect user acceptance of augmentative technology, including ease of use, cosmesis, and provision of those communication and control capacities that are most important to the user. Development of BCI technology will also benefit from greater emphasis on peer-reviewed research publications and avoidance of the hyperbolic and often misleading media attention that tends to generate unrealistic expectations in the public and skepticism in other researchers. With adequate recognition and effective engagement of all these issues, BCI systems could eventually provide an important new communication and control option for those with motor disabilities and might also give those without disabilities a supplementary control channel or a control channel useful in special circumstances. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wolpaw2002,
      author = {Wolpaw, JR and Birbaumer, N and McFarland, DJ and Pfurtscheller, G and Vaughan, TM},
      title = {Brain-computer interfaces for communication and control},
      journal = {CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {113},
      number = {6},
      pages = {767-791}
    }
    
    Wood, W. & Eagly, A. A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the origins of sex differences {2002} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {128}({5}), pp. {699-727} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This article evaluates theories of the origins of sex differences in human behavior. It reviews the cross-cultural evidence on the behavior of women and men in nonindustrial societies, especially the activities that contribute to the sex-typed division of labor ant patriarchy. To explain the cross-cultural findings, the authors consider social constructionism, evolutionary psychology, and their own biosocial theory. Supporting the. biosocial analysis, sex differences, derive from the interaction. between the physical specialization of the sexes, especially female reproductive capacity, and the economic and social structural aspects of societies. This biosocial approach treats the psychological attributes of women and men as emergent given the evolved characteristics of the sexes, their developmental experiences, and their situated activity in society.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wood2002,
      author = {Wood, W and Eagly, AH},
      title = {A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the origins of sex differences},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {128},
      number = {5},
      pages = {699-727},
      doi = {{10.1037//0033-2909.128.5.699}}
    }
    
    Wright, R., Rodriguez, M. & Cohen, S. Review of psychosocial stress and asthma: an integrated biopsychosocial approach {1998} THORAX
    Vol. {53}({12}), pp. {1066-1074} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wright1998,
      author = {Wright, RJ and Rodriguez, M and Cohen, S},
      title = {Review of psychosocial stress and asthma: an integrated biopsychosocial approach},
      journal = {THORAX},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {53},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1066-1074}
    }
    
    Wrzesniewski, A. & Dutton, J. Crafting a job: Revisioning employees as active grafters of their work {2001} ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW
    Vol. {26}({2}), pp. {179-201} 
    article  
    Abstract: We propose that employees craft their jobs by changing cognitive, task, and/or relational boundaries to shape interactions and relationships with others at work. These altered task and relational configurations change the design and social environment of the job, which, in turn, alters work meanings and work identity. We offer a model of job crafting that specifies (1) the individual motivations that spark this activity, (2) how opportunities to job craft and how individual work orientations determine the forms job crafting takes, and (3) its likely individual and organizational effects.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wrzesniewski2001,
      author = {Wrzesniewski, A and Dutton, JE},
      title = {Crafting a job: Revisioning employees as active grafters of their work},
      journal = {ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {26},
      number = {2},
      pages = {179-201}
    }
    
    Yoshikawa, H. Long term effects of early childhood programs on social outcomes and delinquency {1995} FUTURE OF CHILDREN
    Vol. {5}({3}), pp. {51-75} 
    article  
    Abstract: The search for ways to prevent juvenile crime in the United States has become a matter of national urgency, as the incidence of serious offenses continues to rise. Most prevention initiatives focus on late childhood or adolescence. Such initiatives may be missing an important additional opportunity to intervene earlier in children's lives. This review of literature from criminology, psychology, and education shows that there exist key early childhood factors which are associated with later antisocial or delinquent behavior and that early childhood programs which seek to ameliorate the effects of those factors can prevent later antisocial or delinquent behavior. In particular, the review focuses on programs which have demonstrated long-term effects on antisocial behavior or delinquency. These programs have in common a combination of intensive family support and early education services, and effects on a broad range of child and family risk factors for delinquency Moreover, there is promising evidence of their cost-effectiveness. As one element in a comprehensive plan to address poverty and other environmental causes of crime, programs combining family support with early education show promise in lessening the current devastating impact of delinquency on America's children and families.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Yoshikawa1995,
      author = {Yoshikawa, H},
      title = {Long term effects of early childhood programs on social outcomes and delinquency},
      journal = {FUTURE OF CHILDREN},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {5},
      number = {3},
      pages = {51-75}
    }
    
    Zacks, J. & Tversky, B. Event structure in perception and conception {2001} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {127}({1}), pp. {3-21} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Events can be understood in terms of their temporal structure. The authors first draw on several bodies of research to construct an analysis of how people use event structure in perception, understanding, planning, and action. Philosophy provides a grounding for the basic units of events and actions. Perceptual psychology provides an analogy to object perception: Like objects, events belong to categories, and. like objects, events have parts. These relationships generate 2 hierarchical organizations for events: taxonomies and partonomies. Event partonomies have been studied by looking at how people segment activity as it happens. Structured representations of events can relate partonomy to goal relationships and causal structure; such representations have been shown to drive narrative comprehension, memory, and planning. Computational models provide insight into how mental representations might be organized and transformed. These different approaches to event structure converge on an explanation of how multiple sources of information interact in event perception and conception.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zacks2001,
      author = {Zacks, JM and Tversky, B},
      title = {Event structure in perception and conception},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {127},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-21},
      doi = {{10.1037//0033-2909.127.1.3}}
    }
    

    Created by JabRef on 15/11/2010.