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    AuthorTitleYearJournal/ProceedingsReftypeDOI/URL
    deMeza, D. & Southey, C. The borrower's curse: Optimism, finance and entrepreneurship {1996} ECONOMIC JOURNAL
    Vol. {106}({435}), pp. {375-386} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper argues that most of the facts characterising small-scale businesses, including high failure rates, reliance on bank credit rather than equity finance, relatively low interest rate margins, and credit rationing, can be explained by a tendency for those who are excessively optimistic to dominate new entrants. Drawing on findings in psychology, we model entrants as relatively naive optimisers. Banks on the other hand are viewed as well informed and efficient processors of information.
    BibTeX:
    @article{1996,
      author = {deMeza, D and Southey, C},
      title = {The borrower's curse: Optimism, finance and entrepreneurship},
      journal = {ECONOMIC JOURNAL},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {106},
      number = {435},
      pages = {375-386},
      note = {Annual Conference of the Royal-Economic-Society, CANTERBURY, ENGLAND, 1995}
    }
    
    Aaker, J., Benet-Martinez, V. & Garolera, J. Consumption symbols as carriers of culture: A study of Japanese and Spanish brand personality constructs {2001} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {81}({3}), pp. {492-508} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This research argues that the meaning embedded in consumption symbols, such as commercial brands, can serve to represent and institutionalize the values and beliefs of a culture. Relying on a combined emic-etic approach, the authors conducted 4 studies to examine how symbolic and expressive attributes associated with commercial brands are structured and how this structure varies across 3 cultures. Studies 1 and 2 revealed a set of ``brand personality'' dimensions common to both Japan and the United States (Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, and Sophistication), as well as culture-specific Japanese (Peacefulness) and American (Ruggedness) dimensions. Studied 3 and 4, which extended this set of findings to Spain, yielded brand personality dimensions common to both Spain and the United States (Sincerity, Excitement, and Sophistication), plus nonshared Spanish (Passion) and American (Competence and Ruggedness) dimensions. The meaning of these brand personality dimensions is discussed in the context of cross-cultural research on values and affect, globalization issues, and cultural frame shifting.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aaker2001,
      author = {Aaker, JL and Benet-Martinez, V and Garolera, J},
      title = {Consumption symbols as carriers of culture: A study of Japanese and Spanish brand personality constructs},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {81},
      number = {3},
      pages = {492-508},
      doi = {{10.1037//0022-3514.81.3.492}}
    }
    
    Abraham, C., Sheeran, P. & Johnston, M. From health beliefs to self-regulation: Theoretical, advances in the psychology of action control {1998} PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH
    Vol. {13}({4}), pp. {569-591} 
    article  
    Abstract: The paper reviews the theoretical concepts included in a range of social cognitive models which have identified psychological antecedents of individual motivation and behaviour. Areas of correspondence are noted and core constructs (derived primarily from the theory of planned behaviour and social cognitive theory) are identified. The role of intention formation, self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes, normative beliefs and self-representations are highlighted and it is argued that these constructs provide a useful framework for modelling the psychological prerequisites of health behaviour. Acknowledging that intentions do not translate into action automatically, recent advances in our understanding of the ways in which prior planning and rehearsal can enhance individual control of action and facilitate the routinisation of behaviour are considered. The importance of engaging in preparatory behaviours for the achievement of many health goats is discussed and the processes by which goals are prioritised, including their links to self-representations, are explored, The implications of social cognitive and self-regulatory theories for the cognitive assessment of individual readiness for action and for intervention design in health-related settings are highlighted.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Abraham1998,
      author = {Abraham, C and Sheeran, P and Johnston, M},
      title = {From health beliefs to self-regulation: Theoretical, advances in the psychology of action control},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {13},
      number = {4},
      pages = {569-591}
    }
    
    Aguinis, H., Beaty, J., Boik, R. & Pierce, C. Effect size and power in assessing moderating effects of categorical variables using multiple regression: A 30-year review {2005} JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {90}({1}), pp. {94-107} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The authors conducted a 30-year review (1969-1998) of the size of moderating effects of categorical variables as assessed using multiple regression. The median observed effect size (f(2)) is only .002, but 72% of the moderator tests reviewed had power of .80 or greater to detect a targeted effect conventionally defined as small. Results suggest the need to minimize the influence of artifacts that produce a downward bias in the observed effect size and put into question the use of conventional definitions of moderating effect sizes. As long as an effect has a meaningful impact, the authors advise researchers to conduct a power analysis and plan future research designs on the basis of smaller and more realistic targeted effect sizes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aguinis2005,
      author = {Aguinis, H and Beaty, JC and Boik, RJ and Pierce, CA},
      title = {Effect size and power in assessing moderating effects of categorical variables using multiple regression: A 30-year review},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {90},
      number = {1},
      pages = {94-107},
      note = {19th Annual Conference of the Society-for-Industrial-and-Organizational-Psychology, Chicago, IL, APR 02-04, 2004},
      doi = {{10.1037/0021-9010.90.1.94}}
    }
    
    Al-Ghazal, S., Sully, L., Fallowfield, L. & Blamey, R. The psychological impact of immediate rather than delayed breast reconstruction {2000} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY
    Vol. {26}({1}), pp. {17-19} 
    article  
    Abstract: Aims: A retrospective analysis of the psychological advantages of immediate reconstruction (IR) against delayed reconstruction (DR). Methods: A total of 121 patients who underwent different types of breast reconstruction were seen in the follow-up clinic and assessed for anxiety, depression, body image, self-esteem, sexuality and satisfaction. Results: Ninety-five percent of the patients who had IR preferred this technique and 76% of the DR group would have preferred IR. Anxiety and depression were decreased and body image, self-esteem and sexual feeling of attractiveness and satisfaction were significantly superior in the TR group compared with that of the DR group. Conclusion: Patients who had immediate reconstruction recalled less distress and had better psychosocial well being than those who had delayed reconstruction. (C) 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Al-Ghazal2000,
      author = {Al-Ghazal, SK and Sully, L and Fallowfield, L and Blamey, RW},
      title = {The psychological impact of immediate rather than delayed breast reconstruction},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {26},
      number = {1},
      pages = {17-19}
    }
    
    Allik, J. & McCrae, R. Toward a geography of personality traits - Patterns of profiles across 36 cultures {2004} JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {35}({1}), pp. {13-28} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: It has long been believed that personality traits vary by geographical location, but few studies have examined the worldwide distribution of personality profiles. Using the five-factor model of personality-a comprehensive and apparently universal trait structure-we conducted secondary analyses of data from 36 cultures. Distance from the equator and mean temperature were not meaningfully related to personality factors. However, cluster analysis showed that geographically proximate cultures often have similar profiles, and multidimensional scaling showed a clear contrast of European and American cultures with Asian and African cultures. The former were higher in extraversion and openness to experience and lower in agreeableness. A second dimension reflected differences in psychological adjustment. Observed differences between cultures may be the result of differences in gene pools or in features of culture; acculturation studies and the analyses of other natural experiments are needed to understand the origins of geographical differences in personality traits.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Allik2004,
      author = {Allik, J and McCrae, RR},
      title = {Toward a geography of personality traits - Patterns of profiles across 36 cultures},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {35},
      number = {1},
      pages = {13-28},
      doi = {{10.1177/0022022103260382}}
    }
    
    Amick, B., Lerner, D., Rogers, W., Rooney, T. & Katz, J. A review of health-related work outcome measures and their uses, and recommended measures {2000} SPINE
    Vol. {25}({24}), pp. {3152-3160} 
    article  
    Abstract: Despite the growing recognition that work can contribute to the development of musculoskeletal disorders,(1,8) there are almost no data on whether and how physicians investigate the contribution of work to patients' health status or the influence of health status on work performance. This is particularly true of primary care, where much of the medical care for patients with work-related low back pain is provided.(51) As more patients with musculoskeletal injuries show up in primary care settings, it will become important to document health-related work outcomes and incorporate into practice outcome tools that enable the physician to obtain a quick and accurate accounting of needed information about patients' work. Health-related work outcomes relate to a person's labor market status: Is a person working or not working? How well is he or she working? Did the person return to a job of pay and skill comparable to the preinjury job? Outcomes can incorporate time: How long has a person been out of work? How many hours, days, or weeks has a person been reported absent? Is the person working full- or part-time? How many hours does the person perform at full effectiveness? Finally, health-related work outcomes can capture the interplay between a person's health status and work role performance: How difficult is it for a person with a given health status to perform work activities? Typically, health-related work outcomes have not specifically referred to unpaid work activities, such as volunteer work or household labor. The authors support the importance of capturing both paid and unpaid work outcomes, but in this article, paid work is the focus. Multiple publications in the literature contribute conceptually and methodologically to the health-related work outcomes field. These range from industrial psychology and labor economics to health services research, epidemiology, and pharmacoeconomics. In this paper, a window into health-related work outcomes research is created by considering the reasons for measuring these outcomes and briefly reviewing and illustrating several classes of measures. The advantages and limitations of each measure will be discussed, as the authors draw examples from own work. Although prior work has focused on upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders, the general principles for using health-related work outcomes are similar for researchers studying back injuries and disorders. In addition, a new work-related health outcome tool for measuring successful return to work (RTW) is discussed to illustrate a new class of measures, Hereafter, health-related work outcomes as are referred to as work outcomes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Amick2000,
      author = {Amick, BC and Lerner, D and Rogers, WH and Rooney, T and Katz, JN},
      title = {A review of health-related work outcome measures and their uses, and recommended measures},
      journal = {SPINE},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {25},
      number = {24},
      pages = {3152-3160}
    }
    
    Anderson, C. & Bushman, B. Psychology - The effects of media violence on society {2002} SCIENCE
    Vol. {295}({5564}), pp. {2377+} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Anderson2002,
      author = {Anderson, CA and Bushman, BJ},
      title = {Psychology - The effects of media violence on society},
      journal = {SCIENCE},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {295},
      number = {5564},
      pages = {2377+}
    }
    
    Anderson, C., John, O., Keltner, D. & Kring, A. Who attains social status? Effects of personality and physical attractiveness in social groups {2001} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {81}({1}), pp. {116-132} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: One of the must important goals and outcomes of social life is to attain status in the groups to which we belong. Such face-to-face status is defined by the amount of respect, influence, and prominence each member enjoys in the eyes of the others. Three studies investigated personological determinants of status in social groups (fraternity, sorority, and dormitory), relating the Big Five personality traits and physical attractiveness to peer ratings of status. High Extraversion substantially predicted elevated status for both sexes. High Neuroticism, incompatible with male gender norms, predicted lower status in men. None of the other Big Five traits predicted status. These effects were independent of attractiveness, which predicted higher status only in men. Contrary to previous claims, women's status ordering was just as stable as men's but emerged later. Discussion focuses on personological pathways to attaining status and on potential mediators.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Anderson2001,
      author = {Anderson, C and John, OP and Keltner, D and Kring, AM},
      title = {Who attains social status? Effects of personality and physical attractiveness in social groups},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {81},
      number = {1},
      pages = {116-132},
      doi = {{10.1037//0022-3514.81.1.116}}
    }
    
    Andreassen, T. & Lindestad, B. Customer loyalty and complex services - The impact of corporate image on quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty for customers with varying degrees of service expertise {1998} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SERVICE INDUSTRY MANAGEMENT
    Vol. {9}({1}), pp. {7+} 
    article  
    Abstract: Based on theory from consumer behavior and cognitive psychology, the purpose of this Paper is to discuss and test corporate image and customer satisfaction as two routes to customer loyalty. Based on data from 600 individual customers categorized as having high or law service expertise of three companies within the package tour industry, a conceptual model is proposed and tested empirically using structural equation modeling. The data used in the study are included in The Norwegian Customer Satisfaction Barometer. The paper concludes by claiming that for complex services, corporate image and customer satisfaction are not two separate routes to customer loyalty. Corporate image impacts customer loyalty directly whereas customer satisfaction does not. This finding was consistent with high and low service expertise. These results challenge the disconfirmation paradigm which predicts customer satisfaction as the primary route to customer loyalty. From a managerial perspective, information regarding the relative strength of the two routes is vital with regard to resource allocation in order to improve customer loyalty.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Andreassen1998,
      author = {Andreassen, TW and Lindestad, B},
      title = {Customer loyalty and complex services - The impact of corporate image on quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty for customers with varying degrees of service expertise},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SERVICE INDUSTRY MANAGEMENT},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {7+}
    }
    
    Angold, A., Erkanli, A., Costello, E. & Rutter, M. Precision, reliability and accuracy in the dating of symptom onsets in child and adolescent psychopathology {1996} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {37}({6}), pp. {657-664} 
    article  
    Abstract: Dates of onset of psychiatric symptoms are required in determining whether diagnostic criteria are met for a number of disorders and for a variety of research questions. However, little attention has been paid to the precision and reliability of their recall by parents and children. We present data from two studies indicating that when symptoms have lasted longer than around 3 months, the month of onset usually cannot be accurately reported, while with symptoms that have lasted a year or more, the year of onset is usually uncertain. The implications of these findings for diagnosis and research are discussed. Copyright (C) 1996 Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Angold1996,
      author = {Angold, A and Erkanli, A and Costello, EJ and Rutter, M},
      title = {Precision, reliability and accuracy in the dating of symptom onsets in child and adolescent psychopathology},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {37},
      number = {6},
      pages = {657-664}
    }
    
    Antony, M., Purdon, C., Huta, V. & Swinson, R. Dimensions of perfectionism across the anxiety disorders {1998} BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY
    Vol. {36}({12}), pp. {1143-1154} 
    article  
    Abstract: To explore the role of perfectionism across anxiety disorders, 175 patients with either panic disorder (PD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social phobia, or specific phobia, as well as 49 nonclinical volunteers, completed two measures [Frost, R. O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R., (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy ann Research, 14, 449-468; Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L., (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 456-470.] that assess a total of nine different dimensions of perfectionism. Relative to the other groups, social phobia was associated with greater concern about mistakes (CM), doubts about actions (DA), and parental criticism (PC) on one measure and more socially prescribed perfectionism (SP) on the other measure. OCD was associated with elevated DA scores relative to the other groups. PD was associated with moderate elevations on the CM and DA subscales. The remaining dimensions of perfectionism failed to differentiate among groups. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Antony1998,
      author = {Antony, MM and Purdon, CL and Huta, V and Swinson, RP},
      title = {Dimensions of perfectionism across the anxiety disorders},
      journal = {BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {36},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1143-1154},
      note = {30th Annual Conference of the Association-for-Advancement-of-Behavior-Therapy, NEW YORK, NEW YORK, NOV, 1996}
    }
    
    Aquino, K. & Reed, A. The self-importance of moral identity {2002} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {83}({6}), pp. {1423-1440} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Recent theorizing. in moral psychology extends rationalist models by calling attention to social and, cultural influences (J. Haidt, 2001). Six studies using; adolescents, university students, and adults measured the associations among the self-importance, of moral identity; moral cognitions, and behavior. The psychometric properties of the measure were assessed through an examination of the underlying, factor structure (Study 1) and convergent, nomological, and discriminant validity analyses (Studies 2 and 3). The predictive validity of the instrument was assessed,by examinations of the relationships among the self-importance of moral identity, various psychological outcomes; and behavior (Studies 4, 5, and 6). The results are discussed in terms of models of moral behavior; social identity measurement, and the need to. consider moral self-conceptions in explaining moral conduct.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aquino2002,
      author = {Aquino, K and Reed, A},
      title = {The self-importance of moral identity},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {83},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1423-1440},
      doi = {{10.1037//0022-3514.83.6.1423}}
    }
    
    Armstrong, L., Phillips, J. & Saling, L. Potential determinants of heavier internet usage {2000} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES
    Vol. {53}({4}), pp. {537-550} 
    article  
    Abstract: Despite its uses, the Internet is liable to be abused. ``Internet Addiction'' is a newly proposed construct, derived form DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse. As a very recent phenomenon, excess internet use probably arises through pre-existing mechanisms. The addictive element may be the search for stimulation through interactive services, or the Internet may serve the purpose of an escape from real-life difficulties. We therefore considered the extent to which sensation seeking or poor self-esteem predicts heavier Internet use. Fifty participants, recruited through the Internet or the Internet Addiction Support Group, completed an Internet Related Problem Scale, the MMPI-2 Addiction Potential Scale, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Sensation Seeking Scale. The Internet Related Problem Scale showed a moderate level of internal consistency and demonstrated construct validity, predicting hours of Internet use and having a relationship with the Addiction Potential Scale. While poorer self-esteem predicted greater scores on the Internet Related Problem Scale, impulsivity did not. Researchers need to re-assess previous conceptualizations of the typical ``computer addict'' as a highly educated, male introvert with a constant need for intellectual stimulation (Shotton, 1991). (C) 2000 Academic Press.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Armstrong2000,
      author = {Armstrong, L and Phillips, JG and Saling, LL},
      title = {Potential determinants of heavier internet usage},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {53},
      number = {4},
      pages = {537-550}
    }
    
    Aron, A.R. The neural basis of inhibition in cognitive control {2007} NEUROSCIENTIST
    Vol. {13}({3}), pp. {214-228} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The concept of ``inhibition'' is widely used in synaptic, circuit, and systems neuroscience, where it has a clear meaning because it is clearly observable. The concept is also ubiquitous in psychology. One common use is to connote an active/willed process underlying cognitive control. Many authors claim that subjects execute cognitive control over unwanted stimuli, task sets, responses, memories, and emotions by inhibiting them, and that frontal lobe damage induces distractibility, impulsivity, and perseveration because of damage to an inhibitory mechanism. However, with the exception of the motor domain, the notion of an active inhibitory process underlying cognitive control has been heavily challenged. Alternative explanations have been provided that explain cognitive control without recourse to inhibition as concept, mechanism, or theory. This article examines the role that neuroscience can play when examining whether the psychological concept of active inhibition can be meaningfully applied in cognitive control research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aron2007,
      author = {Aron, Adam R.},
      title = {The neural basis of inhibition in cognitive control},
      journal = {NEUROSCIENTIST},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {13},
      number = {3},
      pages = {214-228},
      doi = {{10.1177/1073858407299288}}
    }
    
    ASMUNDSON, G. & STEIN, M. SELECTIVE PROCESSING OF SOCIAL THREAT IN PATIENTS WITH GENERALIZED SOCIAL PHOBIA - EVALUATION USING A DOT-PROBE PARADIGM {1994} JOURNAL OF ANXIETY DISORDERS
    Vol. {8}({2}), pp. {107-117} 
    article  
    Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that clinical anxiety is associated with cognitive biases that favour the processing of threat-related information specific to particular anxiety syndromes. Several cognitive psychology paradigms have been used to demonstrate that anxiety disorder patients selectively attend to threatening material that is specifically related to their particular disorder. The present investigation was an attempt to support preliminary reports suggesting that patients with social phobia selectively process social threat information. Twenty-four patients with social phobia (generalized type) and 20 healthy control subjects completed a computerized task designed to assess allocation of visual attention for specific stimuli (neutral, physically threatening, or socially threatening) via measurement of response latencies for dots that immediately followed their presentation. It was found that, when attention was allocated in the spatial location of a stimulus cue, patients with social phobia responded faster to probes that followed social threat cues than probes following either neutral cues or physical threat cues. This effect was not observed among control subjects. These results support the view that patients with social phobia selectively process threat cues that are social-evaluative in nature. The theoretical relevance and clinical implications of these results are outlined.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ASMUNDSON1994,
      author = {ASMUNDSON, GJG and STEIN, MB},
      title = {SELECTIVE PROCESSING OF SOCIAL THREAT IN PATIENTS WITH GENERALIZED SOCIAL PHOBIA - EVALUATION USING A DOT-PROBE PARADIGM},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ANXIETY DISORDERS},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {107-117}
    }
    
    Atran, S. & Norenzayan, A. Religion's evolutionary landscape: Counterintuition, commitment, compassion, communion {2004} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {27}({6}), pp. {713+} 
    article  
    Abstract: Religion is not an evolutionary adaptation per se, but a recurring cultural by-product of the complex evolutionary landscape that sets cognitive, emotional, and material conditions for ordinary human interactions. Religion exploits only ordinary cognitive processes to passionately display costly devotion to counterintuitive worlds governed by supernatural agents. The conceptual foundations of religion are intuitively given by task-specific panhuman cognitive domains, including folkmechanics, folkbiology, and folkpsychology. Core religious beliefs minimally violate ordinary notions about how the world is, with all of its inescapable problems, thus enabling people to imagine minimally impossible supernatural worlds that solve existential problems, including death and deception. Here the focus is on folksychology and agency. A key feature of the supernatural agent concepts common to all religions is the triggering of an ``Innate Releasing Mechanism,'' or ``agency detector,'' whose proper (naturally selected) domain encompasses animate objects relevant to hominid survival - such as predators, protectors, and prey - but which actually extends to moving dots on computer screens, voices in wind, and faces on clouds. Folkpsychology also crucially involves metarepresentation, which makes deception possible and threatens any social order. However, these same metacognitive capacities provide the hope and promise of open-ended solutions through representations of counterfactual supernatural worlds that cannot be logically or empirically verified or falsified. Because religious beliefs cannot be deductively or inductively validated, validation occurs only by ritually addressing the very emotions motivating religion. Cross-cultural experimental evidence encourages these claims.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Atran2004,
      author = {Atran, S and Norenzayan, A},
      title = {Religion's evolutionary landscape: Counterintuition, commitment, compassion, communion},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {27},
      number = {6},
      pages = {713+}
    }
    
    Aycan, Z., Kanungo, R., Mendonca, M., Yu, K., Deller, J., Stahl, G. & Kurshid, A. Impact of culture on human resource management practices: A 10-country comparison {2000} APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY-AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW-PSYCHOLOGIE APPLIQUEE-REVUE INTERNATIONALE
    Vol. {49}({1}), pp. {192-221} 
    article  
    Abstract: The Model of Culture Fit explains the way in which socio-cultural environment influences internal work culture and human resource management practices. This model was tested using 1,954 employees from business organisations in 10 countries. Participants completed a 57-item questionnaire which measured managerial perceptions of four socio-cultural dimensions, six internal work culture dimensions and HRM practices in three areas. Moderated multiple regressions at the individual level analysis revealed that managers who characterised their socio-cultural environment as fatalistic also assumed that employees, by nature, were not malleable. These managers did not administer job enrichment, empowering supervision, and performance-reward contingency. Managers who valued high loyalty assumed that employees should fulfil obligations to one another, and engaged in empowering HR practices. Managers who perceived paternalism and high power distance in their socio-cultural environment assumed employee reactivity, and furthermore, did not provide job enrichment and empowerment. Culture-specific patterns of relationships among the three sets of variables, as well as implications of this research for cross-cultural industrial/organisational psychology, are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aycan2000,
      author = {Aycan, Z and Kanungo, RN and Mendonca, M and Yu, KC and Deller, J and Stahl, G and Kurshid, A},
      title = {Impact of culture on human resource management practices: A 10-country comparison},
      journal = {APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY-AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW-PSYCHOLOGIE APPLIQUEE-REVUE INTERNATIONALE},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {49},
      number = {1},
      pages = {192-221}
    }
    
    BADDELEY, A. THE COGNITIVE-PSYCHOLOGY OF EVERYDAY LIFE {1981} BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {72}({MAY}), pp. {257-269} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BADDELEY1981,
      author = {BADDELEY, A},
      title = {THE COGNITIVE-PSYCHOLOGY OF EVERYDAY LIFE},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {72},
      number = {MAY},
      pages = {257-269}
    }
    
    Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E. & Euwema, M.C. Job resources buffer the impact of job demands on burnout {2005} JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {10}({2}), pp. {170-180} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This study tested and refined the job demands-resources model, demonstrating that several job resources play a role in buffering the impact of several job demands on burnout. A total of 1,012 employees of a large institute for higher education participated in the study. Four demanding aspects of the job (e.g., work overload, emotional demands) and 4 job resources (e.g., autonomy, performance feedback) were used to test the central hypothesis that the interaction between (high) demands and (low) resources produces the highest levels of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, reduced professional efficacy). The hypothesis was rejected for (reduced) professional efficacy but confirmed for exhaustion and cynicism regarding 18 out of 32 possible 2-way interactions (i.e., combinations of specific job demands and resources).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bakker2005,
      author = {Bakker, Arnold B. and Demerouti, Evangelia and Euwema, Martin C.},
      title = {Job resources buffer the impact of job demands on burnout},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {10},
      number = {2},
      pages = {170-180},
      doi = {{10.1037/1076-8998.10.2.170}}
    }
    
    BARON, J. & PFEFFER, J. THE SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF ORGANIZATIONS AND INEQUALITY {1994} SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY
    Vol. {57}({3}), pp. {190-209} 
    article  
    Abstract: Structural explanations of the production of inequality in organizations often mimic economics in their choice of both variables and theoretical accounts. The `'new structuralism'' typically has neglected important social psychological processes such as social comparison, categorization, and interpersonal attraction and affiliation. This paper illustrates how some basic social psychological tenets can substantially enrich the analysis of the division of labor in organizations, the assignment of wages to positions, and the process through which individuals are matched with work roles.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BARON1994,
      author = {BARON, JN and PFEFFER, J},
      title = {THE SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF ORGANIZATIONS AND INEQUALITY},
      journal = {SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {57},
      number = {3},
      pages = {190-209}
    }
    
    Barrett, H.C. & Kurzban, R. Modularity in cognition: Framing the debate {2006} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {113}({3}), pp. {628-647} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Modularity has been the subject of intense debate in the cognitive sciences for,more than 2 decades. In some cases, misunderstandings have impeded conceptual progress. Here the authors identify arguments about modularity that either have been abandoned or were never held by proponents of modular views of the mind. The authors review arguments that purport to undermine modularity, with particular attention on cognitive architecture, development, genetics, and evolution. The authors propose that modularity, cleanly defined, provides a useful framework for directing research and resolving debates about individual cognitive systems and the nature of human evolved cognition. Modularity is a fundamental property of living things at every level of organization; it might prove indispensable for understanding the structure of the mind as well.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barrett2006a,
      author = {Barrett, H. Clark and Kurzban, Robert},
      title = {Modularity in cognition: Framing the debate},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {113},
      number = {3},
      pages = {628-647},
      doi = {{10.1037/0033-295X.113.3.628}}
    }
    
    Barrett, L. Solving the emotion paradox: Categorization and the experience of emotion {2006} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {10}({1}), pp. {20-46} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this article, I introduce an emotion paradox: People believe that they know an emotion when they see it, and as a consequence assume that emotions are discrete events that can be recognized with some degree of accuracy, but scientists have yet to produce a set of clear and consistent criteria for indicating when an emotion is present and when it is not. I propose one solution to this paradox: People experience an emotion when they conceptualize an instance of affective feeling. In this view, the experience of emotion is an act of categorization, guided by embodied knowledge about emotion. The result is a model of emotion experience that has much in common with the social psychological literature on person perception and with literature on embodied conceptual knowledge as it has recently been applied to social psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barrett2006,
      author = {Barrett, LF},
      title = {Solving the emotion paradox: Categorization and the experience of emotion},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {20-46}
    }
    
    Battles, J., Kaplan, H., Van der Schaaf, T. & Shea, C. The attributes of medical event-reporting systems - Experience with a prototype medical event-reporting system for transfusion medicine {1998} ARCHIVES OF PATHOLOGY & LABORATORY MEDICINE
    Vol. {122}({3}), pp. {231-238} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective.-To design, develop, and implement a prototype medical event-reporting system for use in transfusion medicine to improve transfusion safety by studying incidents and errors. Methods.-The IDEALS concept of design was used to identify specifications for the event-reporting system, and a Delphi and subsequent nominal group technique meetings were used to reach consensus on the development of the system. An interdisciplinary panel of experts from aviation safety, nuclear power, cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and education and representatives of major transfusion medicine organizations participated in the development process. Setting.-Three blood centers and three hospital transfusion services implemented the reporting system. Results.-A working prototype event-reporting system was recommended and implemented. The system has seven components: detection, selection, description, classification, computation, interpretation, and local evaluation. Its unique features include no-fault reporting initiated by the individual discovering the event, who submits a report that is investigated by local quality assurance personnel and forwarded to a nonregulatory central system for computation and interpretation. Conclusions.-An event-reporting system incorporated into present quality assurance and risk management efforts can help organizations address system structural and procedural weakness where the potential for errors can adversely affect health care outcomes. Input from the end users of the system as well as from external experts should enable this reporting system to serve as a useful model for others who may develop event-reporting systems in other medical domains.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Battles1998,
      author = {Battles, JB and Kaplan, HS and Van der Schaaf, TW and Shea, CE},
      title = {The attributes of medical event-reporting systems - Experience with a prototype medical event-reporting system for transfusion medicine},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF PATHOLOGY & LABORATORY MEDICINE},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {122},
      number = {3},
      pages = {231-238}
    }
    
    Baumeister, R.F., Vohs, K.D. & Funder, D.C. Psychology as the Science of Self-Reports and Finger Movements Whatever Happened to Actual Behavior? {2007} PERSPECTIVES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {2}({4}), pp. {396-403} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Psychology calls itself the science of behavior, and the American Psychological Association's current ``Decade of Behavior'' was intended to increase awareness and appreciation of this aspect of the science. Yet some psychological subdisciplines have never directly studied behavior, and studies on behavior are dwindling rapidly in other subdisciplines. We discuss the eclipse of behavior in personality and social psychology, in which direct observation of behavior has been increasingly supplanted by introspective self-reports, hypothetical scenarios, and questionnaire ratings. We advocate a renewed commitment to including direct observation of behavior whenever possible and in at least a healthy minority of research projects.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baumeister2007,
      author = {Baumeister, Roy F. and Vohs, Kathleen D. and Funder, David C.},
      title = {Psychology as the Science of Self-Reports and Finger Movements Whatever Happened to Actual Behavior?},
      journal = {PERSPECTIVES ON PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {2},
      number = {4},
      pages = {396-403},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00051.x}}
    }
    
    Beard, K. & Wolf, E. Modification in the proposed diagnostic criteria for internet addiction {2001} CYBERPSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {4}({3}), pp. {377-383} 
    article  
    Abstract: The Internet is a new technology that has impacted the world and provided many benefits to its users. At the same time the Internet has had negative ramifications. Some people are becoming preoccupied with the Internet, are unable to control their use, and are jeopardizing employment and relationships. The concept of ``Internet addiction'' has been proposed as an explanation for uncontrollable, damaging use of this technology. Symptoms of excessive Internet use are compared to the criteria used to diagnose other addictions. In particular, pathological gambling is compared to problematic Internet use because of overlapping criteria. This article suggests some modifications to the diagnostic criteria that has been commonly proposed for Internet addiction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Beard2001,
      author = {Beard, KW and Wolf, EM},
      title = {Modification in the proposed diagnostic criteria for internet addiction},
      journal = {CYBERPSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIOR},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {4},
      number = {3},
      pages = {377-383}
    }
    
    Beck, A., Brown, G. & Steer, R. Psychometric characteristics of the Scale for Suicide Ideation with psychiatric outpatients {1997} BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY
    Vol. {35}({11}), pp. {1039-1046} 
    article  
    Abstract: The psychometric properties of the Scale for Suicide Ideation-Current (SSI-C; Beck, Kovacs & Weissman, 1979, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 343-352) and the Scale for Suicide Ideation-Worst (SSI-W; Beck, Brown, Steer, Dahlsgaard & Grisham, 1997, in press) were explored. These 19-item clinician-administered scales measure current suicide ideation (SSI-C) as well as suicide ideation at its worst point in the patient's life (SSI-W). For a sample of 4063 outpatients, both scales were positively correlated with a diagnosis of a principal mood disorder, a diagnosis of a personality disorder, and measures of depression and hopelessness. The relationship between the SSI-W and a history of suicide attempts was stronger (r = 0.50, P < 0.001) than the relationship between the SSI-C and previous suicide attempts (r = 0.31, P < 0.001). For 444 current and 1764 past suicide ideators, the SSI-C and the SSI-W had high internal consistencies (coefficient alpha s = 0.84 and 0.89, respectively). The SSI-C and the SSI-W were moderatedly correlated with each other (r = 0.51, P < 0.001). Iterated maximum-likelihood principal-factor analyses identified comparable Preparation and Motivation dimensions underlying both scales. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Beck1997,
      author = {Beck, AT and Brown, GK and Steer, RA},
      title = {Psychometric characteristics of the Scale for Suicide Ideation with psychiatric outpatients},
      journal = {BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {35},
      number = {11},
      pages = {1039-1046}
    }
    
    BELAR, C. & PERRY, N. NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SCIENTIST PRACTITIONER EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR THE PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE OF PSYCHOLOGY {1992} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {47}({1}), pp. {71-75} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BELAR1992,
      author = {BELAR, CD and PERRY, NW},
      title = {NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SCIENTIST PRACTITIONER EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR THE PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {47},
      number = {1},
      pages = {71-75}
    }
    
    BEM, D. & LORD, C. TEMPLATE MATCHING - PROPOSAL FOR PROBING THE ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY OF EXPERIMENTAL SETTINGS IN SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1979} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {37}({6}), pp. {833-846} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BEM1979,
      author = {BEM, DJ and LORD, CG},
      title = {TEMPLATE MATCHING - PROPOSAL FOR PROBING THE ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY OF EXPERIMENTAL SETTINGS IN SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1979},
      volume = {37},
      number = {6},
      pages = {833-846}
    }
    
    BENET, V. & WALLER, N. THE BIG-7 FACTOR MODEL OF PERSONALITY DESCRIPTION - EVIDENCE FOR ITS CROSS-CULTURAL GENERALITY IN A SPANISH SAMPLE {1995} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {69}({4}), pp. {701-718} 
    article  
    Abstract: The discovery of the Big Seven factor model of natural language personality description (Tellegen, 1993; Tellegen & Waller, 1987; Waller, in press; Waller & Zavala, 1993) challenges the comprehensiveness of the Big Five factor structure. To establish the robustness and cross-cultural generalizability of the seven-factor model, a Big Seven (Tellegen, Grove & Waller, 1991) and a Big Five (John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991) questionnaire were administered to 2 samples: (a) a sample of 569 community-dwelling volunteers from the United States and (b) a sample of 435 Spanish native speakers from Spain. Factor structures from the self and peer-ratings on the Spanish version of the Big Seven questionnaire largely replicated the American structure(Waller, in press). Nevertheless, some psychologically meaningful item-level differences emerged. These differences suggest that Spaniards attach negative and positive values to self-other perceptions of introversion and unconventionality, respectively. Our findings support the cross-cultural robustness of the Big Seven factors and the advantages of this structure for studying culturally specific differences in personality trait-term evaluations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BENET1995,
      author = {BENET, V and WALLER, NG},
      title = {THE BIG-7 FACTOR MODEL OF PERSONALITY DESCRIPTION - EVIDENCE FOR ITS CROSS-CULTURAL GENERALITY IN A SPANISH SAMPLE},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {69},
      number = {4},
      pages = {701-718}
    }
    
    BERGADAA, M. THE ROLE OF TIME IN THE ACTION OF THE CONSUMER {1990} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH
    Vol. {17}({3}), pp. {289-302} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BERGADAA1990,
      author = {BERGADAA, MM},
      title = {THE ROLE OF TIME IN THE ACTION OF THE CONSUMER},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {17},
      number = {3},
      pages = {289-302}
    }
    
    BERNAL, M. & PADILLA, A. STATUS OF MINORITY CURRICULA AND TRAINING IN CLINICAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1982} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {37}({7}), pp. {780-787} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BERNAL1982,
      author = {BERNAL, ME and PADILLA, AM},
      title = {STATUS OF MINORITY CURRICULA AND TRAINING IN CLINICAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {37},
      number = {7},
      pages = {780-787}
    }
    
    Berscheid, E. The greening of relationship science {1999} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {54}({4}), pp. {260-266} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article briefly outlines the salutary implications far psychology of the development of a science of interpersonal relationships, which has emerged as multidisciplinary in nature and international in scope. Discussed are the potentials of relationship science: to unite psychological scholars with other social, behavioral, and biological scientists; to help integrate many subdisciplines within psychology; to bridge the chasm between researcher and practitioner; to extend knowledge of human behaviour to people's daily lives and natural surroundings; and to in-form issues of national concern. The realization of these potentials, however; requires transcendence of psychologists' traditional individualistic orientation, as well as more research on the impact of affect on cognition and research on the impact of relationships' exterior environments an their interior dynamics.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Berscheid1999,
      author = {Berscheid, E},
      title = {The greening of relationship science},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {54},
      number = {4},
      pages = {260-266},
      note = {106th Annual Convention of the American-Psychological-Association, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, AUG 14-18, 1998}
    }
    
    BETZ, N. USE OF DISCRIMINANT-ANALYSIS IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH {1987} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {34}({4}), pp. {393-403} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BETZ1987,
      author = {BETZ, NE},
      title = {USE OF DISCRIMINANT-ANALYSIS IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {34},
      number = {4},
      pages = {393-403}
    }
    
    BEUTLER, L., WILLIAMS, R., WAKEFIELD, P. & ENTWISTLE, S. BRIDGING SCIENTIST AND PRACTITIONER PERSPECTIVES IN CLINICAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1995} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {50}({12}), pp. {984-994} 
    article  
    Abstract: Literature suggests that a complex and often hostile relationship exists between the science and practice of clinical psychology. Contributors to this conflict of viewpoints are reconsidered within the proposition that there are different roads to discovery and that there may be good reasons to keep the science and practice of clinical psychology somewhat separate. Results of a national survey of 325 psychologists are reviewed that support the view that psychological practitioners value research and consider their practices to be augmented by scientific findings. However, they are in need of vehicles of communication that will help them translate scientific findings into practice. Results suggest that practitioners do more to understand scientific findings than scientists do to understand the problems that face clinical practitioners. Ways to facilitate communication between and among these groups are considered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BEUTLER1995,
      author = {BEUTLER, LE and WILLIAMS, RE and WAKEFIELD, PJ and ENTWISTLE, SR},
      title = {BRIDGING SCIENTIST AND PRACTITIONER PERSPECTIVES IN CLINICAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {50},
      number = {12},
      pages = {984-994},
      note = {28th Annual Meeting of the Association-for-Advancement-of-Behavior-Therapy, SAN DIEGO, CA, NOV, 1994}
    }
    
    Biddle, S., Markland, D., Gilbourne, D., Chatzisarantis, N. & Sparkes, A. Research methods in sport and exercise psychology: quantitative and qualitative issues {2001} JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES
    Vol. {19}({10}), pp. {777-809} 
    article  
    Abstract: Contemporary aspects of research methods in sport and exercise psychology are discussed in this wide-ranging review. After an introduction centred on trends in sport and exercise psychology methods, the review is organized around the major themes of quantitative and qualitative research. Our aim is to highlight areas that may be problematic or controversial (e.g. stepwise statistical procedures), underused (e.g. discriminant analysis), increasingly used (e.g. meta-analysis, structural equation modelling, qualitative content analysis) and emergent (e.g. realist tales of writing). Perspectives range from the technical and speculative to the controversial and critical. While deliberately not providing a `cookbook' approach to research methods' we hope to provide enough material to help researchers to appreciate the diversity of potential methods and to adopt a more critical perspective in their own research consumption and production.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biddle2001,
      author = {Biddle, SJH and Markland, D and Gilbourne, D and Chatzisarantis, NLD and Sparkes, AC},
      title = {Research methods in sport and exercise psychology: quantitative and qualitative issues},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {19},
      number = {10},
      pages = {777-809}
    }
    
    BLACKLER, F. KNOWLEDGE AND THE THEORY OF ORGANIZATIONS - ORGANIZATIONS AS ACTIVITY SYSTEMS AND THE REFRAMING OF MANAGEMENT {1993} JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES
    Vol. {30}({6}), pp. {863-884} 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent developments in the theory of knowing and doing contrast with conventional rational-cognitive assumptions about management and organization. This, and the emphasis that is currently being placed on the importance of esoteric knowledge for business success, suggests that a review of the relationship between knowledge, organization and management is timely. Activity theory offers a way of synthesizing and developing relevant notions. The approach has its origins in Russian psychology which endeavoured to avoid the dichotomies between thought and action and between individuals and society which have characterized Western theory. Activity theory examines the nature of practical activities, their social origins, and the nature of the `activity systems' within which people collaborate. Modifications to Engestrom's contemporary presentation of the approach are suggested, and a theory of organizations as activity systems is offered. The theory reframes management by modelling the recurrent and embedded nature of human activities, by revealing the tentative nature of knowledge and its action orientation, and by highlighting the opportunities for individual and collective development that engagement and dilemma can provide. The article concludes by reviewing implications for the management of knowledge work, organizational capabilities and organizational learning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BLACKLER1993,
      author = {BLACKLER, F},
      title = {KNOWLEDGE AND THE THEORY OF ORGANIZATIONS - ORGANIZATIONS AS ACTIVITY SYSTEMS AND THE REFRAMING OF MANAGEMENT},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {30},
      number = {6},
      pages = {863-884}
    }
    
    Blascovich, J., Loomis, J., Beall, A., Swinth, K., Hoyt, C. & Bailenson, J. Immersive virtual environment technology as a methodological tool for social psychology {2002} PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY
    Vol. {13}({2}), pp. {103-124} 
    article  
    Abstract: Historically, at least 3 methodological problems have dogged experimental social psychology: the experimental control-mundane realism trade-off, lack of replication, and unrepresentative sampling. We argue that immersive virtual environment technology (IVET) can help ameliorate, if not solve, these methodological problems and, thus, holds promise as a new social psychological research tool. In this article, we first present an overview of IVET and review IVET-based research within psychology and other fields. Next, we propose a general model of social influence within immersive virtual environments and present some preliminary findings regarding its utility for social psychology. Finally, we present a new paradigm for experimental social psychology that may enable researchers to unravel the very fabric of social interaction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Blascovich2002,
      author = {Blascovich, J and Loomis, J and Beall, AC and Swinth, KR and Hoyt, CL and Bailenson, JN},
      title = {Immersive virtual environment technology as a methodological tool for social psychology},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {13},
      number = {2},
      pages = {103-124}
    }
    
    BLOUNT, R., BACHANAS, P., POWERS, S., COTTER, M., FRANKLIN, A., CHAPLIN, W., MAYFIELD, J., HENDERSON, M. & BLOUNT, S. TRAINING CHILDREN TO COPE AND PARENTS TO COACH THEM DURING ROUTINE IMMUNIZATIONS - EFFECTS ON CHILD, PARENT, AND STAFF BEHAVIORS {1992} BEHAVIOR THERAPY
    Vol. {23}({4}), pp. {689-705} 
    article  
    Abstract: Preparation of this research was made possible by NIMH grant R29 MH44301 and by support from The Institute for Behavioral Research at The University of Georgia. We wish to thank Will Denton, Moye Davis, Suzanne Watkins, and the nursing staff of the Tuscaloosa County Health Department for their cooperation during and facilitation of the conducting of this project; Lynda Harrison for her consultation at several points throughout the study; and Maria Evans, Marlene Justice, Carol Pinkard, and Patti Thomas for their help with transcribing and other aspects of the processing of these data. Also, we wish to acknowledge our appreciation to Jan Wallander for his helpful comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. Address correspondence concerning this article to Ronald L. Blount, Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens GA 30602-3013. Preschool children (n = 30) undergoing routine immunizations at a health department were taught to use distraction prior to the medical procedure and to use a party blower, as an age appropriate version of deep breathing, just prior to and during the injection. Parents were taught to coach their children. A no-treatment control group (n = 30) was used to evaluate effectiveness. Results indicated that trained parents engaged in more prompting of their child to use the blower than untrained parents. Trained children engaged in more blower usage than untrained children. Child distress was lower on two of three observational measures for the trained children. Parents of trained children reported that both they and their children were less distressed when compared to how they normally would be during the procedures. Staff, who were not trained nor instructed to change their behavior, engaged in significantly more coaching of trained than of untrained children to use the blower, suggesting generalization of the behavior from parents to staff. Suggestions for future research are included.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BLOUNT1992,
      author = {BLOUNT, RL and BACHANAS, PJ and POWERS, SW and COTTER, MC and FRANKLIN, A and CHAPLIN, W and MAYFIELD, J and HENDERSON, M and BLOUNT, SD},
      title = {TRAINING CHILDREN TO COPE AND PARENTS TO COACH THEM DURING ROUTINE IMMUNIZATIONS - EFFECTS ON CHILD, PARENT, AND STAFF BEHAVIORS},
      journal = {BEHAVIOR THERAPY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {23},
      number = {4},
      pages = {689-705}
    }
    
    Bock, K. & Griffin, Z. The persistence of structural priming: Transient activation or implicit learning? {2000} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL
    Vol. {129}({2}), pp. {177-192} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Structural priming in language production is a tendency to recreate a recently uttered syntactic structure in different words. This tendency can be seen independent of specific lexical items, thematic roles, or word sequences. Two alternative proposals about the mechanism behind structural priming include (a) short-term activation from a memory representation of a priming structure and (b) longer term adaptation within the cognitive mechanisms for creating sentences, as a form of procedural learning. Two experiments evaluated these hypotheses, focusing on the persistence of structural priming. Both experiments yielded priming that endured beyond adjacent sentences, persisting over 2 intervening sentences in Experiment 1 and over 10 in Experiment 2. Although memory may have short-term consequences for some components of this kind of priming, the persisting effects are more compatible with a learning account than a transient memory account.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bock2000,
      author = {Bock, K and Griffin, ZM},
      title = {The persistence of structural priming: Transient activation or implicit learning?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {129},
      number = {2},
      pages = {177-192},
      doi = {{10.1037//0096-3445.129.2.177}}
    }
    
    Boekaerts, M. & Corno, L. Self-regulation in the classroom: A perspective on assessment and intervention {2005} APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY-AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW-PSYCHOLOGIE APPLIQUEE-REVUE INTERNATIONALE
    Vol. {54}({2}), pp. {199-231} 
    article  
    Abstract: There is no simple and straightforward definition of the construct of self-regulated learning. Theorists in educational psychology have narrowed the scope of students' capability to self-regulate through a focus on the academic side of education, namely on learning and achievement goals. However, the messy world of classroom learning creates a situation in which different goals compete for students' attention. Boekaerts' dual processing self-regulation model describes how learning goals interact with well-being goals. We propose that when students have access to well-refined volitional strategies manifested as good work habits, they are more likely to invest effort in learning and get off the well-being track when a stressor blocks learning. Shifting definitions of SRL have led to changing measurement procedures; researchers moved away from decontextualised measures of SRL to domain-specific measures and then on to context-sensitive measures. The validity and reliability of the first generation of SR assessment has been limited and several issues remain. Recently, researchers have designed assessment packages including new instruments that better capture self-regulation as a process (including for example traces of mental events, situational manipulations, and records of student work strategies). A combination of instruments is preferable over a single instrument for assessing self-regulation as a process and the effects of interventions to improve students' self-regulatory capacity. At present, many sound SRL interventions exist and some general lessons can be learned about classroom intervention research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Boekaerts2005,
      author = {Boekaerts, M and Corno, L},
      title = {Self-regulation in the classroom: A perspective on assessment and intervention},
      journal = {APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY-AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW-PSYCHOLOGIE APPLIQUEE-REVUE INTERNATIONALE},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {54},
      number = {2},
      pages = {199-231}
    }
    
    BOHAN, J. REGARDING GENDER - ESSENTIALISM, CONSTRUCTIONISM, AND FEMINIST PSYCHOLOGY {1993} PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN QUARTERLY
    Vol. {17}({1}), pp. {5-21} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article attempts to clarify two alternative understandings of gender-the essentialist and the constructionist-and to discuss the implications of each for feminist psychology. Essentialist construals of gender, represented by recent `'cultural feminist'' positions, are critiqued for the theoretical, empirical, and political concerns they raise. A constructionist position is offered as ameliorative, and lingering questions raised by this analysis are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BOHAN1993,
      author = {BOHAN, JS},
      title = {REGARDING GENDER - ESSENTIALISM, CONSTRUCTIONISM, AND FEMINIST PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN QUARTERLY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {17},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5-21},
      note = {MEETING OF THE ASSOC FOR WOMEN IN PSYCHOLOGY, LONG BEACH, CA, FEB-MAR, 1992}
    }
    
    Bollen, K. Latent variables in psychology and the social sciences {2002} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {53}, pp. {605-634} 
    article  
    Abstract: The paper discusses the use of latent variables in psychology and social science research. Local independence, expected value true scores, and nondeterministic functions of observed variables are three types of definitions for latent variables. These definitions are reviewed and an alternative ``sample realizations'' definition is presented. Another section briefly describes identification, latent variable indeterminancy, and other properties common to models with latent variables. The paper then reviews the role of latent variables in multiple regression, probit and logistic regression, factor analysis, latent curve models, item response theory, latent class analysis, and structural equation models. Though these application areas are diverse, the paper highlights the similarities as well as the differences in the manner in which the latent variables are defined and used. It concludes with an evaluation of the different definitions of latent variables and their properties.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bollen2002,
      author = {Bollen, KA},
      title = {Latent variables in psychology and the social sciences},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {53},
      pages = {605-634}
    }
    
    Bond, M. & Smith, P. Cross-cultural social and organizational psychology {1996} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {47}, pp. {205-235} 
    article  
    Abstract: This review considers recent theoretical and empirical developments in cross-cultural studies within social and organizational psychology. It begins with a description of the importance and the difficulties of universalizing psychological science. It then continues with an examination of theoretical work on both the internal-proximal and the external-distal constraints that mediate culture's influence on behavior. Influences on social cognition are documented by describing research on self-concept, self-esteem, emotions, attribution processes, person perception, interpersonal attraction, and justice. Group processes are addressed in the areas of leadership, decision-making, and negotiation, and research in organizational psychology is examined with respect to work motivation and work behavior. The review concludes that considerable improvement is evident in recent cross-cultural research. However, future research must include a broader range of cultures and attend more closely to the levels at which cultural effects should be analyzed, and cultural samples must be unpackaged in more psychologically useful ways.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bond1996,
      author = {Bond, MH and Smith, PB},
      title = {Cross-cultural social and organizational psychology},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {47},
      pages = {205-235}
    }
    
    Borman, W., Hanson, M. & Hedge, J. Personnel selection {1997} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {48}, pp. {299-337} 
    article  
    Abstract: This chapter reviews literature from approximately mid-1993 through early 1996 in the areas of performance and criteria, validity, statistical and equal opportunity issues, selection for work groups, person-organization fit, applicant reactions to selection procedures, and research on predictors, including ability, personality, assessment centers, interviews, and biodata. The review revolves around three themes: (a) attention toward criteria and models of performance, (b) interest in personality measures as predictors of job performance, and (c) work on the person-organization fit selection model. In our judgment, these themes merge when it is recognized that development of performance models that differentiate criterion constructs reveal highly interpretable relationships between the predictor domain (i.e. ability, personality, and job knowledge) and the criterion domain (i.e. technical proficiency, extra-technical proficiency constructs such as prosocial organizational behavior, and overall job performance). These and related developments are advancing the science of personnel selection and should enhance selection practices in the future.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Borman1997,
      author = {Borman, WC and Hanson, MA and Hedge, JW},
      title = {Personnel selection},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {48},
      pages = {299-337}
    }
    
    BORNSTEIN, M., TAMISLEMONDA, C., TAL, J., LUDEMANN, P., TODA, S., RAHN, C., PECHEUX, M., AZUMA, H. & VARDI, D. MATERNAL RESPONSIVENESS TO INFANTS IN 3 SOCIETIES - THE UNITED-STATES, FRANCE, AND JAPAN {1992} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {63}({4}), pp. {808-821} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study examines and compares prominent characteristics of maternal responsiveness to infant activity during home-based naturalistic interactions of mother-infant dyads in New York City, Paris, and Tokyo. Both culture-general and culture-specific patterns of responsiveness emerged. For example, in all 3 locales infants behaved similarly, mothers also behaved similarly with respect to a hierarchy of response types, and mothers and infants manifest both specificity and mutual appropriateness in their interactions: Mothers responded to infants' exploration of the environment with encouragement to the environment, to infants' vocalizing nondistress with imitation, and to infants' vocalizing distress with nurturance. Differences in maternal responsiveness among cultures occurred to infant looking rather than to infant vocalizing and in mothers' emphasizing dyadic versus extradyadic loci of interaction. Universals of maternal responsiveness, potential sources of cultural variation, and implications of similarities and differences in responsiveness for child development in different cultural contexts are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BORNSTEIN1992,
      author = {BORNSTEIN, MH and TAMISLEMONDA, CS and TAL, J and LUDEMANN, P and TODA, S and RAHN, CW and PECHEUX, MG and AZUMA, H and VARDI, D},
      title = {MATERNAL RESPONSIVENESS TO INFANTS IN 3 SOCIETIES - THE UNITED-STATES, FRANCE, AND JAPAN},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {63},
      number = {4},
      pages = {808-821}
    }
    
    van den Bos, K., Wilke, H., Lind, E. & Vermunt, R. Evaluating outcomes by means of the fair process effect: Evidence for different processes in fairness and satisfaction judgments {1998} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {74}({6}), pp. {1493-1503} 
    article  
    Abstract: The authors refine and extend their explanation of the psychology of the fair process effect (the positive influence of procedural fairness on outcome evaluations). On the basis of fairness heuristic theory's substitutability proposition, the authors predicted and found that outcome evaluations show strong effects of procedural fairness when outcomes are better or worse than expected, whereas less strong fair process effects appear when outcomes are equal to or differ from the outcome of a comparison other. This finding suggests some important differences in how people use expectations versus social comparisons as reference points for evaluating outcomes. Findings also revealed that fairness judgments do not always show the same effects as do satisfaction judgments, indicating differences in the way people form judgments on these two dimensions of outcome evaluation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bos1998,
      author = {van den Bos, K and Wilke, HAM and Lind, EA and Vermunt, R},
      title = {Evaluating outcomes by means of the fair process effect: Evidence for different processes in fairness and satisfaction judgments},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {74},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1493-1503},
      note = {6th International Conference on Social Justice Research, POTSDAM, GERMANY, JUL, 1997}
    }
    
    Bowersox, J. & NIH Consensus Dev Panel National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement: Phenylketonuria: Screening and Management, October 16-18, 2000 {2001} PEDIATRICS
    Vol. {108}({4}), pp. {972-982} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective. To provide health care providers, patients, and the general public with a responsible assessment of currently available data regarding screening for and management of phenylketonuria (PKU). Participants. A nonfederal, nonadvocate, 14-member panel representing the fields of pediatrics, genetics, human development, public policy, nursing, and molecular physiology and including patient representatives. In addition, 19 experts in pediatrics, medical genetics, psychology, pediatric neurology, biochemical and molecular genetics, and gene therapy presented data to the panel and to a conference audience of 312. Evidence. The literature was searched using Medline for January 1980 through July 2000, and an extensive bibliography of 3394 references was provided to the panel. Experts prepared abstracts for their conference presentations with relevant citations from the literature. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. Consensus Process. The panel, answering predefined questions, developed its conclusions based on the scientific evidence presented in open forum and the scientific literature. The panel composed a draft statement, which was read in its entirety and circulated to the experts and the audience for comment. Thereafter, the panel resolved conflicting recommendations and released a revised statement at the end of the conference. The panel finalized the revisions within a few weeks after the conference. The draft statement was made available on the World Wide Web immediately after its release at the conference and was updated with the panel's final revisions. The statement is available at http://consensus.nih.gov. Conclusions. Genetic testing for PKU has been in place for almost 40 years and has been very successful in preventing severe mental retardation in thousands of children and adults. Metabolic control is necessary across the lifespan of individuals with PKU. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary, integrated system is needed to delivery of care to individuals with PKU. Greatly needed are consistency and coordination between screening, treatment, data collection, and patient support programs. There should be equal access to culturally sensitive, age-appropriate treatment programs. Ethically sound, specific policies for storage, ownership, and use in future studies of archived samples remaining from PKU testing should be established. Research into the pathophysiology of PKU and relationship to genetic, neural, and behavioral variation is strongly encouraged. Uniform policies must be established to remove financial barriers to the acquisition of medical foods and modified low-protein foods and to provide access to support services needed to maintain metabolic control in individuals with PKU. Research on nondietary alternative treatments for PKU is strongly encouraged. To achieve optimal statistical power and cross-cultural applicability, it will be beneficial to use data acquired via national and international collaboration.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bowersox2001,
      author = {Bowersox, J and NIH Consensus Dev Panel},
      title = {National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement: Phenylketonuria: Screening and Management, October 16-18, 2000},
      journal = {PEDIATRICS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {108},
      number = {4},
      pages = {972-982}
    }
    
    BRANDTSTADTER, J. PERSONAL AND SOCIAL-CONTROL OVER DEVELOPMENT - SOME IMPLICATIONS OF AN ACTION PERSPECTIVE IN LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENTAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1984} LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT AND BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {6}, pp. {1-32} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BRANDTSTADTER1984,
      author = {BRANDTSTADTER, J},
      title = {PERSONAL AND SOCIAL-CONTROL OVER DEVELOPMENT - SOME IMPLICATIONS OF AN ACTION PERSPECTIVE IN LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENTAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT AND BEHAVIOR},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {6},
      pages = {1-32}
    }
    
    Brandtstadter, J. & Rothermund, K. The life-course dynamics of goal pursuit and goal adjustment: A two-process framework {2002} DEVELOPMENTAL REVIEW
    Vol. {22}({1}), pp. {117-150} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: A dual-process framework is proposed for understanding how the self-system negotiates the conflicting demands of ensuring a stable pursuit of goals and plans while adjusting to changes that affect their attainability. The model distinguishes two basic modes of reducing discrepancies between desired and factual situations or developmental outcomes: The assimilative mode comprises intentional efforts to modify the actual situation in accordance with personal goals, whereas the accommodative mode engages mechanisms that promote the adjustment of goals to constraints and changes in action resources. Differential conditions, underlying cognitive mechanisms, as well as life-course implications of these regulatory modes are specified. Empirical findings are presented that illustrate the explanatory scope of the model and its implications for well-being, efficacy, and successful aging. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brandtstadter2002,
      author = {Brandtstadter, J and Rothermund, K},
      title = {The life-course dynamics of goal pursuit and goal adjustment: A two-process framework},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL REVIEW},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {22},
      number = {1},
      pages = {117-150},
      doi = {{10.1006/drev.2001.0539}}
    }
    
    Brewaeys, A., Ponjaert, I., VanHall, E. & Golombok, S. Donor insemination: Child development and family functioning in lesbian mother families {1997} HUMAN REPRODUCTION
    Vol. {12}({6}), pp. {1349-1359} 
    article  
    Abstract: Findings are presented of a comparative study investigating the family relationships and the emotional and gender development of children raised in lesbian mother families. A total of 30 lesbian mother families with 4-8 year old children created as a result of donor insemination (DI) were compared with 38 heterosexual families with a DI child and with 30 heterosexual families who had a naturally conceived child, a variety of assessment measures, including a standardized interview and questionnaires from the parents and psychological testing of the child were used to collect the data. The quality of the couples' relationships and the quality of the mother-child interaction did not differ between lesbian mother families and either of the heterosexual family groups. The quality of the interaction between the social mother and the child in lesbian families was superior to that between the father and the child in both groups of heterosexual families. Childrens' own perception of their parents was similar in all family types; the social mother in lesbian families was regarded by the child to be as much a `parent' as the father in both types of heterosexual families. With regard to their emotional/behavioural development, boys and girls raised in lesbian mother families were well adjusted and their gender role development did not differ from that of children raised in heterosexual families. These results indicate that child and family development in lesbian mother families is similar to that of heterosexual families.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brewaeys1997,
      author = {Brewaeys, A and Ponjaert, I and VanHall, EV and Golombok, S},
      title = {Donor insemination: Child development and family functioning in lesbian mother families},
      journal = {HUMAN REPRODUCTION},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {12},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1349-1359}
    }
    
    Brickson, S. The impact of identity orientation on individual and organizational outcomes in demographically diverse settings {2000} ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW
    Vol. {25}({1}), pp. {82-101} 
    article  
    Abstract: Our present understanding of identification processes poses ct serious limitation to diversity research. In this article I present a preliminary model explicating how organizational, task, and reward structures affect the activation of members' personal, relational, and collective identity orientations. I further outline the manner in which the identity orientations of majority and minority individuals link to cognition, affect, and behavior of members of each group, as well as to diversity-related organizational outcomes. Activating ct relational identity orientation may promote benefits and inhibit disadvantages associated with diversity. I also discuss apparent theoretical and practical contributions of the model.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brickson2000,
      author = {Brickson, S},
      title = {The impact of identity orientation on individual and organizational outcomes in demographically diverse settings},
      journal = {ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {25},
      number = {1},
      pages = {82-101}
    }
    
    ten Brinke, A., Sterk, P., Masclee, A., Spinhoven, P., Schimdt, J., Zwinderman, A., Rabe, K. & Bel, E. Risk factors of frequent exacerbations in difficult-to-treat asthma {2005} EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL
    Vol. {26}({5}), pp. {812-818} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Recurrent exacerbations are a major cause of morbidity and medical expenditure in patients with asthma. Various exogenous and endogenous factors are thought to influence the level of asthma control, but systematical data on the involvement of these factors in the recurrence of asthma exacerbations are scarce. In this study, 13 clinical and environmental factors potentially associated with recurrent exacerbations were investigated in 136 patients with difficult-to-treat asthma. Patients with more than three severe exacerbations (n=39) in the previous year were compared with those with only one exacerbation per year (n=24). A systematic diagnostic protocol was used to assess 13 potential risk factors. Factors significantly associated with frequent exacerbations included: severe nasal sinus disease (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.7); gastro-oesophageal reflux (OR 4.9); recurrent respiratory infections (OR 6.9); psychological dysfunctioning (OR 10.8); and obstructive sleep apnoea (OR 3.4). Severe chronic sinus disease and psychological dysfunctioning were the only independently associated factors (adjusted OR 5.5 and 11.7, respectively). All patients with frequent exacerbations exhibited at least one of these five factors, whilst 52% showed three or more factors. In conclusion, the results show that recurrent exacerbations in asthma are associated with specific co-morbid factors that are easy to detect and that are treatable. Therapeutic interventions aimed at correcting these factors are likely to reduce morbidity and medical expenditure in these patients.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brinke2005,
      author = {ten Brinke, A and Sterk, PJ and Masclee, AAM and Spinhoven, P and Schimdt, JT and Zwinderman, AH and Rabe, KF and Bel, EH},
      title = {Risk factors of frequent exacerbations in difficult-to-treat asthma},
      journal = {EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {26},
      number = {5},
      pages = {812-818},
      doi = {{10.1183/09031936.05.00037905}}
    }
    
    BROOKS, P. & BAUMEISTER, A. PLEA FOR CONSIDERATION OF ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY IN EXPERIMENTAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF MENTAL-RETARDATION - GUEST EDITORIAL {1977} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY
    Vol. {81}({5}), pp. {407-416} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BROOKS1977,
      author = {BROOKS, PH and BAUMEISTER, AA},
      title = {PLEA FOR CONSIDERATION OF ECOLOGICAL VALIDITY IN EXPERIMENTAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF MENTAL-RETARDATION - GUEST EDITORIAL},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY},
      year = {1977},
      volume = {81},
      number = {5},
      pages = {407-416}
    }
    
    Brown, A. Transforming schools into communities of thinking and learning about serious matters {1997} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {52}({4}), pp. {399-413} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this article, a program of research known as Fostering Communities of Learners is described. This program is in place in several schools and classrooms serving inner-city students from 6 to 12 years of age. Based on theoretical advances in cognitive and developmental psychology, the program is successful at improving both literacy skills and domain-area subject matter knowledge (e.g., environmental science and biology). Building on young children's emergent strategic and metacognitive knowledge, together with their skeletal biological theories, the program leads children to discover the deep principles of the domain and to develop flexible learning and inquiry strategies of wide applicability.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brown1997,
      author = {Brown, AL},
      title = {Transforming schools into communities of thinking and learning about serious matters},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {52},
      number = {4},
      pages = {399-413},
      note = {104th Annual Convention of the American-Psychological-Association, TORONTO, CANADA, AUG 09-13, 1996}
    }
    
    Burchinal, M., Peisner-Feinberg, E., Pianta, R. & Howes, C. Development of academic skills from preschool through second grade: Family and classroom predictors of developmental trajectories {2002} JOURNAL OF SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {40}({5}), pp. {415-436} 
    article  
    Abstract: Children's experiences with their parents and teachers were related to the acquisition of academic skills from preschool through second grade. Individual and group growth curves were estimated, and individual patterns of change were predicted from selected demographic, family, and classroom characteristics to identify multiple pathways to early academic competence. Standardized assessments of language and academic skills and parent and teacher surveys were collected on 511 children beginning in the second-to-last year of child care through the third year of elementary school. As expected, children tended to show better academic skills across time if their parents had more education and reported more progressive parenting beliefs and practices. Statistical interactions between family background and teacher-child relationships indicated that a closer relationship with the teacher was positively related to language skills for African-American children and to reading competence for children whose parents reported more authoritarian attitudes. These results provide further evidence that social processes in classrooms are important for academic competence for children considered at risk for academic problems. (C) 2002 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Burchinal2002,
      author = {Burchinal, MR and Peisner-Feinberg, E and Pianta, R and Howes, C},
      title = {Development of academic skills from preschool through second grade: Family and classroom predictors of developmental trajectories},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {40},
      number = {5},
      pages = {415-436}
    }
    
    Burgess, C., Livesay, K. & Lund, K. Explorations in context space: Words, sentences, discourse {1998} DISCOURSE PROCESSES
    Vol. {25}({2-3}), pp. {211-257} 
    article  
    Abstract: Deriving representations of meaning, whether at the word, the sentence, or the discourse level, is a problem with a long history in cognitive psychology and psycholinguistics. In this article, we describe a computational model of high-dimensional context space, the Hyperspace Analog to Language (HAL), and present simulation evidence that HAL's vector representations can provide sufficient information to make semantic, grammatical, and abstract distinctions. Human participants were able to use the context neighborhoods that HAL generates to match words with similar items and to derive the word (or a similar word) from the neighborhood, thus demonstrating the cognitive compatibility of the representations with human processing. An experiment exploring the meaning of agent- and patient-oriented verbs provided the context for discussing how the connotative aspects of word neighborhoods could provide cues in establishing a discourse model. Using the vector representations to build a sentence-level representation was attempted, but the results were not promising. This limitation of the representations is presented in the context of other similar models that have been more effective, A final set of experiments explored the nature of;verbs and verb instruments, and we introduce a new methodology that extracts conceptual intersections from the high-dimensional context space.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Burgess1998,
      author = {Burgess, C and Livesay, K and Lund, K},
      title = {Explorations in context space: Words, sentences, discourse},
      journal = {DISCOURSE PROCESSES},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {25},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {211-257}
    }
    
    Busato, V., Prins, F., Elshout, J. & Hamaker, C. Intellectual ability, learning style, personality, achievement motivation and academic success of psychology students in higher education {2000} PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
    Vol. {29}({6}), pp. {1057-1068} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study is directed towards an integration of intellectual ability, learning style, personality and achievement motivation as predictors of academic success in higher education. Correlational analyses partly confirmed and partly disconfirmed our expectations in a sample of 409 first-year psychology students. Consistent with the literature, intellectual ability and achievement motivation were associated positively with academic success. For the meaning directed, reproduction directed and application directed learning style, no positive association with academic success could be detected. The undirected learning style, however, appeared to be a consistent negative predictor. For the Big Five personality factors (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness to experience), a consistent, positive association for conscientiousness with academic success was found. The very first examination at the university came out as the most important predictor for academic success, even after two and three years of study. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to the literature and the policy of the Dutch Ministry of Education. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Busato2000,
      author = {Busato, VV and Prins, FJ and Elshout, JJ and Hamaker, C},
      title = {Intellectual ability, learning style, personality, achievement motivation and academic success of psychology students in higher education},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {29},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1057-1068}
    }
    
    BUSS, D. TOWARD A PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSON-ENVIRONMENT (PE) CORRELATION - THE ROLE OF SPOUSE SELECTION {1984} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {47}({2}), pp. {361-377} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BUSS1984,
      author = {BUSS, DM},
      title = {TOWARD A PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSON-ENVIRONMENT (PE) CORRELATION - THE ROLE OF SPOUSE SELECTION},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {47},
      number = {2},
      pages = {361-377}
    }
    
    BUSS, D. EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY AND PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY - TOWARD A CONCEPTION OF HUMAN-NATURE AND INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES {1984} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {39}({10}), pp. {1135-1147} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BUSS1984a,
      author = {BUSS, DM},
      title = {EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY AND PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY - TOWARD A CONCEPTION OF HUMAN-NATURE AND INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {39},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1135-1147}
    }
    
    BUTLER, R. WHAT YOUNG-PEOPLE WANT TO KNOW WHEN - EFFECTS OF MASTERY AND ABILITY GOALS ON INTEREST IN DIFFERENT KINDS OF SOCIAL COMPARISONS {1992} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {62}({6}), pp. {934-943} 
    article  
    Abstract: Integrating developments in social comparison and achievement theories suggested that ability goals will promote ability-appraisal and self-serving functions of social comparison and that mastery goals will enhance interest in social comparisons that can promote learning. A novel design let Ss choose between different kinds of social information. Seventy-eight Israeli 6th graders performed a task in a mastery or ability goal condition and then examined tables providing social information relevant to learning about the task, to normative ability assessment, or to identifying their personal style. As predicted, mastery Ss spent longer at the task table than ability Ss, who spent longer at the normative table, especially if they had performed well. Goal conditions also affected relations between time at the normative table and perceived competence and interest in the task. Implications of this framework and methodology for social comparison theory are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BUTLER1992,
      author = {BUTLER, R},
      title = {WHAT YOUNG-PEOPLE WANT TO KNOW WHEN - EFFECTS OF MASTERY AND ABILITY GOALS ON INTEREST IN DIFFERENT KINDS OF SOCIAL COMPARISONS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {62},
      number = {6},
      pages = {934-943}
    }
    
    CACIOPPO, J., UCHINO, B., CRITES, S., SNYDERSMITH, M., SMITH, G., BERNTSON, G. & LANG, P. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FACIAL EXPRESSIVENESS AND SYMPATHETIC ACTIVATION IN EMOTION - A CRITICAL-REVIEW, WITH EMPHASIS ON MODELING UNDERLYING MECHANISMS AND INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES {1992} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {62}({1}), pp. {110-128} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two important questions bearing on personality processes and individual differences are how do facial expressiveness and sympathetic activation vary as a function of the intensity of an emotional stimulus, and what is the functional mechanism underlying facial expressiveness and sympathetic activation in emotion? A formulation is proposed that is based on 2 propositions: (a) All strong emotions result in some degree of activation of the organism (i.e., principle of stimulus dynamism) and (b) there are individual differences in the gain (amplification) operating on the facial expressive and sympathetic response channels (i.e., principle of individual response uniqueness). This formulation organizes much of the existing data on internalizers and externalizers and yields novel predictions regarding the subpopulation labeled as generalizers.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CACIOPPO1992,
      author = {CACIOPPO, JT and UCHINO, BN and CRITES, SL and SNYDERSMITH, MA and SMITH, G and BERNTSON, GG and LANG, PJ},
      title = {RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FACIAL EXPRESSIVENESS AND SYMPATHETIC ACTIVATION IN EMOTION - A CRITICAL-REVIEW, WITH EMPHASIS ON MODELING UNDERLYING MECHANISMS AND INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {62},
      number = {1},
      pages = {110-128}
    }
    
    CANNON, J. EXERCISE AND RESISTANCE TO INFECTION {1993} JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY
    Vol. {74}({3}), pp. {973-981} 
    article  
    Abstract: The influence of exercise on resistance to infection has been debated for decades. Part of this controversy is due to the complex interactions between pathogens and host defense mechanisms as well as to the mutable nature of exercise. Psychological influences and normal temporal variations in immune mechanisms have also complicated the issue. An understanding of how each of these factors affects host defense should help in the design of new experimental approaches to the problem as well as in the interpretation of previously published results.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CANNON1993,
      author = {CANNON, JG},
      title = {EXERCISE AND RESISTANCE TO INFECTION},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {74},
      number = {3},
      pages = {973-981}
    }
    
    Caplan, S. Problematic Internet use and psychosocial well-being: development of a theory-based cognitive-behavioral measurement instrument {2002} COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {18}({5}), pp. {553-575} 
    article  
    Abstract: The paper presents results from an exploratory study that: (1) developed a theory-based measure of PIU and (2) administered the instrument to a sample of undergraduate students to assess the associations among PIU and several psychosocial variables including, depression, self-esteem, loneliness, and shyness. A new instrument, the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale (GPIUS) was designed to operationalize Davis's [Computers in Human Behavior, 17 (2001), 187] theoretical construct of generalized PIU. The GPIUS and several measures of psychosocial well-being were administered to 386 undergraduate students. Results from this preliminary study indicate that the GPIUS is both reliable and valid. A factor analysis identified seven unique sub-dimensions of the GPIUS, including: mood alteration, perceived social benefits available online, negative outcomes associated with Internet use, compulsive Internet use, excessive amounts of time spent online, withdrawal symptoms when away from the Internet, and perceived social control available online. All GPIUS subscales were correlated with psychosocial health variables including: depression, loneliness, shyness, and self-esteem. A regression analysis identified several important psychosocial and cognitive-behavioral predictors of negative outcomes associated with generalized PIU. Results also suggest that one's preference for computer-mediated social interaction, as opposed to face-to-face interaction, plays a role in the etiology, development, and outcomes of generalized PIU. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Caplan2002,
      author = {Caplan, SE},
      title = {Problematic Internet use and psychosocial well-being: development of a theory-based cognitive-behavioral measurement instrument},
      journal = {COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {18},
      number = {5},
      pages = {553-575}
    }
    
    CAPPELLI, P. & SHERER, P. THE MISSING ROLE OF CONTEXT IN OB - THE NEED FOR A MESO-LEVEL APPROACH {1991} RESEARCH IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {13}, pp. {55-110} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{CAPPELLI1991,
      author = {CAPPELLI, P and SHERER, PD},
      title = {THE MISSING ROLE OF CONTEXT IN OB - THE NEED FOR A MESO-LEVEL APPROACH},
      journal = {RESEARCH IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {13},
      pages = {55-110}
    }
    
    Cardinal, B. Construct validity of stages of change for exercise behavior {1997} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH PROMOTION
    Vol. {12}({1}), pp. {68-74} 
    article  
    Abstract: Purpose. Previous research examining the transtheoretical model of behavior change within the exercise do-main has been limited by use of self-report measures exclusively and inconsistent practices with regard to stage of exercise assessment. The present study was designed to partially circumvent these limitations and extend the current literature by determining the degree of association among stage of exercise and body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, exercise behavior relapse, barriers, and self-efficacy, after controlling for several potential confounders. Design. A descriptive, cross-sectional study. Subjects. Two hundred thirty-five adults (M age = 34.7 years) volunteered to participate. Measures. Participants were classified by stage of exercise and compared on two behavioral, two biometrical, and three psychological variables while statistically controlling for social desirability and demographic differences. Results. Significant between-stage differences were found for the overall set of dependent variables (p <.0001) and for each dependent variable separately (p <.01). The proportion of variance accounted for by the dependent variables ranged from .06 to .53. Conclusions. This study offers objective support for the stage-of-change model within the exercise domain. By acknowledging and accurately assessing stage of exercise, researchers and clinicians may be able to improve physical activity promotion efforts.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cardinal1997,
      author = {Cardinal, BJ},
      title = {Construct validity of stages of change for exercise behavior},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH PROMOTION},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {12},
      number = {1},
      pages = {68-74}
    }
    
    Carney, R. & Levin, J. Pictorial illustrations still improve students' learning from text {2002} EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {14}({1}), pp. {5-26} 
    article  
    Abstract: Research conducted primarily during the 1970s and 1980s supported the assertion that carefully constructed text illustrations generally enhance learners' performance on a variety of text-dependent cognitive outcomes. Research conducted throughout the 1990s still strongly supports that assertion. The more recent research has extended pictures-in-text conclusions to alternative media and technological formats and has begun to explore more systematically the ``whys,'' ``whens,'' and ``for whoms'' of picture facilitation, in addition to the ``whethers'' and ``how muchs.'' Consideration is given here to both more and less conventional types of textbook illustration, with several ``tenets for teachers'' provided in relation to each type.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Carney2002,
      author = {Carney, RN and Levin, JR},
      title = {Pictorial illustrations still improve students' learning from text},
      journal = {EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {14},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5-26}
    }
    
    Casper, J. & Murphy, R. Human-robot interactions during the robot-assisted urban search and rescue response at the World Trade Center {2003} IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS MAN AND CYBERNETICS PART B-CYBERNETICS
    Vol. {33}({3}), pp. {367-385} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The World Trade Center (WTC) rescue response provided an unfortunate opportunity to study the human-robot interactions (HRI) during a real unstaged rescue for the first time. A post-hoc analysis was performed on the data collected during the response, which resulted in 17 findings on the impact of the environment and conditions on the HRI: the skills displayed and needed by robots and humans, the details of the Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) task, the social informatics in the USAR domain, and what information is communicated at what time. The results of this work impact the field of robotics by providing a case study for HRI in USAR drawn from an unstaged USAR effort. Eleven recommendations are made based on the findings that impact the robotics, computer science, engineering, psychology, and rescue fields. These recommendations call for group organization and user confidence studies, more research into perceptual and assistive interfaces, and formal models of the state of the robot, state of the world, and information as to what has been observed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Casper2003,
      author = {Casper, J and Murphy, RR},
      title = {Human-robot interactions during the robot-assisted urban search and rescue response at the World Trade Center},
      journal = {IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS MAN AND CYBERNETICS PART B-CYBERNETICS},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {33},
      number = {3},
      pages = {367-385},
      doi = {{10.1109/TSMCB.2003.811794}}
    }
    
    Charlin, B., Tardif, J. & Boshuizen, H. Scripts and medical diagnostic knowledge: Theory and applications for clinical reasoning instruction and research {2000} ACADEMIC MEDICINE
    Vol. {75}({2}), pp. {182-190} 
    article  
    Abstract: Medical diagnosis is a categorization task that allows physicians to make predictions about features of clinical situations and to determine appropriate course of action. The script concept, which first arose in cognitive psychology, provides a theoretical framework to explain how medical diagnostic knowledge can be structured for diagnostic problem solving. The main characteristics of the script concept are pre-stored knowledge, values acceptable or not acceptable for each illness attribute, and default values. Scripts are networks of knowledge adapted to goals of clinical tasks. The authors describe how scripts are used in diagnostic tasks, how the script concept fits within the clinical reasoning literature, how it contrasts with competing theories of clinical reasoning, how educators can help students build and refine scripts, and how scripts can be used to assess clinical competence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Charlin2000,
      author = {Charlin, BD and Tardif, J and Boshuizen, HPA},
      title = {Scripts and medical diagnostic knowledge: Theory and applications for clinical reasoning instruction and research},
      journal = {ACADEMIC MEDICINE},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {75},
      number = {2},
      pages = {182-190}
    }
    
    Chater, N. Reconciling simplicity and likelihood principles in perceptual organization {1996} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {103}({3}), pp. {566-581} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two principles of perceptual organization have been proposed. The likelihood principle, following H. L. F. von Helmholtz (1910/1962), proposes that perceptual organization is chosen to correspond to the most likely distal layout. The simplicity principle, following Gestalt psychology, suggests that perceptual organization is chosen to be as simple as possible. The debate between these two views has been a central topic in the study of perceptual organization. Drawing on mathematical results in A. N. Kolmogorov's (1965) complexity theory, the author argues that simplicity and likelihood are not in competition, but are identical. Various implications for the theory of perceptual organization and psychology more generally are outlined.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chater1996,
      author = {Chater, N},
      title = {Reconciling simplicity and likelihood principles in perceptual organization},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {103},
      number = {3},
      pages = {566-581}
    }
    
    Chen, S., Shechter, D. & Chaiken, S. Getting at the truth or getting along: Accuracy- versus impression-motivated heuristic and systematic processing {1996} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {71}({2}), pp. {262-275} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two studies examined the heuristic and systematic processing of accuracy- versus impression-motivated individuals expecting a discussion with a partner believed to hold either a favorable or unfavorable opinion on the discussion issue. Given the goal of having a pleasant interaction, impression-motivated (versus accuracy-motivated) participants in both studies were particularly likely to express attitudes that were evaluatively consistent with the partner's opinion, reflecting their selective use of a `'go along to gel along'' heuristic. Study 2 yielded stronger evidence for the distinct nature of heuristic and systematic processing in the service of accuracy versus impression goals. In this study, the evaluative implication of impression-motivated participants' low-effort application of a `'go along to get along'' heuristic biased their more effortful, systematic processing, leading to attitudes consistent with the partner's views; In contrast. given the goal of determining an accurate issue opinion, accuracy-motivated participants exhibited relatively evenhanded systematic processing, resulting in attitudes unbiased by the partner's opinion. The results underscore the utility of a dual-process approach to understanding motivated cognition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chen1996,
      author = {Chen, S and Shechter, D and Chaiken, S},
      title = {Getting at the truth or getting along: Accuracy- versus impression-motivated heuristic and systematic processing},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {71},
      number = {2},
      pages = {262-275}
    }
    
    Cheung, F., Leung, K., Zhang, J., Sun, H., Gan, Y., Song, W. & Xie, D. Indigenous Chinese personality constructs - Is the five-factor model complete? {2001} JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {32}({4}), pp. {407-433} 
    article  
    Abstract: The universality and sufficiency of the five-factor model in the Chinese context were investigated. In Study 1, analysis of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI) taken by Chinese students showed four joint factors similar to the domains of the NEO-PI-R. Two unique factors were obtained. The Interpersonal Relatedness factor was defined only by CPAI scales. The Openness domain, however, was not represented in the CPAI scales. In Study 2, involving Chinese managers, the robustness of the Interpersonal Relatedness factor was demonstrated. In Study 3, the six-factor model was confirmed with Hawaiian students. Further analyses showed that the six-factor models were superior to the Five-factor models and that the Interpersonal Relatedness scales could not be consistently explained by a combination of the Big Five factors. Implications for the universality of the five-factor model and the cross-cultural relevance of the CPAI Interpersonal Relatedness factor are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cheung2001,
      author = {Cheung, FM and Leung, K and Zhang, JX and Sun, HF and Gan, YQ and Song, WZ and Xie, D},
      title = {Indigenous Chinese personality constructs - Is the five-factor model complete?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {32},
      number = {4},
      pages = {407-433}
    }
    
    CLARIDGE, G. SINGLE INDICATOR OF RISK FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA - PROBABLE FACT OR LIKELY MYTH {1994} SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN
    Vol. {20}({1}), pp. {151-168} 
    article  
    Abstract: The longitudinal followup strategy in high-risk research is being increasingly complemented by the use of psychosis-proneness scales to select subjects for study who might be vulnerable to schizophrenia and who show differences on laboratory measures that could act as endophenotypic markers for use in genetic investigations. Three types of experimental paradigm have been adopted, drawn from cognitive psychology, psychophysiology, and the neuropsychology of hemisphere function. Results adopting each of these approaches are examined, alongside recent factor-analytic evidence that psychosis-proneness scales currently in use tap up to four different components that map onto the clinical heterogeneity of schizophrenia (and possibly other forms of psychosis). No one of these components clearly emerges as, or points to, a single indicator of risk, though some aspect of neurocognitive functioning seems a likely candidate. Even so, it is argued, the clinical expression of vulnerability must be due to a convergence in an individual of several components of risk since individually (and notably so for `'susceptibility to positive symptoms'') they are very common in the healthy population. In evaluating the evidence, attention is drawn to two crucially different ways that investigators in schizophrenia research have construed the notion of continuity (1) as subclinical defect (or forme fruste of disease) having varying expression or (2) as biologically based personality dimensions that simultaneously describe the dispositions to aberrations of function leading to degree of illness. It is noted that the model of continuity chosen can significantly shape the way the results of risk research are interpreted and the theories of psychosis to which they give rise.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CLARIDGE1994,
      author = {CLARIDGE, G},
      title = {SINGLE INDICATOR OF RISK FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA - PROBABLE FACT OR LIKELY MYTH},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {20},
      number = {1},
      pages = {151-168}
    }
    
    Clark, D. & McManus, F. Information processing in social phobia {2002} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {51}({1}), pp. {92-100} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cognitive theories suggest that information processing biases play a central role in the development and maintenance of emotional disorders. The present article reviews recent studies of information processing biases in social phobia and considers the significance of the findings for understanding the persistence of the condition. Taken together, the studies suggest that social phobia is characterized by biases in the following: interpretation of external social events: detection of negative responses from other people; the balance of attention between external and self-processing; the use of internal information to make inferences about how one appears to others; recall of negative information about one's perceived, observable self; and by a variety of problematic anticipator and post-event types of processing. If such biases play a role in maintaining social anxiety, experimental manipulation of the biases should modulate anxiety, responses. Several recent studies have confirmed this prediction, but further research is required. Methodological limitations of existing information processing studies are highlighted. Finally, possible neurobiological correlates are discussed and suggestions are made for future attempts to link neurobiology and cognitive psychology. (C) 2002 Society of Biological Psychiatry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Clark2002,
      author = {Clark, DM and McManus, F},
      title = {Information processing in social phobia},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {51},
      number = {1},
      pages = {92-100}
    }
    
    Clemmer, T., Spuhler, V., Berwick, D. & Nolan, T. Cooperation: The foundation of improvement {1998} ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE
    Vol. {128}({12, Part 1}), pp. {1004-1009} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cooperation-working together to produce mutual benefit or attain a common purpose-is almost inseparable from the quest for improvement. Although the case for cooperation can be made on ethical grounds, neither the motivation for nor the effects of cooperation need to be interpreted solely in terms of altruism. Cooperation can be a shrewd and pragmatic strategy for accomplishing personal goals in an interdependent system. Earlier papers in this series have explored the conceptual roots of modern approaches to improvement, which lie in systems theory. To improve systems, we must usually attend first and foremost to interactions. Among hu mans, ``better interaction'' is almost synonymous with ``better cooperation.'' Physicians have ample opportunities and, indeed, an obligation to cooperate with other physicians in the same or different specialties, with nurses and other clinical workers, with administrators, and with patients and families. Many intellectual disciplines have made cooperation an object of study. These include anthropology; social psychology; genetics; biology; mathematics; game theory; linguistics; operations research; economics; and, of course, moral and rational philosophy. Scientifically grounded methods to enhance cooperation include developing a shared purpose; creating an open, safe environment; including all who share a common purpose and encouraging diverse viewpoints; negotiating agreement; and insisting on fairness and equity in the application of rules. These methods apply at the organizational level and at the level of the individual physician. This paper describes the application of these methods at the organizational level and focuses on one especially successful example of system-level cooperation in a care delivery site where interactions matter a great deal: the modern intensive care unit.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Clemmer1998,
      author = {Clemmer, TP and Spuhler, VJ and Berwick, DM and Nolan, TW},
      title = {Cooperation: The foundation of improvement},
      journal = {ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {128},
      number = {12, Part 1},
      pages = {1004-1009}
    }
    
    COHEN, L. PSYCHOLOGY OF PREDICTION - WHOSE IS THE FALLACY {1979} COGNITION
    Vol. {7}({4}), pp. {385-407} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{COHEN1979,
      author = {COHEN, LJ},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY OF PREDICTION - WHOSE IS THE FALLACY},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {1979},
      volume = {7},
      number = {4},
      pages = {385-407}
    }
    
    Connolly, T. & Zeelenberg, M. Regret in decision making {2002} CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {11}({6}), pp. {212-216} 
    article  
    Abstract: Decision research has only recently started to take seriously the role of emotions in choices and decisions. Regret is the emotion that has received the most attention. In this article, we sample a number of the initial regret studies from psychology and economics, and trace some of the complexities and contradictions to which they led. We then sketch a new theory decision justification theory (DJT), which synthesizes several apparently conflicting findings. DJT postulates two core components of decision-related regret, one associated with the (comparative) evaluation of the outcome, the other with the feeling of self-blame for having made a poor choice. We reinterpret several existing studies in DJT terms. We then report some new studies that directly tested (and support) DJT, and propose a number of research issues that follow from this new approach to regret.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Connolly2002,
      author = {Connolly, T and Zeelenberg, M},
      title = {Regret in decision making},
      journal = {CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {11},
      number = {6},
      pages = {212-216}
    }
    
    Conway, M., Gardiner, J., Perfect, T., Anderson, S. & Cohen, G. Changes in memory awareness during learning: The acquisition of knowledge by psychology undergraduates {1997} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL
    Vol. {126}({4}), pp. {393-413} 
    article  
    Abstract: First-year psychology students took multiple-choice examinations following each of 4 lecture courses and 3 laboratory research methods courses. One lecture course was later retested. Students indicated state of memory awareness accompanying each answer: recollective experience (remember), `'just know'' (know), feeling of familiarity (familiarity), or guess. On the lecture courses, higher performing students differed from other students because they had more remember responses. On research methods, higher performing students differed because they knew more, and in the delayed retest, higher performing students differed because they now knew rather than remembered more. These findings demonstrate a shift from remembering to knowing, dependent upon level attained, type of course, and retention interval, and suggest an underlying shift in knowledge representation from episodic to semantic memory. The authors discuss theoretical and educational implications of the findings.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Conway1997,
      author = {Conway, MA and Gardiner, JM and Perfect, TJ and Anderson, SJ and Cohen, GM},
      title = {Changes in memory awareness during learning: The acquisition of knowledge by psychology undergraduates},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {126},
      number = {4},
      pages = {393-413}
    }
    
    Conway, M., Singer, J. & Tagini, A. The self and autobiographical memory: Correspondence and coherence {2004} SOCIAL COGNITION
    Vol. {22}({5}), pp. {491-529} 
    article  
    Abstract: A modified version of Conway and Pleydell-Pearce's Self Memory System (SMS) account of autobiographical memory and the self is introduced. Modifications include discussion of a fundamental tension between adaptive correspondence (experience-near sensory-perceptual records of goal activity) and self-coherence (a more abstracted and conceptually-rich long-term store of conceptual and remembered knowledge). This tension is examined in relation to each SMS component-the episodic memory system, long-term self, and the working self. The long-term self, a new aspect of the model, consists of the interaction of the autobiographical knowledge base and the conceptual self. The working self, depending on goal activity status, mediates between episodic memory and the long-term self. Applications of the SMS to personality and clinical psychology are provided through analysis of self-defining memories and adult attachment categories, as well as case histories of traumatic memory. The SMS's role in imagination is examined through a brief discussion of Wordsworth's poetry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Conway2004,
      author = {Conway, MA and Singer, JA and Tagini, A},
      title = {The self and autobiographical memory: Correspondence and coherence},
      journal = {SOCIAL COGNITION},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {22},
      number = {5},
      pages = {491-529}
    }
    
    Cooper, M. & Phillips, R. Exploratory analysis of the safety climate and safety behavior relationship {2004} JOURNAL OF SAFETY RESEARCH
    Vol. {35}({5}), pp. {497-512} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: (P)roblem: Safety climate refers to the degree to which employees believe true priority is given to organizational safety performance, and its measurement is thought to provide an ``early warning7 of potential safety system failure(s). However, researchers have struggled over the last 25 years to find empirical evidence to demonstrate actual links between safety climate and safety performance. Method: A safety climate measure was distributed to manufacturing employees at the beginning of a behavioral safety initiative and redistributed one year later. Results: Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that perceptions of the importance of safety training were predictive of actual levels of safety behavior. The results also demonstrate that the magnitude of change in perceptual safety climate scores will not necessarily match actual changes (1--0.56, n.s.) in employee's safety behavior. Discussion: This study obtained empirical links between safety climate scores and actual safety behavior. Confirming and contradicting findings within the extant safety climate literature, the results strongly suggest that the hypothesized climate-behavior-accident path is not as clear cut as commonly assumed. Summary: A statistical link between safety climate perceptions and safety behavior will be obtained when sufficient behavioral data is collected. Impact on Industry: The study further supports the use of safety climate measures as useful diagnostic tools in ascertaining employee's perceptions of the way that safety is being operationalized. (C) 2004 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cooper2004,
      author = {Cooper, MD and Phillips, RA},
      title = {Exploratory analysis of the safety climate and safety behavior relationship},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SAFETY RESEARCH},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {35},
      number = {5},
      pages = {497-512},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jsr.2004.08.004}}
    }
    
    COSMIDES, L. & TOOBY, J. BETTER THAN RATIONAL - EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY AND THE INVISIBLE HAND {1994} AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
    Vol. {84}({2}), pp. {327-332} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{COSMIDES1994,
      author = {COSMIDES, L and TOOBY, J},
      title = {BETTER THAN RATIONAL - EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY AND THE INVISIBLE HAND},
      journal = {AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {84},
      number = {2},
      pages = {327-332},
      note = {106th Annual Meeting of the American-Economic-Association, BOSTON, MA, JAN 03-05, 1994}
    }
    
    COSTA, P. & MCCRAE, R. PERSONALITY STABILITY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR CLINICAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1986} CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {6}({5}), pp. {407-423} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{COSTA1986,
      author = {COSTA, PT and MCCRAE, RR},
      title = {PERSONALITY STABILITY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR CLINICAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {6},
      number = {5},
      pages = {407-423}
    }
    
    COSTIN, D. MACLAB - A MACINTOSH SYSTEM FOR PSYCHOLOGY LABS {1988} BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS INSTRUMENTS & COMPUTERS
    Vol. {20}({2}), pp. {197-200} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{COSTIN1988,
      author = {COSTIN, D},
      title = {MACLAB - A MACINTOSH SYSTEM FOR PSYCHOLOGY LABS},
      journal = {BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS INSTRUMENTS & COMPUTERS},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {20},
      number = {2},
      pages = {197-200}
    }
    
    Courville, T. & Thompson, B. Use of structure coefficients in published multiple regression articles: beta is not enough {2001} EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT
    Vol. {61}({2}), pp. {229-248} 
    article  
    Abstract: The importance of interpreting structure coefficients throughout the General Linear Model (GLM) is widely accepted. However, regression researchers too infrequently consult regression structure coefficients to augment their interpretations. The authors reviewed articles published in the Journal of Applied Psychology to determine how interpretations might have differed if standardized regression coefficients and structure coefficients (or else bivariate rs of predictors with the criterion) had been interpreted. Some dramatic misinterpretations or incomplete interpretations are summarized. It is suggested that beta weights and structure coefficients (or else bivariate rs of predictors with the criterion) ought to be interpreted when noteworthy regression results have been isolated.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Courville2001,
      author = {Courville, T and Thompson, B},
      title = {Use of structure coefficients in published multiple regression articles: beta is not enough},
      journal = {EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {61},
      number = {2},
      pages = {229-248}
    }
    
    Cowie, R. & Cornelius, R. Describing the emotional states that are expressed in speech {2003} SPEECH COMMUNICATION
    Vol. {40}({1-2}), pp. {5-32} 
    article  
    Abstract: To study relations between speech and emotion, it is necessary to have methods of describing emotion. Finding appropriate methods is not straightforward, and there are difficulties associated with the most familiar. The word emotion itself is problematic: a narrow sense is often seen as ``correct'', but it excludes what may be key areas in relation to speech-including states where emotion is present but not full-blown, and related states (e.g., arousal, attitude). Everyday emotion words form a rich descriptive system, but it is intractable because it involves so many categories, and the relationships among them are undefined. Several alternative types of description are available. Emotion-related biological changes are well documented, although reductionist conceptions of them are problematic. Psychology offers descriptive systems based on dimensions such as evaluation (positive or negative) and level of activation, or on logical elements that can be used to define an appraisal of the situation. Adequate descriptive systems need to recognise the importance of both time course and interactions involving multiple emotions and/or deliberate control. From these conceptions of emotion come various tools and techniques for describing particular episodes. Different tools and techniques are appropriate for different purposes. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cowie2003,
      author = {Cowie, R and Cornelius, RR},
      title = {Describing the emotional states that are expressed in speech},
      journal = {SPEECH COMMUNICATION},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {40},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {5-32}
    }
    
    Cramer, P. Defense mechanisms in psychology today - Further processes for adaptation {2000} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {55}({6}), pp. {637-646} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Although the concept of the defense mechanism was rejected from academic psychology for a number of years, recent empirical studies show renewed interest in defenses. Cognitive psychologists have confirmed the existence of unconscious psychological processes, a requisite for defenses. Developmental, personality, and social psychologists have all found evidence for defense mechanisms that explicate psychological functioning. The relevance of this new information for clinical practice is discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cramer2000,
      author = {Cramer, P},
      title = {Defense mechanisms in psychology today - Further processes for adaptation},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {55},
      number = {6},
      pages = {637-646},
      doi = {{10.1037//0003-066X.55.6.637}}
    }
    
    CRAWFORD, M. & MARECEK, J. PSYCHOLOGY RECONSTRUCTS THE FEMALE - 1968-1988 {1989} PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN QUARTERLY
    Vol. {13}({2}), pp. {147-165} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{CRAWFORD1989,
      author = {CRAWFORD, M and MARECEK, J},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY RECONSTRUCTS THE FEMALE - 1968-1988},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN QUARTERLY},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {13},
      number = {2},
      pages = {147-165}
    }
    
    CREAMER, M., FORAN, J. & BELL, R. THE BECK ANXIETY INVENTORY IN A NONCLINICAL SAMPLE {1995} BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY
    Vol. {33}({4}), pp. {477-485} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study investigated the properties of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) in a sample of 326 undergraduate students. Scores on the BAI were compared with data from the State-Trait Anxiety. Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory. The BAI demonstrated good psychometric properties, with a high level of internal consistency. Relatively low test-retest correlations, in comparison with the STAI-Trait, suggested that the scale was functioning as a state measure. Factor analysis revealed a unifactorial solution on the first administration (a time of low stress), but a two factor solution similar to that proposed initially by Beck, Epstein, Brown and Steer (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 893-897, 1988) at the second administration (hypothesised to be a time of increased stress). Thus, the two factor structure of the BAI (characterised by physical and cognitive symptoms) may not be distinguishable in the normal population in the absence of an external stressor. An apparent strength of the BAI was its superior ability in differentiating anxiety from depression when compared with the STAI. A combined factor analysis of the BAI and STAI-State revealed two distinct factors, suggesting that the scales may actually be measuring separate, although not necessarily independent, constructs. It is suggested that the high discriminant validity demonstrated by the BAI may have been achieved at the expense of some construct validity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CREAMER1995,
      author = {CREAMER, M and FORAN, J and BELL, R},
      title = {THE BECK ANXIETY INVENTORY IN A NONCLINICAL SAMPLE},
      journal = {BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {33},
      number = {4},
      pages = {477-485}
    }
    
    CRITSCHRISTOPH, P., CHAMBLESS, D., FRANK, E., BRODY, C. & KARP, J. TRAINING IN EMPIRICALLY VALIDATED TREATMENTS - WHAT ARE CLINICAL-PSYCHOLOGY STUDENTS LEARNING {1995} PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY-RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
    Vol. {26}({5}), pp. {514-522} 
    article  
    Abstract: Directors of clinical training (83 and directors of internships with American Psychological Association approval (55 responded to a survey concerning empirically validated psychological treatments in which their students received training. Most programs provided supervised clinical experience in a number of these treatments. However over 20% of doctoral training programs failed to provide minimal coverage of empirically validated treatments in didactic courses, and internship programs typically did not require that students be competent in any of these treatments before completion of the program. The absence of didactic and clinical training in empirically validated psychodynamic therapies and interpersonal therapy was most marked. These findings suggest that programs need to be more attentive to teaching data-based treatments.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CRITSCHRISTOPH1995,
      author = {CRITSCHRISTOPH, P and CHAMBLESS, DL and FRANK, E and BRODY, C and KARP, JF},
      title = {TRAINING IN EMPIRICALLY VALIDATED TREATMENTS - WHAT ARE CLINICAL-PSYCHOLOGY STUDENTS LEARNING},
      journal = {PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY-RESEARCH AND PRACTICE},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {26},
      number = {5},
      pages = {514-522}
    }
    
    CROOKES, G. & SCHMIDT, R. MOTIVATION - REOPENING THE RESEARCH AGENDA {1991} LANGUAGE LEARNING
    Vol. {41}({4}), pp. {469-512} 
    article  
    Abstract: Discussion of the topic of motivation in second-language (SL) learning contexts has been limited by the understanding the field of applied linguistics has attached to it. In that view, primary emphasis is placed on attitudes and other social psychological aspects of SL learning. This does not do full justice to the way SL teachers have used the term motivation. Their use is more congruent with definitions common outside social psychology, specifically in education. In this paper, we review the standard applied linguistics approach to this topic, and go on to provide an overview of research into motivation in mainstream education. This is used both to demonstrate the utility of other concepts of motivation to the SL field and as the basis for a research agenda for SL investigations of motivation thus conceived.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CROOKES1991,
      author = {CROOKES, G and SCHMIDT, RW},
      title = {MOTIVATION - REOPENING THE RESEARCH AGENDA},
      journal = {LANGUAGE LEARNING},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {41},
      number = {4},
      pages = {469-512},
      note = {24TH ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE TEACHERS OF ENGLISH TO SPEAKERS OF OTHER LANGUAGES, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, MAR 07, 1990}
    }
    
    CUMMINGS, N. IMPACT OF MANAGED CARE ON EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING - A PRIMER FOR SURVIVAL {1995} PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY-RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
    Vol. {26}({1}), pp. {10-15} 
    article  
    Abstract: Managed care has become the dominant economic force in health care delivery and has challenged many of professional psychology's training concepts and cherished attitudes. Organized psychology has not kept pace with the rapid industrialization of health care during the past decade and has been overlooked as a participant in health economic decisions. A number of changes need to be made in professional education and training if psychology is to be a major player in the new health systems. Additionally, professional psychologists must reexamine some of their most generally accepted attitudes and beliefs if they are to survive. These are described with a number of recommendations for the survival of an embattled profession.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CUMMINGS1995,
      author = {CUMMINGS, NA},
      title = {IMPACT OF MANAGED CARE ON EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING - A PRIMER FOR SURVIVAL},
      journal = {PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY-RESEARCH AND PRACTICE},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {26},
      number = {1},
      pages = {10-15}
    }
    
    Cushman, F., Young, L. & Hauser, M. The role of conscious reasoning and intuition in moral judgment: Testing three principles of harm {2006} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {17}({12}), pp. {1082-1089} 
    article  
    Abstract: Is moral judgment accomplished by intuition or conscious reasoning? An answer demands a detailed account of the moral principles in question. We investigated three principles that guide moral judgments: (a) Harm caused by action is worse than harm caused by omission, (b) harm intended as the means to a goal is worse than harm foreseen as the side effect of a goal, and (c) harm involving physical contact with the victim is worse than harm involving no physical contact. Asking whether these principles are invoked to explain moral judgments, we found that subjects generally appealed to the first and third principles in their justifications, but not to the second. This finding has significance for methods and theories of moral psychology: The moral principles used in judgment must be directly compared with those articulated in justification, and doing so shows that some moral principles are available to conscious reasoning whereas others are not.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cushman2006,
      author = {Cushman, Fiery and Young, Liane and Hauser, Marc},
      title = {The role of conscious reasoning and intuition in moral judgment: Testing three principles of harm},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {17},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1082-1089}
    }
    
    CUSHMAN, P. IDEOLOGY OBSCURED - POLITICAL USES OF THE SELF IN STERN,DANIEL INFANT {1991} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {46}({3}), pp. {206-219} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{CUSHMAN1991,
      author = {CUSHMAN, P},
      title = {IDEOLOGY OBSCURED - POLITICAL USES OF THE SELF IN STERN,DANIEL INFANT},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {46},
      number = {3},
      pages = {206-219}
    }
    
    CVETKOVICH, G., GROTE, B., BJORSETH, A. & SARKISSIAN, J. PSYCHOLOGY OF ADOLESCENTS USE OF CONTRACEPTIVES {1975} JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH
    Vol. {11}({3}), pp. {256-270} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{CVETKOVICH1975,
      author = {CVETKOVICH, G and GROTE, B and BJORSETH, A and SARKISSIAN, J},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY OF ADOLESCENTS USE OF CONTRACEPTIVES},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH},
      year = {1975},
      volume = {11},
      number = {3},
      pages = {256-270}
    }
    
    D'Esposito, M., Zarahn, E. & Aguirre, G. Event-related functional MRI: Implications for cognitive psychology {1999} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {125}({1}), pp. {155-164} 
    article  
    Abstract: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has rapidly emerged as a powerful technique in cognitive neuroscience. We describe and critique a new class of imaging experimental designs called event-related fMRI that exploit the temporal resolution of fMRI by modeling fMRI signal changes associated with behavioral trials as opposed to blocks of behavioral trials. Advantages of this method over block designs include the ability to (a) randomize trial presentations, (b) test for functional correlates of behavioral measures with greater power, (c) directly examine the neural correlates of temporally dissociable components of behavioral trials (e.g., the delay period of a working memory task), and (d) test for differences in the onset time of neural activity evoked by different trial types. Consequently, event-related fMRI has the potential to address a number of cognitive psychology questions with a degree of inferential and statistical power not previously available.
    BibTeX:
    @article{D'Esposito1999,
      author = {D'Esposito, M and Zarahn, E and Aguirre, GK},
      title = {Event-related functional MRI: Implications for cognitive psychology},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {125},
      number = {1},
      pages = {155-164}
    }
    
    DALGLEISH, T. PERFORMANCE ON THE EMOTIONAL STROOP TASK IN GROUPS OF ANXIOUS, EXPERT, AND CONTROL SUBJECTS - A COMPARISON OF COMPUTER AND CARD PRESENTATION FORMATS {1995} COGNITION & EMOTION
    Vol. {9}({4}), pp. {341-362} 
    article  
    Abstract: A number of information processing paradigms have been adapted from the cognitive psychology literature in order to investigate processing biases associated with emotional disorder. The most widely used of these methodologies has been the emotional Stroop task and this paper reports two experiments designed to examine some of the issues surrounding the application of this paradigm with groups of anxious subjects. Experiment 1 involved the use of a computer-presentation Stroop task with groups of high- and low-trait anxious subjects and a third group of `expert' subjects to investigate the nature of the Stroop effect with a set of words related to their area of expertise. Experiment 2 reports the use of a card-presentation format with high- and low-trait anxious subjects. The results from the two methodologies show discrepancies which are broadly consistent with the previous literature on these two versions of the task. In addition, there was a highly significant Stroop effect associated with expertise. The theoretical and methodological implications of these data are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DALGLEISH1995,
      author = {DALGLEISH, T},
      title = {PERFORMANCE ON THE EMOTIONAL STROOP TASK IN GROUPS OF ANXIOUS, EXPERT, AND CONTROL SUBJECTS - A COMPARISON OF COMPUTER AND CARD PRESENTATION FORMATS},
      journal = {COGNITION & EMOTION},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {341-362}
    }
    
    Dannefer, D. Cumulative advantage/disadvantage and the life course: Cross-fertilizing age and social science theory {2003} JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY SERIES B-PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
    Vol. {58}({6}), pp. {S327-S337} 
    article  
    Abstract: Age and cumulative advantage/disadvantage theory have obvious logical, theoretical, and empirical connections, because both are inherently and irreducibly related to the passage of time. Over the past 15 years, these connections have resulted in the elaboration and application of the cumulative advantage-disadvantage perspective in social gerontology, especially in relation to issues of heterogeneity and inequality. However, its theoretical origins, connections, and implications are not widely understood. This article reviews the genesis of the cumulative advantage/disadvantage perspective in studies of science, its initial articulation with structural-functionalism, and its expanding importance for gerontology. It discusses its intellectual relevance for several other established theoretical paradigms in sociology, psychology, and economics. On the basis of issues deriving from these perspectives and from the accumulating body of work on cumulative advantage and disadvantage, I identify several promising directions for further research in gerontology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dannefer2003,
      author = {Dannefer, D},
      title = {Cumulative advantage/disadvantage and the life course: Cross-fertilizing age and social science theory},
      journal = {JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY SERIES B-PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {58},
      number = {6},
      pages = {S327-S337}
    }
    
    DAR, R., SERLIN, R. & OMER, H. MISUSE OF STATISTICAL TESTS IN 3 DECADES OF PSYCHOTHERAPY-RESEARCH {1994} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {62}({1}), pp. {75-82} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article reviews the misuse of statistical tests in psychotherapy research studies published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology in the years 1967-1968, 1977-1978, and 1987-1988. it focuses on 3 major problems in statistical practice: inappropriate uses of null hypothesis tests and p values, neglect of effect size, and inflation of Type I error rate. The impressive frequency of these problems is documented, and changes in statistical practices over the past 3 decades are interpreted in light of trends in psychotherapy research. The article concludes with practical suggestions for rational application of statistical tests.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DAR1994,
      author = {DAR, R and SERLIN, RC and OMER, H},
      title = {MISUSE OF STATISTICAL TESTS IN 3 DECADES OF PSYCHOTHERAPY-RESEARCH},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {62},
      number = {1},
      pages = {75-82}
    }
    
    Davis, R. Web-based administration of a personality questionnaire: Comparison with traditional methods {1999} BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS INSTRUMENTS & COMPUTERS
    Vol. {31}({4}), pp. {572-577} 
    article  
    Abstract: The World-Wide Web holds great. promise as a mechanism for questionnaire-based research. But are data from Web-based questionnaires comparable to data from standard paper-and-pencil questionnaires? This study assessed the equivalence of the Ruminative Responses Scale in a Web-based format and in a paper-and-pencil format among introductory psychology upper-level psychology, and non-psychology students. Internal consistency coefficients were comparable across the groups. The participants in the Web sample reported higher levels of self-focused rumination than did the other groups. Women in the Web sample reported more self-focused rumination than did women in the other groups. In the Web sample, results did not covary with access location. These results suggest that findings from Web-based questionnaire research are comparable with results obtained using standard procedures. The computerized Web interface may also facilitate self-disclosure among research participants.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Davis1999,
      author = {Davis, RN},
      title = {Web-based administration of a personality questionnaire: Comparison with traditional methods},
      journal = {BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS INSTRUMENTS & COMPUTERS},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {31},
      number = {4},
      pages = {572-577}
    }
    
    DAWIS, R. THE INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES TRADITION IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY {1992} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {39}({1}), pp. {7-19} 
    article  
    Abstract: Counseling psychology developed in the 1950s out of applied psychology, which at that time was the application of the psychology of individual differences. The present article traces this historical development, from individual differences psychology through psychological testing, vocational counseling, and student personnel work, to counseling psychology. The individual differences tradition in counseling psychology research and practice is described, and the ways in which individual differences psychology has influenced counseling psychology and how, in turn, counseling psychology has contributed to the psychology of individual differences are discussed. The article concludes with speculations on the future relationship between the two fields.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DAWIS1992,
      author = {DAWIS, RV},
      title = {THE INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES TRADITION IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {39},
      number = {1},
      pages = {7-19}
    }
    
    De Houwer, J. & Beckers, T. A review of recent developments in research and theories on human contingency learning {2002} QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY SECTION B-COMPARATIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {55}({4}), pp. {289-310} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Over the past 20 years, human contingency learning has resurfaced as an important topic within experimental psychology. This renewed interest was sparked mainly by the proposal that associative models of Pavlovian conditioning might also apply to human contingency learning-a proposal that has led to many new empirical findings and theoretical developments. We provide a brief review of these recent developments and try to point to issues that need to be addressed in future research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DeHouwer2002,
      author = {De Houwer, J and Beckers, T},
      title = {A review of recent developments in research and theories on human contingency learning},
      journal = {QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY SECTION B-COMPARATIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {55},
      number = {4},
      pages = {289-310},
      doi = {{10.1080/02724990244000034}}
    }
    
    De Lange, A., Taris, T., Kompier, M., Houtman, I. & Bongers, P. The relationships between work characteristics and mental health: Examining normal, reversed and reciprocal relationships in a 4-wave study {2004} WORK AND STRESS
    Vol. {18}({2}), pp. {149-166} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This longitudinal study examined the causal relationships between job demands, job control and supervisor support on the one hand and mental health on the other. Whereas we assumed that work characteristics affect mental health, we also examined reversed causal relationships (mental health influences work characteristics). Further, the topic of the appropriate time lag for testing causal relationships was addressed. Our hypotheses were tested in a 4-wave study among a heterogeneous sample of 668 Dutch employees using structural equation modelling. The results provide evidence for reciprocal causal relationships between the work characteristics and mental health, although the effects of work characteristics on well-being were causally predominant. The best model fit was found for a 1-year time lag. Compared to earlier--predominantly cross-sectional--results, the present study presents a stronger case for the effects of work characteristics on the development of strain. The results also emphasize the need for a dynamic view of the relationship between work and health; the one-directional viewpoint in many work stress models does not seem to fully capture the relations between work characteristics and well-being.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DeLange2004,
      author = {De Lange, AH and Taris, TW and Kompier, MAJ and Houtman, ILD and Bongers, PM},
      title = {The relationships between work characteristics and mental health: Examining normal, reversed and reciprocal relationships in a 4-wave study},
      journal = {WORK AND STRESS},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {18},
      number = {2},
      pages = {149-166},
      doi = {{10.1080/02678370412331270860}}
    }
    
    Decety, J. & Chaminade, T. When the self represents the other: A new cognitive neuroscience view on psychological identification {2003} CONSCIOUSNESS AND COGNITION
    Vol. {12}({4}), pp. {577-596} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: There is converging evidence from developmental and cognitive psychology, as well as from neuroscience, to suggest that the self is both special and social, and that self-other interaction is the driving force behind self-development. We review experimental findings which demonstrate that human infants are motivated for social interactions and suggest that the development of an awareness of other minds is rooted in the implicit notion that others are like the self. We then marshal evidence from functional neuroimaging explorations of the neurophysiological substrate of shared representations between the self and others, using various ecological paradigms such as mentally representing one's own actions versus others' actions, watching the actions executed by others, imitating the others' actions versus being imitated by others. We suggest that within this shared neural network the inferior parietal cortex and the prefrontal cortex in the right hemisphere play a special role in the essential ability to distinguish the self from others, and in the way the self represents the other. Interestingly, the right hemisphere develops its functions earlier than the left. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Decety2003,
      author = {Decety, J and Chaminade, T},
      title = {When the self represents the other: A new cognitive neuroscience view on psychological identification},
      journal = {CONSCIOUSNESS AND COGNITION},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {12},
      number = {4},
      pages = {577-596},
      doi = {{10.1016/S1053-8100(03)00076-X}}
    }
    
    DELEON, P., FOX, R. & GRAHAM, S. PRESCRIPTION PRIVILEGES - PSYCHOLOGY NEXT FRONTIER {1991} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {46}({4}), pp. {384-393} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{DELEON1991,
      author = {DELEON, PH and FOX, RE and GRAHAM, SR},
      title = {PRESCRIPTION PRIVILEGES - PSYCHOLOGY NEXT FRONTIER},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {46},
      number = {4},
      pages = {384-393},
      note = {98TH ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC, BOSTON, MA, AUG, 1990}
    }
    
    Demyttenaere, K. Compliance during treatment with antidepressants {1997} JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS
    Vol. {43}({1}), pp. {27-39} 
    article  
    Abstract: Compliance has become a topic of intense investigation and debate during the past two decades. The present review first examines to what factors the exponential increase in research studies on the topic can be attributed. A second part summarizes the history of the concept, the definitions and measurements of compliance and the estimations of compliance and non-compliance. Studies searching for relevant components of compliance behavior can be divided in two groups. A first group of publications originates from a biomedical and pharmaceutical approach, and investigates which characteristics of illness, of drug regimen or drug side effects, of patients, doctors or their practices can predict the variance in compliance. The implicit aim of these studies is the development of strategies leading to increased compliance. A second group of publications originates from medical psychology (psychodynamic, cognitive-behavior and interactional considerations) and investigates why a given patient is compliant or not, sometimes even suggesting that non-compliance can even be a meaningful response. The present review suggests that the relation between the occurrence of side effects and noncompliance during treatment with antidepressant drugs is more complex than usually accepted and that, incase of non-compliance, finding an equilibrium between authoritarian tactics and passive avoidance does remain one of the challenges in daily practice. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Demyttenaere1997,
      author = {Demyttenaere, K},
      title = {Compliance during treatment with antidepressants},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {43},
      number = {1},
      pages = {27-39}
    }
    
    DERAAD, B., HENDRIKS, A. & HOFSTEE, W. TOWARDS A REFINED STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY-TRAITS {1992} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {6}({4}), pp. {301-319} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this article we pursue two goals. The first is a further articulation of the dimensionality of the Dutch trait domain. The second is a detailed mapping of the factorial trait structure, one which includes intelligible and proper niches for various nuances of the trait language and for different interpretations of the main factors of personality language. In realizing these goals, we discuss the reliance on theory in structuring and modelling the domain in question, the type of model to be used, and the comprehensiveness versus the economy of domain representation. The advantages and disadvantages of the simple structure model and the circumplex model are commented upon, and a new framework that integrates these two models is presented. The present results provide confirmation of the existence of five major dimensions that cover the trait domain: (I) Extraversion or Surgency, (II) Agreeableness, (III) Conscientiousness, (IV) Emotional Stability, and (V) Intellect or Openness to Experience. The newly developed representational model, revealing are refined structure of personality characteristics, not only clarifies some of the problems faced in interpreting the Big Five factors, but also forms a starting point for applications.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DERAAD1992,
      author = {DERAAD, B and HENDRIKS, AAJ and HOFSTEE, WKB},
      title = {TOWARDS A REFINED STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY-TRAITS},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {6},
      number = {4},
      pages = {301-319}
    }
    
    DISHMAN, R. MEDICAL PSYCHOLOGY IN EXERCISE AND SPORT {1985} MEDICAL CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA
    Vol. {69}({1}), pp. {123-143} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{DISHMAN1985,
      author = {DISHMAN, RK},
      title = {MEDICAL PSYCHOLOGY IN EXERCISE AND SPORT},
      journal = {MEDICAL CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {69},
      number = {1},
      pages = {123-143}
    }
    
    DORE, F. & DUMAS, C. PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMAL COGNITION - PIAGETIAN STUDIES {1987} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {102}({2}), pp. {219-233} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{DORE1987,
      author = {DORE, FY and DUMAS, C},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMAL COGNITION - PIAGETIAN STUDIES},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {102},
      number = {2},
      pages = {219-233}
    }
    
    Dovidio, J., Gaertner, S. & Kawakami, K. Intergroup contact: The past, present, and the future {2003} GROUP PROCESSES & INTERGROUP RELATIONS
    Vol. {6}({1}), pp. {5-21} 
    article  
    Abstract: The Contact Hypothesis has long been considered one of psychology's most effective strategies for improving intergroup relations. In this article, we review the history of the development of the Contact Hypothesis, and then we examine recent developments in this area. Specifically, we consider the conditions that are required for successful contact to occur (e.g. cooperation), investigate basic psychological processes that may mediate the consequent reductions in bias (e.g. decreased intergroup anxiety, increased common group representations), and explore factors that can facilitate the generalization of the benefits of intergroup contact in terms of more positive attitudes toward the outgroup, as a whole (e.g. increased group salience). We conclude by outlining the contents of the contributions to this Special Issue on Intergroup Contact, highlighting common themes, and identifying findings that suggest directions for future research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dovidio2003,
      author = {Dovidio, JR and Gaertner, SL and Kawakami, K},
      title = {Intergroup contact: The past, present, and the future},
      journal = {GROUP PROCESSES & INTERGROUP RELATIONS},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5-21}
    }
    
    Driver, J. A selective review of selective attention research from the past century {2001} BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {92}({Part 1}), pp. {53-78} 
    article  
    Abstract: Research on attention is concerned with selective processing of incoming sensory information. To some extent, our awareness of the world depends on what we choose to attend, not merely on the stimulation entering our senses. British psychologists have made substantial contributions to this topic in the past century Celebrated examples include Donald Broadbent's tilter theory of attention, which set the agenda for most subsequent work; and Anne Treisman's revisions of this account, and her later feature-integration theory. More recent contributions include Alan Allport's prescient: emphasis on the relevance of neuroscience data, and John Duncan's integration of such data with psychological theory. An idiosyncratic but roughly chronological review of developments is presented, some practical and clinical implications are briefly sketched, and future directions suggested. One of the biggest changes in the field has been the increasing interplay between psychology and neuroscience, which promises much for the future. A related change has been the realization that selection attention is best thought of as a broad topic, encompassing a range of selective issues, rather than as a single explanatory process.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Driver2001,
      author = {Driver, J},
      title = {A selective review of selective attention research from the past century},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {92},
      number = {Part 1},
      pages = {53-78}
    }
    
    DROTAR, D., STEIN, R. & PERRIN, E. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES IN USING THE CHILD-BEHAVIOR CHECKLIST AND ITS RELATED INSTRUMENTS IN CLINICAL CHILD-PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH {1995} JOURNAL OF CLINICAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {24}({2}), pp. {184-192} 
    article  
    Abstract: Describes issues related to application of the Child Behavior Checklist and its related instruments, the Teacher's Report Form and Youth Self-Report in research in clinical child psychology. Salient issues include the following: (a) limited sensitivity of the instruments to identify less serious behavioral problems or changes in level of behavioral problems that are below the threshold for disturbance; (b) limited and potentially misleading assessment of social competence; (c) possible bias in interpreting data concerning physical symptoms; (d) difficulties of interpreting data obtained from culturally, ethnically, and economically diverse samples; (e) problems created by using norms for the instruments in lieu of comparison groups; (f) difficulties raised by combining data across informants; and (g) subjectivity in scoring. Investigators should be aware of these issues when collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data in clinical child psychology research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DROTAR1995,
      author = {DROTAR, D and STEIN, REK and PERRIN, EC},
      title = {METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES IN USING THE CHILD-BEHAVIOR CHECKLIST AND ITS RELATED INSTRUMENTS IN CLINICAL CHILD-PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {24},
      number = {2},
      pages = {184-192}
    }
    
    Druckman, J. The implications of framing effects for citizen competence {2001} POLITICAL BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {23}({3}), pp. {225-256} 
    article  
    Abstract: Social scientists have documented framing effects in a wide range of contexts, including surveys, experiments, and actual political campaigns. Many view work on framing effects as evidence of citizen incompetence-that is, evidence that citizens base their preferences on arbitrary, information and/or are subject to extensive elite manipulation. Yet, we continue to lack a consensus on what a framing effect is as well as an understanding of how and when framing effects occur. In this article, I examine (1) the different ways that scholars have employed the concepts of framing and framing effects, (2) how framing effects may violate some basic criteria of citizen competence, and (3) what we know about hour and when framing effects work. I conclude that while the evidence to date suggests some isolated cases of incompetence, the more general message is that citizens use frames in a competent and well-reasoned manner.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Druckman2001,
      author = {Druckman, JN},
      title = {The implications of framing effects for citizen competence},
      journal = {POLITICAL BEHAVIOR},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {23},
      number = {3},
      pages = {225-256}
    }
    
    Druckman, J. & Nelson, K. Framing and deliberation: How citizens' conversations limit elite influence {2003} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {47}({4}), pp. {729-745} 
    article  
    Abstract: Public opinion research demonstrates that citizens' opinions depend on elite rhetoric and interpersonal conversations. Yet, we continue to have little idea about how these two forces interact with one another. In this article, we address this issue by experimentally examining how interpersonal conversations affect (prior) elite framing effects. We find that conversations that include only common perspectives have no effect on elite framing, but conversations that include conflicting perspectives eliminate elite framing effects. We also introduce a new individual level moderator of framing effects-called ``need to evaluate''-and we show that framing effects, in general, tend to be short-lived phenomena. In the end, we clarify when elites can and cannot use framing to influence public opinion and how interpersonal conversations affect this process.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Druckman2003,
      author = {Druckman, JN and Nelson, KR},
      title = {Framing and deliberation: How citizens' conversations limit elite influence},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {47},
      number = {4},
      pages = {729-745}
    }
    
    Duan, C. & Hill, C. The current state of empathy research {1996} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {43}({3}), pp. {261-274} 
    article  
    Abstract: The literature on empathy, primarily from counseling and psychotherapy and secondarily from social and developmental psychology, is reviewed. Obstacles that may account for theoretical confusions and empirical difficulties in studying empathy are highlighted. The decrease in empathy research in recent years appears attributable to the lack of clear focus and effective research tools as well as the shift in interest from empathy to other concepts such as the working alliance. It is argued that there is a need to return to studying empathy. Researchers should distinguish between dispositional and experiential empathy and between intellectual empathy and empathic emotions and indicate whether they are examining therapist or client experience of empathy. Suggestions for future research are offered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Duan1996,
      author = {Duan, CM and Hill, CE},
      title = {The current state of empathy research},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {43},
      number = {3},
      pages = {261-274}
    }
    
    DUCHARME, K. & BRAWLEY, L. PREDICTING THE INTENTIONS AND BEHAVIOR OF EXERCISE INITIATES USING 2 FORMS OF SELF-EFFICACY {1995} JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE
    Vol. {18}({5}), pp. {479-497} 
    article  
    Abstract: The general objective of the study was to examine the influence of various aspects of self-efficacy on the exercise attendance of novice exercisers. This objective had three distinct features. First, self-efficacy was operationalized as both perceptions to overcome barriers and appraisals of ability to schedule regular exercise sessions. Second, a more unstructured, less regimented, form of exercise that required greater personal control was examined-the forms of activity chosen and self-regulated by novice participants. Third, individuals in the initiation stage of their exercise history were studied. Results indicated that both forms of efficacy (barrier and scheduling) significantly predicted behavioral intention (BI) throughout the exercise program (R(2) changes = .13-.26, p's < .02). BI was found to be the best predictor of the first 2 months of attendance (R(2) change = .12 p < .05), while scheduling efficacy and past behavior best predicted attendance during the last 2 months (R(2) change = .16 and .24, p < .02 and p < .001, respectively). A model combining both social cognitive variables (efficacy beliefs) and behavioral variables (past attendance) captured more variation in predicting the last 2 months of attendance than a model involving only social-cognitive variables.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DUCHARME1995,
      author = {DUCHARME, KA and BRAWLEY, LR},
      title = {PREDICTING THE INTENTIONS AND BEHAVIOR OF EXERCISE INITIATES USING 2 FORMS OF SELF-EFFICACY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {18},
      number = {5},
      pages = {479-497}
    }
    
    DUCKITT, J. PSYCHOLOGY AND PREJUDICE - A HISTORICAL-ANALYSIS AND INTEGRATIVE FRAMEWORK {1992} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {47}({10}), pp. {1182-1193} 
    article  
    Abstract: No adequate general theories or integrative framework exist for understanding prejudice. Limited theories have proliferated, and a number of competing paradigms emerged that have been theoretically dominant during quite different historical periods. These systematic shifts do not just represent a systematic evolution of knowledge. A historical analysis focusing on explanations of racial prejudice suggests that different theoretical orientations typically emerged in response to specific social and historical circumstances. It is suggested that these shifts in theoretical orientation represent responses to substantively different but equally valid questions about the nature of the causal processes involved in prejudice. Four such basic causal processes emerge from the analysis that can be combined into an integrative framework providing a reasonably complete understanding of prejudice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DUCKITT1992,
      author = {DUCKITT, J},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY AND PREJUDICE - A HISTORICAL-ANALYSIS AND INTEGRATIVE FRAMEWORK},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {47},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1182-1193}
    }
    
    DUDA, J. & ALLISON, M. CROSS-CULTURAL-ANALYSIS IN EXERCISE AND SPORT PSYCHOLOGY - A VOID IN THE FIELD {1990} JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {12}({2}), pp. {114-131} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{DUDA1990,
      author = {DUDA, JL and ALLISON, MT},
      title = {CROSS-CULTURAL-ANALYSIS IN EXERCISE AND SPORT PSYCHOLOGY - A VOID IN THE FIELD},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {12},
      number = {2},
      pages = {114-131}
    }
    
    Dunn, J. The Emanuel Miller Memorial Lecture 1995 children's relationships: Bridging the divide between cognitive and social development {1996} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {37}({5}), pp. {507-518} 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent research that bridges the divide between cognitive and social development in early childhood illuminates, but also sets challenges, for both fields. The implications of recent studies of children's social interactions for research on cognitive development-in particular, the development of understanding mind and emotion-are considered, then the implications of new cognitive research for understanding social development are discussed. An example of longitudinal research on children's relationships with family and friends between 2 and 7 years is described, highlighting links between individual differences in cognitive and social development. Copyright (C) 1996 Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dunn1996,
      author = {Dunn, J},
      title = {The Emanuel Miller Memorial Lecture 1995 children's relationships: Bridging the divide between cognitive and social development},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {37},
      number = {5},
      pages = {507-518}
    }
    
    Durante, R. & Ainsworth, B. The recall of physical activity: Using a cognitive model of the question answering process {1996} MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE
    Vol. {28}({10}), pp. {1282-1291} 
    article  
    Abstract: Issues related to the validity and reliability of self-reports of physical activity are an important consideration in assessing the relation between physical activity and various health outcomes that are of interest to epidemiologists. This paper examines the case for incorporating survey methods procedures into the development, refinement, and administration of instruments designed to obtain self-report information on physical activity. In doing so, we present a method of question analysis that enables researchers to identify potential cognitive difficulties with a question and then identify possible methods for improving data quality that have successfully improved the validity of survey instruments in other areas. In doing this, we review portions of the literature in cognitive psychology devoted to autobiographical memory and discuss methods that have emerged from this research that enhance the overall validity and reliability of the data obtained in a variety of health-related areas. We also illustrate ways in which these methods can be incorporated into existing physical activity surveys.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Durante1996,
      author = {Durante, R and Ainsworth, BE},
      title = {The recall of physical activity: Using a cognitive model of the question answering process},
      journal = {MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {28},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1282-1291}
    }
    
    Einarsen, S. The nature and causes of bullying at work {1999} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANPOWER
    Vol. {20}({1-2}), pp. {16-27} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present paper reviews and summarises the research and literature on the nature and causes of bullring at work. Bullying occurs when someone at work is systematically subjected to aggressive behaviour from one or move colleagues or superiors over a long period of time, in a situation where the target finds if difficult to defend him or herself or to escape the situation. Such treatment tends to stigmatise the target and may even cause severe psychological trauma. Empirical studies on the causes of bullying have concentrated on the Personality of the victim and psychosocial factors at work. Most studies treat bullying as a unified phenomenon, in spite of the fact that different kinds of behaviours ave involved. The concepts of dispute-related and predatory bullying are introduced in an effort to broaden the perspectives used in future investigations on both the nature and the causes of bullying at work.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Einarsen1999,
      author = {Einarsen, S},
      title = {The nature and causes of bullying at work},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANPOWER},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {20},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {16-27},
      note = {Bullying at Work Research Update Conference, STOKE ON TRENT, ENGLAND, JUL, 1998}
    }
    
    EISENBERG, D., DELBANCO, T., BERKEY, C., KAPTCHUK, T., KUPELNICK, B., KUHL, J. & CHALMERS, T. COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL TECHNIQUES FOR HYPERTENSION - ARE THEY EFFECTIVE {1993} ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE
    Vol. {118}({12}), pp. {964-972} 
    article  
    Abstract: Purpose: To assess by analysis of published controlled trials the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapies (such as biofeedback, relaxation, meditation) for essential hypertension. Data Identification: Randomized controlled trials published in the English language between 1970 and 1991 identified from the MEDLINE database and bibliographic references from these articles. Study Selection: Limited to studies involving randomized assignment to a treatment group consisting of one or more cognitive behavioral interventions or a concurrent control group consisting of no therapy, a waiting list, regular monitoring, or placebo intervention. Results of Data Synthesis: Although we identified more than 800 published works, only 26 met entry criteria. We identified a number of methodologic short-comings, including small sample size, inconsistencies regarding baseline blood pressure determinations and types of control groups, and the possibility of confounding by multiple noncognitive cointerventions (diet, exercise) and expectancy (the placebo effect). In meta-analyses involving 1264 patients, differences in mean blood pressure reduction varied according to the duration of baseline blood pressure measurements and type of control groups studied. In 16 comparisons involving baseline periods of more than 1 day, with patients (n = 368) assigned to either a cognitive therapy or a placebo intervention (sham biofeedback, `'pseudo-meditation''), systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased by 2.8 mm Hg (95% CI, -0.8 to 6.4) and 1.3 mm Hg (CI, -1.3 to 3.8), respectively. These changes were neither statistically nor clinically significant. Conclusion: Cognitive interventions for essential hypertension are superior to no therapy but not superior to credible sham techniques or to self-monitoring alone. The literature on this subject is limited by a variety of methodologic inadequacies. No single cognitive behavioral technique appears to be more effective than any other.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EISENBERG1993,
      author = {EISENBERG, DM and DELBANCO, TL and BERKEY, CS and KAPTCHUK, TJ and KUPELNICK, B and KUHL, J and CHALMERS, TC},
      title = {COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL TECHNIQUES FOR HYPERTENSION - ARE THEY EFFECTIVE},
      journal = {ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {118},
      number = {12},
      pages = {964-972}
    }
    
    Eiser, C., Hill, J. & Vance, Y. Examining the psychological consequences of surviving childhood cancer: Systematic review as a research method in pediatric psychology {2000} JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {25}({6}), pp. {449-460} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To report the results of a systematic review to determine the psychological consequences of surviving childhood cancer. Methods: Searches were conducted using Psyclit, Medline, Cinahl, and Bids and articles selected on the basis of predefined criteria. Key information was extracted to data sheets and these were rated by two coders. Results: Twenty studies were identified, seventeen from the United States. Survivors did not show deficits in measures of anxiety, depression, or self-esteem when compared with population norms or matched controls. Survivors of some cancers (bone tumors) have poorer outcomes. Conclusions: The results of this review support findings of previous descriptive reviews, Methodological problems include poorly reported medical information (for example, time since diagnosis), heterogeneous samples, self-selection of participants, poorly chosen/lack of suitable measures, and a lack of longitudinal work. Findings are discussed in terms of the need for cross-cultural work on adjustment to childhood cancer, the need for studies to take on a more developmental approach, and for greater national and international collaboration.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eiser2000,
      author = {Eiser, C and Hill, JJ and Vance, YH},
      title = {Examining the psychological consequences of surviving childhood cancer: Systematic review as a research method in pediatric psychology},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {25},
      number = {6},
      pages = {449-460}
    }
    
    Ellis, B., Bates, J., Dodge, K., Fergusson, D., Horwood, L., Pettit, G. & Woodward, L. Does father absence place daughters at special risk for early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy? {2003} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {74}({3}), pp. {801-821} 
    article  
    Abstract: The impact of father absence on early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy was investigated in longitudinal studies in the United States (N = 242) and New Zealand (N = 520), in which community samples of girls were followed prospectively from early in life (5 years) to approximately age 18. Greater exposure to father absence was strongly associated with elevated risk for early sexual activity and adolescent pregnancy This elevated risk was either not explained (in the U.S. study) or only partly explained (in the New Zealand study) by familial, ecological, and personal disadvantages associated with father absence. After controlling for covariates, there was stronger and more consistent evidence of effects of father absence on early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy than on other behavioral or mental health problems or academic achievement. Effects of father absence are discussed in terms of life-course adversity, evolutionary psychology, social learning, and behavior genetic models.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ellis2003,
      author = {Ellis, BJ and Bates, JE and Dodge, KA and Fergusson, DM and Horwood, LJ and Pettit, GS and Woodward, L},
      title = {Does father absence place daughters at special risk for early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy?},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {74},
      number = {3},
      pages = {801-821}
    }
    
    Elstein, A. Heuristics and biases: Selected errors in clinical reasoning {1999} ACADEMIC MEDICINE
    Vol. {74}({7}), pp. {791-794} 
    article  
    Abstract: Many clinical decisions are made in uncertainty. When the diagnosis is uncertain, the goal is to establish a diagnosis or to treat even if the diagnosis remains unknown. If the diagnosis is known (e.g., breast cancer or prostate cancer) but the treatment is risky and its outcome uncertain, still a choice must be made. In researching the psychology of clinical judgment and decision making, the major strategy is to compare observed clinical judgments and decisions with the normative model established by statistical :decision theory. In this framework, the process of diagnosing is conceptualized as using imperfect information to revise opinions; Bayes' theorem is the formal rule:for updating a diagnosis as new data are available. Treatment;decisions should be made so as:to maximize expected value. This essay uses Bayes' theorem and concepts from decision theory to describe and explain some well-documented errors in clinical reasoning. Heuristics and biases are the cognitive factors-that produce these errors.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Elstein1999,
      author = {Elstein, AS},
      title = {Heuristics and biases: Selected errors in clinical reasoning},
      journal = {ACADEMIC MEDICINE},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {74},
      number = {7},
      pages = {791-794}
    }
    
    ERDLEY, C. & DWECK, C. CHILDRENS IMPLICIT PERSONALITY THEORIES AS PREDICTORS OF THEIR SOCIAL JUDGMENTS {1993} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {64}({3}), pp. {863-878} 
    article  
    Abstract: Social judgment and trait ascription have long been central issues in psychology. Two studies tested the hypothesis that children who believe that personality is a fixed quality (entity theorists) would make more rigid and long-term social judgments than those who believe that personality is malleable (incremental theorists). Fourth and fifth graders (mean age 10.2 years) viewed a slide show of a boy displaying negative behaviors (Study 1-being shy, clumsy, and nervous; Study 2-lying, cheating, and stealing) and then made a series of ratings. Half of the subjects saw a consistent (negative) ending, and half saw an inconsistent (more positive) ending. Even when they viewed positive counterevidence, entity theorists did not differ in their ratings of the focal traits, but incremental theorists did. Entity theorists in Study 2 also predicted significantly less change in the short term and the long term than did incremental theorists. Study 2 further revealed that, when the behaviors were more negative, entity theorists made more generalized and global negative trait evaluations of the target, showed less empathy, and recommended more punishment. Differences in the social judgment processes of entity and incremental theorists are discussed, and implications for issues (such as stereotyping) are explored.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ERDLEY1993,
      author = {ERDLEY, CA and DWECK, CS},
      title = {CHILDRENS IMPLICIT PERSONALITY THEORIES AS PREDICTORS OF THEIR SOCIAL JUDGMENTS},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {64},
      number = {3},
      pages = {863-878}
    }
    
    Espeland, W. & Stevens, M. Commensuration as a social process {1998} ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY
    Vol. {24}, pp. {313-343} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although it is evident in routine decision-making and a crucial vehicle of rationalization, commensuration as a general social process has been given little consideration by sociologists. This article defines commensuration as the comparison of different entities according to a common metric, notes commensuration's long history as an instrument of social thought, analyzes commensuration as a mode of power, and discusses the cognitive and political stakes inherent in calling something incommensurable. We provide a framework for future empirical study of commensuration and demonstrate how this analytic focus can inform established fields of sociological inquiry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Espeland1998,
      author = {Espeland, WN and Stevens, ML},
      title = {Commensuration as a social process},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {24},
      pages = {313-343}
    }
    
    Evans, J. Logic and human reasoning: An assessment of the deduction paradigm {2002} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {128}({6}), pp. {978-996} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The study of deductive reasoning has been a major paradigm in psychology for approximately the past 40 years. Research has shown that people make many logical errors on such tasks and are strongly influenced by problem content and context. It is argued that this paradigm was developed in a context of logicist thinking that is now outmoded. Few reasoning researchers still believe that logic is an appropriate normative system for most human reasoning, let alone a model for describing the process of human reasoning, and many use the paradigm principally to study pragmatic and probabilistic processes. It is suggested that the methods used for studying reasoning be reviewed, especially the instructional context, which necessarily defines pragmatic influences as biases.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Evans2002,
      author = {Evans, JST},
      title = {Logic and human reasoning: An assessment of the deduction paradigm},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {128},
      number = {6},
      pages = {978-996},
      note = {4th International Conference on Thinking, DURHAM, ENGLAND, AUG, 2000},
      doi = {{10.1037//0033-2909.128.6.978}}
    }
    
    Eveland, W. & Scheufele, D. Connecting news media use with gaps in knowledge and participation {2000} POLITICAL COMMUNICATION
    Vol. {17}({3}), pp. {215-237} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article examines the relative size of gaps in knowledge and participation between the more and less educated as they vary by the quantity and type of news media use. We predicted that the gap between high and low education groups would be smaller among heavy television news users than among light users, whereas the gap between high and low education groups would be larger among heavy newspaper users than among light users. We also predicted that the gap in general political participation-but not voting-would be greater among both heavy television news users and heavy newspaper users than among light news users. These predictions were based on logic derived from the communication effects gap hypothesis, the cognitive psychology of learning, and research on political behavior. Analyzing data collected as part of the American National Election Study during the 1996 U.S. presidential campaign, we found that gaps in knowledge between higher and lower education groups were greater among light than heavy users of television news. A similar pattern was found for knowledge gaps across levels of newspaper use, but this pattern was weaker and may possibly be attributed to ceilings imposed by the nature of the test or a natural ceiling in the information domain. By contrast, neither television news use nor newspaper use was related to gaps in voting; however, newspaper use, but not television news use, was related to gaps in general political participation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eveland2000,
      author = {Eveland, WP and Scheufele, DA},
      title = {Connecting news media use with gaps in knowledge and participation},
      journal = {POLITICAL COMMUNICATION},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {17},
      number = {3},
      pages = {215-237}
    }
    
    Eysenck, H. Personality and experimental psychology: The unification of psychology and the possibility of a paradigm {1997} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {73}({6}), pp. {1224-1237} 
    article  
    Abstract: It is suggested that the scientific status of psychology is put in danger by the lack of paradigms in many of its fields, and by the failure to achieve unification, psychology is breaking up into many different disciplines. One important cause was suggested by Lee Cronbach in his 1957 presidential address to the American Psychological Association: the continuing failure of the two scientific disciplines of psychology-the experimental and the correlational-to come together and mutually support each other. Personality study in particular has suffered from this disunity, and the debates about the number of major dimensions of personality illustrate the absurdity of the situation. Examples are given to show that by combining methods and theories typical of these two disciplines, one can pur forward paradigms that would be impossible without such unification. Such a paradigm is suggested for personality and intelligence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eysenck1997,
      author = {Eysenck, HJ},
      title = {Personality and experimental psychology: The unification of psychology and the possibility of a paradigm},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {73},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1224-1237}
    }
    
    FASSINGER, R. THE HIDDEN MINORITY - ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN WORKING WITH LESBIAN WOMEN AND GAY MEN {1991} COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {19}({2}), pp. {157-176} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{FASSINGER1991,
      author = {FASSINGER, RE},
      title = {THE HIDDEN MINORITY - ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN WORKING WITH LESBIAN WOMEN AND GAY MEN},
      journal = {COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {19},
      number = {2},
      pages = {157-176}
    }
    
    Fava, G. & Sonino, N. Psychosomatic medicine: Emerging trends and perspectives {2000} PSYCHOTHERAPY AND PSYCHOSOMATICS
    Vol. {69}({4}), pp. {184-197} 
    article  
    Abstract: Developments have occurred in all aspects of psychosomatic medicine. Among factors affecting individual vulnerability to all types of disease, the following have been highlighted by recent research: recent and early life events, chronic stress and allostatic load, personality, psychological well-being, health attitudes and behavior. As to the interaction between psychological and biological factors in the course and outcome of disease, the presence of psychiatric (DSM-IV) as well as subclinical (Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research) symptoms, illness behavior and the impact on quality of life all need to be assessed. The prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of physical illness include the consideration for psychosomatic prevention, the treatment of psychiatric morbidity and abnormal illness behavior and the use of psychotropic drugs in the medically ill. In the past 60 years, psychosomatic medicine has addressed some fundamental questions, contributing to the growth of other related disciplines, such as psychoneuroendocrinology, psychoimmunology, consultation-liaison psychiatry, behavioral medicine, health psychology and quality of life research. Psychosomatic medicine may also provide a comprehensive frame of reference for several current issues of clinical medicine (the phenomenon of somatization, the increasing occurrence of mysterious symptoms, the demand for well-being and quality of life), including its new dialogue with mind-body and alternative medicine. Copyright (C) 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fava2000,
      author = {Fava, GA and Sonino, N},
      title = {Psychosomatic medicine: Emerging trends and perspectives},
      journal = {PSYCHOTHERAPY AND PSYCHOSOMATICS},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {69},
      number = {4},
      pages = {184-197}
    }
    
    Fiddick, L., Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. No interpretation without representation: the role of domain-specific representations and inferences in the Wason selection task {2000} COGNITION
    Vol. {77}({1}), pp. {1-79} 
    article  
    Abstract: The Wason selection task is a tool used to study reasoning about conditional rules. Perfor mance on this task changes systematically when one varies its content, and these content effects have been used to argue that the human cognitive architecture contains a number of domain-specific representation and inference systems, such as social contract algorithms and hazard management systems. Recently, however, Sperber, Cara & Girotto (Sperber, D., Cara, F., & Girotto, V, (1995). Relevance theory explains the selection task. Cognition, 57, 31-95) have proposed that relevance theory can explain performance on the selection task - including all content effects - without invoking inference systems that are content-specialized. Herein, we show that relevance theory alone cannot explain a variety of content effects - effects that were predicted in advance and are parsimoniously explained by theories that invoke domain-specific algorithms for representing and making inferences about (i) social contracts and (ii) reducing risk in hazardous situations. Moreover, although Sperber et al. (1995) were able to use relevance theory to produce some new content effects in other domains, they conducted no experiments involving social exchanges or precautions, and so were unable to determine which - content-specialized algorithms or relevance effects - dominate reasoning when the two conflict. When experiments, reported herein, are constructed so that the different theories predict divergent outcomes, the results support the predictions of social contract theory and hazard management theory, indicating that these inference systems override content-general relevance factors. The fact that social contract and hazard management algorithms provide better explanations for performance in their respective domains does not mean that the content-general logical procedures posited by relevance theory do not exist, or that relevance effects never occur. It does mean, however, that one needs a principled way of explaining which effects will dominate when a set of inputs activate more than one reasoning system. We propose the principle of pre-emptive specificity - that the human cognitive architecture should be designed so that more specialized inference systems pre-empt more general ones whenever the stimuli centrally fit the input conditions of the more specialized system. This principle follows from evolutionary and computational considerations that are common to both relevance theory and the ecological rationality approach. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fiddick2000,
      author = {Fiddick, L and Cosmides, L and Tooby, J},
      title = {No interpretation without representation: the role of domain-specific representations and inferences in the Wason selection task},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {77},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-79}
    }
    
    Finn, S. & Tonsager, M. Information-gathering and therapeutic models of assessment: Complementary paradigms {1997} PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
    Vol. {9}({4}), pp. {374-385} 
    article  
    Abstract: The authors reviewed the other articles in the special section and commented on the use of psychological assessment to plan treatment. They call this view of assessment the information-gathering paradigm, because the goal is to collect data that will aid in communication and decision making about clients. This contrasts with the therapeutic model of assessment, in which the major goal is to produce positive change in clients. The authors summarized evidence of the efficacy of assessment as a brief therapy and discussed its possible therapeutic mechanisms. The information-gathering and therapeutic models of assessment are complementary rather than mutually exclusive, and both speak to the utility of assessment The current crisis in the clinical use of psychological assessment may be due in part to an overemphasis on the information-gathering model.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Finn1997,
      author = {Finn, SE and Tonsager, ME},
      title = {Information-gathering and therapeutic models of assessment: Complementary paradigms},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {374-385}
    }
    
    FLIN, R., BOON, J., KNOX, A. & BULL, R. THE EFFECT OF A 5-MONTH DELAY ON CHILDRENS AND ADULTS EYEWITNESS MEMORY {1992} BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {83}({Part 3}), pp. {323-336} 
    article  
    Abstract: Child witnesses must endure a delay of around six months between observing or being the victim of an alleged offence and being required to give evidence in a criminal court. While the legal profession seem to believe that young children's memories are particularly sensitive to the passage of time, developmental psychology can offer little relevant data to support or refute this presumption. In the present study, children aged six and nine years and adults witnessed a staged event and were subsequently interviewed in the days following the event and/or five months later. Results indicate that while all witnesses forgot information over this period, the younger children (six years) recalled slightly less information than the older children and the adults. The total amount of incorrect information recalled did not increase over the same period. Two different interviewing techniques were used - cued recall vs. `enhanced' recall - the latter incorporating some aspects of the cognitive interview procedure. No differences were found relating to the interview techniques employed. The results underline the importance of recording initial interviews with child witnesses wherever possible.
    BibTeX:
    @article{FLIN1992,
      author = {FLIN, R and BOON, J and KNOX, A and BULL, R},
      title = {THE EFFECT OF A 5-MONTH DELAY ON CHILDRENS AND ADULTS EYEWITNESS MEMORY},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {83},
      number = {Part 3},
      pages = {323-336}
    }
    
    FLINN, M. & ENGLAND, B. CHILDHOOD STRESS AND FAMILY ENVIRONMENT {1995} CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY
    Vol. {36}({5}), pp. {854-866} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{FLINN1995,
      author = {FLINN, MV and ENGLAND, BG},
      title = {CHILDHOOD STRESS AND FAMILY ENVIRONMENT},
      journal = {CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {36},
      number = {5},
      pages = {854-866}
    }
    
    Flodmark, C., Lissau, I., Moreno, L., Pietrobelli, A. & Widhalm, K. New insights into the field of children and adolescents' obesity: the European perspective {2004} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY
    Vol. {28}({10}), pp. {1189-1196} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: EDITOR'S NOTE: The problem of childhood obesity is accelerating throughout the world. The following is a position paper from The European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) that outlines the nature of the problem of childhood obesity along with treatment and prevention methods available today. The paucity of literature on prevention and treatment of obesity in children as documented in this paper points out the need for much additional research on obesity in children. OBJECTIVES: The awareness of childhood obesity as a major health problem and an uncontrolled worldwide epidemic has to be increased in the society. DESIGN: In order to improve the quality of the health care and to minimize the cost it is important to investigate and standardize pediatric obesity prevention and treatment and to adapt to social and cultural aspects. RESULTS: Obesity is the result of excess body fat. The different norms and definitions in Europe and the US is described and clarified. However, the available methods for the direct measurement of body fat are not easily used in daily practice. For this reason, obesity is often assessed by means of indirect estimates of body fat, that is, anthropometrics. There are essentially six relevant levels, which could be involved in prevention of child and adolescent obesity: family (child, parents, siblings, etc), schools, health professionals, government, industry and media. Evidence-based health promotion programs has to be given a high priority. Government should encourage media increase information about healthy nutrition and to avoid the marketing of unhealthy foods including sweet drinks, for example, in TV. Many different approaches of treatments of obesity have been investigated, including diet, exercise, behavioral therapy, surgery, and medication. None have been found to be effective enough as sole tools in children. This has led to focus on multidisciplinary programs especially involving families. Behavioral cognitive therapy is effective in treating childhood obesity as is family therapy. Surgery and drug treatment cannot be recommended without additional research. Clinicians should consider the various factors that can influence body composition. CONCLUSION: It is important to know and to follow nutritional factors, energy intake and composition of the diet, nutrition and hormonal status, food preferences and behavior, and the influence of non-nutritional factors. We recommend that obesity should be the major priority both in the health care system, on the scientific level and for future political actions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Flodmark2004,
      author = {Flodmark, CE and Lissau, I and Moreno, LA and Pietrobelli, A and Widhalm, K},
      title = {New insights into the field of children and adolescents' obesity: the European perspective},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {28},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1189-1196},
      doi = {{10.1038/sj.ijo.0802787}}
    }
    
    Forth, A. & Burke, H. Psychopathy in adolescence: Assessment, violence, and developmental precursors {1998}
    Vol. {88}PSYCHOPATHY: THEORY, RESEARCH AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIETY, pp. {205-229} 
    inproceedings  
    Abstract: Preparation of this chapter and some of the research presented herein were supported by grants to the first author from the Ministry of Solicitor General of Canada and by the Faculty of Social Sciences, Research Grants, Carleton University. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the opinions or policies of the Ministry of Solicitor General. We wish to thank Shelley Parlow and John Logan for their comments on the chapter. We are also grateful to Dr. David Kosson, Dr. Jean Toupin and Irene Laroche for making their data available to us. Correspondence should be addressed to A. Forth, Department of Psychology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1S 5B6 (e-mail: forth@ccs.carleton.ca).
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Forth1998,
      author = {Forth, AE and Burke, HC},
      title = {Psychopathy in adolescence: Assessment, violence, and developmental precursors},
      booktitle = {PSYCHOPATHY: THEORY, RESEARCH AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIETY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {88},
      pages = {205-229},
      note = {NATO Advanced Study Institute on Psychopathy - Theory, Research and Implications for Society, ALVOR, PORTUGAL, NOV 27-DEC 07, 1995}
    }
    
    Fowers, B. & Richardson, F. Why is multiculturalism good? {1996} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {51}({6}), pp. {609-621} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article explores the moral sources that give multi-culturalism the potency to move psychology to reassess itself The power of the multicultural perspective appears to derive from its ability to show how psychology's tendency toward monocultural universalism has undermined its aims as a science of human behavior and a promoter of human welfare. The multicultural critique le also draws on Euro-American moral traditions and ideals, such as individual rights, authenticity, respect, and tolerance. In spite of the importance of these ideals, multiculturalists often criticize Euro-American culture without acknowledging their debt to it. Moreover, these particularist moral sources undercut multiculturalism's universalist appeal. There is a paradoxical tendency among some advocates of multiculturalism to encourage cultural separatism and an inarticulateness in dealing with intercultural value conflict. We present some recommendations for dealing with these dilemmas from philosophical hermeneutics, including the contextualization of multiculturalism, an approach to sifting and evaluating cultural values, and an ontological account of the dialogical nature of humans.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fowers1996,
      author = {Fowers, BJ and Richardson, FC},
      title = {Why is multiculturalism good?},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {51},
      number = {6},
      pages = {609-621}
    }
    
    Fredrickson, B. The value of positive emotions - The emerging science of positive psychology in coming to understand why it's good to feel good {2003} AMERICAN SCIENTIST
    Vol. {91}({4}), pp. {330-335} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fredrickson2003,
      author = {Fredrickson, BL},
      title = {The value of positive emotions - The emerging science of positive psychology in coming to understand why it's good to feel good},
      journal = {AMERICAN SCIENTIST},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {91},
      number = {4},
      pages = {330-335}
    }
    
    FRESE, M. OCCUPATIONAL SOCIALIZATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL-DEVELOPMENT - AN UNDER-EMPHASIZED RESEARCH PERSPECTIVE IN INDUSTRIAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1982} JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {55}({3}), pp. {209-224} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{FRESE1982,
      author = {FRESE, M},
      title = {OCCUPATIONAL SOCIALIZATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL-DEVELOPMENT - AN UNDER-EMPHASIZED RESEARCH PERSPECTIVE IN INDUSTRIAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {55},
      number = {3},
      pages = {209-224}
    }
    
    Freund, A. & Baltes, P. Life-management strategies of selection, optimization, and compensation: Measurement by self-report and construct validity {2002} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {82}({4}), pp. {642-662} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The authors examined the usefulness of a self-report measure for elective selection, loss-based selection. optimization. and compensation (SOC) as strategies of life management. The expected 4-factor solution was obtained in 2 independent samples (N = 218, 14-87 years; N = 181, 18-89 years) exhibiting high retest stability across 4 weeks (r(tt) =.74-.82). As expected, middle-aged adults showed higher endorsement of SOC than younger and older adults. Moreover, SOC showed meaningful convergent and divergent associations to other psychological constructs (e.g., thinking styles, NEO) and evinced positive correlations with measures of well-being which were maintained after other personality and motivational constructs were controlled for. Initial evidence on behavioral associations involving SOC obtained in other studies is summarized.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Freund2002,
      author = {Freund, AM and Baltes, PB},
      title = {Life-management strategies of selection, optimization, and compensation: Measurement by self-report and construct validity},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {82},
      number = {4},
      pages = {642-662},
      doi = {{10.1037//0022-3514.82.4.642}}
    }
    
    Frick, R. The appropriate use of null hypothesis testing {1996} PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS
    Vol. {1}({4}), pp. {379-390} 
    article  
    Abstract: The many criticisms of null hypothesis testing suggest when it is not useful and what is should not be used for. This article explores when and why its use is appropriate. Null hypothesis testing is insufficient when size of effect is important, but it is ideal for testing ordinal claims relating the order of conditions, which are common in psychology. Null hypothesis testing also is insufficient for determining beliefs, but it is ideal for demonstrating sufficient evidential strength to support an ordinal claim, with sufficient evidence being 1 criterion for a finding entering the corpus of legitimate findings in psychology. The line between sufficient and insufficient evidence is currently set at p < .05; there is little reason for allowing experimenters to select their own value of alpha. Thus null hypothesis testing is an optimal method for demonstrating sufficient evidence for an ordinal claim.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Frick1996,
      author = {Frick, RW},
      title = {The appropriate use of null hypothesis testing},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {1},
      number = {4},
      pages = {379-390}
    }
    
    FRIESTAD, M. & WRIGHT, P. PERSUASION KNOWLEDGE - LAY PEOPLES AND RESEARCHERS BELIEFS ABOUT THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING {1995} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH
    Vol. {22}({1}), pp. {62-74} 
    article  
    Abstract: What do lay people believe about the psychology of advertising and persuasion? How similar are the beliefs of lay people to those of consumer researchers? In this study we explore the content of people's conceptions of how television advertising influences its audience. The findings suggest that lay people and researchers share many basic beliefs about the psychology of persuasion but also indicate some dissimilarities in these groups' persuasion knowledge. We discuss what the findings imply about the existence of cultural folk knowledge and its effect on persuasion.
    BibTeX:
    @article{FRIESTAD1995,
      author = {FRIESTAD, M and WRIGHT, P},
      title = {PERSUASION KNOWLEDGE - LAY PEOPLES AND RESEARCHERS BELIEFS ABOUT THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {22},
      number = {1},
      pages = {62-74}
    }
    
    FRISCH, D. REASONS FOR FRAMING EFFECTS {1993} ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES
    Vol. {54}({3}), pp. {399-429} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{FRISCH1993,
      author = {FRISCH, D},
      title = {REASONS FOR FRAMING EFFECTS},
      journal = {ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {54},
      number = {3},
      pages = {399-429}
    }
    
    FURNHAM, A. MANY SIDES OF THE COIN - THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MONEY USAGE {1984} PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
    Vol. {5}({5}), pp. {501-509} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{FURNHAM1984,
      author = {FURNHAM, A},
      title = {MANY SIDES OF THE COIN - THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MONEY USAGE},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {5},
      number = {5},
      pages = {501-509}
    }
    
    Furnham, A., Tan, T. & McManus, C. Waist-to-hip ratio and preferences for body shape: A replication and extension {1997} PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
    Vol. {22}({4}), pp. {539-549} 
    article  
    Abstract: Evidence from Singh (1993a, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 293-307; 1993b, Human Nature, 4, 297-321; 1994, Personality and individual Differences, 16, 123-132; 1995, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 1089-1101) clearly demonstrates the relation of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and apparent overall body weight to attractiveness judgements of male and female figures. The present study is a cross-cultural replication of Singh's studies. In addition, sex difference meta-perceptions of attractiveness were considered. Overall results support Singh's work, which finds the WHR the most parsimonious measure of body physical attractiveness. With regard to the latter, a large consensus on preferences of ideal figures was found. Participants' perceptions of body shape and size showed both similarities and differences to those in Singh's research, and are discussed in terms of WHR as an evolutionary adaptation. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Furnham1997,
      author = {Furnham, A and Tan, T and McManus, C},
      title = {Waist-to-hip ratio and preferences for body shape: A replication and extension},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {22},
      number = {4},
      pages = {539-549}
    }
    
    Fylan, F. Screening for cervical cancer: A review of women's attitudes, knowledge, and behaviour {1998} BRITISH JOURNAL OF GENERAL PRACTICE
    Vol. {48}({433}), pp. {1509-1514} 
    article  
    Abstract: The United Kingdom (UK) cervical screening programme has been successful in securing participation of a high proportion of targeted women, and has seen a fall in mortality rates of those suffering from cervical cancer. There remains, however, a significant proportion of unscreened women and, of women in whom an abnormality is detected, many will not attend for colposcopy. The present work reviews the psychological consequences of receiving an abnormal cervical smear result and of secondary screening and treatment, and examines reasons for women's nonparticipation in the screening programme. Psychological theories of screening behaviour are used to elucidate women's reactions and to suggest methods of increasing participation, of improving the qualify of the service, and of reducing women's anxiety. A literature search identified studies that examine factors influencing women's participation in the screening programme, their psychological reaction to the receipt of an abnormal cervical smear result, and experiences of colposcopy. Reasons for non-participation include administrative failures, unavailability of a female screener, inconvenient clinic times, lack of awareness of the test's indications and benefits, considering oneself not to be at risk of developing cervical cancer, and fear of embarrassment, pain, or the defection of cancer. The receipt of an abnormal result and referral for colposcopy cause high levels of distress owing to limited understanding of the meaning of the smear test; many women believe the test aims to detect existing cervical cancer. The quality of the cervical screening service can be enhanced by the provision of additional information, by improved quality of communication, and by consideration of women's health beliefs. This may result in increased participation in, and satisfaction with, the service.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fylan1998,
      author = {Fylan, F},
      title = {Screening for cervical cancer: A review of women's attitudes, knowledge, and behaviour},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF GENERAL PRACTICE},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {48},
      number = {433},
      pages = {1509-1514}
    }
    
    GAINES, A. FROM DSM-I TO DSM-III-R - VOICES OF SELF, MASTERY AND THE OTHER - A CULTURAL CONSTRUCTIVIST READING OF UNITED-STATES PSYCHIATRIC CLASSIFICATION {1992} SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE
    Vol. {35}({1}), pp. {3-24} 
    article  
    Abstract: The continual process of mental disease classification in U.S. psychiatry is assumed to reflect advancing professional knowledge of these disorders. To date, the American Psychiatric Association has developed four standard classifications, or nosologies, called Diagnostic and Statistical Manuals ('DSMs'). DSM-I, the earliest, appeared in 1952 while the most recent, DSM-III-R, appeared in 1987. This paper employs a cultural constructivist perspective to deconstruct these nosologies and the classificatory process itself. Constructivism's premises, which emphasize culture, history, meaning and the constructed nature of medical phenomena, serve as the framework for the analysis. The paper shows that professional psychiatric classification expresses an underlying cultural psychology which encompasses four phenomenological domains and one of three Western person conceptions. Classifications are found to be explorations of culturally meaningful etiologies that explain the absence of `self control', a central ethnopsychological aspect of the idealized self. Consideration of the vantage point of the voice of classification indicates that the ideal self is gender- (male), ethnic- (German Protestant) and age-specific (adult). The ethnic self's essence, and that of the Other, is believed to be biological, itself assumed to be natural and beyond culture or bias. Consequently, the ethnopsychology constructs as biologically caused the real and imagined differences in the gender, age or culturally Other. This invidious ethnobiological essentialism acts to create and maintain self-worth through a radical differentiation of self from those represented as Other.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GAINES1992,
      author = {GAINES, AD},
      title = {FROM DSM-I TO DSM-III-R - VOICES OF SELF, MASTERY AND THE OTHER - A CULTURAL CONSTRUCTIVIST READING OF UNITED-STATES PSYCHIATRIC CLASSIFICATION},
      journal = {SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {35},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-24}
    }
    
    Gallese, V. Before and below `theory of mind': embodied simulation and the neural correlates of social cognition {2007} PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
    Vol. {362}({1480}), pp. {659-669} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The automatic translation of folk psychology into newly formed brain modules specifically dedicated to mind-reading and other social cognitive abilities should be carefully scrutinized. Searching for the brain location of intentions, beliefs and desires-as such-might not be the best epistemic strategy to disclose what social cognition really is. The results of neurocognitive research suggest that in the brain of primates, mirror neurons, and more generally the premotor system, play a major role in several aspects of social cognition, from action and intention understanding to language processing. This evidence is presented and discussed within the theoretical frame of an embodied simulation account of social cognition. Embodied simulation and the mirror neuron system underpinning it provide the means to share communicative intentions, meaning and reference, thus granting the parity requirements of social communication.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gallese2007,
      author = {Gallese, Vittorio},
      title = {Before and below `theory of mind': embodied simulation and the neural correlates of social cognition},
      journal = {PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {362},
      number = {1480},
      pages = {659-669},
      doi = {{10.1098/rstb.2006.2002}}
    }
    
    GALLOWAY, R. & MCGUIRE, J. DETERMINANTS OF COMPLIANCE WITH IRON SUPPLEMENTATION - SUPPLIES, SIDE-EFFECTS, OR PSYCHOLOGY {1994} SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE
    Vol. {39}({3}), pp. {381-390} 
    article  
    Abstract: Iron deficiency anemia affects over 2 billion people. Particularly at risk are pregnant women and young children. Although distribution of iron supplements is practised in many antenatal care programs in developing countries, it has often been alleged that pregnant women do not take them. Poor compliance arises not only because of patient behavior but also from factors out of the patient's control. This paper presents the results of a review of the literature on medical compliance to determine whether iron supplementation is different from other medications, to assess the known levels of compliance, and to synthesize recommendations for improving compliance relevant to iron supplementation. The review showed that compliance with iron therapy is a specific case of medical compliance. Reasons for non-compliance with iron deficiency treatment include: inadequate program support (lack of political commitment and financial support); insufficient service delivery (poor provider-user dynamics; lack of supplies, access, training, and motivation of health care professionals); and patient factors (misunderstanding instructions, side effects, frustration about the frequency and number of pills taken, migration, fear of having big babies, personal problems, nausea that accompanies pregnancy, and the subtlety of anemia which makes demand for treatment low). Much has been made about the side effects (nausea, constipation, etc.) that women might experience during iron therapy as the cause of poor compliance with iron supplementation without justification according to this review. Instead, unavailability of iron supplements was the most common reason why women did not take iron supplements. Women bear a disproportionate burden from iron deficiency anemia even though the technology exists to address the problem at low cost. Governments and health care professionals must renew their commitment to iron therapy by monitoring and improving compliance. We can significantly improve compliance by: making sure that iron supplements are available at all times; providing advanced warning about the possibility of side effects; involving the patient in the therapeutic strategy; and providing reminders, such as posters and calendars, about taking supplements.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GALLOWAY1994,
      author = {GALLOWAY, R and MCGUIRE, J},
      title = {DETERMINANTS OF COMPLIANCE WITH IRON SUPPLEMENTATION - SUPPLIES, SIDE-EFFECTS, OR PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {39},
      number = {3},
      pages = {381-390}
    }
    
    Gevers, W., Reynvoet, B. & Fias, W. The mental representation of ordinal sequences is spatially organized {2003} COGNITION
    Vol. {87}({3}), pp. {B87-B95} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In the domain of numbers the existence of spatial components in the representation of numerical magnitude has been convincingly demonstrated by an association between number magnitude and response preference with faster left- than right-hand responses for small numbers and faster right-than left-hand responses for large numbers (Dehaene, S., Bossini, S., & Giraux, P. (1993) The mental representation of parity and number magnitude., Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122, 371-396). Because numbers convey not only real or integer meaning but also ordinal meaning, the question of whether non-numerical ordinal information is spatially coded naturally follows. While previous research failed to show an association between ordinal position and spatial response preference, we present two experiments involving months (Experiment 1) and letters (Experiment 2) in which spatial coding is demonstrated. Furthermore, the response-side effect was obtained with two different stimulus-response mappings. The association occurred both when ordinal information was relevant and when it was irrelevant to the task, showing that the spatial component of the ordinal representation can be automatically activated. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gevers2003,
      author = {Gevers, W and Reynvoet, B and Fias, W},
      title = {The mental representation of ordinal sequences is spatially organized},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {87},
      number = {3},
      pages = {B87-B95},
      doi = {{10.1016/S0010-0277(02)00234-2}}
    }
    
    GHOLSON, B. & BARKER, P. KUHN, LAKATOS, AND LAUDAN - APPLICATIONS IN THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS AND PSYCHOLOGY {1985} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {40}({7}), pp. {755-769} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{GHOLSON1985,
      author = {GHOLSON, B and BARKER, P},
      title = {KUHN, LAKATOS, AND LAUDAN - APPLICATIONS IN THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS AND PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {40},
      number = {7},
      pages = {755-769}
    }
    
    GIBBINS, M. PROPOSITIONS ABOUT THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PROFESSIONAL JUDGMENT IN PUBLIC ACCOUNTING {1984} JOURNAL OF ACCOUNTING RESEARCH
    Vol. {22}({1}), pp. {103-125} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{GIBBINS1984,
      author = {GIBBINS, M},
      title = {PROPOSITIONS ABOUT THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PROFESSIONAL JUDGMENT IN PUBLIC ACCOUNTING},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ACCOUNTING RESEARCH},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {22},
      number = {1},
      pages = {103-125}
    }
    
    GIBBS, J. MEANING OF ECOLOGICALLY ORIENTED INQUIRY IN CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY {1979} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {34}({2}), pp. {127-140} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{GIBBS1979,
      author = {GIBBS, JC},
      title = {MEANING OF ECOLOGICALLY ORIENTED INQUIRY IN CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1979},
      volume = {34},
      number = {2},
      pages = {127-140}
    }
    
    Gigerenzer, G. The psychology of good judgment: Frequency formats and simple algorithms {1996} MEDICAL DECISION MAKING
    Vol. {16}({3}), pp. {273-280} 
    article  
    Abstract: Mind and environment evolve in tandem-almost a platitude. Much of judgment and decision making research, however, has compared cognition to standard statistical models, rather than to how well it is adapted to its environment. The author argues two points. First, cognitive algorithms are tuned to certain information formats, most likely to those that humans have encountered during their evolutionary history. In particular, Bayesian computations are simpler when the information is in a frequency format than when it is in a probability format. The author investigates whether frequency formats can make physicians reason more often the Bayesian way. Second, cognitive algorithms need to operate under constraints of limited time, knowledge, and computational power, and they need to exploit the structures of their environments. The author describes a fast and frugal algorithm, Take The Best, that violates standard principles of rational inference but can be as accurate as sophisticated `'optimal'' models for diagnostic inference.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gigerenzer1996,
      author = {Gigerenzer, G},
      title = {The psychology of good judgment: Frequency formats and simple algorithms},
      journal = {MEDICAL DECISION MAKING},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {16},
      number = {3},
      pages = {273-280}
    }
    
    Gillihan, S. & Farah, M. Is self special? A critical review of evidence from experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience {2005} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {131}({1}), pp. {76-97} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Varied research findings have been taken to support the claim that humans' representation of the self is ``special,'' that is, that it emerges from systems that are physically and functionally distinct from those used for more general purpose cognitive processing. The authors evaluate this claim by reviewing the relevant literatures and addressing the criteria for considering a system special, the various operationalizations of self, and how the studies' findings relate to the conclusions drawn. The authors conclude that many of the claims for the special status of self-related processing are premature given the evidence and that the various self-related research programs do not seem to be illuminating a unitary, common system, despite individuals' subjective experience of a unified self.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gillihan2005,
      author = {Gillihan, SJ and Farah, MJ},
      title = {Is self special? A critical review of evidence from experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {131},
      number = {1},
      pages = {76-97},
      doi = {{10.1037/0033-2909.131.1.76}}
    }
    
    Gilstrap, L., Hightower, E., Clewell, W., D'Alton, M., Damon, V., Escobedo, M., Frader, J., Gjerdingen, D., Goddard-Finegold, J., Goldenberg, R., Flowers, C., Hack, M., Hansen, T., Kauffman, R., Dow, M., Keeler, E., Oh, W., Hassenfeld, S., Reece, E., Roth, A., Susman, E., Shibley, J., Vogel, M., Banks, B., Esplin, M., French, N., Guinn, D., Jobe, A., Mercer, B., Murphy, K., Padbury, J., Scott, J., Sinclair, J., Socol, M., Wapner, R., Ward, R., Alexander, D., Bowersox, J., Elliott, J., Kramer, B., Spong, C., Whalen, J., Wright, L. & Natl I Hlth Consenses Dev Panel Antenatal corticosteroids revisited: Repeat courses - National Institutes of Health consensus development conference statement, August 17-18, 2000 {2001} OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY
    Vol. {98}({1}), pp. {144-150} 
    article  
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To provide health care providers, patients, and the general public with a responsible assessment of currently available data regarding the benefits and risks of repeat courses of antenatal corticosteroids. PARTICIPANTS: A non-Federal, non-advocate, 16-member panel representing the fields of obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, maternal and fetal medicine, neonatology, medical ethics, community health, pharmacology, psychology, and reproductive biology. In addition, 13 experts in these same fields presented data to the panel and to a conference audience of approximately 200. EVIDENCE: The literature was searched using MEDLINE and an extensive bibliography of references was provided to the panel. Experts prepared abstracts of their conference presentations with relevant citations from the literature. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. CONSENSUS PROCESS: The panel, answering predefined questions, developed their conclusions based on the scientific evidence presented in open forum and the scientific literature. The panel composed a draft statement that was read in its entirety and circulated to the experts and the audience for comment. Thereafter, the panel resolved conflicting recommendations and released a revised statement at the end of the conference, The panel finalized the revisions within a few weeks after the conference. The draft statement was made available on the World Wide Web immediately following its release at the conference and was updated with the panel's final revisions. CONCLUSIONS: The collective international data continue to support unequivocally the use and efficacy of a single course of antenatal corticosteroids using the dosage and interval of administration specified in the 1994 Consensus Development Conference report. The current benefit and risk data are insufficient to support routine use of repeat or rescue courses of antenatal corticosteroids in clinical practice. Clinical trials are in progress to assess potential benefits and risks of various regimens of repeat courses. Until data establish a favorable benefit-to-risk ratio, repeat courses of antenatal corticosteroids, including rescue therapy, should be reserved for patients enrolled in clinical trials.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gilstrap2001,
      author = {Gilstrap, LC and Hightower, ES and Clewell, WH and D'Alton, ME and Damon, VG and Escobedo, MB and Frader, J and Gjerdingen, DK and Goddard-Finegold, J and Goldenberg, RL and Flowers, CE and Hack, M and Hansen, TN and Kauffman, RE and Dow, MM and Keeler, EB and Oh, W and Hassenfeld, SK and Reece, EA and Roth, A and Susman, EJ and Shibley, JP and Vogel, MG and Banks, BA and Esplin, MS and French, N and Guinn, D and Jobe, AH and Mercer, B and Murphy, KE and Padbury, JF and Scott, JR and Sinclair, JC and Socol, M and Wapner, RJ and Ward, RM and Alexander, D and Bowersox, JA and Elliott, JM and Kramer, BS and Spong, CY and Whalen, JM and Wright, L and Natl I Hlth Consenses Dev Panel},
      title = {Antenatal corticosteroids revisited: Repeat courses - National Institutes of Health consensus development conference statement, August 17-18, 2000},
      journal = {OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {98},
      number = {1},
      pages = {144-150}
    }
    
    GLADSTEIN, G. UNDERSTANDING EMPATHY - INTEGRATING COUNSELING, DEVELOPMENTAL, AND SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY PERSPECTIVES {1983} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {30}({4}), pp. {467-482} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{GLADSTEIN1983,
      author = {GLADSTEIN, GA},
      title = {UNDERSTANDING EMPATHY - INTEGRATING COUNSELING, DEVELOPMENTAL, AND SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY PERSPECTIVES},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {30},
      number = {4},
      pages = {467-482}
    }
    
    Glinski, J., Wetzler, S. & Goodman, E. The psychology of gastric bypass surgery {2001} OBESITY SURGERY
    Vol. {11}({5}), pp. {581-588} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: This article discusses the importance of psychological evaluation of gastric bypass (GBP) surgery candidates and post-surgical psychological support services, using the Center for Weight Reduction Surgery at Montefiore Medical Center as model. The study of psychological predictors of post-operative outcome is in its beginning stages, and the small body of literature on this topic is reviewed. Methods: 115 GBP surgery candidates completed a clinical interview and a self-report measure, the MMPI-2. Results and Conclusions: A high prevalence of psychopathology and personality disturbance was found in this population. The impact that psychological disturbance may have on post-operative outcome is discussed. The authors also provide a qualitative analysis of the psychological themes commonly found among this population, as well as psychosocial interventions that have been found helpful.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Glinski2001,
      author = {Glinski, J and Wetzler, S and Goodman, E},
      title = {The psychology of gastric bypass surgery},
      journal = {OBESITY SURGERY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {11},
      number = {5},
      pages = {581-588}
    }
    
    Gobet, F. Expert memory: a comparison of four theories {1998} COGNITION
    Vol. {66}({2}), pp. {115-152} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper compares four current theories of expertise with respect to chess players' memory: Chase and Simon's chunking theory, Holding's SEEK theory, Ericsson and Kintsch's long-term working memory theory, and Gobet and Simon's template theory (Chase, W.G., Simon, H.A., 1973a. Perception in chess. Cognitive Psychology 4, 55-81; Holding, D.H., 1985. The Psychology of Chess Skill. Eribaum, Hillsdale, NJ; Ericsson, K.A., Kintsch, W., 1995. Long term working memory. Psychological Review 102, 211-245; Gobet, F., Simon, H.A., 1996b. Templates in chess memory: a mechanism for recalling several boards. Cognitive Psychology 31, 1-40). The empirical areas showing the largest discriminative power include recall of random and distorted positions, recall with very short presentation times, and interference studies. Contrary to recurrent criticisms in the literature, it is shown that the chunking theory is consistent with most of tie data. However, the best performance in accounting for the empirical evidence is obtained by the template theory. The theory, which unifies low-level aspects of cognition, such as chunks, with high-level aspects, such as schematic knowledge and planning, proposes that chunks are accessed through a discrimination net, where simple perceptual features are tested, and that they can evolve into more complex data structures (templates) specific to classes of positions. Implications for the study of expertise in general include the need for detailed process models of expert behavior and the need to use empirical data spanning the traditional boundaries of perception, memory, and problem solving. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gobet1998,
      author = {Gobet, F},
      title = {Expert memory: a comparison of four theories},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {66},
      number = {2},
      pages = {115-152}
    }
    
    GOETHALS, G. SOCIAL-COMPARISON THEORY - PSYCHOLOGY FROM THE LOST AND FOUND {1986} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {12}({3}), pp. {261-278} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{GOETHALS1986,
      author = {GOETHALS, GR},
      title = {SOCIAL-COMPARISON THEORY - PSYCHOLOGY FROM THE LOST AND FOUND},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {12},
      number = {3},
      pages = {261-278}
    }
    
    Gratz, K. Measurement of deliberate self-harm: Preliminary data on the deliberate self-harm inventory {2001} JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT
    Vol. {23}({4}), pp. {253-263} 
    article  
    Abstract: Deliberate self-harm has recently begun to receive more systematic attention from clinical researchers. However, there remains a general lack of consensus as to how to define and measure this important clinical construct. There is still no standardized, empirically validated measure of deliberate self-harm, making it more difficult for research in this area to advance. The present paper provides an integrative, conceptual definition of deliberate self-harm as well as preliminary psychometric data on a newly developed measure of self-harm, the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory (DSHI). One hundred and fifty participants from undergraduate psychology courses completed research packets consisting of the DSHI and other measures, and 93 of these participants completed the DSHI again after an interval of 2-4 weeks (M = 3.3 weeks). Preliminary findings indicate that the DSHI has high internal consistency; adequate construct, convergent, and discriminant validity; and adequate test-retest reliability.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gratz2001,
      author = {Gratz, KL},
      title = {Measurement of deliberate self-harm: Preliminary data on the deliberate self-harm inventory},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {23},
      number = {4},
      pages = {253-263}
    }
    
    Green, M., Olivier, B., Crawley, J., Penn, D. & Silverstein, S. Social cognition in schizophrenia: Recommendations from the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia New Approaches Conference {2005} SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN
    Vol. {31}({4}), pp. {882-887} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This article summarizes the discussion from a breakout group at the National Institute of Mental Health-Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia New Approaches Conference on social cognition in schizophrenia. During this discussion, the reasons for the recent growth of research on social cognition in schizophrenia were examined. The discussion group established consensus on several points, including the importance of viewing social cognition from interdisciplinary perspectives (including outcomes research, social psychology, cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and animal models) and the need for clearer definition of terms. There was also general agreement that social cognition is a valuable construct for understanding the nature and disability of schizophrenia. One of the objectives of this group was to generate recommendations for subsequent human and animal studies, and these research agendas are summarized in this report.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Green2005,
      author = {Green, MF and Olivier, B and Crawley, JN and Penn, DL and Silverstein, S},
      title = {Social cognition in schizophrenia: Recommendations from the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia New Approaches Conference},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {31},
      number = {4},
      pages = {882-887},
      note = {7th Biennial Sinai Conference on Cognitionn in Schizophrenia, Savannah, GA, APR 02, 2005},
      doi = {{10.1093/schbul/sbi049}}
    }
    
    GREEN, S. & BAUER, T. SUPERVISORY MENTORING BY ADVISERS - RELATIONSHIPS WITH DOCTORAL-STUDENT POTENTIAL, PRODUCTIVITY, AND COMMITMENT {1995} PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {48}({3}), pp. {537-561} 
    article  
    Abstract: A 2-year, three-panel (T1-T3) longitudinal study of 233 entering Ph.D. students examined the relationships between student potential for mentoring, (i.e., attitudes and objective abilities at entry (T1), mentoring functions used by the faculty adviser (T2, T3), and student research productivity and commitment (T3). Student potential was found to predict the amount of psychosocial mentoring, career mentoring, and research collaboration provided by the adviser. Psychosocial mentoring and collaboration were not related to student productivity or commitment after controlling for the students' entering abilities and attitudes. Career mentoring at T2 was negatively related to the students' affective commitment to their program at T3. Implications for our understanding of mentoring and future research are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GREEN1995,
      author = {GREEN, SG and BAUER, TN},
      title = {SUPERVISORY MENTORING BY ADVISERS - RELATIONSHIPS WITH DOCTORAL-STUDENT POTENTIAL, PRODUCTIVITY, AND COMMITMENT},
      journal = {PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {48},
      number = {3},
      pages = {537-561}
    }
    
    Griffiths, M. Does Internet and computer ``addiction'' exist? Some case study evidence {2000} CYBERPSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {3}({2}), pp. {211-218} 
    article  
    Abstract: It has been alleged that social pathologies are beginning to surface in cyberspace (i.e., technological addictions). To date, there is very little empirical evidence that computing activities (i.e., internet use, hacking, programming) are addictive. Anecdotal evidence indicates that the typical ``addict'' is a teenager, usually male, with little or no social life, and little or no self-confidence. This article concentrates on five case studies of excessive computer usage. It is argued that of the five cases, only two of them describe ``addicted'' subjects. Addiction components criteria were used in the assessment. The excessive usage in the majority of cases was purely symptomatic and was highlighted how the subjects used the Internet/computer to counteract other deficiencies.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Griffiths2000,
      author = {Griffiths, M},
      title = {Does Internet and computer ``addiction'' exist? Some case study evidence},
      journal = {CYBERPSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIOR},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {211-218}
    }
    
    GRUBER, B., HERSH, S., HALL, N., WALETZKY, L., KUNZ, J., CARPENTER, J., KVERNO, K. & WEISS, S. IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF BREAST-CANCER PATIENTS TO BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS {1993} BIOFEEDBACK AND SELF-REGULATION
    Vol. {18}({1}), pp. {1-22} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article reports the results of an 18-month study of immune system and psychological changes in stage 1 breast cancer patients provided with relaxation, guided imagery, and biofeedback training. Thirteen lymph node negative patients who had recovered from a modified radical mastectomy were randomly assigned to either an immediate treatment or a delayed treatment control group. Multiple pre-post psychological measures were performed. Significant effects were found in natural killer cell (NK) activity (p < .017), mixed lymphocyte responsiveness (MLR) (p < .001), concanavalin A (Con-A) responsiveness (p < .001), and the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) (p < .01). No significant psychological changes were detected; however, reductions were seen in psychological inventory scales measuring anxiety. The results show that behavioral interventions can be correlated with immune system measures, thereby replicating the results of an earlier pilot study from our Center. Discussion is provided on differential T-cell and B-cell responsiveness to behavioral interventions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GRUBER1993,
      author = {GRUBER, BL and HERSH, SP and HALL, NRS and WALETZKY, LR and KUNZ, JF and CARPENTER, JK and KVERNO, KS and WEISS, SM},
      title = {IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF BREAST-CANCER PATIENTS TO BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS},
      journal = {BIOFEEDBACK AND SELF-REGULATION},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {18},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-22}
    }
    
    GRUNERT, S. & JUHL, H. VALUES, ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDES, AND BUYING OF ORGANIC FOODS {1995} JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {16}({1}), pp. {39-62} 
    article  
    Abstract: Results from a study with Danish school teachers on their values, environmental attitudes, and buying of organic foods are reported. The objective was to investigate the applicability of the Schwartz value theory and measurement approach (Schwartz, 1992) in explaining specific aspects of consumer behaviour. This theory was developed within a general social psychology framework and has been tested cross-culturally for some 90 samples in 45 countries. Using smallest space analysis, cluster and discriminant analysis, the explanatory power of values for environmental attitudes, and the relationships between attitudes and buying of organic foods were assessed in order to determine which values are relevant for environmentally concerned versus unconcerned consumer behaviour.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GRUNERT1995,
      author = {GRUNERT, SC and JUHL, HJ},
      title = {VALUES, ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDES, AND BUYING OF ORGANIC FOODS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {16},
      number = {1},
      pages = {39-62}
    }
    
    Guimond, S., Dambrun, M., Michinov, N. & Duarte, S. Does social dominance generate prejudice? Integrating individual and contextual determinants of intergroup cognitions {2003} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {84}({4}), pp. {697-721} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Social dominance orientation (SDO) has been proposed as an important variable in the explanation of prejudice. We distinguish between three conceptualizations of SDO: SDO as a personality trait (personality model), SDO as a moderator of the effects of situational variables (Person X Situation model), and SDO as a mediator of the effect of social position on prejudice (group socialization model [GSM]). Four studies (N = 1,657) looking at the relations between social positions, SDO, and prejudice in a natural setting and in a laboratory setting provide strong support for, the GSM. In contrast to previous correlational findings, there is evidence of a cause (dominant social position), an effect (prejudice increases), and a mediator (SDO). These results suggest new perspectives on the integration of individual and contextual determinants of prejudice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Guimond2003,
      author = {Guimond, S and Dambrun, M and Michinov, N and Duarte, S},
      title = {Does social dominance generate prejudice? Integrating individual and contextual determinants of intergroup cognitions},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {84},
      number = {4},
      pages = {697-721},
      note = {General Meeting of the European-Association-of-Experimental-Social-Psychology, SAN SEBASTIAN, SPAIN, JUL, 2002},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.697}}
    }
    
    Guitouni, A. & Martel, J. Tentative guidelines to help choosing an appropriate MCDA method {1998} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF OPERATIONAL RESEARCH
    Vol. {109}({2}), pp. {501-521} 
    article  
    Abstract: Despite the development of a large number of refined multicriterion decision aid (MCDA) methods, none can be considered as the `super method' appropriate to all decision making situations. Hence, how can one choose an appropriate method to a specific decision situation? Recent experimental studies in psychology and behaviour have revealed, on the one hand, that the human thinking is not to be modelled by logical rules and calculations, and, on the other hand, that the response mode affects the preference formation as well as the use of compensatory or noncompensatory strategies. The aim of this paper is to draw a conceptual framework for articulating tentative guidelines to choose an appropriate MCDA method. This paper also presents the results of the comparison of well known multicriterion aggregation procedures (MCAP) on the basis of these guidelines. In our opinion this study can constitute a first step for proposing a methodological approach to select an appropriate MCDA method to a specific decision making situation. Such an approach should be validated and may be integrated into a decision support system. Moreover, the framework suggested is helpful to develop useful methods and to address neglected issues within the field. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Guitouni1998,
      author = {Guitouni, A and Martel, JM},
      title = {Tentative guidelines to help choosing an appropriate MCDA method},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF OPERATIONAL RESEARCH},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {109},
      number = {2},
      pages = {501-521},
      note = {7th MINI EURO Conference on Decision Support Systems, Groupware, Multimedia and Electronic Commerce, BRUGGE, BELGIUM, MAR 24-27, 1997}
    }
    
    Hadjikhani, N. & de Gelder, B. Seeing fearful body expressions activates the fusiform cortex and amygdala {2003} CURRENT BIOLOGY
    Vol. {13}({24}), pp. {2201-2205} 
    article  
    Abstract: Darwin's evolutionary approach to organisms' emotional states attributes a prominent role to expressions of emotion in whole-body actions. Researchers in social psychology [1, 2] and human development [3] have long emphasized the fact that emotional states are expressed through body movement, but cognitive neuroscientists have almost exclusively considered isolated facial expressions (for review, see [4]). Here we used high-field fMRI to determine the underlying neural mechanisms of perception of body expression of emotion. Subjects were presented with short blocks of body expressions of fear alternating with short blocks of emotionally neutral meaningful body gestures. All images had internal facial features blurred out to avoid confounds due to a face or facial expression. We show that exposure to body expressions of fear, as opposed to neutral body postures, activates the fusiform gyrus and the amygdala. The fact that these two areas have previously been associated with the processing of faces and facial expressions [5-8] suggests synergies between facial and body-action expressions of emotion. Our findings open a new area of investigation of the role of body expressions of emotion in adaptive behavior as well as the relation between processes of emotion recognition in the face and in the body.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hadjikhani2003,
      author = {Hadjikhani, N and de Gelder, B},
      title = {Seeing fearful body expressions activates the fusiform cortex and amygdala},
      journal = {CURRENT BIOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {13},
      number = {24},
      pages = {2201-2205}
    }
    
    Hakanen, J., Bakker, A. & Schaufeli, W. Burnout and work engagement among teachers {2006} JOURNAL OF SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {43}({6}), pp. {495-513} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The Job Demands-Resources Model was used as the basis of the proposal that there are two parallel processes involved in work-related well-being among teachers, namely an energetical process (i.e., job dernands -> burnout -> ill -> health) and a motivational process (i.e., job resources -> engagement -> organizational commitment). In addition, some cross-links between both processes were hypothesized. Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously test the hypotheses in a sample of Finnish teachers (N=2038). The results confirmed the existence of both processes, although the energetical process seems to be more prominent. More specifically, (1) burnout mediated the effect of high job demands on ill health, (2) work engagement mediated the effects of job resources on organizational commitment, and (3) burnout mediated the effects of lacking resources on poor engagement. The robustness of these findings is underscored by the fact that the were obtained in one half of the sample (using random selection) and cross-validated in the other half. (c) 2005 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hakanen2006,
      author = {Hakanen, JJ and Bakker, AB and Schaufeli, WB},
      title = {Burnout and work engagement among teachers},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {43},
      number = {6},
      pages = {495-513},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.jsp.2005.11.001}}
    }
    
    HALDEMAN, D. THE PRACTICE AND ETHICS OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION CONVERSION THERAPY {1994} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {62}({2}), pp. {221-227} 
    article  
    Abstract: Sexual orientation conversion therapy was the treatment of choice when homosexuality was thought to be an illness. Despite the declassification of homosexuality as a mental illness, efforts to sexually reorient lesbians and gay men continue. The construct of sexual orientation is examined, as well as what constitutes its change. The literature in psychotherapeutic and religious conversion therapies is reviewed, showing no evidence indicating that such treatments are effective in their intended purpose. A need for empirical data on the potentially harmful effects of such treatments is established. Ethical considerations relative to the ongoing stigmatizing effects of conversion therapies are presented. The need to develop more complex models for conceptualizing sexual orientation is discussed, as well as the need to provide treatments to gay men and lesbians that are consonant with psychology's stance on homosexuality.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HALDEMAN1994,
      author = {HALDEMAN, DC},
      title = {THE PRACTICE AND ETHICS OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION CONVERSION THERAPY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {62},
      number = {2},
      pages = {221-227}
    }
    
    Halpern, D. Teaching critical thinking for transfer across domains - Dispositions, skills, structure training, and metacognitive monitoring {1998} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {53}({4}), pp. {449-455} 
    article  
    Abstract: Advances in technology and changes in necessary workplace skills have made the ability to think critically more important than ever before, yet there is ample evidence that many adults consistently engage in flawed thinking. Numerous studies have shown that critical thinking, defined as the deliberate use of skills and strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcome, can be learned in ways that promote transfer to novel contexts. A 4-part empirically based model is proposed to guide teaching and learning for critical thinking: (a) a dispositional component to prepare learners for effortful cognitive work, (b) instruction in the skills of critical thinking, (c) training in the structural aspects of problems and arguments to promote transcontextual transfer of critical-thinking skills, and (d) a metacognitive component that includes checking for accuracy and monitoring progress reward the goal.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Halpern1998,
      author = {Halpern, DF},
      title = {Teaching critical thinking for transfer across domains - Dispositions, skills, structure training, and metacognitive monitoring},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {53},
      number = {4},
      pages = {449-455},
      note = {105th Annual Convention of the American-Psychological-Association, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, AUG 14-19, 1997}
    }
    
    HAMMERMEISTER, K., JOHNSON, R., MARSHALL, G. & GROVER, F. CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT AND IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY OF CARE - A MODEL FROM THE DEPARTMENT-OF-VETERANS-AFFAIRS CARDIAC-SURGERY {1994} ANNALS OF SURGERY
    Vol. {219}({3}), pp. {281-290} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective The authors organized the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Continuous Improvement in Cardiac Surgery Study (CICSS) to provide risk-adjusted outcome data for the continuous assessment and improvement of quality of care for all patients undergoing cardiac surgery in the VA. Background The use of risk-adjusted outcomes to monitor quality of health care has the potential advantage over consensus-derived standards of being free of preconceived biases about how health care should be provided. Monitoring outcomes of all health care episodes, as opposed to review of selected cases (e.g., adverse outcomes), has the advantages of greater statistical power, the opportunity to compare processes of care between good and bad outcomes, and the positive psychology of treating all providers equally. These two concepts, together with a pre-existing peer committee (the VA Cardiac Surgery Consultants Committee) to review, interpret, and act on the risk-adjusted outcome data, form the primary design considerations for CICSS. Methods Patient-level risk and outcome (operative mortality and morbidity) data are collected prospectively on each of the approximately 7000 patients undergoing cardiac surgery in the VA each year. These outcomes, adjusted for patient risk using logistic regression, are provided every 6 months to each cardiac surgery program and to a national peer review committee for internal and external quality assessment and improvement. Results For the most recent 12-month period with complete data collection, observed-to-expected (O/E) ratios ranged from 0.2 to 2.2, with eight centers falling outside of the 90% confidence limits for an O/E ratio equaling 1.0. The O/E ratio for all centers has fallen by 14% over the 4.5-year period of this program (p = 0.06). Conclusions A large-scale, low-cost program of continuous quality improvement using risk-adjusted outcome is feasible. This program has been associated with a decrease in risk-adjusted operative mortality.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HAMMERMEISTER1994,
      author = {HAMMERMEISTER, KE and JOHNSON, R and MARSHALL, G and GROVER, FL},
      title = {CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT AND IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY OF CARE - A MODEL FROM THE DEPARTMENT-OF-VETERANS-AFFAIRS CARDIAC-SURGERY},
      journal = {ANNALS OF SURGERY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {219},
      number = {3},
      pages = {281-290}
    }
    
    Hansen, J., Holm, L., Frewer, L., Robinson, P. & Sandoe, P. Beyond the knowledge deficit: recent research into lay and expert attitudes to food risks {2003} APPETITE
    Vol. {41}({2}), pp. {111-121} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The paper reviews psychological and social scientific research on lay attitudes to food risks. Many experts (scientists, food producers and public health advisors) regard public unease about food risks as excessive. This expert-lay discrepancy is often attributed to a `knowledge deficit' among lay people. However, much research in psychology and sociology suggests that lay risk assessments are complex, situationally sensitive expressions of personal value systems. The paper is organised around four themes: risk perception, the communication of risk, lay handling of risk, and public trust in institutions and experts. It suggests that an interdisciplinary, contextualised and psychologically sound approach to the study of risk is needed. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hansen2003,
      author = {Hansen, J and Holm, L and Frewer, L and Robinson, P and Sandoe, P},
      title = {Beyond the knowledge deficit: recent research into lay and expert attitudes to food risks},
      journal = {APPETITE},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {41},
      number = {2},
      pages = {111-121},
      doi = {{10.1016/S0195-6663(03)00079-5}}
    }
    
    HAPPEL, B. & MURRE, J. DESIGN AND EVOLUTION OF MODULAR NEURAL-NETWORK ARCHITECTURES {1994} NEURAL NETWORKS
    Vol. {7}({6-7}), pp. {985-1004} 
    article  
    Abstract: To investigate the relations between structure and function in both artificial and natural neural networks, we present a series of simulations and analyses with modular neural networks. We suggest a number of design principles in the form of explicit ways in which neural modules can cooperate in recognition tasks. These results may supplement recent accounts of the relation between structure and function in the brain. The networks used consist of several modules, standard subnetworks that serve as higher order units with a distinct structure and function. The simulations rely on a particular network module called the categorizing and learning module. This module, developed mainly for unsupervised categorization and learning, is able to adjust its local learning dynamics. The way in which modules are interconnected is an important determinant of the learning and categorization behaviour of the network as a whole. Based on arguments derived from neuroscience, psychology, computational learning theory, and hardware implementation, a framework for the design of such modular networks is presented. A number of small-scale simulation studies shows how intermodule connectivity patterns implement `'neural assemblies'' that induce a particular category structure in the network. Learning and categorization improves because the induced categories are more compatible with the structure of the task domain. In addition to structural compatibility, two other principles of design are proposed that underlie information processing in interactive activation networks: replication and recurrence. Because a general theory for relating network architectures to specific neural functions does not exist, we extend the biological metaphor of neural networks, by applying genetic algorithms (a biocomputing method for search and optimization based on natural selection and evolution) to search for optimal modular network architectures for learning a visual categorization task. The best performing network architectures seemed to have reproduced some of the overall characteristics of the natural visual system, such as the organization of coarse and fine processing of stimuli in separate pathways. A potentially important result is that a genetically defined initial architecture cannot only enhance learning and recognition performance, but it can also induce a system to better generalize its learned behaviour to instances never encountered before. This may explain why for many vital learning tasks in organisms only a minimal exposure to relevant stimuli is necessary.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HAPPEL1994,
      author = {HAPPEL, BLM and MURRE, JMJ},
      title = {DESIGN AND EVOLUTION OF MODULAR NEURAL-NETWORK ARCHITECTURES},
      journal = {NEURAL NETWORKS},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {7},
      number = {6-7},
      pages = {985-1004}
    }
    
    Hardy, L. The Coleman Roberts Griffith Address: Three myths about applied consultancy work {1997} JOURNAL OF APPLIED SPORT PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {9}({2}), pp. {277-294} 
    article  
    Abstract: Three recommendations that are commonly made in the applied sport psychology literature are discussed. These three recommendations are : 1) cognitive anxiety is always detrimental to performance and should therefore be reduced whenever possible; 2) outcome goals and ego-orientations have a detrimental effect on a number performance-related variables, so that performers should be encouraged to set performance rather than outcome goals; 3) internal visual imagery is more beneficial to performance than external visual imagery, so performers should always be encouraged to use visual imagery from an internal perspective. For each of these recommendations, empirical and experiential evidence is presented which challenges the recommendation. Alternative refinements to the recommendations are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hardy1997,
      author = {Hardy, L},
      title = {The Coleman Roberts Griffith Address: Three myths about applied consultancy work},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED SPORT PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {9},
      number = {2},
      pages = {277-294}
    }
    
    HAREMUSTIN, R. DISCOURSES IN THE MIRRORED ROOM - A POSTMODERN ANALYSIS OF THERAPY {1994} FAMILY PROCESS
    Vol. {33}({1}), pp. {19-35} 
    article  
    Abstract: A postmodern approach is used to examine the discourses that circulate in the therapy room. Dominant discourses support and reflect the prevailing ideologies in the society. Three ready examples concern gender relations: the male sex drive discourse, the permissive discourse, and the marriage-between-equals discourse. I point out how the therapy room is a mirrored room that can reflect back only the discourses brought to it by the family and therapist. There is a predetermined content in the conversation of therapy: that provided by the dominant discourses of the language community and culture. I suggest that therapists need to develop a reflexive awareness if muted discourses are to enter the mirrored room.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HAREMUSTIN1994,
      author = {HAREMUSTIN, RT},
      title = {DISCOURSES IN THE MIRRORED ROOM - A POSTMODERN ANALYSIS OF THERAPY},
      journal = {FAMILY PROCESS},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {33},
      number = {1},
      pages = {19-35},
      note = {International Conference on Narrative and Psychotherapy: New Directions in Theory and Practice for the 21st-Century, HOUSTON, TX, MAY, 1991}
    }
    
    Harris, G. & Rice, M. Risk appraisal and management of violent behavior {1997} PSYCHIATRIC SERVICES
    Vol. {48}({9}), pp. {1168-1176} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To help clinicians enhance the safety of the public, hospital staff, and patients and improve patient management, this article briefly reviews recent empirical work on appraisal of the risk of violence and the management of violent individuals. Methods: Research on the prediction, management, and treatment of violent persons published in the last decade was reviewed. Results: Risk appraisal research indicates that violence is predictable in some populations. The factors most highly and consistently related to risk are historical, including age, sex, past antisocial and violent conduct, psychopathy, aggressive childhood behavior, and substance abuse. Major mental disorder and psychiatric disturbance are poor predictors of violence. Actuarial methods are more accurate in predicting risk than unaided clinical judgment, which is a poor index. The Violence Risk Appraisal Guide has been shown to be a reliable and accurate actuarial instrument. Well-controlled studies have shown the effectiveness of behavior therapy and of behavioral staff training programs to reduce violence by persons in institutions, chronic psychiatric patients, and other populations. Otherwise, little is known about what psychotherapeutic or pharmacological treatments reduce violent recidivism by which clients under what circumstances. Recent work on the neurophysiology of aggression holds exciting promise but does not vet provide a scientific basis for prescriptive treatment. Conclusions: The most exciting and promising avenues for research on the management of violence lie in the joining of two scientific paths to understanding violence-biology and psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Harris1997,
      author = {Harris, GT and Rice, ME},
      title = {Risk appraisal and management of violent behavior},
      journal = {PSYCHIATRIC SERVICES},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {48},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1168-1176}
    }
    
    Hawe, P., Noort, M., King, L. & Jordens, C. Multiplying Health Gains: The critical role of capacity-building within health promotion programs {1997} HEALTH POLICY
    Vol. {39}({1}), pp. {29-42} 
    article  
    Abstract: Health outcomes in populations are the product of three factors: (1) the size of effect of the intervention; (2) the reach or penetration of an intervention into a population and (3) the sustainability of the effect. The last factor is crucial. In recent years, many health promotion workers have moved the focus of their efforts away from the immediate population group or environment of interest towards making other health workers and other organisations responsible for, and more capable of, conducting health promotion programs, maintaining those programs and initiating others. `Capacity-building' by health promotion workers, to enhance the capacity of the system to prolong and multiply health effects thus represents a `value added' dimension to the health outcomes offered by any particular health promotion program. The value of this activity will become apparent in the long term, with methods to detect multiple types of health outcomes. But in the short term its value will be difficult to assess unless we devise specific measures to detect it. At present the term `capacity-building' is conceptualised and assessed in different ways in the health promotion literature. Development of reliable indicators of capacity-building which could be used both in program planning and in program evaluation will need to take this into account. Such work will provide health-decision makers with information about program potential at the conclusion of the funding period, which could be factored into resource allocation decisions, in addition to the usual information about a program's impact on health outcomes. By program potential, we mean ability to reap greater and wider health gains.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hawe1997,
      author = {Hawe, P and Noort, M and King, L and Jordens, C},
      title = {Multiplying Health Gains: The critical role of capacity-building within health promotion programs},
      journal = {HEALTH POLICY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {39},
      number = {1},
      pages = {29-42}
    }
    
    HEATH, C. ESCALATION AND DE-ESCALATION OF COMMITMENT IN RESPONSE TO SUNK COSTS - THE ROLE OF BUDGETING IN MENTAL ACCOUNTING {1995} ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES
    Vol. {62}({1}), pp. {38-54} 
    article  
    Abstract: Research has traditionally assumed that people increase investment (or `'escalate commitment'') in response to previous investments (sunk costs). This paper presents several demonstrations which show that people will incorrectly de-escalate investment in response to sunk costs. I propose that people set mental budgets to control their resource expenditures: they set a budget for a class of expenses and track their investments against their budget. A lab study with real monetary incentives shows support for de-escalation and supports a specific rule for how people set budgets-based on the breakeven of total costs and total benefits. The budgeting process suggests that people are only likely to escalate commitment when they fail to set a budget or when expenses are difficult to track. The later part of the paper organizes the previous literature on escalation around these processes and provides additional experiments to illustrate each point. For example, I argue that previous demonstrations that have shown errors of escalation exclusively involve `'incidental'' investments that are difficult to track. A study in the current paper shows that people are more willing to invest time than money to salvage a monetary sunk cost and more willing to invest money than time to salvage a sunk cost of time, even when the time and money investments are of equal value. The paper concludes by discussing the rationality of escalation and de-escalation. (C) 1995 Academic Press, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HEATH1995,
      author = {HEATH, C},
      title = {ESCALATION AND DE-ESCALATION OF COMMITMENT IN RESPONSE TO SUNK COSTS - THE ROLE OF BUDGETING IN MENTAL ACCOUNTING},
      journal = {ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {62},
      number = {1},
      pages = {38-54}
    }
    
    HEBB, D. WHAT PSYCHOLOGY IS ABOUT {1974} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {29}({2}), pp. {71-79} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HEBB1974,
      author = {HEBB, DO},
      title = {WHAT PSYCHOLOGY IS ABOUT},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1974},
      volume = {29},
      number = {2},
      pages = {71-79}
    }
    
    HEIMER, C. SOCIAL-STRUCTURE, PSYCHOLOGY, AND THE ESTIMATION OF RISK {1988} ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY
    Vol. {14}, pp. {491-519} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HEIMER1988,
      author = {HEIMER, CA},
      title = {SOCIAL-STRUCTURE, PSYCHOLOGY, AND THE ESTIMATION OF RISK},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {14},
      pages = {491-519}
    }
    
    Heine, S. Self as cultural product: An examination of East Asian and North American selves {2001} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {69}({6}), pp. {881-906} 
    article  
    Abstract: In the past decade a wealth of research has been conducted on the cultural foundation of the self-concept, particularly with respect to East Asian and North American selves. The present paper discusses how the self differs across these two cultural contexts, particularly with respect to an emphasis on consistency versus flexibility, an intraindividual versus an extraindividual focus, the malleability of the self versus world, the relation of self to others, and self-enhancing versus self-critical motivations. These differences reveal the manifold ways that culture shapes the self.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Heine2001,
      author = {Heine, SJ},
      title = {Self as cultural product: An examination of East Asian and North American selves},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {69},
      number = {6},
      pages = {881-906}
    }
    
    Heine, S., Takata, T. & Lehman, D. Beyond self-presentation: Evidence for self-criticism among Japanese {2000} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {26}({1}), pp. {71-78} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although a robust finding in cross-cultural research is that Japanese exhibit less self-enhancement than North Americans, all of these studies have employed questionnaire measures susceptible to self-presentational biases. The present study assessed self-enhancement in a laboratory that covertly measured participants' behaviors. Whereas Canadians were reluctant to conclude that they had performed worse than their average classmate, Japanese were hesitant to conclude that they had performed better This research provides evidence that cultural differences in self-enhancement and self-criticism go beyond mere self-presentation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Heine2000,
      author = {Heine, SJ and Takata, T and Lehman, DR},
      title = {Beyond self-presentation: Evidence for self-criticism among Japanese},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {26},
      number = {1},
      pages = {71-78}
    }
    
    Helms, J., Jernigan, M. & Mascher, J. The meaning of race in psychology and how to change it - A methodological perspective {2005} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {60}({1}), pp. {27-36} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The primary purpose of this article was to offer a methodological critique in support of arguments that racial categories should be replaced as explanatory constructs in psychological research and theory. To accomplish this goal, the authors (a) summarized arguments for why racial categories should be replaced; (b) used principles of the scientific method to show; that racial categories lack conceptual meaning; (c) identified common errors in researchers' measurement, statistical analyses, and interpretation of racial categories as independent variables; and (d) used hierarchical regression analysis to illustrate a strategy for replacing racial categories in research designs with cone-ceptual variables. Implications for changing the study of race in psychology are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Helms2005,
      author = {Helms, JE and Jernigan, M and Mascher, J},
      title = {The meaning of race in psychology and how to change it - A methodological perspective},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {60},
      number = {1},
      pages = {27-36},
      doi = {{10.1037/0003-066X.60.1.27}}
    }
    
    HELMS, J. & PIPER, R. IMPLICATIONS OF RACIAL IDENTITY THEORY FOR VOCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY {1994} JOURNAL OF VOCATIONAL BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {44}({2}), pp. {124-138} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this paper, we argue that racial identity theory has the potential to explain some aspects of vocational development. However, we hypothesize that its heuristic value would be maximized by deliberatively focusing on the racial aspects of vocational development at the individual and systemic levels. Toward encouraging the use of racial identity theory in vocational psychology, we discuss the concepts of career salience, satisfaction, and satisfactoriness. (C) 1994 Academic Press, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HELMS1994,
      author = {HELMS, JE and PIPER, RE},
      title = {IMPLICATIONS OF RACIAL IDENTITY THEORY FOR VOCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF VOCATIONAL BEHAVIOR},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {44},
      number = {2},
      pages = {124-138}
    }
    
    Hemphill, J. Interpreting the magnitudes of correlation coefficients {2003} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {58}({1}), pp. {78-79} 
    article DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hemphill2003,
      author = {Hemphill, JF},
      title = {Interpreting the magnitudes of correlation coefficients},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {58},
      number = {1},
      pages = {78-79},
      doi = {{10.1037/0003-066X.58.1.78}}
    }
    
    Henington, C., Hughes, J., Cavell, T. & Thompson, B. The role of relational aggression in identifying aggressive boys and girls {1998} JOURNAL OF SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {36}({4}), pp. {457-477} 
    article  
    Abstract: Peer perceptions of relational and overt aggression and Deer evaluations of social competencies were obtained for 461 boys and 443 girls in second and third grades. In contrast to Crick and Grotpeter (1995), boys obtained higher relational and overt aggression scores than girls, and the relation between both types of aggression and peer evaluations were similar for boys and girls. When controlling for levels of overt aggression, relational aggression made a statistically significant but small-contribution to the prediction of both peer-evaluated competencies and teacher ratings of aggression in boys and girls. Analyses treating relational and overt aggression as categorical variables revealed gender differences in the prevalence and corresponding sociometric status of aggressive subtypes. When peer-rated relational aggression status is not considered, 60% of aggressive girls, compared to 7% of aggressive boys, are not identified as aggressive. High levels of overt aggression were more likely to result in peer rejection for girls than for boys, in a subsample of 112 children, peer-rated relational aggression contributed more to the discrimination of teacher-identified aggressive and nonaggressive girls, whereas peer-rated overt aggression contributed more to the discrimination of teacher-identified aggressive and nonaggressive boys. (C) 1998 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Henington1998,
      author = {Henington, C and Hughes, JN and Cavell, TA and Thompson, B},
      title = {The role of relational aggression in identifying aggressive boys and girls},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {36},
      number = {4},
      pages = {457-477}
    }
    
    Herdman, M., FoxRushby, J. & Badia, X. `Equivalence' and the translation and adaptation of health-related quality of life questionnaires {1997} QUALITY OF LIFE RESEARCH
    Vol. {6}({3}), pp. {237-247} 
    article  
    Abstract: The increasing use of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaires in multinational studies has resulted in the translation of many existing measures. Guidelines for translation have been published, and there has been some discussion of how to achieve and assess equivalence between source and target questionnaires. Our reading in this area had led us, however, to the conclusion that different types of equivalence were not clearly defined, and that a theoretical framework for equivalence was lacking. To confirm this we reviewed definitions of equivalence in the HRQOL literature on the use of generic questionnaires in multicultural settings. The literature review revealed: definitions of 19 different types of equivalence; vague or conflicting definitions, particularly in the case of conceptual equivalence; and the use of many redundant terms. We discuss these findings in the light of a framework adapted from cross-cultural psychology for describing three different orientations to cross-cultural research: absolutism, universalism and relativism. We suggest that the HRQOL field has generally adopted an absolutist approach and that this may account for some of the confusion in this area. We conclude by suggesting that there is an urgent need for a standardized terminology within the HRQOL field, by offering a standard definition of conceptual equivalence, and by suggesting that the adoption of a universalist orientation would require substantial changes to guidelines and more empirical work on the conceptualization of HRQOL in different cultures.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Herdman1997,
      author = {Herdman, M and FoxRushby, J and Badia, X},
      title = {`Equivalence' and the translation and adaptation of health-related quality of life questionnaires},
      journal = {QUALITY OF LIFE RESEARCH},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {237-247},
      note = {4th International Social Science Methodology Conference, COLCHESTER, ENGLAND, JUL 02, 1996}
    }
    
    HERMANS, D. & DEHOUWER, J. AFFECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE FAMILIARITY RATINGS OF 740 DUTCH WORDS {1994} PSYCHOLOGICA BELGICA
    Vol. {34}({2-3}), pp. {115-139} 
    article  
    Abstract: Based on a sample of 145 Flemish first year psychology students at the University of Leuven (Belgium), affective and subjective familiarity norms were obtained for 740 Dutch words. One group of students (N = 64) rated 370 nouns, and a second group (N = 81) rated 370 personality-trait words on seven-point visual analogue scales, both for the positive-negative, and familiar-unfamiliar dimensions. Test-retest and inter-rate reliability coefficients were very high for both wordsets and response-types. The mean ratings and their standard deviations are presented in the Appendix. Gender differences for specific words are tabulated, and the observed association between the affective and the familiarity ratings is discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HERMANS1994,
      author = {HERMANS, D and DEHOUWER, J},
      title = {AFFECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE FAMILIARITY RATINGS OF 740 DUTCH WORDS},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICA BELGICA},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {34},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {115-139}
    }
    
    HEWSTONE, M., ISLAM, M. & JUDD, C. MODELS OF CROSSED CATEGORIZATION AND INTERGROUP RELATIONS {1993} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {64}({5}), pp. {779-793} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two studies explored 6 models of crossed categorization. In Experiment 1, Muslims (majority) and Hindus (minority) in Bangladesh evaluated 1 of 4 target groups created by crossing religion (Hindu or Muslim) and nationality (Bangladeshi or Indian) and then rated the target group's perceived variability. Experiment 2 was an extension of the research. including new measures. Both studies showed additive effects of religion and nationality, as predicted by 3 models, a strong effect of category dominance for religion, and out-group homogeneity only when the religious in-group was the dominant and majority group in its country. Experiment 2 also showed a significant relationship between discrimination based on religion and self-esteem and marginal support for the hierarchical ordering model. When and how specific models of crossed categorization might operate in different intergroup contexts are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HEWSTONE1993,
      author = {HEWSTONE, M and ISLAM, MR and JUDD, CM},
      title = {MODELS OF CROSSED CATEGORIZATION AND INTERGROUP RELATIONS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {64},
      number = {5},
      pages = {779-793}
    }
    
    Higgins, E. How self-regulation creates distinct values: The case of promotion and prevention decision making {2002} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {12}({3}), pp. {177-191} 
    article  
    Abstract: I propose that different relations among basic components of self-regulation produce distinct types of decision value: (a) Outcome value is produced when the consequences of a decision are relevant to the regulatory orientation of the decision maker, (b) value from fit is produced when goal pursuit means suit the regulatory orientation of the decision maker, and (c) value from proper means is produced when goal pursuit means are in agreement with established rules and normative principles. I use the regulatory focus distinction between promotion focus concerns with aspirations and accomplishments and prevention focus concerns with safety and responsibilities (Higgins, 1997, 1998) to illustrate outcome value and value from fit. Justification of a decision is used to illustrate value from proper means. I propose that decision makers are unlikely to distinguish among their experiences of these 3 types of value, and thus value from fit and value from proper means can be transferred to outcome value. I present evidence of such value transfer and consider its implications for value to the customer. I also reconsider sunk costs and the endowment effect in light of there being value beyond outcome value.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Higgins2002,
      author = {Higgins, ET},
      title = {How self-regulation creates distinct values: The case of promotion and prevention decision making},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {12},
      number = {3},
      pages = {177-191}
    }
    
    HILGARD, E. CONSCIOUSNESS IN CONTEMPORARY-PSYCHOLOGY {1980} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {31}, pp. {1-26} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HILGARD1980,
      author = {HILGARD, ER},
      title = {CONSCIOUSNESS IN CONTEMPORARY-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {31},
      pages = {1-26}
    }
    
    HILL, C. & CORBETT, M. A PERSPECTIVE ON THE HISTORY OF PROCESS AND OUTCOME RESEARCH IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY {1993} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {40}({1}), pp. {3-24} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article traces the development of process and outcome research from before the foundation of counseling psychology in 1946 to the present time. First, theoretical contributions are focused on, with particular attention to the influence of Carl Rogers's theory, behavior theory, psychoanalytic theory, systems theory, interpersonal theory, and social influence theory. Next, Eysenck's challenge to the efficacy of psychotherapy; the uniformity myth that process and outcome are similar across diverse clients, therapists, and contexts; and changes in research methods over the years are covered. The article concludes with recommendations for future research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HILL1993,
      author = {HILL, CE and CORBETT, MM},
      title = {A PERSPECTIVE ON THE HISTORY OF PROCESS AND OUTCOME RESEARCH IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {40},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-24}
    }
    
    Hill, C., Rogers, R. & Bickford, M. Predicting aggressive and socially disruptive behavior in a maximum security forensic psychiatric hospital {1996} JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES
    Vol. {41}({1}), pp. {56-59} 
    article  
    Abstract: The predictive utility of Hare, Hart, and Cox's Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version (PCL:SV) was assessed utilizing a sample of forensic psychiatric patients from Vernon State Hospital in Vernon, Texas. A sample of 55 patients were interviewed and rated on the PCL:SV. During a six month follow up, occurrences of self-harm (suicide attempts and self mutilation), aggression (verbal abuse and threats, irritability, belligerence, and fighting) escape potential (threats and attempts), and treatment refusal (medication, tests, and physician's appointments) were rated. Separate stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed utilizing patient's age, type of charges, documented history of alcohol/drug abuse and the PCL:SV as predictor variables. Results indicate that the PCL:SV is predictive of aggression and treatment noncompliance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hill1996,
      author = {Hill, CD and Rogers, R and Bickford, ME},
      title = {Predicting aggressive and socially disruptive behavior in a maximum security forensic psychiatric hospital},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {41},
      number = {1},
      pages = {56-59}
    }
    
    HIRSCHFELD, L. DO CHILDREN HAVE A THEORY OF RACE {1995} COGNITION
    Vol. {54}({2}), pp. {209-252} 
    article  
    Abstract: In recent years a number of studies have detailed young children's enriched, domain-specific, and theory-like understanding in several cognitive domains, including naive biology, naive psychology, and reasoning about physical objects. With few exceptions, students of cognition have not considered the possibility that the acquisition and representation of social categories may also be governed by a specialized faculty for understanding. Rather, most accounts of children's social categorization assume that the classification of the human realm is derived from observations of superficial differences in appearance and does not include expectations of deeper commonalities among category members. Five experiments are reported that challenge this view. The results indicate that young children's inferences about human racial variation involve domain-specific reasoning that parallels but is distinct from common sense understanding of naive biology. These findings have implications for our understanding of the transfer of knowledge across domains and for determining the appropriate level of description of domain-specific devices.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HIRSCHFELD1995,
      author = {HIRSCHFELD, LA},
      title = {DO CHILDREN HAVE A THEORY OF RACE},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {54},
      number = {2},
      pages = {209-252}
    }
    
    Hjorland, B. Domain analysis in information science - Eleven approaches - traditional as well as innovative {2002} JOURNAL OF DOCUMENTATION
    Vol. {58}({4}), pp. {422-462} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: What kind of knowledge is needed by information specialists working in a specific subject field like medicine, sociology or music? What approaches have been used in information science to produce kinds of domain-specific knowledge? This article presents 11 approaches to domain analysis. Together these approaches make a unique competence for information specialists. The approaches are: producing literature guides and subject gateways; producing special classifications and thesauri; research on indexing and retrieving specialities; empirical user studies; bibliometrical studies; historical studies; document and genre studies; epistemological and critical studies; terminological studies, LSP (languages for special purposes), discourse studies; studies of structures and institutions in scientific communication; and domain analysis in professional cognition and artificial intelligence. Specific examples and selective reviews of literature are provided, and the strengths and drawbacks of each of these approaches are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hjorland2002,
      author = {Hjorland, B},
      title = {Domain analysis in information science - Eleven approaches - traditional as well as innovative},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF DOCUMENTATION},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {58},
      number = {4},
      pages = {422-462},
      doi = {{10.1108/00220410210431136}}
    }
    
    Hjorland, B. Epistemology and the socio-cognitive perspective in information science {2002} JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    Vol. {53}({4}), pp. {257-270} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This article presents a socio-cognitive perspective in relation to information science (IS) and information retrieval (IR). The differences between traditional cognitive views and the socio-cognitive or domain-analytic view are outlined. It is claimed that, given elementary skills in computer-based retrieval, people are basically interacting with representations of subject literatures in IR. The kind of knowledge needed to interact with representations of subject literatures is discussed. It is shown how different approaches or ``paradigms'' in the represented literature imply different information needs and relevance criteria (which users typically cannot express very well, which is why IS cannot primarily rely on user studies). These principles are exemplified by comparing behaviorism, cognitivism, psychoanalysis, and neuroscience as approaches in psychology. The relevance criteria implicit in each position are outlined, and empirical data are provided to prove the theoretical claims. It is further shown that the most general level of relevance criteria is implied by epistemological theories. The article concludes that the fundamental problems of IS and IR are based in epistemology, which therefore becomes the most important allied field for IS.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hjorland2002a,
      author = {Hjorland, B},
      title = {Epistemology and the socio-cognitive perspective in information science},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {53},
      number = {4},
      pages = {257-270},
      doi = {{10.1002/asi.10042}}
    }
    
    HOBFOLL, S. & LILLY, R. RESOURCE CONSERVATION AS A STRATEGY FOR COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY {1993} JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {21}({2}), pp. {128-148} 
    article  
    Abstract: Conservation of resources (COR) theory (Hobfoll, 1988, 1989) was applied to social intervention and research. COR theory depicts resource loss as disproportionately weighted in comparison to resource gain. COR theory further posits that to prevent resource loss or establish resources, other resources must be invested. Resources contribute to further resource gain, whereas lack of resources contributes to ongoing resource loss. Consequently, people, groups, or organizations that are endowed with strong personal or social resource reserves should better resist the deleterious effects of stress and withstand everyday challenges. One of the basic principles of the theory - that loss is disproportionately weighted compared to gain - was tested in two samples and strongly supported. Implications of the model for intervention were discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HOBFOLL1993,
      author = {HOBFOLL, SE and LILLY, RS},
      title = {RESOURCE CONSERVATION AS A STRATEGY FOR COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {21},
      number = {2},
      pages = {128-148}
    }
    
    Hofer, B. Personal epistemology research: Implications for learning and teaching {2001} EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {13}({4}), pp. {353-383} 
    article  
    Abstract: The ideas that individuals hold about knowledge and knowing have been the target of research programs with disparate names, such as epistemological beliefs, reflective judgment, ways of knowing, and epistemological reflection, all of which appear to be a part of a larger body of work on ``personal epistemology. `` Epistemological perspectives are salient in numerous academic experiences, have been shown to be related to learning in various ways, influence reasoning and judgment throughout our lives, and have implications for teaching. Yet this work has remained outside the mainstream of educational psychology and cognitive development. This paper addresses three main questions: (1) What is personal epistemology research and how is it conceptualized? (2) How are individuals' conceptions of epistemology related to learning and instruction? (3) Given what we know about personal epistemology, what might educators do? Suggestions are also provided for future research and theoretical development.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hofer2001,
      author = {Hofer, BK},
      title = {Personal epistemology research: Implications for learning and teaching},
      journal = {EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {13},
      number = {4},
      pages = {353-383}
    }
    
    Hoffman, E., McCabe, K. & Smith, V. Behavioral foundations of reciprocity: Experimental economics and evolutionary psychology {1998} ECONOMIC INQUIRY
    Vol. {36}({3}), pp. {335-352} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hoffman1998,
      author = {Hoffman, E and McCabe, KA and Smith, VL},
      title = {Behavioral foundations of reciprocity: Experimental economics and evolutionary psychology},
      journal = {ECONOMIC INQUIRY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {36},
      number = {3},
      pages = {335-352}
    }
    
    Holden, E., Deichmann, M. & Levy, J. Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: Recurrent pediatric headache {1999} JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {24}({2}), pp. {91-109} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To review the empirical research examining behavioral treatments for recurrent pediatric headache. Methods: Thirty-one investigations published after 1980 were reviewed using predetermined criteria to evaluate the adequacy of research methodologies. A modification of criteria proposed for evaluating the efficacy of psychological interventions for adults (Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, 1995) was used to evaluate the adequacy of evidence available for individual intervention strategies. Results: Sufficient evidence exists to conclude that relaxation/self-hypnosis is a well-established and efficacious treatment for recurrent headache. Furthermore, enough evidence exists to conclude that thermal biofeedback alone is a probably efficacious treatment. Other promising interventions have been tested that combine relaxation and biofeedback or integrate other cognitive-behavioral treatment approaches, but are limited by inadequate research methodologies. Conclusions: We discuss the importance of developmentally based conceptual models and the impact of diagnostic heterogeneity and offer specific recommendations for future intervention research in the area of recurrent pediatric headache.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Holden1999,
      author = {Holden, EW and Deichmann, MM and Levy, JD},
      title = {Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: Recurrent pediatric headache},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {24},
      number = {2},
      pages = {91-109}
    }
    
    HOLLAND, J., MAGOON, T. & SPOKANE, A. COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY - CAREER INTERVENTIONS, RESEARCH, AND THEORY {1981} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {32}, pp. {279-305} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HOLLAND1981,
      author = {HOLLAND, JL and MAGOON, TM and SPOKANE, AR},
      title = {COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY - CAREER INTERVENTIONS, RESEARCH, AND THEORY},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {32},
      pages = {279-305}
    }
    
    Holmbeck, G., Li, S., Schurman, J., Friedman, D. & Coakley, R. Collecting and managing multisource and multimethod data in studies of pediatric populations {2002} JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {27}({1}), pp. {5-18} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To provide recommendations for the collection and management of multisource and multimethod data in studies of children and adolescents with pediatric conditions. Methods: We discuss limitations of single-source and single-method data collection strategies. We review strategies for collecting and managing multisource and multimethod data, including coverage of the literature on level of agreement across sources, strengths and weaknesses of various source and method aggregation strategies, and methods of examining discrepancies between sources. Results: Multisource and multimethod data collection strategies enable researchers to rule out alternative explanations for their findings and pose research questions that would probably not be testable with single-source, single-method data sets. Conclusions: We emphasize the utility of multisource and multimethod data and provide recommendations for future work.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Holmbeck2002,
      author = {Holmbeck, GN and Li, ST and Schurman, JV and Friedman, D and Coakley, RM},
      title = {Collecting and managing multisource and multimethod data in studies of pediatric populations},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {27},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5-18}
    }
    
    Holmes, E., Corrigan, P., Williams, P., Canar, J. & Kubiak, M. Changing attitudes about schizophrenia {1999} SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN
    Vol. {25}({3}), pp. {447-456} 
    article  
    Abstract: Research on the effectiveness of short-term education programs in changing societal attitudes about mental illness has been mixed. Education efforts seem to be mediated by characteristics of the program participants, This study determines whether the effects of a specially prepared, semester-long course on severe mental illness are mediated by pre-education knowledge about and contact with severe mental illness, Eighty-three participants who were enrolled in either a course on severe mental illness or general psychology completed the Opinions about Mental Illness Questionnaire before beginning the course and at completion. Research participants also completed a pre- and posttest of knowledge about mental illness and a pretest on their contact with people who have severe mental illness, The education program had positive effects on some attitudes about mental illness. Interestingly, the effects of education group interacted with pre-education knowledge and contact and varied depending on attitude. Participants with more pre-education knowledge and contact were less likely to endorse benevolence attitudes after completing the education program. Participants with more intimate contact showed less improvement in attitudes about social restrictiveness. Implications of these augmentation and ceiling effects are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Holmes1999,
      author = {Holmes, EP and Corrigan, PW and Williams, P and Canar, J and Kubiak, MA},
      title = {Changing attitudes about schizophrenia},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA BULLETIN},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {25},
      number = {3},
      pages = {447-456}
    }
    
    HOLT, R. YET ANOTHER LOOK AT CLINICAL AND STATISTICAL PREDICTION - OR, IS CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY WORTHWHILE {1970} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {25}({4}), pp. {337-349} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HOLT1970,
      author = {HOLT, RR},
      title = {YET ANOTHER LOOK AT CLINICAL AND STATISTICAL PREDICTION - OR, IS CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY WORTHWHILE},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1970},
      volume = {25},
      number = {4},
      pages = {337-349}
    }
    
    HOROWITZ, L., POST, D., FRENCH, R., WALLIS, K. & SIEGELMAN, E. THE PROTOTYPE AS A CONSTRUCT IN ABNORMAL-PSYCHOLOGY .2. CLARIFYING DISAGREEMENT IN PSYCHIATRIC JUDGMENTS {1981} JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {90}({6}), pp. {575-585} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HOROWITZ1981,
      author = {HOROWITZ, LM and POST, DL and FRENCH, RD and WALLIS, KD and SIEGELMAN, EY},
      title = {THE PROTOTYPE AS A CONSTRUCT IN ABNORMAL-PSYCHOLOGY .2. CLARIFYING DISAGREEMENT IN PSYCHIATRIC JUDGMENTS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {90},
      number = {6},
      pages = {575-585}
    }
    
    HOWARD, A., PION, G., GOTTFREDSON, G., FLATTAU, P., OSKAMP, S., PFAFFLIN, S., BRAY, D. & BURSTEIN, A. THE CHANGING FACE OF AMERICAN-PSYCHOLOGY - A REPORT FROM THE COMMITTEE-ON-EMPLOYMENT-AND-HUMAN-RESOURCES {1986} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {41}({12}), pp. {1311-1327} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HOWARD1986,
      author = {HOWARD, A and PION, GM and GOTTFREDSON, GD and FLATTAU, PE and OSKAMP, S and PFAFFLIN, SM and BRAY, DW and BURSTEIN, AG},
      title = {THE CHANGING FACE OF AMERICAN-PSYCHOLOGY - A REPORT FROM THE COMMITTEE-ON-EMPLOYMENT-AND-HUMAN-RESOURCES},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {41},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1311-1327}
    }
    
    Howard, J. Social psychology of identities {2000} ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY
    Vol. {26}, pp. {367-393} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this chapter I review the social psychological underpinnings of identity, emphasizing social cognitive and symbolic interactionist perspectives and research, and I turn then to key themes of current work on identity-social psychological, sociological, and interdisciplinary. I emphasize the social bases of identity, particularly identities based on ethnicity, race, sexuality, gender, class, age, and (dis)ability, both separately and as they intersect. I also take up identities based on space, both geographic and virtual. I discuss struggles over identities, organized by social inequalities, nationalisms, and social movements. I conclude by discussing postmodernist conceptions of identities as fluid, multidimensional, personalized social constructions that reflect sociohistorical contexts, approaches remarkably consistent with recent empirical social psychological research, and I argue explicitly for a politicized social psychology of identities that brings together the structures of everyday lives and the sociocultural realities in which those lives are lived.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Howard2000,
      author = {Howard, JA},
      title = {Social psychology of identities},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {26},
      pages = {367-393}
    }
    
    Hsee, C. & Rottenstreich, Y. Music, pandas, and muggers: On the affective psychology of value {2004} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL
    Vol. {133}({1}), pp. {23-30} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This research investigated the relationship between the magnitude or scope of a stimulus and its subjective value by contrasting 2 psychological processes that may be used to construct preferences: valuation by feeling and valuation by calculation. The results show that when people rely on feeling, they are sensitive to the presence or absence of a stimulus (i.e., the difference between 0 and some scope) but are largely insensitive to further variations of scope. In contrast, when people rely on calculation, they reveal relatively more constant sensitivity to scope. Thus, value is nearly a step function of scope when feeling predominates and is closer to a linear function when calculation predominates. These findings may allow for a novel interpretation of why most real-world value functions are concave and how the processes responsible for nonlinearity of value may also contribute to nonlinear probability weighting.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hsee2004,
      author = {Hsee, CK and Rottenstreich, Y},
      title = {Music, pandas, and muggers: On the affective psychology of value},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {133},
      number = {1},
      pages = {23-30},
      doi = {{10.1037/0096-3445.133.1.23}}
    }
    
    HUBA, G. & HARLOW, L. ROBUST STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELS - IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENTAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1987} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {58}({1}), pp. {147-166} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HUBA1987,
      author = {HUBA, GJ and HARLOW, LL},
      title = {ROBUST STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELS - IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENTAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {58},
      number = {1},
      pages = {147-166}
    }
    
    HULL, J., LEHN, D. & TEDLIE, J. A GENERAL-APPROACH TO TESTING MULTIFACETED PERSONALITY CONSTRUCTS {1991} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {61}({6}), pp. {932-945} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HULL1991,
      author = {HULL, JG and LEHN, DA and TEDLIE, JC},
      title = {A GENERAL-APPROACH TO TESTING MULTIFACETED PERSONALITY CONSTRUCTS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {61},
      number = {6},
      pages = {932-945}
    }
    
    Humphreys, G., Price, C. & Riddoch, M. From objects to names: A cognitive neuroscience approach {1999} PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH-PSYCHOLOGISCHE FORSCHUNG
    Vol. {62}({2-3}), pp. {118-130} 
    article  
    Abstract: To name an object, we need both to recognize it and to access the associated phonological form, and phonological retrieval itself may be constrained by aspects of the visual recognition process. This paper reviews evidence for such constraints, drawing on data from experimental psychology, neuropsychology, functional imaging, and computational modelling. Data on picture identification in normal observers demonstrate that the speed of name retrieval processes differs for natural objects and artifacts, due at least in part to differences in visual similarity between exemplars within these categories. Also, effects of variables on early and late stages of object identification combine in an interactive rather than an additive manner, consistent with object processing stages operating in a continuous rather than a discrete manner. Neuropsychological evidence supports this proposal, demonstrating that subtle perceptual deficits can produce naming problems, even when there is good access to associated semantic knowledge. Functional activation studies further show increased activity in visual processing areas when conditions stress object naming relative to the recognition of familiar object structures. These studies indicate that object naming is based on a series of continuous processing stages and that naming involves increased visual processing relative to recognition tasks. The data can be modelled within an interactive activation and competition framework.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Humphreys1999,
      author = {Humphreys, GW and Price, CJ and Riddoch, MJ},
      title = {From objects to names: A cognitive neuroscience approach},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH-PSYCHOLOGISCHE FORSCHUNG},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {62},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {118-130}
    }
    
    Ittner, C., Larcker, D. & Meyer, M. Subjectivity and the weighting of performance measures: Evidence from a balanced scorecard {2003} ACCOUNTING REVIEW
    Vol. {78}({3}), pp. {725-758} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study examines how different types of performance measures were weighted in a subjective balanced scorecard bonus plan adopted by a major financial services firm. Drawing upon economic and psychological studies on performance evaluation and compensation criteria, we develop hypotheses regarding the,weights placed on different types of measures. We find that the subjectivity in the scorecard plan allowed superiors to reduce the ``balance'' in bonus awards by placing most of the weight on financial measures, to incorporate factors other than the scorecard measures in performance evaluations, to change evaluation criteria from quarter to quarter, to ignore measures that were predictive of future financial performance, and to weight measures that were not predictive of desired results. This evidence suggests that psychology-based explanations may be equally or more relevant than economics-based explanations in explaining the firm's measurement practices. The high level of subjectivity in the balanced scorecard plan led many branch managers to complain about favoritism in bonus awards and uncertainty in the criteria being used to determine rewards. The system ultimately was abandoned in favor of a formulaic bonus plan based solely on revenues.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ittner2003,
      author = {Ittner, CD and Larcker, DF and Meyer, MW},
      title = {Subjectivity and the weighting of performance measures: Evidence from a balanced scorecard},
      journal = {ACCOUNTING REVIEW},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {78},
      number = {3},
      pages = {725-758}
    }
    
    Jaccard, J. & Guilamo-Ramos, V. Analysis of variance frameworks in clinical child and adolescent psychology: Issues and recommendations {2002} JOURNAL OF CLINICAL CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {31}({1}), pp. {130-146} 
    article  
    Abstract: Reviewed existing practices of factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA), a major analytic tool used in clinical child and adolescent psychology, in the Journal of Clinical Child Psychology (JCCP) and noted several suboptimal strategies. Issues surrounding the analysis of multiple outcome variables, omnibus F tests, and single degree of freedom contrasts, simple main effects analysis, and single degree of freedom interaction contrasts were considered and recommendations were made about analytic strategies. Among the practices questioned were the use of multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) as a means of controlling Type I errors across multiple outcome variables and the use of simple main effects analysis to elucidate the nature of interaction effects.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jaccard2002,
      author = {Jaccard, J and Guilamo-Ramos, V},
      title = {Analysis of variance frameworks in clinical child and adolescent psychology: Issues and recommendations},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {31},
      number = {1},
      pages = {130-146}
    }
    
    JACKSON, L., SULLIVAN, L. & HODGE, C. STEREOTYPE EFFECTS ON ATTRIBUTIONS, PREDICTIONS, AND EVALUATIONS - NO 2 SOCIAL JUDGMENTS ARE QUITE ALIKE {1993} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {65}({1}), pp. {69-84} 
    article  
    Abstract: The effects of stereotypes on attributions, predictions, and evaluations were examined in 2 experiments. Black out-group targets and White in-group targets were described in stereotype-consistent or stereotype-inconsistent ways. Stereotype-inconsistent behavior (a) was attributed to external causes or to effort, an internal stable cause for the out-group; (b) undermined predictions of future similar behavior, but only for the out-group; and (c) resulted in more extreme evaluations in the direction of the inconsistency Attributions mediated the relationship between race and target evaluations. A model is presented that emphasizes the importance of distinguishing among different types of social judgments in assessing stereotype effects.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JACKSON1993,
      author = {JACKSON, LA and SULLIVAN, LA and HODGE, CN},
      title = {STEREOTYPE EFFECTS ON ATTRIBUTIONS, PREDICTIONS, AND EVALUATIONS - NO 2 SOCIAL JUDGMENTS ARE QUITE ALIKE},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {65},
      number = {1},
      pages = {69-84}
    }
    
    Jacoby, W. Issue framing and public opinion on government spending {2000} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {44}({4}), pp. {750-767} 
    article  
    Abstract: The issue of government spending provides an interesting context for issue-framing effects in American public opinion. Competing partisan elites clearly portray the spending issue in different ways: Republicans tend to focus on broad, general appeals, while Democrats aim at more specific forms of programmatic expenditures. Their differing arguments undoubtedly arise because the varied issue frames generate different kinds of responses. This study uses data from the 1992 CPS National Election Study to examine the preceding hypothesis. The results from the empirical analysis show that public opinion on government spending does, in fact, vary markedly with the presentation of the issue. This framing effect is powerful enough to induce individual-level change. And, framing effects arise because varying presentations of the government-spending issue activate different sets of influences on citizens' issue attitudes. These findings have broad implications concerning both the magnitude of framing effects and the explicitly political nature of the issue-framing process.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jacoby2000,
      author = {Jacoby, WG},
      title = {Issue framing and public opinion on government spending},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {44},
      number = {4},
      pages = {750-767}
    }
    
    Jedidi, K., Jagpal, H. & DESarbo, W. Finite-mixture structural equation models for response-based segmentation and unobserved heterogeneity {1997} MARKETING SCIENCE
    Vol. {16}({1}), pp. {39-59} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two endemic problems face researchers in the social sciences (e.g., Marketing, Economics, Psychology, and Finance): unobserved heterogeneity and measurement error in data. Structural equation modeling is a powerful tool for dealing with these difficulties using a simultaneous equation framework with unobserved constructs and manifest indicators which are error-prone. When estimating structural equation models, however, researchers frequently treat the data as if they were collected from a single population (Muthen 1989). This assumption of homogeneity is often unrealistic. For example, in multidimensional expectancy value models, consumers from different market segments can have different belief structures (Bagozzi 1982). Research in satisfaction suggests that consumer decision processes vary across segments (Day 1977). This paper shows that aggregate analysis which ignores heterogeneity in structural equation models produces misleading results and that traditional fit statistics are not useful for detecting unobserved heterogeneity in the data. Furthermore, sequential analyses that first form groups using cluster analysis and then apply multigroup structural equation modeling are not satisfactory. We develop a general finite mixture structural equation model that simultaneously treats heterogeneity and forms market segments in the context of a specified model structure where all the observed variables are measured with error. The model is considerably more general than cluster analysis, multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, and multigroup structural equation modeling. In particular, the model subsumes several specialized models including finite mixture simultaneous equation models, finite mixture confirmatory factor analysis, and finite mixture second-order factor analysis. The finite mixture structural equation model should be of interest to academics in a wide range of disciplines (e.g., Consumer Behavior, Marketing, Economics, Finance, Psychology, and Sociology) where unobserved heterogeneity and measurement error are problematic. In addition, the model should be of interest to market researcher; and product managers for two reasons. First, the model allows the manager to perform response-based segmentation using a consumer decision process model, while explicitly allowing for both measurement and structural error. Second, the model allows managers to detect unobserved moderating factors which account for heterogeneity. Once managers have identified the moderating factors, they can link segment membership to observable individual-level characteristics (e.g., socioeconomic and demographic variables) and improve marketing policy. We applied the finite mixture structural equation model to a direct marketing study of customer satisfaction and estimated a large model with unobserved constructs and 23 manifest indicators. The results show that there are three consumer segments that vary considerably in terms of the importance they attach to the various dimensions of satisfaction. In contrast, aggregate analysis is misleading because it incorrectly suggests that except for price all dimensions of satisfaction are significant for all consumers. Methodologically, the finite mixture model is robust; that is, the parameter estimates are stable under double cross-validation and the method can be used to test large models. Furthermore, the double cross-validation results show that the finite mixture model is superior to sequential data analysis strategies in terms of goodness-of-fit and interpretability. We performed four simulation experiments to test the robustness of the algorithm using both recursive and nonrecursive model specifications. Specifically, we examined the robustness of different model selection criteria (e.g, CAIC, BIG, and GFI) in choosing the correct number of clusters for exactly identified and overidentified models assuming that the distributional form is correctly specified. We also examined the effect of distributional misspecification (i.e., departures from multivariate normality) on model performance. The results show that when the data are heterogeneous, the standard goodness-of-fit statistics for the aggregate model are not useful for detecting heterogeneity. Furthermore parameter recovery is poor. For the finite mixture model, however, the BIC and CAIC criteria perform well in detecting heterogeneity and in identifying the true number of segments. In particular, parameter recovery for both the measurement and structural models is highly satisfactory. The finite mixture method is robust to distributional misspecification; in addition, the method significantly outperforms aggregate and sequential data analysis methods when the form of heterogeneity is misspecified (i.e., the true model has random coefficients). Researchers and practitioners should only use the mixture methodology when substantive theory supports the structural equation model, a priori segmentation is infeasible, and theory suggests that the data are heterogeneous and belong to a finite number of unobserved groups. We expect these conditions to hold in many social science ay,plications and, in particular, market segmentation studies. Future research should focus on large-scale simulation studies to test the structural equation mixture model using a wide range of models and statistical distributions. Theoretical research should extend the model by allowing the mixing proportions to depend on prior information and/or subject-specific variables. Finally, in order to provide a huller treatment of heterogeneity, we need to develop a general random coefficient structural equation model. Such a model is presently unavailable in the statistical and psychometric literatures.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jedidi1997,
      author = {Jedidi, K and Jagpal, HS and DESarbo, WS},
      title = {Finite-mixture structural equation models for response-based segmentation and unobserved heterogeneity},
      journal = {MARKETING SCIENCE},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {16},
      number = {1},
      pages = {39-59}
    }
    
    Jensen, P., Mrazek, D., Knapp, P., Steinberg, L., Pfeffer, C., Schowalter, J. & Shapiro, T. Evolution and revolution in child psychiatry: ADHD as a disorder of adaptation {1997} JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {36}({12}), pp. {1672-1679} 
    article  
    Abstract: Current knowledge about early plasticity and children's responsiveness to environmental modifications as well as the atheoretical nature of current nosological systems necessitate alternative models to explain the phenomena of childhood behavioral and emotional disturbances. Evolutionary biology provides one such framework. It organizes data from the behavioral and cognitive sciences and parallels similar efforts in other areas of medicine and biology. Through an evolutionary biological lens, some mental disorders are better viewed as an adaptive response to early pathogenic environments and/or reflect the optimization of brain function to same environments at the cost of poorer response to the demands of other environments. As an example, the authors examine attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in relation to evolutionary theories of psychology and biology and clarify the potentially adaptive nature of characteristics of inattention, impulsivity and motoric hyperactivity, depending on the nature of child's environments. Reframing ADHD characteristics according to evolutionary theory has important treatment implications for clinicians and offers researchers opportunities for novel scientific discoveries.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jensen1997,
      author = {Jensen, PS and Mrazek, D and Knapp, PK and Steinberg, L and Pfeffer, C and Schowalter, J and Shapiro, T},
      title = {Evolution and revolution in child psychiatry: ADHD as a disorder of adaptation},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {36},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1672-1679}
    }
    
    Jerome, L., DeLeon, P., James, L., Folen, R., Earles, J. & Gedney, J. The coming of age of telecommunications in psychological research and practice {2000} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {55}({4}), pp. {407-421} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Rapid and far-reaching technological advances are revolutionizing the ways in which people relate, communicate, and live their daily lives. Technologies that were hardly used a few years ago, such as the Internet, e-mail, and video teleconferencing, are becoming familiar methods for modern communication. Telecommunications will continue to evolve quickly, spawning telehealth applications for research and the provision of clinical care in communities, university settings, clinics, and medical facilities. The impact on psychology will be significant. This article examines the application of developing technologies as they relate to psychology and discusses implications for professional research and practice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jerome2000,
      author = {Jerome, LW and DeLeon, PH and James, LC and Folen, R and Earles, J and Gedney, JJ},
      title = {The coming of age of telecommunications in psychological research and practice},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {55},
      number = {4},
      pages = {407-421},
      doi = {{10.1037//0003-066X.55.4.407}}
    }
    
    JOHN, O., HAMPSON, S. & GOLDBERG, L. THE BASIC LEVEL IN PERSONALITY-TRAIT HIERARCHIES - STUDIES OF TRAIT USE AND ACCESSIBILITY IN DIFFERENT CONTEXTS {1991} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {60}({3}), pp. {348-361} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{JOHN1991,
      author = {JOHN, OP and HAMPSON, SE and GOLDBERG, LR},
      title = {THE BASIC LEVEL IN PERSONALITY-TRAIT HIERARCHIES - STUDIES OF TRAIT USE AND ACCESSIBILITY IN DIFFERENT CONTEXTS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {60},
      number = {3},
      pages = {348-361}
    }
    
    JOHNS, G. CONSTRAINTS ON THE ADOPTION OF PSYCHOLOGY-BASED PERSONNEL PRACTICES - LESSONS FROM ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION {1993} PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {46}({3}), pp. {569-592} 
    article  
    Abstract: Surveys of organizational personnel practices often indicate that techniques advocated by industrial and organizational (1/0) psychologists are used with less frequency than might be expected given their technical merit. This article attempts to explain this phenomenon by viewing the adoption of 1/0-type personnel practices as organizational innovations that are subject to the mechanisms and processes described in the innovation-diffusion literature. It is argued that the adoption of 1/0-type personnel practices constitutes administrative innovation and that such innovation is not strongly influenced by technical merit. Rather, imitation processes, environmental threat, government regulation, and political influence often dominate highly uncertain adoption processes. Recommendations are made for enhancing the adoption rate for psychology-based personnel innovations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JOHNS1993,
      author = {JOHNS, G},
      title = {CONSTRAINTS ON THE ADOPTION OF PSYCHOLOGY-BASED PERSONNEL PRACTICES - LESSONS FROM ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION},
      journal = {PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {46},
      number = {3},
      pages = {569-592}
    }
    
    JOHNS, G. SUBSTANTIVE AND METHODOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS ON BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDES IN ORGANIZATIONAL RESEARCH {1991} ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES
    Vol. {49}({1}), pp. {80-104} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{JOHNS1991,
      author = {JOHNS, G},
      title = {SUBSTANTIVE AND METHODOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS ON BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDES IN ORGANIZATIONAL RESEARCH},
      journal = {ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {49},
      number = {1},
      pages = {80-104}
    }
    
    JOHNSON, J. & PODSAKOFF, P. JOURNAL INFLUENCE IN THE FIELD OF MANAGEMENT - AN ANALYSIS USING SALANCIK INDEX IN A DEPENDENCY NETWORK {1994} ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL
    Vol. {37}({5}), pp. {1392-1407} 
    article  
    Abstract: We investigated changes in the influence of 40 publications relevant to the field of management between 1981 and 1986 and between 1986 and 1991 using Salancik's index of influence in a dependency network. Although the influence of many of the top journals stayed relatively stable over the decade, some notable changes occurred. The publications with the greatest increases in influence were the Academy of Management Review, the Academy of Management Journal, Strategic Management Journal, and Research in Organizational Behavior; Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes and the Psychological Bulletin had the greatest decreases. The results also provided general support for the validity of Salancik's index.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JOHNSON1994,
      author = {JOHNSON, JL and PODSAKOFF, PM},
      title = {JOURNAL INFLUENCE IN THE FIELD OF MANAGEMENT - AN ANALYSIS USING SALANCIK INDEX IN A DEPENDENCY NETWORK},
      journal = {ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {37},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1392-1407}
    }
    
    JONES, D. & HILL, K. CRITERIA OF FACIAL ATTRACTIVENESS IN 5 POPULATIONS {1993} HUMAN NATURE-AN INTERDISCIPLINARY BIOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVE
    Vol. {4}({3}), pp. {271-296} 
    article  
    Abstract: The theory of sexual selection suggests several possible explanations for the development of standards of physical attractiveness in humans. Asymmetry and departures from average proportions may be markers of the breakdown of developmental stability. Supernormal traits may present age- and sex-typical features in exaggerated form. Evidence from social psychology suggests that both average proportions and (in females) `'neotenous'' facial traits are indeed more attractive. Using facial photographs from three populations (United States, Brazil, Paraguayan Indians), rated by members of the same three populations, plus Russians and Venezuelan Indians, we show that age, average features, and (in females) feminine/neotenous features all play a role in facial attractiveness.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JONES1993,
      author = {JONES, D and HILL, K},
      title = {CRITERIA OF FACIAL ATTRACTIVENESS IN 5 POPULATIONS},
      journal = {HUMAN NATURE-AN INTERDISCIPLINARY BIOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVE},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {4},
      number = {3},
      pages = {271-296}
    }
    
    JONES, S. A CONSTRUCTIVE RELATIONSHIP FOR RELIGION WITH THE SCIENCE AND PROFESSION OF PSYCHOLOGY - PERHAPS THE BOLDEST MODEL YET {1994} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {49}({3}), pp. {184-199} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article goes beyond O'Donohue's (1989) `'(even) bolder model'' of the psychologist as metaphysician-scientist-practitioner to call for an explicit and constructive relationship between psychology and religion. Psychology's previously noninteractive stance toward religion was premised on an outmoded understanding of science and an overly narrow professionalism. Contemporary philosophy of science breaks down the radical demarcation between science and other forms of human knowing and action, including religion. Science and religion are different, but they cannot be categorically separated or viewed as mutually exclusive. A proposal is developed for how religion could participate as an active partner with psychology as a science and as an applied professional discipline.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JONES1994,
      author = {JONES, SL},
      title = {A CONSTRUCTIVE RELATIONSHIP FOR RELIGION WITH THE SCIENCE AND PROFESSION OF PSYCHOLOGY - PERHAPS THE BOLDEST MODEL YET},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {49},
      number = {3},
      pages = {184-199}
    }
    
    Jost, J., Pelham, B. & Carvallo, M. Non-conscious forms of system justification: Implicit and behavioral preferences for higher status groups {2002} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {38}({6}), pp. {586-602} 
    article  
    Abstract: According to system justification theory, people internalize and perpetuate systemic forms of inequality, even though it sometimes means harboring preferences for members of higher status outgroups. In Study 1, students from a high status (but not a low status) university exhibited significant ingroup favoritism on the IAT, an automatic evaluative measure. Furthermore, for students at the high status university, implicit ingroup bias was positively correlated with implicit self-esteem. For students at the low status university, implicit acceptance of consensual stereotypes concerning academic and extracurricular characteristics was associated with implicit outgroup favoritism. In Study 2, Latinos and Asian Americans exhibited significant outgroup favoritism on an unobtrusive behavioral measure by choosing White interaction partners over members of their own groups. In Study 3, parents named newborn children disproportionately after their fathers (compared with their mothers) and published birth announcements for boys slightly more often than for girls. Thus, we observed evidence of system justification on implicit or unobtrusive measures in three different socially disadvantaged groups. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jost2002,
      author = {Jost, JT and Pelham, BW and Carvallo, MR},
      title = {Non-conscious forms of system justification: Implicit and behavioral preferences for higher status groups},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {38},
      number = {6},
      pages = {586-602}
    }
    
    JUDGE, T. & BRETZ, R. POLITICAL INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR AND CAREER SUCCESS {1994} JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT
    Vol. {20}({1}), pp. {43-65} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present study examined an important yet under-investigated topic, the effect of political influence behavior on career success. Drawing from past research on influence behavior and relevant theory from social psychology, the effect of political influence behavior on career success was hypothesized to depend on the type of influence tactic employed. Results from a sample of past graduates of two universities indicated that supervisor-focused tactics, manifesting a strategy of ingratiation, resulted in higher levels of career success while job-focused tactics, manifesting a strategy of self-promotion, resulted in lower levels of success. Implications of the results for the study of careers and career management processes are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JUDGE1994,
      author = {JUDGE, TA and BRETZ, RD},
      title = {POLITICAL INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR AND CAREER SUCCESS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {20},
      number = {1},
      pages = {43-65}
    }
    
    JUNGE, A., DVORAK, J. & AHRENS, S. PREDICTORS OF BAD AND GOOD OUTCOMES OF LUMBAR DISC SURGERY - A PROSPECTIVE CLINICAL-STUDY WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SCREENING TO AVOID BAD OUTCOMES {1995} SPINE
    Vol. {20}({4}), pp. {460-468} 
    article  
    Abstract: Study Design. Patients were assessed by independent research teams in six different spine centers after indication for discectomy was established. Six- and twelve-month follow-ups were performed. Objectives, Objectives of this study were to determine somatic subjective symptoms, objective signs, sociodemographic, and psychological factors that influence the outcome of lumbar disc surgery, as well as to develop a screening checklist and score of reliable predictors to distinguish bad and good responders of surgery. Methods. In addition to symptoms, signs, and neuroradiologic findings, sociodemographic data were obtained. A mobility questionnaire and Beck depression inventory were included in the structured interview. Results. In all, 381 patients were examined. At 6 months 89% and at 12 months, 86% of all operated patients were available for follow-up study. There was no significant difference in the outcome between the 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Of the patients, 51.5% had a good outcome, 28.4% moderate, and 20.1% bad at 12 months follow-up. The calculation of predictor score gave an overall appropriate prediction of 80 for good outcome 76 and for bad 79 Conclusion, In addition to clinical and radiologic examination, the Hannover Mobility Questionnaire, the Beck depression inventory, and structured interview should be included for preoperative assessment for disc surgery. If a bad outcome is predicted, it is probably more appropriate not to operate and await natural development of the disc disease or to apply conservative and psychological treatment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JUNGE1995,
      author = {JUNGE, A and DVORAK, J and AHRENS, S},
      title = {PREDICTORS OF BAD AND GOOD OUTCOMES OF LUMBAR DISC SURGERY - A PROSPECTIVE CLINICAL-STUDY WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SCREENING TO AVOID BAD OUTCOMES},
      journal = {SPINE},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {20},
      number = {4},
      pages = {460-468}
    }
    
    Juslin, P. & Olsson, H. Thurstonian and Brunswikian origins of uncertainty in judgment: A sampling model of confidence in sensory discrimination {1997} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {104}({2}), pp. {344-366} 
    article  
    Abstract: As a preliminary step towards the presentation of a model of confidence in sensory discrimination, the authors propose a distinction between 2 different origins of uncertainty named after 2 of the great probabilists in the history of psychology, L. L. Thurstone and Egon Brunswik. The authors review data that suggest that there are empirical as well as conceptual differences between the 2 modes of uncertainty and thus that separate models of confidence are needed in tasks dominated by Thurstonian and Brunswikian uncertainty. The article presents a computational model for 1 class of tasks dominated by Thurstonian uncertainty: sensory discrimination with pair comparisons. The sensory sampling model predicts decisions, confidence assessments, and the complex pattern of response times in simple psychophysical discrimination tasks (J. V. Baranski and W. M. Petrusic, 1991). The model also accounts for the disposition towards underconfidence often observed in sensory discrimination with pair comparisons (M. Bjorkman, P. Juslin, & A. Winman, 1993; C. S. Peirce & J. Jastrow, 1884).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Juslin1997,
      author = {Juslin, P and Olsson, H},
      title = {Thurstonian and Brunswikian origins of uncertainty in judgment: A sampling model of confidence in sensory discrimination},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {104},
      number = {2},
      pages = {344-366}
    }
    
    Kahneman, D., Schkade, D. & Sunstein, C. Shared outrage and erratic awards: The psychology of punitive damages {1998} JOURNAL OF RISK AND UNCERTAINTY
    Vol. {16}({1}), pp. {49-86} 
    article  
    Abstract: An experimental study of punitive damage awards in personal injury cases was conducted using jury-eligible respondents. There was substantial consensus on judgments of the outrageousness of a defendant's actions and of the appropriate severity of punishment. Judgments of dollar awards made by individuals and synthetic juries were much more erratic. These results are familiar characteristics of judgments made on unbounded magnitude scales. The degree of harm suffered by the plaintiff and the size of the firm had a pronounced effect on awards. Some judgmental tasks are far easier than others for juries to perform, and reform possibilities should exploit this fact.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kahneman1998,
      author = {Kahneman, D and Schkade, D and Sunstein, CR},
      title = {Shared outrage and erratic awards: The psychology of punitive damages},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF RISK AND UNCERTAINTY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {16},
      number = {1},
      pages = {49-86}
    }
    
    KAPLAN, R., FEENY, D. & REVICKI, D. METHODS FOR ASSESSING RELATIVE IMPORTANCE IN PREFERENCE BASED OUTCOME MEASURES {1993} QUALITY OF LIFE RESEARCH
    Vol. {2}({6}), pp. {467-475} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper reviews issues relevant to preference assessment for utility based measures of health-related quality of life. Cost/utility studies require a common measurement of health outcome, such as the quality adjusted life year (QALY). A key element in the QALY methodology is the measure of preference that estimates subjective health quality. Economists and psychologists differ on their preferred approach to preference measurement. Economists rely on utility assessment methods that formally consider economic trades. These methods include the standard gamble, time-trade off and person trade-off. However, some evidence suggests that many of the assumptions that underlie economic measurements of choice am open to challenge because human information processors do poorly at integrating complex probability information when making decisions that involve risk. Further, economic analysis assumes that choices accurately correspond to the way rational humans use information. Psychology experiments suggest that methods commonly used for economic analysis do not represent the underlying true preference continuum and some evidence supports the use of simple rating scales. More recent research by economists attempts integrated cognitive models, while contemporary research by psychologists considers economic models of choice. The review also suggests that difference in preference between different social groups tends to be small.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KAPLAN1993,
      author = {KAPLAN, RM and FEENY, D and REVICKI, DA},
      title = {METHODS FOR ASSESSING RELATIVE IMPORTANCE IN PREFERENCE BASED OUTCOME MEASURES},
      journal = {QUALITY OF LIFE RESEARCH},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {2},
      number = {6},
      pages = {467-475}
    }
    
    Kazdin, A.E. Evidence-based treatment and practice - New opportunities to bridge clinical research and practice, enhance the knowledge base, and improve patient care {2008} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {63}({3}), pp. {146-159} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The long-standing divide between research and practice in clinical psychology has received increased attention in view of the development of evidence-based interventions and practice and public interest, oversight, and management of psychological services. The gap has been reflected in concerns from those in practice about the applicability of findings from psychotherapy research as a guide to clinical work and concerns from those in research about how clinical work is conducted. Research and practice are united in their commitment to providing the best of psychological knowledge and methods to improve the quality of patient care. This article highlights issues in the research-practice debate as a backdrop for rapprochement. Suggestions are made for changes and shifts in emphases in psychotherapy research and clinical practice. The changes are designed to ensure that both research and practice contribute to our knowledge base and provide information that can be used more readily to improve patient care and, in the process, reduce the perceived and real hiatus between research and practice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kazdin2008,
      author = {Kazdin, Alan E.},
      title = {Evidence-based treatment and practice - New opportunities to bridge clinical research and practice, enhance the knowledge base, and improve patient care},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {63},
      number = {3},
      pages = {146-159},
      doi = {{10.1037/0003-066X.63.3.146}}
    }
    
    Keil, M., Mann, J. & Rai, A. Why software projects escalate: An empirical analysis and test of four theoretical models {2000} MIS QUARTERLY
    Vol. {24}({4}), pp. {631-664} 
    article  
    Abstract: Software projects can often spiral out of control to become ``runaway systems'' that far exceed original budget and schedule projections. The behavior that underlies many runaway systems can best be characterized as ``escalation of commitment to a failing course of action.'' The objectives of this study were to: (1) understand the extent to which IS projects are prone to escalate, (2) compare the outcomes of projects that escalate with those that do not, and (3) test whether constructs associated with different theories of escalation can be used to discriminate between projects that escalate and those that do not. A survey was administered to IS audit and control professionals and, to establish a baseline for comparison, the survey was designed to gather data on projects that did not escalate as well as those that did escalate. The results of our research suggest that between 30% and 40% of all IS projects exhibit some degree of escalation. Projects that escalated had project outcomes that were significantly worse in terms of perceived implementation performance and perceived budget/schedule performance, as compared to projects that did not escalate. Using constructs from theories that have been used to explain the escalation phenomenon, we were able to test various logistic regression models for their ability to discriminate between projects that escalate and those that do not. To construct our models, we explored constructs derived from self-justification theory, prospect theory, agency theory, and approach avoidance theory. While constructs derived from all four theories were significant in logistic regression models, the completion effect construct derived from approach avoidance theory provided the best classification of projects, correctly classifying over 70% of both escalated and non-escalated projects.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Keil2000,
      author = {Keil, M and Mann, J and Rai, A},
      title = {Why software projects escalate: An empirical analysis and test of four theoretical models},
      journal = {MIS QUARTERLY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {24},
      number = {4},
      pages = {631-664},
      note = {Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HAWAII, 1997}
    }
    
    Keller, M.C. & Miller, G. Resolving the paradox of common, harmful, heritable mental disorders: Which evolutionary genetic models work best? {2006} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {29}({4}), pp. {385+} 
    article  
    Abstract: Given that natural selection is so powerful at optimizing complex adaptations, why does it seem unable to eliminate genes (susceptibility alleles) that predispose to common, harmful, heritable mental disorders, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder? We assess three leading explanations for this apparent paradox from evolutionary genetic theory: (1) ancestral neutrality (susceptibility alleles were not harmful among ancestors), (2) balancing selection (susceptibility alleles sometimes increased fitness), and (3) polygenic mutation-selection balance (mental disorders reflect the inevitable mutational load on the thousands of genes underlying human behavior). The first two explanations are commonly assumed in psychiatric genetics and Darwinian psychiatry, while mutation-selection has often been discounted. All three models can explain persistent genetic variance in some traits under some conditions, but the first two have serious problems in explaining human mental disorders. Ancestral neutrality fails to explain low mental disorder frequencies and requires implausibly small selection coefficients against mental disorders given the data on the reproductive costs and impairment of mental disorders. Balancing selection (including spatio-temporal variation in selection, heterozygote advantage, antagonistic pleiotropy, and frequency-dependent selection) tends to favor environmentally contingent adaptations (which would show no heritability) or high-frequency alleles (which psychiatric genetics would have already found). Only polygenic mutation-selection balance seems consistent with the data on mental disorder prevalence rates, fitness costs, the likely rarity of susceptibility alleles, and the increased risks of mental disorders with brain trauma, inbreeding, and paternal age. This evolutionary genetic framework for mental disorders has wide-ranging implications for psychology, psychiatry, behavior genetics, molecular genetics, and evolutionary approaches to studying human behavior.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Keller2006,
      author = {Keller, Matthew C. and Miller, Geoffrey},
      title = {Resolving the paradox of common, harmful, heritable mental disorders: Which evolutionary genetic models work best?},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {29},
      number = {4},
      pages = {385+}
    }
    
    Kellett, S. & Gawkrodger, D. The psychological and emotional impact of acne and the effect of treatment with isotretinoin {1999} BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY
    Vol. {140}({2}), pp. {273-282} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although knowledge concerning the dermatological treatment of chronic acne has grown considerably in recent years, relatively few studies have assessed the impact of effective physical intervention upon the psychoemotional functioning of patients. Hypotheses regarding the psychological impact of acne were developed using concepts drawn from evolutionary psychology A sample of 34 patients (19 men and 15 women) with chronic acne were assessed for psychological, emotional and dermatological symptomatology using a variety of self-report questionnaires over four time-points during 16 weeks treatment with isotretinoin. Thirty-four patients completed the first assessment, 21 the second, 20 the third and 15 the fourth and final assessment; At the first assessment, prior to isotretinoin treatment. 15 patients (44 reported clinically significant levels of anxiety, while six patients (18 reported clinically significant depression. Women with acne were significantly more embarrassed than their male counterparts about their skin disease. Treatment with isotretinoin produced significant improvements across a wide variety of psychological functions, although the emotional status of patients appeared to be more resistant to change. Acne appears to be a condition which has the potential to damage, perhaps even in the long term, the emotional functioning of some patients.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kellett1999,
      author = {Kellett, SC and Gawkrodger, DJ},
      title = {The psychological and emotional impact of acne and the effect of treatment with isotretinoin},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {140},
      number = {2},
      pages = {273-282}
    }
    
    Keltner, D. & Gross, J. Functional accounts of emotions {1999} COGNITION & EMOTION
    Vol. {13}({5}), pp. {467-480} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this article we outline the history, elements, and variations of functional accounts of emotions. Summarising diverse theories and observations, we propose that functional accounts of emotions: (1) address why humans have emotions; (2) define emotions as solutions to problems and opportunities related to physical and social survival; (3) treat emotions as systems of interrelated components; and (4) focus on the beneficial consequences of emotions. This conceptual approach to emotion is complemented by several empirical strategies, including the study of emotion dysfunction, the effects of emotions on others, and the relations between emotions and personal and social outcomes. We conclude by considering how functional accounts of emotion vary, including in terms of their level of analysis, specificity, manner of organisation, and range of focus, and the implications functional accounts have for the study of emotion.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Keltner1999,
      author = {Keltner, D and Gross, JJ},
      title = {Functional accounts of emotions},
      journal = {COGNITION & EMOTION},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {13},
      number = {5},
      pages = {467-480}
    }
    
    Kemerer, C. & Slaughter, S. An empirical approach to studying software evolution {1999} IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
    Vol. {25}({4}), pp. {493-509} 
    article  
    Abstract: With the approach of the new millennium, a primary focus in software engineering involves issues relating to upgrading, migrating, and evolving existing software systems. In this environment, the role of careful empirical studies as the basis for improving software maintenance processes, methods, and tools is highlighted. One of the most important processes that merits empirical evaluation is software evolution. Software evolution refers to the dynamic behavior of software systems as they are maintained and enhanced over their lifetimes. Software evolution is particularly important as systems in organizations become longer-lived. However, evolution is challenging to study due to the longitudinal nature of the phenomenon in addition to the usual difficulties in collecting empirical data. In this paper, we describe a set of methods and techniques that we have developed and adapted to empirically study software evolution. Our longitudinal empirical study involves collecting, coding, and analyzing more than 25,000 change events to 23 commercial software systems over a 20-year period. Using data from two of the systems, we illustrate the efficacy of flexible phase mapping and gamma sequence analytic methods originally developed in social psychology to examine group problem solving processes. We have adapted these techniques in the context of our study to identify and understand the phases through which a software system travels as it evolves over time. We contrast this approach with time series analysis, the more traditional way of studying longitudinal data. Our work demonstrates the advantages of applying methods and techniques from other domains to software engineering and illustrates how, despite difficulties, software evolution can be empirically studied.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kemerer1999,
      author = {Kemerer, CF and Slaughter, S},
      title = {An empirical approach to studying software evolution},
      journal = {IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {25},
      number = {4},
      pages = {493-509}
    }
    
    KENNY, D. & ZAUTRA, A. THE TRAIT-STATE-ERROR MODEL FOR MULTIWAVE DATA {1995} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {63}({1}), pp. {52-59} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although researchers in clinical psychology routinely gather data in which many individuals respond at multiple times, there is not a standard way to analyze such data. A new approach for the analysis of such data is described. It is proposed that a person's current standing on a variable is caused by 3 sources of variance: a term that does not change (trait), a term that changes (state), and a random term (error). It is shown how structural equation modeling can be used to estimate such a model. An extended example is presented in which the correlations between variables are quite different at the trait, state, and error levels.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KENNY1995,
      author = {KENNY, DA and ZAUTRA, A},
      title = {THE TRAIT-STATE-ERROR MODEL FOR MULTIWAVE DATA},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {63},
      number = {1},
      pages = {52-59}
    }
    
    Kenrick, D., Li, N. & Butner, J. Dynamical evolutionary psychology: Individual decision rules and emergent social norms {2003} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {110}({1}), pp. {3-28} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: A new theory integrating evolutionary and dynamical approaches is proposed. Following evolutionary models, psychological mechanisms are conceived as conditional decision rules designed to address fundamental problems confronted by human ancestors, with qualitatively different decision rules serving different problem domains and individual differences in decision rules as a function of adaptive and random variation. Following dynamical models,decision mechanisms within individuals are assumed to unfold in-dynamic interplay with decision mechanisms of others in social networks. Decision mechanisms in different domains have different dynamic outcomes and lead to different sociospatial geometries. Three series of simulations examining trade-offs in cooperation and mating decisions illustrate how individual decision mechanisms and group dynamics mutually constrain one another, and offer insights. about gene-culture interactions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kenrick2003,
      author = {Kenrick, DT and Li, NP and Butner, J},
      title = {Dynamical evolutionary psychology: Individual decision rules and emergent social norms},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {110},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-28},
      doi = {{10.1037/0033-295X.110.1.3}}
    }
    
    KENRICK, D., NEUBERG, S., ZIERK, K. & KRONES, J. EVOLUTION AND SOCIAL COGNITION - CONTRAST EFFECTS AS A FUNCTION OF SEX, DOMINANCE, AND PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS {1994} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {20}({2}), pp. {210-217} 
    article  
    Abstract: Previous research indicates that males, compared with females, evaluate their relationships less favorably after exposure to physically attractive members of the other sex. An evolutionary model predicts a converse effect after exposure to opposite-sex individuals high in dominance, which should lead females to evaluate their current relationships less favorably than males. Women and men rated their current relationships after being exposed to opposite-sex targets varying in both dominance and physical attractiveness. Consistent with earlier research, males exposed to physically attractive, as compared with average, targets rated their current relationships less favorably. Males' relationship evaluations were not directly influenced by the targets' dominance, although the effects of physical attractiveness was significant only for men exposed to women low in dominance. However, females' evaluations of their relationships were unaffected by exposure to physically attractive males but were lower after exposure to targets high in dominance. These data support predictions derived from an evolutionary model and suggest that such models can be used to generate testable hypotheses about ongoing social cognition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KENRICK1994,
      author = {KENRICK, DT and NEUBERG, SL and ZIERK, KL and KRONES, JM},
      title = {EVOLUTION AND SOCIAL COGNITION - CONTRAST EFFECTS AS A FUNCTION OF SEX, DOMINANCE, AND PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {20},
      number = {2},
      pages = {210-217}
    }
    
    Kerner, J., Rimer, B. & Emmons, K. Introduction to the Special Section on Dissemination - Dissemination research and research dissemination: How can we close the gap? {2005} HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {24}({5}), pp. {443-446} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: One of the greatest challenges facing health promotion and disease prevention is translating research findings into evidence-based public health and clinical practices that are actively disseminated and widely adopted. Despite the tremendous strides made in developing effective disease prevention and control programs, there has been little study of effective dissemination of evidence-based programs to and adoption by community, public health, and clinical practice settings. This special section provides a venue in which to highlight exemplary dissemination research efforts while also identifying limitations in research to date and framing important future research questions. This issue establishes a resource for investigators interested in dissemination research, with relevance to health psychology. In this sense, it can serve as a benchmark by which to examine subsequent progress. The 6 articles reflect the state of the science in dissemination research for the promotion and adoption of health behavior change interventions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kerner2005,
      author = {Kerner, J and Rimer, B and Emmons, K},
      title = {Introduction to the Special Section on Dissemination - Dissemination research and research dissemination: How can we close the gap?},
      journal = {HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {24},
      number = {5},
      pages = {443-446},
      doi = {{10.1037/0278-6133.24.5.443}}
    }
    
    KIESLER, C. MENTAL-HEALTH POLICY AS A FIELD OF INQUIRY FOR PSYCHOLOGY {1980} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {35}({12}), pp. {1066-1080} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KIESLER1980,
      author = {KIESLER, CA},
      title = {MENTAL-HEALTH POLICY AS A FIELD OF INQUIRY FOR PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {35},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1066-1080}
    }
    
    KIMIECIK, J. PREDICTING VIGOROUS PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY OF CORPORATE EMPLOYEES - COMPARING THE THEORIES OF REASONED ACTION AND PLANNED BEHAVIOR {1992} JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {14}({2}), pp. {192-206} 
    article  
    Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to compare the utility of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior in predicting the exercise intentions and behavior of corporate employees. Corporate employees (n=332) who completed two questionnaires served as subjects. The first questionnaire assessed intentions, subjective norm, attitude, and perceived control with respect to participating in regular, vigorous physical activity. Participants also completed a follow-up questionnaire 4 weeks later that assessed self-reported frequency of vigorous physical activity during those 4 weeks. Hierarchical-regression analyses indicated that perceived behavioral control (the critical variable in the theory of planned behavior) accounted for a significant portion of the variance in intentions and self-reported exercise behavior, above that accounted for by reasoned action. These results lend support to Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, which suggests that individuals' perceptions of control are most important when attempting behaviors that are not completely under volitional control.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KIMIECIK1992,
      author = {KIMIECIK, J},
      title = {PREDICTING VIGOROUS PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY OF CORPORATE EMPLOYEES - COMPARING THE THEORIES OF REASONED ACTION AND PLANNED BEHAVIOR},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SPORT & EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {14},
      number = {2},
      pages = {192-206}
    }
    
    KING, N., BURLEY, V. & BLUNDELL, J. EXERCISE-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF APPETITE - EFFECTS ON FOOD-INTAKE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ENERGY-BALANCE {1994} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION
    Vol. {48}({10}), pp. {715-724} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To examine the effects of exercise on short term energy intake and to investigate the existence of exercise-induced anorexia. Design: Two studies were conducted, both with three treatment conditions and employing a repeated measures design. Setting: The Human Appetite Research Unit at Leeds University Psychology department. Subjects: Twenty three healthy, lean male subjects (n = 11 and n = 12 respectively) were recruited from the student/staff population of Leeds University. Interventions: Subjects were randomly assigned to a control, low intensity and high intensity exercise treatment in the first study and to a control, short duration and long duration exercise treatment (high intensity) in the second. Motivation to eat was measured by visual analogue rating scales and by the length of the time between the end of exercise and the volitional onset of eating. Energy and macronutrient intakes were measured by means of a free-selection test meal and by recorded intakes for the next 2 days. Results: Subjective feelings of hunger were significantly suppressed during and after intense exercise sessions (P < 0.01), but the suppression was short-lived. Exercise sessions had no significant effect on the total amount of food consumed in the test meal but intense exercise delayed the start of eating (P < 0.05). When energy intake was assessed relative to the energy expended during the exercise or control periods, only the long duration, high intensity session created a significant short-term negative energy balance (P < 0.001). Conclusions: These studies indicate that exercise-induced anorexia can be characterized by a brief suppression of hunger, accompanied by a delay to the onset of eating. The temporal aspects of exercise-induced anorexia may best be measured by the resistance to begin eating rather than the amount of food consumed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KING1994,
      author = {KING, NA and BURLEY, VJ and BLUNDELL, JE},
      title = {EXERCISE-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF APPETITE - EFFECTS ON FOOD-INTAKE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ENERGY-BALANCE},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {48},
      number = {10},
      pages = {715-724}
    }
    
    KIRKLEYBEST, E. & KELLNER, K. THE FORGOTTEN GRIEF - A REVIEW OF THE PSYCHOLOGY OF STILLBIRTH {1982} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {52}({3}), pp. {420-429} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KIRKLEYBEST1982,
      author = {KIRKLEYBEST, E and KELLNER, KR},
      title = {THE FORGOTTEN GRIEF - A REVIEW OF THE PSYCHOLOGY OF STILLBIRTH},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {52},
      number = {3},
      pages = {420-429}
    }
    
    KIRMAYER, L. THE PLACE OF CULTURE IN PSYCHIATRIC NOSOLOGY - TAIJIN-KYOFUSHO AND DSM-III-R {1991} JOURNAL OF NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISEASE
    Vol. {179}({1}), pp. {19-28} 
    article  
    Abstract: The place of culture in psychiatric nosology is explored through the example of taijin kyofusho (TKS), a common Japanese psychiatric disorder characterized by a fear of offending or hurting others through one's awkward social behavior or an imagined physical defect. Although variants of this disorder have been described in other cultures (e.g., dysmorphophobia), the full spectrum appears to be confined to Japan. TKS can be understood as a pathological amplification of culture-specific concerns about the social presentation of self and the impact of improper conduct on the well-being of others. Both social interaction and constitutional vulnerability may contribute to the cognitive processes that underlie TKS. The salience of cultural differences for psychiatric nosology then depends on whether the clinical focus is on disordered biology, individual psychology and experience, or the social context of behavior. Any attempt to include cultural variation in psychiatric diagnoses must begin by making explicit the intended use of the classification because different social contexts and clinical goals demand alternative diagnostic schemes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KIRMAYER1991,
      author = {KIRMAYER, LJ},
      title = {THE PLACE OF CULTURE IN PSYCHIATRIC NOSOLOGY - TAIJIN-KYOFUSHO AND DSM-III-R},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISEASE},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {179},
      number = {1},
      pages = {19-28},
      note = {SYMP AT THE 1988 ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOC : CULTURE-BOUND SYNDROMES AND DSM-III-R, MONTREAL, CANADA, MAY 07-13, 1988}
    }
    
    Kitayama, S. Culture and basic psychological processes - Toward a system view of culture: Comment on Oyserman et al. (2002) {2002} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {128}({1}), pp. {89-96} 
    article  
    Abstract: D. Oyserman, H, M, Coon, and M. Kemmelmeicr (2002) provide a most comprehensive review of empirical studies that used attitudinal surveys to capture cultural variations in individualism and collectivism. In the present article, the author suggests that the cross-cultural validity of attitudinal surveys can no longer be taken for granted. Moreover, the meta-theory underlying this literature (called the entity view of culture) is called into question. The author presents an alternative meta-theory (called the system view of culture) and discusses its implications for future work in cultural and cross-cultural psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kitayama2002,
      author = {Kitayama, S},
      title = {Culture and basic psychological processes - Toward a system view of culture: Comment on Oyserman et al. (2002)},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {128},
      number = {1},
      pages = {89-96}
    }
    
    Kivetz, R. & Simonson, I. Self-control for the righteous: Toward a theory of precommitment to indulgence {2002} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH
    Vol. {29}({2}), pp. {199-217} 
    article  
    Abstract: Prior research has examined consumers' use of self-control to avoid hedonic (myopic) temptations, such as overspending and smoking. In this research we investigate the opposite form of self-control, whereby consumers force themselves to indulge and avoid default forms of spending on utilitarian necessities and/or savings. In particular, consumers who have difficulty choosing items that are perceived as indulgences or luxuries (e. g., a cruise) over necessities (e. g., saving for college education) and cash in everyday decisions may use precommitments to indulgence, especially when the psychological cost of such commitments is less concrete. These propositions were tested in a series of studies involving real and hypothetical choices as well as process measures. The results indicate that a substantial segment of consumers choose hedonic luxury rewards over cash of equal or greater value; consumers typically explain such choices based on the need to precommit to indulgence, to make sure that the award does not end up in the pool of money used for necessities. In addition, consistent with our analysis, the likelihood of precommitting to indulgence is enhanced when (a) the consequences of the decision will be realized farther in the future, (b) the odds of winning the reward are lower, and (c) consumers anticipate how they will use each possible award. We also show that awards representing indulgence are more effective than cash as incentives for participation in a (real) lottery. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kivetz2002,
      author = {Kivetz, R and Simonson, I},
      title = {Self-control for the righteous: Toward a theory of precommitment to indulgence},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {29},
      number = {2},
      pages = {199-217}
    }
    
    KIVLIGHAN, D. & SHAUGHNESSY, P. ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WORKING ALLIANCE USING HIERARCHICAL LINEAR MODELING {1995} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {42}({3}), pp. {338-349} 
    article  
    Abstract: The relation between the working alliance and therapeutic outcome was examined in 21 therapist-client dyads. This relation was analyzed in terms of the level of alliance at the third counseling session, midpoint of treatment, and last session with linear and curvilinear models of the temporal development of the working alliance. Analyses were conducted with hierarchical linear modeling. Results revealed a significant association between the linear growth function of therapist ratings of the working alliance and therapeutic outcome. The use of hierarchical linear modeling in counseling psychology research and the need for conceptualizing the working alliance as a temporally variant, as opposed to a static, process are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KIVLIGHAN1995,
      author = {KIVLIGHAN, DM and SHAUGHNESSY, P},
      title = {ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WORKING ALLIANCE USING HIERARCHICAL LINEAR MODELING},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {42},
      number = {3},
      pages = {338-349}
    }
    
    Klein, S., Loftus, J. & Kihlstrom, J. Self-knowledge of an amnesic patient: Toward a neuropsychology of personality and social psychology {1996} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL
    Vol. {125}({3}), pp. {250-260} 
    article  
    Abstract: The authors present the case of W.J., who, as a result of a head injury, temporarily lost access to her episodic memory. W.J. was asked both during her amnesia and following its resolution to make trait judgments about herself. Because her responses when she could access episodic memories were consistent with her responses when she could not, the authors conclude that the loss of episodic memory did not greatly affect the availability of her trait self-knowledge. The authors discuss how neuropsychological evidence can contribute to theorizing about personality and social processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Klein1996,
      author = {Klein, SB and Loftus, J and Kihlstrom, JF},
      title = {Self-knowledge of an amnesic patient: Toward a neuropsychology of personality and social psychology},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {125},
      number = {3},
      pages = {250-260}
    }
    
    Knoblich, G. & Flach, R. Predicting the effects of actions: Interactions of perception and action {2001} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {12}({6}), pp. {467-472} 
    article  
    Abstract: Many theories in cognitive psychology assume that perception and action systems are clearly separated from the cognitive system. Other theories suggest that important cognitive functions reside in the interactions between these systems. One consequence of the latter claim is that the action system may contribute to predicting the future consequences of currently perceived actions. In particular, such predictions might be more accurate when one observes ones own actions than when one observes another person's actions, because in the former case the system that plans the action is the some system that contributes to predicting the action's effects, In the present stud-v, participants (N = 104) watched video clips displaying either themselves or somebody else throwing a dart at a target board and predicted the dart's landing position. The predictions were more accurate when participants watched themselves acting. This result provides evidence for the claim that perceptual input can be linked with the action system to predict future outcomes of actions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Knoblich2001,
      author = {Knoblich, G and Flach, R},
      title = {Predicting the effects of actions: Interactions of perception and action},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {12},
      number = {6},
      pages = {467-472}
    }
    
    KOEHLER, J. THE INFLUENCE OF PRIOR BELIEFS ON SCIENTIFIC JUDGMENTS OF EVIDENCE QUALITY {1993} ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES
    Vol. {56}({1}), pp. {28-55} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KOEHLER1993,
      author = {KOEHLER, JJ},
      title = {THE INFLUENCE OF PRIOR BELIEFS ON SCIENTIFIC JUDGMENTS OF EVIDENCE QUALITY},
      journal = {ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {56},
      number = {1},
      pages = {28-55}
    }
    
    Kooiman, C., Spinhoven, P. & Trijsburg, R. The assessment of alexithymia - A critical review of the literature and a psychometric study of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 {2002} JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC RESEARCH
    Vol. {53}({6}), pp. {1083-1090} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: The objectives were to give an overview of studies on the validity of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and to present data regarding the validity of the TAS-20. Methods: The literature on the psychometric properties of the TAS-20 was reviewed and a study was conducted of its psychometric properties in a sample of students and a sample of psychiatric outpatients using a statistical method allowing identification of a stable factor structure. Results: The review revealed that the majority of studies on the TAS-20 were conducted with nonpatient samples, The factorial validity and reliability of the dimensions `identifying feelings' (DIF) and `describing feelings' (DDF) could be replicated in many of these studies. However, in practically all studies the dimension `externally oriented thinking' (EOT) appears to be unreliable, In addition. the presupposed fantasy aspect of the alexithymia construct is not included in the TAS-20, Although many studies were conducted on the construct validity of the TAS-20, no studies have been published on its criterion validity. Some studies show a different factor structure to exist in patient samples. This was confirmed in our own study in which the dimensions `identifying feelings' and `describing feelings' collapsed into one single subscale. As in other studies, the reliability of the dimension `EOT' was low. Conclusion: The TAS-20 has some important shortcomings with respect to validity and reliability. For the assessment of alexithymia in empirical research, it is recommended to use the TAS-20 in combination with other instruments. We do not recommend the TAS-20 to be used in clinical practice. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kooiman2002,
      author = {Kooiman, CG and Spinhoven, P and Trijsburg, RW},
      title = {The assessment of alexithymia - A critical review of the literature and a psychometric study of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC RESEARCH},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {53},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1083-1090}
    }
    
    Korpela, K. & Hartig, T. Restorative qualities of favorite places {1996} JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {16}({3}), pp. {221-233} 
    article  
    Abstract: Theory and research dealing with place identity and restorative environments have for the most part proceeded independently. Assuming that emotional- and self-regulation are processes underlying the development of place identity, and that a person's favorite place is an exemplar of environments used in such regulation processes, the present study goes beyond preliminary observations about restorative aspects of favorite places to consider how individuals evaluate their favorite places using terms set out in restorative environments theory. Finnish university students (n=78) evaluated the central square of their city (Tampere) and favorite and unpleasant places of their own designation using the Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS), an instrument based on attention restoration theory. Consistent with notions of self-regulation, PRS subscale scores for Being Away, Fascination, Coherence, and Compatibility were all high in the favorite place evaluations, but Coherence and Compatibility were reliably higher than Being Away, which was in turn reliably higher than Fascination. Also, PRS subscale scores for the favorite places were reliably higher than those for the central square, which were in turn higher than those for the unpleasant places. Furthermore, differences were also found in self-reported emotional states associated with each place. The discussion suggests ways to develop further mutually reinforcing relations between restorative environments research and research on place identity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Korpela1996,
      author = {Korpela, K and Hartig, T},
      title = {Restorative qualities of favorite places},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {16},
      number = {3},
      pages = {221-233}
    }
    
    KOULACK, D. & KESELMAN, H. RATINGS OF PSYCHOLOGY JOURNALS BY MEMBERS OF AMERICAN-PSYCHOLOGICAL-ASSOCIATION {1975} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {30}({11}), pp. {1049-1053} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KOULACK1975,
      author = {KOULACK, D and KESELMAN, HJ},
      title = {RATINGS OF PSYCHOLOGY JOURNALS BY MEMBERS OF AMERICAN-PSYCHOLOGICAL-ASSOCIATION},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1975},
      volume = {30},
      number = {11},
      pages = {1049-1053}
    }
    
    KRANTZ, D. SEPARATE WORLDS OF OPERANT AND NON-OPERANT PSYCHOLOGY {1971} JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS
    Vol. {4}({1}), pp. {61-\&} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KRANTZ1971,
      author = {KRANTZ, DL},
      title = {SEPARATE WORLDS OF OPERANT AND NON-OPERANT PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS},
      year = {1971},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {61-&}
    }
    
    KRANTZ, D., GRUNBERG, N. & BAUM, A. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY {1985} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {36}, pp. {349-383} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KRANTZ1985,
      author = {KRANTZ, DS and GRUNBERG, NE and BAUM, A},
      title = {HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {36},
      pages = {349-383}
    }
    
    Kratowill, T. & Stoiber, K. Evidence-based interventions in school psychology: Conceptual foundations of the Procedural and Coding Manual of division 16 and the Society for the Study of School Psychology task force {2002} SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY
    Vol. {17}({4}), pp. {341-389} 
    article  
    Abstract: We present the conceptual, philosophical, and methodological basis for the Procedural and Coding Manual for Review of Evidence-Based Interventions (hereafter called the Procedural and Coding Manual), portions of which are discussed in the subsequent two,case-study application articles in this issue and which is available on the World Wide Web (http://www.sp-ebi.org). First, we discuss some key conceptual issues and areas of potential controversy surrounding the content and organization of the Procedural and Coding Manual. Second, we discuss our research framework for coding evidence-based interventions (EBIs), taking into account the dimensional classification approach adopted by the Task Force on Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology. We contrast this coding scheme with the approach embraced by the Committee on Science and Practice of the Society of Clinical Psychology, Division 12, American Psychological Association (APA), in their Procedural and Coding Manual for Identification of Evidence-Based Treatments (Weisz & Hawley, 2002). Third, we present our methodological framework for reviewing EBIs, including quantitative group-based and single-participant designs, qualitative research designs, and theory-guided confirmatory program evaluation models. The use of diverse methodologies to provide evidence for the efficacy of EBIs raises both conceptual and methodological issues for this ``work in progress.'' Finally, we introduce the concept of a coding system to be implemented by practitioners to develop a knowledge base on what works in practice and help bridge the gap between research and practice. Implications for future work on classifying EBIs are presented within the context of the research-practice gap.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kratowill2002,
      author = {Kratowill, TR and Stoiber, KC},
      title = {Evidence-based interventions in school psychology: Conceptual foundations of the Procedural and Coding Manual of division 16 and the Society for the Study of School Psychology task force},
      journal = {SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {17},
      number = {4},
      pages = {341-389}
    }
    
    KRUEGER, N. & DICKSON, P. HOW BELIEVING IN OURSELVES INCREASES RISK-TAKING - PERCEIVED SELF-EFFICACY AND OPPORTUNITY RECOGNITION {1994} DECISION SCIENCES
    Vol. {25}({3}), pp. {385-400} 
    article  
    Abstract: What effect does positive and negative feedback about past risk taking have on the future risk taking of decision makers? The results of an experimental study show that subjects who are led to believe they ate very competent at decision making see mote opportunities in a risky choice and take more risks. Those who are led to believe they are not very competent see mote threats and take fewer risks. The feelings of self-competence and self-confidence on one task did not generalize to a similar task. Perception of opportunities was unexpectedly not related to the perception of threats. As executives bring their personal perceptual biases to firm decision making, out results identify a serious built-in bias in SWOT analysis (the analysis of firms' strengths and weaknesses as related to potential opportunities and threats). Executives who believe that they and their firm are very competent will take more risks and vice versa. Out results also provide evidence that the perceived likelihood of an event depends on whether the event is a loss or a gain. Human decision making is subject to the general bias that outcome expectations are not independent of outcome valuations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KRUEGER1994,
      author = {KRUEGER, N and DICKSON, PR},
      title = {HOW BELIEVING IN OURSELVES INCREASES RISK-TAKING - PERCEIVED SELF-EFFICACY AND OPPORTUNITY RECOGNITION},
      journal = {DECISION SCIENCES},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {25},
      number = {3},
      pages = {385-400}
    }
    
    Kruschke, J. Base rates in category learning {1996} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION
    Vol. {22}({1}), pp. {3-26} 
    article  
    Abstract: Previous researchers have discovered perplexing inconsistencies in how people appear to utilize category base rates when making category judgments. In particular, D. L. Medin and S. M. Edelson (1988) found an inverse base-rate effect, in which participants tended to select a rare category when tested with a combination of conflicting cues, and M. A. Gluck and G. H. Bower (1988) reported apparent base-rate neglect, in which participants tended to select a rare category when tested with a single symptom for which objective diagnosticity was equal for all categories. This article suggests that common principles underlie both effects: First, base-rate information is learned and consistently applied to all training and testing cases. Second, the crucial effect of base rates is to cause frequent categories to be learned before rare categories so that the frequent categories are encoded by their typical features and the rare categories are encoded by their distinctive features. Four new experiments provide evidence consistent with those principles. The principles are formalized in a new connectionist model that can rapidly shift attention to distinctive features.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kruschke1996,
      author = {Kruschke, JK},
      title = {Base rates in category learning},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {22},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-26}
    }
    
    Kuchler, T., Henne-Bruns, D., Rappat, S., Graul, J., Holst, K., Williams, J. & Wood-Dauphinee, S. Impact of psychotherapeutic support on gastrointestinal cancer patients undergoing surgery: Survival results of a trial {1999} HEPATO-GASTROENTEROLOGY
    Vol. {46}({25}), pp. {322-335} 
    article  
    Abstract: BACKGROUND/AIMS: The impact of psychotherapeutic support on survival time in patients with gastrointestinal cancer undergoing surgery was studied. METHODOLOGY: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in cooperation with the Departments of General Surgery and Medical Psychology, University Hospital of Hamburg, Germany. Two hundred and seventy-one consenting patients with a preliminary diagnosis of cancer of the esophagus, stomach, liver/gallbladder, pancreas or colon/rectum were stratified by gender and randomly assigned to a control group that received standard care, as provided on the surgical wards, or to an experimental group that received formal psychotherapeutic support in addition to routine care during the hospital stay. Patients in both groups completed the EORTC-Quality of Life questionnaire preoperatively, post-operatively, and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months following surgery. Date of death, if applicable, was also recorded. Unadjusted and adjusted survival analyses were performed. RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated better survival for the experimental group than for the control group. The unadjusted significance level for group differences was p=0.002 for survival up to 2 years. Cox regression models that took TNM Staging or the Residual Tumor Classification into account also found significant differences at the 2-year follow-up. Secondary analyses found that most of the differences in favor of the experimental group occurred in females and in patients with stomach, pancreatic, primary liver or colorectal cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that patients with gastrointestinal cancer, particularly those who are female and those who undergo surgery for stomach, pancreatic, primary liver or colorectal cancer, benefit from a formal program of psychotherapeutic support in terms of survival.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kuchler1999,
      author = {Kuchler, T and Henne-Bruns, D and Rappat, S and Graul, J and Holst, K and Williams, JI and Wood-Dauphinee, S},
      title = {Impact of psychotherapeutic support on gastrointestinal cancer patients undergoing surgery: Survival results of a trial},
      journal = {HEPATO-GASTROENTEROLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {46},
      number = {25},
      pages = {322-335}
    }
    
    Kutas, M. Presidential address, 1996 - Views on how the electrical activity that the brain generates reflects the functions of different language structures {1997} PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY
    Vol. {34}({4}), pp. {383-398} 
    article  
    Abstract: Human language is what it is because of its function and its implementation. We are far from understanding how language comprehension is carried out by the human brain. This task can be made easier by considering that evidence for the what and how of language comes from the study of linguistics, psychology, and neuroscience. The approach outlined herein describes how these different sources of evidence can be combined in studies of written and spoken sentence processing by using a measure of the brain's electrical activity. The outcome is a more temporally precise view of the analysis of language structures in our minds and brains.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kutas1997,
      author = {Kutas, M},
      title = {Presidential address, 1996 - Views on how the electrical activity that the brain generates reflects the functions of different language structures},
      journal = {PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {34},
      number = {4},
      pages = {383-398}
    }
    
    Lakin, J., Jefferis, V., Cheng, C. & Chartrand, T. The chameleon effect as social glue: Evidence for the evolutionary significance of nonconscious mimicry {2003} JOURNAL OF NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {27}({3}), pp. {145-162} 
    article  
    Abstract: The ``chameleon effect'' refers to the tendency to adopt the postures, gestures, and mannerisms of interaction partners (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999). This type of mimicry occurs outside of conscious awareness, and without any intent to mimic or imitate. Empirical evidence suggests a bi-directional relationship between nonconscious mimicry on the one hand, and liking, rapport, and affiliation on the other. That is, nonconscious mimicry creates affiliation, and affiliation can be expressed through nonconscious mimicry. We argue that mimicry played an important role in human evolution. Initially, mimicry may have had survival value by helping humans communicate. We propose that the purpose of mimicry has now evolved to serve a social function. Nonconscious behavioral mimicry increases affiliation, which serves to foster relationships with others. We review current research in light of this proposed framework and suggest future areas of research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lakin2003,
      author = {Lakin, JL and Jefferis, VE and Cheng, CM and Chartrand, TL},
      title = {The chameleon effect as social glue: Evidence for the evolutionary significance of nonconscious mimicry},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {27},
      number = {3},
      pages = {145-162}
    }
    
    Lal, S. & Craig, A. A critical review of the psychophysiology of driver fatigue {2001} BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {55}({3}), pp. {173-194} 
    article  
    Abstract: Driver fatigue is a major cause of road accidents and has implications for road safety. This review discusses the concepts of fatigue and provides a summary on psychophysiological associations with driver fatigue. A variety of psychophysiological parameters have been used in previous research as indicators of fatigue, with electroencephalography perhaps being the most promising. Most research found changes in theta and delta activity to be strongly linked to transition to fatigue. Therefore, monitoring electroencephalography during driver fatigue may be a promising variable for use in fatigue countermeasure devices. The review also identified anxiety and mood states as factors that may possibly affect driver fatigue. Furthermore, personality and temperament may also influence fatigue. Given the above, understanding the psychology of fatigue may lead to better fatigue management. The findings from this review are discussed in the light of directions for future studies and for the development of fatigue countermeasures. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lal2001,
      author = {Lal, SKL and Craig, A},
      title = {A critical review of the psychophysiology of driver fatigue},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {55},
      number = {3},
      pages = {173-194}
    }
    
    LANDRINE, H. & KLONOFF, E. CULTURE AND HEALTH-RELATED SCHEMAS - A REVIEW AND PROPOSAL FOR INTERDISCIPLINARY INTEGRATION {1992} HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {11}({4}), pp. {267-276} 
    article  
    Abstract: We present a comprehensive review of anthropological, sociological, and psychological theory and data on the structure, content, and function of health-related schemas. Health psychology's need to integrate specific variables and principles from the other disciplines is highlighted. Suggestions for future research are offered, and the importance of cultural factors in health beliefs is emphasized.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LANDRINE1992,
      author = {LANDRINE, H and KLONOFF, EA},
      title = {CULTURE AND HEALTH-RELATED SCHEMAS - A REVIEW AND PROPOSAL FOR INTERDISCIPLINARY INTEGRATION},
      journal = {HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {11},
      number = {4},
      pages = {267-276}
    }
    
    LANG, P. THE VARIETIES OF EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE - A MEDITATION ON JAMES-LANGE THEORY {1994} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {101}({2}), pp. {211-221} 
    article  
    Abstract: James-Lange theory influenced a century of emotion research. This article traces the theory's origins in philosophical psychology, considers differences in the thinking of James and Lange, and assesses Cannon's early critique and the resulting debate. Research is reviewed evaluating physiological patterns in emotion, the discordance of reported feelings and visceral reactivity, and the role of generalized arousal. NeoJamesian theories of attribution and appraisal-and alternative views based on dynamic psychology-are critically examined. A conception of emotion is presented, on the basis of developments unknown to James in conditioning theory, information processing, and neuroscience. Computational models of mentation are discussed, and implications are drawn for the classical debate on cognition and emotion. In concluding, new paths for emotion research are outlined and homage paid to the inspiration of William James.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LANG1994,
      author = {LANG, PJ},
      title = {THE VARIETIES OF EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE - A MEDITATION ON JAMES-LANGE THEORY},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {101},
      number = {2},
      pages = {211-221}
    }
    
    Langevoort, D. Behavioral theories of judgment and decision making in legal scholarship: A literature review {1998} VANDERBILT LAW REVIEW
    Vol. {51}({6}), pp. {1499-1540} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Langevoort1998,
      author = {Langevoort, DC},
      title = {Behavioral theories of judgment and decision making in legal scholarship: A literature review},
      journal = {VANDERBILT LAW REVIEW},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {51},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1499-1540},
      note = {Symposium on the Legal Implications of Psychology - Human Behavior, Behavioral Economics, and the Law, NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE, MAR 13, 1998}
    }
    
    Langevoort, D. Organized illusions: A behavioral theory of why corporations mislead stock market investors (and cause other social harms) {1997} UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA LAW REVIEW
    Vol. {146}({1}), pp. {101-172} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Langevoort1997,
      author = {Langevoort, DC},
      title = {Organized illusions: A behavioral theory of why corporations mislead stock market investors (and cause other social harms)},
      journal = {UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA LAW REVIEW},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {146},
      number = {1},
      pages = {101-172}
    }
    
    LANGEVOORT, D. THEORIES, ASSUMPTIONS, AND SECURITIES-REGULATION - MARKET-EFFICIENCY REVISITED {1992} UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA LAW REVIEW
    Vol. {140}({3}), pp. {851-920} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{LANGEVOORT1992,
      author = {LANGEVOORT, DC},
      title = {THEORIES, ASSUMPTIONS, AND SECURITIES-REGULATION - MARKET-EFFICIENCY REVISITED},
      journal = {UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA LAW REVIEW},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {140},
      number = {3},
      pages = {851-920}
    }
    
    Latham, G. & Pinder, C. Work motivation theory and research at the dawn of the twenty-first century {2005} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {56}, pp. {485-516} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In the first Annual Review of Psychology chapter since 1977 devoted exclusively to work motivation, we examine progress made in theory and research on needs, traits, values, cognition, and affect as well as three bodies of literature dealing with the context of motivation: national culture, job design, and models of person-environment fit. We focus primarily on work reported between 1993 and 2003, concluding that goal-setting, social cognitive, and organizational justice theories are the three most important approaches to work motivation to appear in the last 30 years. We reach 10 generally positive conclusions regarding predicting, understanding, and influencing work motivation in the new millennium.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Latham2005,
      author = {Latham, GP and Pinder, CC},
      title = {Work motivation theory and research at the dawn of the twenty-first century},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {56},
      pages = {485-516},
      doi = {{10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.142105}}
    }
    
    LAWS, J. PSYCHOLOGY OF TOKENISM - ANALYSIS {1975} SEX ROLES
    Vol. {1}({1}), pp. {51-67} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{LAWS1975,
      author = {LAWS, JL},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY OF TOKENISM - ANALYSIS},
      journal = {SEX ROLES},
      year = {1975},
      volume = {1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {51-67}
    }
    
    LEARY, M. & JONES, J. THE SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF TANNING AND SUNSCREEN USE - SELF-PRESENTATIONAL MOTIVES AS A PREDICTOR OF HEALTH RISK {1993} JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {23}({17}), pp. {1390-1406} 
    article  
    Abstract: To the extent that many people seek and maintain a suntan because they believe it makes them more attractive, people who are particularly motivated to make good impressions on others or to be seen as physically attractive are at increased risk for skin cancer. This study examined cognitive, motivational, and attitudinal predictors of two factors that are associated with increased risk for skin cancer: engaging in behaviors that increase one's exposure to UV radiation and inadequate use of sunscreen. Self-presentational motives involving a concern for one's personal appearance and the belief that being tan enhances one's attractiveness were the strongest predictors of the degree to which respondents exposed themselves to natural and artificial sources of UV radiation. Sunscreen use was best predicted by knowing someone with skin cancer. Implications for attempts to promote safe-sun practices are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LEARY1993,
      author = {LEARY, MR and JONES, JL},
      title = {THE SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF TANNING AND SUNSCREEN USE - SELF-PRESENTATIONAL MOTIVES AS A PREDICTOR OF HEALTH RISK},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {23},
      number = {17},
      pages = {1390-1406}
    }
    
    Leder, H., Candrian, G., Huber, O. & Bruce, V. Configural features in the context of upright and inverted faces {2001} PERCEPTION
    Vol. {30}({1}), pp. {73-83} 
    article  
    Abstract: When faces are turned upside down, recognition is known to be severely disrupted. This effect is thought to be due to disruption of configural processing. Recently, Leder and Bruce (2000, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A 53 513-536) argued that configural information in face processing consists at least partly of locally processed relations between facial elements. In three experiments we investigated whether a local relational feature (the interocular distance) is processed differently in upside-down versus upright faces. In experiment 1 participants decided in which of two sequentially presented photographic faces the interocular distance was larger. The decision was more difficult in upside-down presentation. Three different conditions were used in experiment 2 to investigate whether this deficit depends upon parts of the face beyond the eyes themselves; displays showed the eye region alone, the eyes and nose, or the eyes and nose and mouth. The availability of additional features did not interact with the inversion effect which was observed strongly even when the eyes were shown in isolation. In experiment 3 all eyes were turned upside down in the inverted face condition as in the Thatcher illusion (Thompson, 1980 Perception 9 483-484). In this case no inversion effect was found. These results are in accordance with an explanation of the face-inversion effect in which the disruption of configural facial information plays the critical role in memory for faces, and in which configural information corresponds to spatial information that is processed in a way which is sensitive to local properties of the facial features involved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Leder2001,
      author = {Leder, H and Candrian, G and Huber, O and Bruce, V},
      title = {Configural features in the context of upright and inverted faces},
      journal = {PERCEPTION},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {30},
      number = {1},
      pages = {73-83}
    }
    
    Leonards, U., Sunaert, S., Van Hecke, P. & Orban, G. Attention mechanisms in visual search - An fMRI study {2000} JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {12}({Suppl. 2}), pp. {61-75} 
    article  
    Abstract: The human visual system is usually confronted with many different objects at a time, with only some of them reaching consciousness. Reaction-time studies have revealed two different strategies by which objects are selected for further processing: an automatic, efficient search process, and a conscious, so-called inefficient search [Treisman, A. (1991). Search, similarity, and integration of features between and within dimensions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 17, 652-676; Treisman, A., & Gelade, G. (1980). A feature integration theory of attention. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 97-136; Wolfs, J, M. (1996). Visual search. In H. Pashler (Ed.), Attention. London: University College London Press]. Two different theories have been proposed to account for these search processes. Parallel theories presume that both types of search are treated by a single mechanism that is modulated by attentional and computational demands. Serial theories, in contrast, propose that parallel processing may underlie efficient: search, but inefficient searching requires an additional serial mechanism, an attentional ``spotlight'' (Treisman, A., 1991) that successively shifts attention to different locations in the visual field. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we show that the cerebral networks involved in efficient and inefficient search overlap almost completely. Only the superior frontal region, known to be involved in working memory [Courtney, S. M., Petit, L., Maisog, J. M., Ungerleider, L. G., & Haxby, J. V. (1998). An area specialized for spatial working memory in human frontal cortex. Science, 279 1347-1351], and distinct from the frontal eye fields, that control spatial shifts of attention, was specifically involved in inefficient search. Activity modulations correlated with subjects' behavior best in the extrastriate cortical areas, where the amount of activity depended on the number of distracting elements in the display. Such a correlation was not observed in the parietal and frontal regions, usually assumed as being involved in spatial attention processing. These results can be interpreted in two ways: the most likely is that visual search does not require serial processing, otherwise we must assume the existence of a serial searchlight that operates in the extrastriate cortex but differs from the visuospatial shifts of attention involving the parietal and frontal regions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Leonards2000,
      author = {Leonards, U and Sunaert, S and Van Hecke, P and Orban, GA},
      title = {Attention mechanisms in visual search - An fMRI study},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {12},
      number = {Suppl. 2},
      pages = {61-75}
    }
    
    LEVESQUE, M. & KENNY, D. ACCURACY OF BEHAVIORAL PREDICTIONS AT ZERO ACQUAINTANCE - A SOCIAL-RELATIONS ANALYSIS {1993} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {65}({6}), pp. {1178-1187} 
    article  
    Abstract: The accuracy of behavioral predictions based on minimal information was assessed using the Social Relations Model (D. A. Kenny & L. Albright, 1987). Eighty women in unacquainted groups of 4 completed round robin trait ratings and predictions about extraversion-related behaviors. Each S then had a 5-min videotaped 1-on-1 interaction with each of the other group members. Behaviors corresponding to those predicted were coded from the videotapes. Significant consensus was obtained for ratings of Extraversion and for behavioral predictions. Cross-partner consistency emerged for ali coded behaviors. Although predictions of behavior were not accurate at the dyadic level, significant generalized accuracy did emerge. Thus, if a person was consensually predicted to be talkative, for example, that person tended to be talkative across partners. Results are discussed in relation to the accuracy of interpersonal perception and Swann's (1984) theory of pragmatic accuracy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LEVESQUE1993,
      author = {LEVESQUE, MJ and KENNY, DA},
      title = {ACCURACY OF BEHAVIORAL PREDICTIONS AT ZERO ACQUAINTANCE - A SOCIAL-RELATIONS ANALYSIS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {65},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1178-1187}
    }
    
    Levy, F., Hay, D., McLaughlin, M., Wood, C. & Waldman, I. Twin-sibling differences in parental reports of ADHD, speech, reading and behaviour problems {1996} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {37}({5}), pp. {569-578} 
    article  
    Abstract: Differences between twins and siblings in behaviour problems were investigated in a nonselected sample of 1938 families with children aged 4-12 years. Families were sent a questionnaire based on DSM-III-R criteria for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Separation Anxiety (SA), which was validated by formal clinical interview. The questionnaire also included measures of speech and reading problems. There were significant differences between twins and siblings for ADHD symptoms, but not for symptoms of ODD, CD or SA. Twins and siblings differed significantly for gestational age, birth weight, speech and reading problems. While there was little evidence for birth weight or gestational age contributing to the difference in ADHD symptoms, there was a strong association between ADHD symptoms and speech and reading problems. Copyright (C) 1996 Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levy1996,
      author = {Levy, F and Hay, D and McLaughlin, M and Wood, C and Waldman, I},
      title = {Twin-sibling differences in parental reports of ADHD, speech, reading and behaviour problems},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {37},
      number = {5},
      pages = {569-578}
    }
    
    Levy, J. Prospect theory, rational choice, and international relations {1997} INTERNATIONAL STUDIES QUARTERLY
    Vol. {41}({1}), pp. {87-112} 
    article  
    Abstract: A half-decade after the first systematic applications of prospect theory to international relations, scholars continue to debate its potential utility as a theoretical framework. Key questions include the validity of the experimental findings themselves, their relevance for real-world international behavior that involves high-stakes decisions by collective actors in interactive settings, and the conceptual status of prospect theory with respect to rational choice. In this essay I assess theoretical and methodological debates over these issues. I review work in social psychology and experimental economics and conclude that challenges to the external validity of prospect theory-based hypotheses for international behavior are much more serious than challenges to their internal validity. I emphasize the similarities between prospect theory and expected-utility theory, argue that hypotheses regarding loss aversion and the reflection effect are easily subsumed within the latter, and that evidence of framing effects and nonlinear responses to probabilities are more problematic for the theory. I conclude that priorities for future research include the construction of hypotheses on the framing of foreign policy decisions and research designs for testing them; the incorporation of framing, loss aversion, and the reflection effect into theories of collective and interactive decision making; and experimental research that is sensitive to the political and strategic context of foreign policy decision making.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Levy1997,
      author = {Levy, JS},
      title = {Prospect theory, rational choice, and international relations},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL STUDIES QUARTERLY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {41},
      number = {1},
      pages = {87-112},
      note = {Conference on Contrasting Rational and Cognitive Theories of War, TX, 1994}
    }
    
    Li, P. & Gleitman, L. Turning the tables: language and spatial reasoning {2002} COGNITION
    Vol. {83}({3}), pp. {265-294} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper investigates possible influences of the lexical resources of individual languages on the spatial organization and reasoning styles of their users. That there are such powerful and pervasive influences of language on thought is the thesis of the Whorf-Sapir linguistic relativity hypothesis which, after a lengthy period in intellectual limbo, has recently returned to prominence in the anthropological, linguistic, and psycholinguistic literatures. Our point of departure is an influential group of cross-linguistic studies that appear to show that spatial reasoning is strongly affected by the spatial lexicon in everyday use in a community (e.g. Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1993). Linguistic and nonlinguistic coding of spatial arrays: explorations in Mayan cognition (Working Paper No. 24). Nijmegen: Cognitive Anthropology Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics; Cognitive Linguistics 6 (1995) 33). Specifically, certain groups customarily use an externally referenced spatial-coordinate system to refer to nearby directions and positions (''to the north'') whereas English speakers usually employ a viewer-perspective system (''to the left''). Prior findings and interpretations have been to the effect that users of these two types of spatial system solve rotation problems in different ways. reasoning strategies imposed by habitual use of the language-particular lexicons themselves. The present studies reproduce these different problem-solving strategies in speakers of a single language (English) by manipulating landmark cues, suggesting that language itself may not be the key causal factor in choice of spatial perspective. Prior evidence on rotation problem solution from infants (e.g. Acredolo. L.P. (1979). Laboratory versus home: the effect of environment on the 9-month-old infant's choice of spatial reference system. Developmental Psychology, 15 (6), 666-667) and from laboratory animals (e.g. Restle, F. (1975). Discrimination of cues in mazes: a resolution of the place-vs.-response question. Psychological Review, 64, 217-228) suggests a unified interpretation of the findings: creatures approach spatial problems differently depending on the availability and suitability of local landmark cues. The results are discussed in terms of the current debate on the relation of language to thought, with particular emphasis on the question of why different cultural communities favor different perspectives in talking about space. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Li2002,
      author = {Li, P and Gleitman, L},
      title = {Turning the tables: language and spatial reasoning},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {83},
      number = {3},
      pages = {265-294}
    }
    
    Liao, S. Expert system methodologies and applications - a decade review from 1995 to 2004 {2005} EXPERT SYSTEMS WITH APPLICATIONS
    Vol. {28}({1}), pp. {93-103} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This paper surveys expert systems (ES) development using a literature review and classification of articles from 1995 to 2004 with a keyword index and article abstract in order to explore how ES methodologies and applications have developed during this period. Based on the scope of 166 articles from 78 academic journals (retrieved from five online database) of ES applications, this paper surveys and classifies ES methodologies using the following eleven categories: rule-based systems, knowledge-based systems, neural networks, fuzzy ESs, objectoriented methodology, case-based reasoning, system architecture, intelligent agent systems, database methodology, modeling, and ontology together with their applications for different research and problem domains. Discussion is presented, indicating the followings future development directions for ES methodologies and applications: (1) ES methodologies are tending to develop towards expertise orientation and ES applications development is a problem-oriented domain. (2) It is suggested that different social science methodologies, such as psychology, cognitive science, and human behavior could implement ES as another kind of methodology. (3) The ability to continually change and obtain new understanding is the driving power of ES methodologies, and should be the ES application of future works. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Liao2005,
      author = {Liao, SH},
      title = {Expert system methodologies and applications - a decade review from 1995 to 2004},
      journal = {EXPERT SYSTEMS WITH APPLICATIONS},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {28},
      number = {1},
      pages = {93-103},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.eswa.2004.08.003}}
    }
    
    Lichstein, K., Durrence, H., Taylor, D., Bush, A. & Riedel, B. Quantitative criteria for insomnia {2003} BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY
    Vol. {41}({4}), pp. {427-445} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Formal diagnostic systems (DSM-IV, ICSD, and ICD-10) do not provide adequate quantitative criteria to diagnose insomnia. This may not present a serious problem in clinical settings where extensive interviews determine the need for clinical management. However, lack of standard criteria introduce disruptive variability into the insomnia research domain. The present study reviewed two decades of psychology clinical trials for insomnia to determine common practice with regard to frequency, severity, and duration criteria for insomnia. Modal patterns established frequency (greater than or equal to3 nights a week) and duration (greater than or equal to6 months) standard criteria. We then applied four versions of severity criteria to a random sample and used sensitivity-specificity analyses to identify the most valid criterion. We found that severity of sleep onset latency or wake time after sleep onset of: (a) greater than or equal to31 min; (b) occurring greater than or equal to3 nights a week; (c) for greater than or equal to6 months are the most defensible quantitative criteria for insomnia. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lichstein2003,
      author = {Lichstein, KL and Durrence, HH and Taylor, DJ and Bush, AJ and Riedel, BW},
      title = {Quantitative criteria for insomnia},
      journal = {BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {41},
      number = {4},
      pages = {427-445},
      doi = {{10.1016/S0005-7967(02)00023-2}}
    }
    
    Lindsay, D. & Read, J. `'Memory work'' and recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse: Scientific evidence and public, professional, and personal issues {1995} PSYCHOLOGY PUBLIC POLICY AND LAW
    Vol. {1}({4}), pp. {846-908} 
    article  
    Abstract: The authors review and critically evaluate scientific evidence regarding recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse and discuss the implications of this evidence for professional psychology, public policy, and the law. The discussion focuses primarily on abuse memories recovered through `'memory work'' by people who previously believed that they were not sexually abused as children. The authors argue that memory work can yield both veridical memories and illusory memories or false beliefs, and they discuss factors that could be used to weigh the credibility of allegations based on recovered memories. The article offers tentative recommendations regarding public education, training and certification of psychotherapists, guidelines for trauma-oriented psycho-therapy, research initiatives, legislative actions, and legal proceedings.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lindsay1995,
      author = {Lindsay, DS and Read, JD},
      title = {`'Memory work'' and recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse: Scientific evidence and public, professional, and personal issues},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY PUBLIC POLICY AND LAW},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {1},
      number = {4},
      pages = {846-908}
    }
    
    LIPTON, J. PSYCHOLOGY OF EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY {1977} JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {62}({1}), pp. {90-95} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{LIPTON1977,
      author = {LIPTON, JP},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY OF EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1977},
      volume = {62},
      number = {1},
      pages = {90-95}
    }
    
    Lobbezoo, F. & Naeije, M. Bruxism is mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally {2001} JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION
    Vol. {28}({12}), pp. {1085-1091} 
    article  
    Abstract: Bruxism is a controversial phenomenon. Both its definition and the diagnostic procedure contribute to the fact that the literature about the aetiology of this disorder is difficult to interpret. There is, however, consensus about the multifactorial nature of the aetiology. Besides peripheral (morphological) factors, central (pathophysiological and psychological) factors can be distinguished. In the past, morphological factors, like occlusal discrepancies and the anatomy of the bony structures of the orofacial region, have been considered the main causative factors for bruxism. Nowadays, these factors play only a small role, if any. Recent focus is more on the pathophysiological factors. For example, bruxism has been suggested to be part of a sleep arousal response. in addition, bruxism appears to be modulated by various neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. More specifically, disturbances in the central dopaminergic system have been linked to bruxism. Further, factors like smoking, alcohol, drugs, diseases and trauma may be involved in the bruxism aetiology. Psychological factors like stress and personality are frequently mentioned in relation to bruxism as well. However, research to these factors comes to equivocal results and needs further attention. Taken all evidence together, bruxism appears to be mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lobbezoo2001,
      author = {Lobbezoo, F and Naeije, M},
      title = {Bruxism is mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ORAL REHABILITATION},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {28},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1085-1091}
    }
    
    Lonka, K. & LindblomYlanne, S. Epistemologies, conceptions of learning, and study practices in medicine and psychology {1996} HIGHER EDUCATION
    Vol. {31}({1}), pp. {5-24} 
    article  
    Abstract: The subjects (N = 175), freshmen and fifth year students in psychology (n = 59) and medicine (n = 116), described their modes of studying by answering open-ended questions and Likert-type questions, presented to them within a task booklet. They were first asked to write down their own subjective definitions of learning. Scales to classify the answers were adopted from Lonka et al. (1990). Second, subjects were given a comprehension monitoring probe adopted from Ryan (1984). Responses were analysed to determine the specific comprehension criteria the student employed. Third, students rated a set of 71 statements concerning learning styles, regulation of learning, and conceptions of learning (Entwistle & Ramsden, 1983; Vermunt & van Rijswijk, 1988). Embedded in the last set of statements were seven items that were used to classify students as dualists or relativists (Perry, 1968; Ryan, 1984). It was found that constructivist conceptions of learning were the most typical of (advanced) psychology students, whereas learning was more often seen as intake of knowledge by the medical students. Highest dualism scores were obtained by the first year students, especially medical students. In general, dualists were more likely to report knowledge comprehension criteria to test their understanding than were relativists, and dualists' conceptions of learning were also more passive. Four principal components were identified that reflected qualitatively different approaches to learning and knowledge: externally regulated and reproduction-directed learning (PC1), self-regulated, meaning-directed, and goal-oriented learning (PC2), constructivist epistemology (PC3), and active professional orientation (PC4). Medical students scored higher on variables related to PC1 and PC4, whereas psychology students scored higher on scales associated with PC2 and PC3.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lonka1996,
      author = {Lonka, K and LindblomYlanne, S},
      title = {Epistemologies, conceptions of learning, and study practices in medicine and psychology},
      journal = {HIGHER EDUCATION},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {31},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5-24}
    }
    
    Lopes, L. & Oden, G. The role of aspiration level in risky choice: A comparison of cumulative prospect theory and SP A theory {1999} JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {43}({2}), pp. {286-313} 
    article  
    Abstract: In recent years, descriptive models of risky choice have incorporated features that reflect the importance of particular outcome values in choice. Cumulative prospect theory (CPT) does this by inserting a reference point in the utility function. SP;A (security-potential/aspiration) theory uses aspiration level as a second criterion in the choice process. Experiment 1 compares the ability of the CPT and SP/A models to account for the same within-subjects data set and Finds in favor of SP/A. Experiment 2 replicates the main finding of Experiment 1 in a between-subjects design. The final discussion brackets the SP/A result by showing the impact on fit of both decreasing and increasing the number of free parameters. We also suggest how the SP/A approach might be useful in modeling investment decision making in a descriptively more valid way and conclude with comments on the relation between descriptive and normative theories of risky choice. (C) 1999 Academic Press.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lopes1999,
      author = {Lopes, LL and Oden, GC},
      title = {The role of aspiration level in risky choice: A comparison of cumulative prospect theory and SP A theory},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {43},
      number = {2},
      pages = {286-313}
    }
    
    Lopez, F. & Brennan, K. Dynamic processes underlying adult attachment organization: Toward an attachment theoretical perspective on the healthy and effective self {2000} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {47}({3}), pp. {283-300} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Contemporary attachment theory is inspiring a burgeoning literature on adult attachment. This literature offers counseling psychology a compelling framework for understanding the healthy and effective self. In this article, the authors review studies probing the cognitive processes, affect self-regulatory dynamics, and relationship behaviors associated with secure (primary) and insecure (secondary) adult attachment strategies. They then offer a portrait of the healthy, effective personality that is consistent with theory and research on adult attachment. Finally, in an effort to understand key characteristics of successful movement toward the healthy and effective self, the authors review empirical extensions of attachment theory to the therapeutic context.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lopez2000,
      author = {Lopez, FG and Brennan, KA},
      title = {Dynamic processes underlying adult attachment organization: Toward an attachment theoretical perspective on the healthy and effective self},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {47},
      number = {3},
      pages = {283-300},
      doi = {{10.1037//0022-0167.47.3.283}}
    }
    
    Lorenzi, N., Riley, R., Blyth, A., Southon, G. & Dixon, B. Antecedents of the people and organizational aspects of medical informatics: Review of the literature {1997} JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL INFORMATICS ASSOCIATION
    Vol. {4}({2}), pp. {79-93} 
    article  
    Abstract: People and organizational issues are critical in both implementing medical informatics systems and in dealing with the altered organizations that new systems often create. The people and organizational issues area-like medical informatics itself-is a blend of many disciplines. The academic disciplines of psychology, sociology, social psychology, social anthropology, organizational behavior and organizational development, management, and cognitive sciences are rich with research with significant potential to ease the introduction and on-going use of information technology in today's complex health systems. These academic areas contribute research data and core information for better understanding of such issues as the importance of and processes for creating future direction; managing a complex change process; effective strategies for involving individuals and groups in the informatics effort; and effectively managing the altered organization. This article reviews the behavioral and business referent disciplines that can potentially contribute to improved implementations and on-going management of change in the medical informatics arena.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lorenzi1997,
      author = {Lorenzi, NM and Riley, RT and Blyth, AJC and Southon, G and Dixon, BJ},
      title = {Antecedents of the people and organizational aspects of medical informatics: Review of the literature},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL INFORMATICS ASSOCIATION},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {4},
      number = {2},
      pages = {79-93}
    }
    
    Lourenco, O. & Machado, A. In defense of Piaget's theory: A reply to 10 common criticisms {1996} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {103}({1}), pp. {143-164} 
    article  
    Abstract: The developmental theory of Jean Piaget has been criticized on the grounds that it is conceptually limited, empirically false, or philosophically and epistemologically untenable. This study attempts to rebut these criticisms by showing that most of them (a) derive from widespread misinterpretations of the work of Piaget; (b) fail to appreciate the 2 central issues of his thinking-how new forms of thinking emerge during ontogenesis and how they become psychologically necessary; (c) incorrectly assume that many controversies concerning his theory can be settled empirically or methodologically before they are clarified conceptually; (d) ignore various modifications of Piagetian theory, particularly those advanced after 1970; and (e) forget the dialectical, constructivist, and developmental nature of Piaget's unique approach to human development. Although the authors do not claim there is a `'true'' Piaget to be discovered, or that the problems with his theory vanish when it is better understood, they do claim that important aspects of Piaget's work have not been assimilated by developmental psychologists.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lourenco1996,
      author = {Lourenco, O and Machado, A},
      title = {In defense of Piaget's theory: A reply to 10 common criticisms},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {103},
      number = {1},
      pages = {143-164}
    }
    
    Lubinski, D. & Humphreys, L. Incorporating general intelligence into epidemiology and the social sciences {1997} INTELLIGENCE
    Vol. {24}({1}), pp. {159-201} 
    article  
    Abstract: The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the value of examining a variety of pressing behavioral, medical, and social phenomena as they relate to gradations in general intelligence. Although few (if any) variables in the social sciences can compete with the construct of general intelligence in its ability to forecast an array of socially valued attributes and outcomes, measures of general intelligence are seldom incorporated into correlational and experimental designs aimed at understanding maladaptive behavior (e.g., crime, dropping out of high school, unwise financial planning, health-risk behaviors, poor parenting, and vocational discord) or its opposite, highly adaptive behavior. We contend that, if consulted more often, the construct of general intelligence would contribute to understanding many puzzling human phenomena, because successive gradations of intelligence reflect successive degrees of risk. A method is provided for uncovering group trends, one expressly designed to reveal the range and prevalence of the many different kinds of human phenomena that vary as a function of intellectual gradations. By employing this method, policymakers and the public can more readily apprehend the significant, but often unsuspected, contribution made by general intelligence to many socially important outcomes. Our approach is similar to traditional epidemiological research aimed at ascertaining antecedents to maladies through the defining features of high-risk groups (e.g., for lung cancer, smokers and passive smokers; for AIDS victims, participants in unsafe sex; for academic mediocrity, among the intellectually gifted in nonaccelerative educational tracks; for mental retardation, high blood-lead levels). Once Such high-risk groups are defined (i.e., groups of persons whose behavioral dispositions predispose them, and often others around them, to unfortunate outcomes), policymakers and scientists are in a better position to disentangle genuine causes from families of correlations and can concentrate ameliorative resources more effectively. Data from educational and medical contexts are analyzed to show how measures of general intelligence, and other dimensions from differential psychology, can complement epidemiological and social science inquiry. We also argue that by incorporating such measures of human variation into policy development and research, policymakers are more likely to forestall `'iatrogenic effects'' (maladies caused by treatment).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lubinski1997,
      author = {Lubinski, D and Humphreys, LG},
      title = {Incorporating general intelligence into epidemiology and the social sciences},
      journal = {INTELLIGENCE},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {24},
      number = {1},
      pages = {159-201}
    }
    
    LUNDEBERG, M., FOX, P. & PUNCOCHAR, J. HIGHLY CONFIDENT BUT WRONG - GENDER DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES IN CONFIDENCE JUDGMENTS {1994} JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {86}({1}), pp. {114-121} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although gender differences are fairly consistent when people report their general confidence, much less is known about such differences when individuals assess the degree of confidence they have in their ability to answer any particular test question. The objective of this research was to investigate gender differences in item-specific confidence judgments. Data were collected from three psychology courses containing 70 men and 181 women. After answering each item on course exams, students indicated their confidence that their answer to that item was correct. Results showed that gender differences in confidence are dependent on the context (whether items were correct or wrong) and on the domain being tested. Moreover, although both men and women were overconfident, undergraduate men were especially overconfident when incorrect.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LUNDEBERG1994,
      author = {LUNDEBERG, MA and FOX, PW and PUNCOCHAR, J},
      title = {HIGHLY CONFIDENT BUT WRONG - GENDER DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES IN CONFIDENCE JUDGMENTS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {86},
      number = {1},
      pages = {114-121}
    }
    
    Lyubomirsky, S. Why are some people happier than others? The role of cognitive and motivational processes in well-being {2001} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {56}({3}), pp. {239-249} 
    article  
    Abstract: Addressing the question of why some people are happier than others is important for both theoretical and practical reasons and should be a central goal of a comprehensive positive psychology. Following a construal theory of happiness, the author proposes that multiple cognitive and motivational processes moderate the impact of the objective environment on well-being. Thus, to understand why some people are happier than others, one must understand the cognitive and motivational processes that serve to maintain, and even enhance, enduring happiness and transient mood. The author's approach has been to explore hedonically relevant psychological processes, such as social comparison, dissonance reduction, self-reflection, self-evaluation, and person perception, in chronically happy and unhappy individuals. In support of a construal framework, self-rated happy and unhappy people have been shown to differ systematically in the particular cognitive and motivational strategies they use. Promising research directions for positive psychology in pursuit of the sources of happiness, as well as the implications of the construal approach for prescriptions for enhancing well-being, are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lyubomirsky2001,
      author = {Lyubomirsky, S},
      title = {Why are some people happier than others? The role of cognitive and motivational processes in well-being},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {56},
      number = {3},
      pages = {239-249}
    }
    
    Macdiarmid, J. & Blundell, J. Assessing dietary intake: Who, what and why of under-reporting {1998} NUTRITION RESEARCH REVIEWS
    Vol. {11}({2}), pp. {231-253} 
    article  
    Abstract: Under-reporting of food intake is one of the fundamental obstacles preventing the collection of accurate habitual dietary intake data. The prevalence of under-reporting in large nutritional surveys ranges from 18 to 54 % of the whole sample, but can be as high as 70 % in particular subgroups. This wide variation between studies is partly due to different criteria used to identify under-reporters and also to non-uniformity of under-reporting across populations. The most consistent differences found are between men and women and between groups differing in body mass index. Women are more likely to under-report than men, and under-reporting is more common among overweight and obese individuals. Other associated characteristics, for which there is less consistent evidence, include age, smoking habits, level of education, social class, physical activity and dietary restraint. Determining whether under-reporting is specific to macronutrients or food is problematic, as most methods identify only low energy intakes. Studies that have attempted to measure under-reporting specific to macronutrients express nutrients as percentage of energy and have tended to find carbohydrate under-reported and protein over-reported. However, care must be taken when interpreting these results, especially when data are expressed as percentages. A logical conclusion is that food items with a negative health image (e.g. cakes, sweets, confectionery) are more likely to be under-reported, whereas those with a positive health image are more likely to be over-reported (e.g. fruits and vegetables). This also suggests that dietary fat is likely to be under-reported. However, it is necessary to distinguish between under-reporting and genuine under-eating for the duration of data collection. The key to understanding this problem, but one that has been widely neglected, concerns the processes that cause people to under-report their food intakes. The little work that has been done has simply confirmed the complexity of this issue. The importance of obtaining accurate estimates of habitual dietary intakes so as to assess health correlates of food consumption can be contrasted with the poor quality of data collected. This phenomenon should be considered a priority research area. Moreover, misreporting is not simply a nutritionist's problem, but requires a multidisciplinary approach (including psychology, sociology and physiology) to advance the understanding of under-reporting in dietary intake studies.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Macdiarmid1998,
      author = {Macdiarmid, J and Blundell, J},
      title = {Assessing dietary intake: Who, what and why of under-reporting},
      journal = {NUTRITION RESEARCH REVIEWS},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {11},
      number = {2},
      pages = {231-253}
    }
    
    MacDonald, D. Spirituality: Description, measurement, and relation to the five factor model of personality {2000} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {68}({1}), pp. {153-197} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present article focused on the development and measurement of a factor model of the expressions of spirituality. Study 1 (N = 534) involved the use of factor analysis to examine the latent factor structure in a sample of 1 1 measures of spiritual constructs. Study 2 (N= 938) focused on the replication of Study 1 results and on the construction and initial validation of an instrument to operationalize the factor model of spirituality. Results indicate that at least 5 robust dimensions of spirituality underlie the spirituality test domain. These dimensions were labeled Cognitive Orientation Towards Spirituality (COS), Experiential/Phenomenological Dimension (EPD), Existential Well-Being (EWB), Paranormal Beliefs (PAR), and Religiousness (REL). The measure developed, named the Expressions of Spirituality Inventory (ESI), takes the form of a 98-item instrument that generated scores demonstrating satisfactory reliability and adequate initial validity. Examination of the relation of spirituality to the Five Factor Model (FFM) as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised revealed that the dimensions of the FFM appear to differentially relate to the major elements of spirituality but are nevertheless conceptually unique, pointing to the possible existence of major aspects of personality not represented in the FFM.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MacDonald2000,
      author = {MacDonald, DA},
      title = {Spirituality: Description, measurement, and relation to the five factor model of personality},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {68},
      number = {1},
      pages = {153-197}
    }
    
    MACDONALD, K. EVOLUTION, THE 5-FACTOR MODEL, AND LEVELS OF PERSONALITY {1995} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {63}({3}), pp. {525-567} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article interprets the five-factor model as subsuming variation in normative, species-typical systems with adaptive functions in the human environment of evolutionary adaptedness. It is argued that the evolutionary logic of personality systems is apparent in the patterning of mean sex differences in personality. Personality systems are conceptualized as evolved motivational systems with an affective core. The evolved motive dispositions at the core of personality anchor a hierarchy of levels of cognitive and behavioral functioning aimed at attaining or avoiding the affective states central to these personality systems. Personality systems are seen as often in dynamic conflict within individuals and as highly compartmentalized in their functioning between settings. While variation in personality consists of a range of viable strategies for humans, extremes on these systems tend to be maladaptive, although in at least some cases individuals who approach the maladaptive extremes of individual variation may be viewed as engaging in high-risk evolutionary strategies. Within this wide range of viable strategies, personality variation functions as a resource environment for individuals in the sense that personality variation is evaluated according to the interests of the evaluator.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MACDONALD1995,
      author = {MACDONALD, K},
      title = {EVOLUTION, THE 5-FACTOR MODEL, AND LEVELS OF PERSONALITY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {63},
      number = {3},
      pages = {525-567}
    }
    
    MacDonald, T., MacDonald, G., Zanna, M. & Fong, G. Alcohol, sexual arousal, and intentions to use condoms in young men: Applying alcohol myopia theory to risky sexual behavior {2000} HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {19}({3}), pp. {290-298} 
    article  
    Abstract: Data from 7 studies were aggregated to examine how reported sexual arousal and alcohol intoxication interact to affect attitudes and intentions toward engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse in college-age men (N = 358). When participants were in a sober or placebo condition, their self-reports of sexual arousal had no effect on their responses. When participants were intoxicated, however, those who felt sexually aroused reported more favorable attitudes, thoughts, and intentions toward having unprotected sex than did those who did not feel aroused. These findings support alcohol myopia theory (C. M. Steele & R. A. Josephs, 1990), which states that alcohol intoxication restricts attentional capacity so that people are highly influenced by the most salient cues in their environment. It is suggested that sexual arousal is a powerful internal cue that interacts with alcohol intoxication to enhance attitudes and intentions toward risky sexual behaviors.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MacDonald2000a,
      author = {MacDonald, TK and MacDonald, G and Zanna, MP and Fong, GT},
      title = {Alcohol, sexual arousal, and intentions to use condoms in young men: Applying alcohol myopia theory to risky sexual behavior},
      journal = {HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {19},
      number = {3},
      pages = {290-298}
    }
    
    MACKINTOSH, N. NEUROBIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY AND HABITUATION {1987} BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY
    Vol. {25}({2}), pp. {81-97} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MACKINTOSH1987,
      author = {MACKINTOSH, NJ},
      title = {NEUROBIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY AND HABITUATION},
      journal = {BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {25},
      number = {2},
      pages = {81-97}
    }
    
    MACPHAIL, E. THE COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY OF INTELLIGENCE {1987} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {10}({4}), pp. {645-656} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MACPHAIL1987,
      author = {MACPHAIL, EM},
      title = {THE COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY OF INTELLIGENCE},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {645-656}
    }
    
    MAGNUSSON, D. & TORESTAD, B. A HOLISTIC VIEW OF PERSONALITY - A MODEL REVISITED {1993} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {44}, pp. {427-452} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MAGNUSSON1993,
      author = {MAGNUSSON, D and TORESTAD, B},
      title = {A HOLISTIC VIEW OF PERSONALITY - A MODEL REVISITED},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {44},
      pages = {427-452}
    }
    
    MAHONEY, M. PSYCHOLOGY OF THE SCIENTIST - EVALUATIVE REVIEW {1979} SOCIAL STUDIES OF SCIENCE
    Vol. {9}({3}), pp. {349-375} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MAHONEY1979,
      author = {MAHONEY, MJ},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY OF THE SCIENTIST - EVALUATIVE REVIEW},
      journal = {SOCIAL STUDIES OF SCIENCE},
      year = {1979},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {349-375}
    }
    
    Maines, L. & McDaniel, L. Effects of comprehensive-income characteristics on nonprofessional investors' judgments: The role of financial-statement presentation format {2000} ACCOUNTING REVIEW
    Vol. {75}({2}), pp. {179-207} 
    article  
    Abstract: Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 130 requires companies to report comprehensive income in a primary financial statement, but allows its presentation in either a statement of comprehensive income or a statement of stockholders' equity (Financial Accounting Standards Board [FASB] 1997). In an experiment, we examine whether and how alternative presentation formats affect nonprofessional investors' processing of comprehensive-income information, specifically, information disclosing the volatility of unrealized gains on available-for-sale marketable securities, The results show that nonprofessional investors' judgments of corporate and management performance reflect the volatility of comprehensive income only when it is presented in a statement of comprehensive income. We provide evidence consistent with our psychology-based framework that these findings occur because format affects how nonprofessional investors weight comprehensive-income information and not whether they acquire this information or how they evaluate it.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Maines2000,
      author = {Maines, LA and McDaniel, LS},
      title = {Effects of comprehensive-income characteristics on nonprofessional investors' judgments: The role of financial-statement presentation format},
      journal = {ACCOUNTING REVIEW},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {75},
      number = {2},
      pages = {179-207}
    }
    
    Mallinckrodt, B. Attachment, social competencies, social support, and interpersonal process in psychotherapy {2000} PSYCHOTHERAPY RESEARCH
    Vol. {10}({3}), pp. {239-266} 
    article  
    Abstract: According to the Social Competencies in Interpersonal Process (SCIP) model, social competencies include (a) skills needed to recruit and maintain satisfying and supportive relationships, and (b) trait-like dispositions that govern use of these skills. Attachment theory explains how social competencies develop in early interactions with caregivers. Most adult clients' presenting problems can be viewed as maladaptive patterns of interpersonal interaction-patterns that the SCIP model holds are maintained by social competency deficits. Available social support is significantly determined by individual differences in social competencies. Because a productive therapy relationship requires a broad range of these competencies, a client's deficits and maladaptive patterns are soon evident. The relationship itself can then become a vehicle for change. This article summarizes my research testing aspects of the SCIP model. I conclude by presenting ideas for future research and suggestions for specific corrective attachment experiences in the therapy relationship that may facilitate client change.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mallinckrodt2000,
      author = {Mallinckrodt, B},
      title = {Attachment, social competencies, social support, and interpersonal process in psychotherapy},
      journal = {PSYCHOTHERAPY RESEARCH},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {239-266}
    }
    
    Maner, J., Kenrick, D., Becker, D., Robertson, T., Hofer, B., Neuberg, S., Delton, A., Butner, J. & Schaller, M. Functional projection: How fundamental social motives can bias interpersonal perception {2005} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {88}({1}), pp. {63-78} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Results from 2 experimental studies suggest that self-protection and mate-search goals lead to the perception of functionally relevant emotional expressions in goal-relevant social targets. Activating a self-protection goal led participants to perceive greater anger in Black male faces (Study 1) and Arab faces (Study 2), both out-groups heuristically associated with physical threat. In Study 2, participants' level of implicit Arab-threat associations moderated this bias. Activating a mate-search goal led male, but not female, participants to perceive more sexual arousal in attractive opposite-sex targets (Study 1). Activating these goals did not influence perceptions of goal-irrelevant targets. Additionally, participants with chronic self-protective and mate-search goals exhibited similar biases. Findings are consistent with a functionalist, motivation-based account of interpersonal perception.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Maner2005,
      author = {Maner, JK and Kenrick, DT and Becker, DV and Robertson, TE and Hofer, B and Neuberg, SL and Delton, AW and Butner, J and Schaller, M},
      title = {Functional projection: How fundamental social motives can bias interpersonal perception},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {88},
      number = {1},
      pages = {63-78},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-3514.1.63}}
    }
    
    Marsh, H. & Hau, K. Big-fish-little-pond effect on academic self-concept - A cross-cultural (26-country) test of the negative effects of academically selective schools {2003} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {58}({5}), pp. {364-376} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Academically selective schools are intended to affect academic self-concept positively, but theoretical and empirical research demonstrates that the effects are negative. The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE), an application of social comparison theory to educational settings, posits that a student will have a lower academic self-concept in an academically selective school than in a nonselective school. This study, the largest cross-cultural study of the BFLPE ever undertaken, tested theoretical predictions for nationally representative samples of approximately 4,000 15-year-olds from each of 26 countries (N = 103,558) who completed the same self-concept instrument and achievement tests. Consistent with the BFLPE, the effects of school-average achievement were negative in all 26 countries (M beta = -.20, SD = .08), demonstrating the BFLPE's cross-cultural generalizability.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Marsh2003,
      author = {Marsh, HW and Hau, KT},
      title = {Big-fish-little-pond effect on academic self-concept - A cross-cultural (26-country) test of the negative effects of academically selective schools},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {58},
      number = {5},
      pages = {364-376},
      doi = {{10.1037/0003-006X.58.5.364}}
    }
    
    Martignon, L. & Hoffrage, U. Fast, frugal, and fit: Simple heuristics for paired comparison {2002} THEORY AND DECISION
    Vol. {52}({1}), pp. {29-71} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article provides an overview of recent results on lexicographic, linear, and Bayesian models for paired comparison from a cognitive psychology perspective. Within each class, we distinguish subclasses according to the computational complexity required for parameter setting. We identify the optimal model in each class, where optimality is defined with respect to performance when fitting known data. Although not optimal when fitting data, simple models can be astonishingly accurate when generalizing to new data. A simple heuristic belonging to the class of lexicographic models is Take The Best (Gigerenzer & Goldstein (1996) Psychol. Rev. 102: 684). It is more robust than other lexicographic strategies which use complex procedures to establish a cue hierarchy. In fact, it is robust due to its simplicity, not despite it. Similarly, Take The Best looks up only a fraction of the information that linear and Bayesian models require; yet it achieves performance comparable to that of models which integrate information. Due to its simplicity, frugality, and accuracy, Take The Best is a plausible candidate for a psychological model in the tradition of bounded rationality. We review empirical evidence showing the descriptive validity of fast and frugal heuristics.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Martignon2002,
      author = {Martignon, L and Hoffrage, U},
      title = {Fast, frugal, and fit: Simple heuristics for paired comparison},
      journal = {THEORY AND DECISION},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {52},
      number = {1},
      pages = {29-71}
    }
    
    Martin, R., Puhlik-Doris, P., Larsen, G., Gray, J. & Weir, K. Individual differences in uses of humor and their relation to psychological well-being: Development of the Humor Styles Questionnaire {2003} JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY
    Vol. {37}({1}), pp. {48-75} 
    article  
    Abstract: Describes the development and initial validation of the Humor Styles Questionnaire, which assesses four dimensions relating to individual differences in uses of humor. These are: relatively benign uses of humor to enhance the self (Self-enhancing) and to enhance one's relationships with others (Affiliative), use of humor to enhance the self at the expense of others (Aggressive), and use of humor to enhance relationships at the expense of self (Self-defeating). Validation data indicate that the four scales differentially relate in predicted ways to peer ratings of humor styles and to measures of mood (cheerfulness, depression, anxiety, hostility), self-esteem, optimism, well-being, intimacy, and social support. They also relate to all five dimensions of the Five Factor Model and to Agency and Communion. The first two scales overlap with previous humor tests, whereas the Aggressive and Self-defeating humor scales largely tap different dimensions. Males scored higher than females on Aggressive and Self-defeating humor. It is expected that the HSQ will be useful for research on humor and psychological well-being by assessing forms of humor that may be deleterious to health as well as those that are beneficial. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Martin2003,
      author = {Martin, RA and Puhlik-Doris, P and Larsen, G and Gray, J and Weir, K},
      title = {Individual differences in uses of humor and their relation to psychological well-being: Development of the Humor Styles Questionnaire},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN PERSONALITY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {37},
      number = {1},
      pages = {48-75}
    }
    
    Maughan, B., Pickles, A., Hagell, A., Rutter, M. & Yule, W. Reading problems and antisocial behaviour: Developmental trends in comorbidity {1996} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {37}({4}), pp. {405-418} 
    article  
    Abstract: Samples of poor and normal readers were followed through adolescence and into early adulthood to assess continuities in the comorbidity between reading difficulties and disruptive behaviour problems. Reading-disabled boys showed high rates of inattentiveness in middle childhood, but no excess of teacher-rated behaviour problems at age 14 and no elevated rates of aggression, antisocial personality disorder or officially recorded offending in early adulthood. Increased risks of juvenile offending among specifically retarded-reading boys seemed associated with poor school attendance, rather than reading difficulties per se. Reading problems were associated with some increases in disruptive behaviour in their teens in girls. Copyright (C) 1996 Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Maughan1996,
      author = {Maughan, B and Pickles, A and Hagell, A and Rutter, M and Yule, W},
      title = {Reading problems and antisocial behaviour: Developmental trends in comorbidity},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {37},
      number = {4},
      pages = {405-418}
    }
    
    MAYER, J. & SALOVEY, P. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND THE CONSTRUCTION AND REGULATION OF FEELINGS {1995} APPLIED & PREVENTIVE PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {4}({3}), pp. {197-208} 
    article  
    Abstract: Emotionally intelligent people are defined in part as those who regulate their emotions according to a logically consistent model of emotional functioning. We indentify and compare several models of emotion regulation; for example, one internally consistent model includes tenets such as `'happiness should be optimized over the lifetime.'' Next, we apply that internally consistent model to the way a person can intervene in mood construction and regulation at non-, low-, and high-conscious levels of experience. Research related to the construction and regulation of emotion at each of these levels is reviewed. Finally, we connect our concept of emotionally intelligent regulation to its potential applications to personality and clinical psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MAYER1995,
      author = {MAYER, JD and SALOVEY, P},
      title = {EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND THE CONSTRUCTION AND REGULATION OF FEELINGS},
      journal = {APPLIED & PREVENTIVE PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {4},
      number = {3},
      pages = {197-208}
    }
    
    McAdams, D., Hoffman, B., Mansfield, E. & Day, R. Themes of agency and communion in significant autobiographical scenes {1996} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {64}({2}), pp. {339-377} 
    article  
    Abstract: In three studies employing over 350 community adults and college students, participants wrote or told narratives of personally important scenes in their lives. The autobiographical accounts were coded for themes of agency and communion, the two general content dimensions in lives and life stories that have been identified by many theorists and researchers. The four agentic themes of self-mastery, status, achievement/responsibility, and empowerment were positively associated with Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) measures of achievement and power motivation, self-report scales of dominance and achievement, and personal strivings concerning being successful and feeling strong. Similarly, the four communal themes of love/friendship, dialogue, care/help, and community were positively associated with intimacy motivation, needs for affiliation and nurturance, and personal strivings concerned with warm and close relationships. The results suggest a thematic coherence in personality across the arenas of key autobiographical memories, social motives, and daily goals.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McAdams1996,
      author = {McAdams, DP and Hoffman, BJ and Mansfield, ED and Day, R},
      title = {Themes of agency and communion in significant autobiographical scenes},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {64},
      number = {2},
      pages = {339-377}
    }
    
    MCADAMS, R. RELATIVE PREFERENCES {1992} YALE LAW JOURNAL
    Vol. {102}({1}), pp. {1-104} 
    article  
    Abstract: Neoclassical economics traditionally has assumed that consumer preferences are independent of each other and has neglected the desire of individuals for relative position. To the extent that legal scholarship has addressed this interdependence of preferences, it has focused entirely on altruism and envy. Professor McAdams focuses on a different manner in which preferences may be interdependent: people often desire, as an end in itself, to equal or surpass the consumption level of others. Drawing upon social science literature, the Article discusses the importance of relative preferences to descriptive and normative legal theories. Under certain conditions, unregulated competition to satisfy these relative preferences will produce outcomes inferior to those made possible by regulation. Professor McAdams discusses the factors that create this market failure, the rare conditions under which satisfaction of relative preferences is desirable, and the implications for law and legal theory. In particular, the Article considers taxation and antidiscrimination laws as ways of limiting wasteful individual and group status competition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MCADAMS1992,
      author = {MCADAMS, RH},
      title = {RELATIVE PREFERENCES},
      journal = {YALE LAW JOURNAL},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {102},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-104}
    }
    
    Mccrae, R., Costa, P., del Pilar, G., Rolland, J. & Parker, W. Cross-cultural assessment of the five-factor model - The revised NEO personality inventory {1998} JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {29}({1}), pp. {171-188} 
    article  
    Abstract: The five-factor model (FFM) is a representation of the patterns of covariation of personality traits in terms of five broad factors. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory, a questionnaire measure of the FFM, has recently been translated into a number of different languages, permitting tests of its cross-cultural replicability. Data from Filipino and French translations are presented, showing clear and detailed replication of the American normative factor structure when targeted rotation is used. Results from these and other cross-cultural and behavior genetic studies suggest that the FFM is a biologically based human universal. Applications of trait psychology in clinical, educational, and organizational settings may prove generalizable across cultures, and cross-cultural psychologists can profitably explore the expression of the same personality traits in different cultural contexts.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mccrae1998,
      author = {Mccrae, RR and Costa, PT and del Pilar, GH and Rolland, JP and Parker, WD},
      title = {Cross-cultural assessment of the five-factor model - The revised NEO personality inventory},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {29},
      number = {1},
      pages = {171-188}
    }
    
    McCrae, R., Costa, P., Terracciano, A., Parker, W., Mills, C., De Fruyt, F. & Mervielde, I. Personality trait development from age 12 to age 18: Longitudinal, cross-sectional, and cross-cultural analyses. {2002} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {83}({6}), pp. {1456-1468} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Three studies were conducted to assess mean level changes in personality traits during adolescence. Versions of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P. T. Costa, Jr., & R. R. McCrae, 1992a) were used to assess the 5 major personality factors. A 4-year longitudinal study of intellectually gifted students (N =. 230) was supplemented by cross-sectional studies of nonselected American (N = 1,959) and Flemish (N = 789) adolescents. Personality factors were reasonably invariant across ages, although rank-order stability of individual differences was low. Neuroticism appeared to increase in girls, and Openness to Experience increased in both boys and girls; mean levels of Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness were stable. Results extend knowledge of the developmental curve of personality traits backward from adulthood and help bridge the gap with child temperament studies.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McCrae2002,
      author = {McCrae, RR and Costa, PT and Terracciano, A and Parker, WD and Mills, CJ and De Fruyt, F and Mervielde, I},
      title = {Personality trait development from age 12 to age 18: Longitudinal, cross-sectional, and cross-cultural analyses.},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {83},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1456-1468},
      note = {Inaugural Conference of the Association-for-Research-in-Personality, SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS, FEB, 2001},
      doi = {{10.1037//0022-3514.83.6.1456}}
    }
    
    McCullough, M., Fincham, F. & Tsang, J. Forgiveness, forbearance, and time: The temporal unfolding of transgression-related interpersonal motivations {2003} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {84}({3}), pp. {540-557} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The investigators proposed that transgression-related interpersonal motivations result from 3 pychological parameters: forbearance (abstinence from avoidance and revenge motivations. and maintenance of benevolence), trend forgiveness (reductions in avoidance and revenge. and increases in benevolence). and temporary forgiveness (transient reductions in avoidance and revenge and transient increase in benevolence). In 2 studies, the investigators examined this 3-parameter model. Initial ratings of transgression severity and empathy were directly related to forbearance but not trend forgiveness. Initial responsibility attributions were inversely related to forbearance but directly related to trend forgiveness. When people experienced high empathy and low responsibility attributions, they also tended to experience temporary forgiveness. The distinctiveness of each of these 3 parameters underscores the importance of studying forgiveness temporally.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McCullough2003,
      author = {McCullough, ME and Fincham, FD and Tsang, JA},
      title = {Forgiveness, forbearance, and time: The temporal unfolding of transgression-related interpersonal motivations},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {84},
      number = {3},
      pages = {540-557},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-3514.84.3.540}}
    }
    
    McFall, R. & Treat, T. Quantifying the information value of clinical assessments with signal detection theory {1999} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {50}, pp. {215-241} 
    article  
    Abstract: The aim of clinical assessment is to gather data that allow us to reduce uncertainty regarding the probabilities of events. This is a Bayesian view of assessment that is consistent with the well-known concept of incremental validity. Conventional approaches to evaluating the accuracy of assessment methods are confounded by the choice of cutting points, by the base rates of the events, and by the assessment goal (e.g. nomothetic vs idiographic predictions). Clinical assessors need a common metric for quantifying the information value of assessment data, independent of the cutting points, base rates, or particular application. Signal detection theory (SDT) provides such a metric. We review SDT's history, concepts, and methods and provide examples of its application to a variety of assessment problems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McFall1999,
      author = {McFall, RM and Treat, TA},
      title = {Quantifying the information value of clinical assessments with signal detection theory},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {50},
      pages = {215-241}
    }
    
    McHoskey, J., Worzel, W. & Szyarto, C. Machiavellianism and psychopathy {1998} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {74}({1}), pp. {192-210} 
    article  
    Abstract: An integration of the Machiavellianism (MACH) and psychopathy constructs based on a dimensional view of personality and personality disorders and a recognition of B. Karpman's (1941, 1948) conceptual distinction between primary and secondary psychopathy is presented. Positive associations between MACH and both primary and secondary psychopathy were found. It is concluded that the Mach-IV is a global measure of psychopathy in noninstitutionalized populations (i.e., one that assesses but confounds both primary and secondary psychopathy) and that the primary differences between MACH and psychopathy are not traceable to substantive theoretical issues but to the different professional affiliations they are associated with: personality and social psychology and clinical psychology, respectively.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McHoskey1998,
      author = {McHoskey, JW and Worzel, W and Szyarto, C},
      title = {Machiavellianism and psychopathy},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {74},
      number = {1},
      pages = {192-210},
      note = {1996 Meeting of the South-Carolina-Psychological-Association, MYRTLE BEACH, SOUTH CAROLINA, APR, 1996}
    }
    
    McKirnan, D., Ostrow, D. & Hope, B. Sex, drugs and escape: A psychological model of HIV-risk sexual behaviours {1996} AIDS CARE-PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-MEDICAL ASPECTS OF AIDS/HIV
    Vol. {8}({6}), pp. {655-669} 
    article  
    Abstract: The lack of an effective HIV vaccine or other biomedical intervention means that behavioural change will continue to be critical to the prevention of HIV infection. Despite near universal knowledge of HIV and sexual safety, and widespread intentions to be safe, rates of unprotected sex and HIV sere-conversion remain high among gay and bisexual men. Explanatory models that link risk-caking and prevention to rational processes such as Knowledge, social norms, behavioural intentions, or perceived vulnerability to infection, cannot fully account for the continued risk behaviours observed in virtually all cohorts of gay men. We feel that innovative conceptions of risk and risk prevention are needed, that emphasize non-rational, affective processes in risk-taking and decision-making. Consistent with recent models from social psychology, we propose that for many people sexual risk does not stem from a lack of community norms or personal standards, but from a desire to escape cognitive awareness of very rigorous norms and standards. Being self-aware of HIV risk arouses anxiety and precludes highly-desired activities: fatigue, fatalism, or other negative affect over HIV may lead people to `cognitively disengage' within the sexual situation, and not to follow their norms or intentions toward safety. We propose that both substance use and the approach of high stimulation or other sexual settings facilities this cognitive disengagement, wherein people enact `automatic' sexual scripts and/or become more responsive to external pressures toward risk. We briefly review current psychosocial models of HIV risk behaviour, outline a cognitive escape model with particular emphasis on substance use as a behavioural risk factor, and discuss implications of an escape model for behavioural interventions among gay and bisexual men.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McKirnan1996,
      author = {McKirnan, DJ and Ostrow, DG and Hope, B},
      title = {Sex, drugs and escape: A psychological model of HIV-risk sexual behaviours},
      journal = {AIDS CARE-PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-MEDICAL ASPECTS OF AIDS/HIV},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {8},
      number = {6},
      pages = {655-669}
    }
    
    McNaughton, N. Cognitive dysfunction resulting from hippocampal hyperactivity - A possible cause of anxiety disorder? {1997} PHARMACOLOGY BIOCHEMISTRY AND BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {56}({4}), pp. {603-611} 
    article  
    Abstract: Pure cognition and hence pure cognitive dysfunction might be expected to have no direct relation to any specific emotion. Changes in cognitive processing will change the assessment of stimuli and thus could change emotional responses nonspecifically. However, neurology suggests a more direct relation between at least some aspects of cognition and emotion. The limbic system in general and the hippocampus in particular have been suggested at different times to be crucial for both memory and emotion. Even recently, O'Keefe and Nadel (The hippocampus as a cognitive map, Oxford University Press, 1978) proposed that the hippocampus is a spatial, or cognitive, map, while Gray (The neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system, Oxford University Press, 1982) proposed that it is central to anxiety. This apparent incongruity can be resolved by combining recent developments in the psychology of anxiety (which emphasise changed processing biases), recent extensions of Gray's theory (which bring it closer to cognitive views), and recent theories of the role of the hippocampus in memory (which see it as controlling rather than storing information). This paper proposes that at least some instances of clinical anxiety could result from hyperactivity of the septo-hippocampal system, which would produce cognitive dysfunction in the form of increased negative associations of stimuli with a consequential increase in anxiety when the stimuli are subsequently presented. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McNaughton1997,
      author = {McNaughton, N},
      title = {Cognitive dysfunction resulting from hippocampal hyperactivity - A possible cause of anxiety disorder?},
      journal = {PHARMACOLOGY BIOCHEMISTRY AND BEHAVIOR},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {56},
      number = {4},
      pages = {603-611},
      note = {2nd European Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior Conference, MORZINE, FRANCE, JAN 05-12, 1997}
    }
    
    McWhirter, E., Hackett, G. & Bandalos, D. A causal model of the educational plans and career expectations of Mexican American high school girls {1998} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {45}({2}), pp. {166-181} 
    article  
    Abstract: A structural model predicting the educational and career expectations of 282 Mexican American high school girls was developed and then tested on samples of 247 Mexican American boys and 228 European American girls. Predictors included socioeconomic status, acculturation, academic achievement, instrumentality, expressiveness, gender role attitudes, parental and teacher support, family and career commitment, and perceptions of barriers. Results indicated that the initial model was plausible in the sample of Mexican American girls. Findings from the multiple-groups analyses provided evidence supporting the primacy of cultural influences over gender in predicting the educational and career expectations of Mexican American girls.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McWhirter1998,
      author = {McWhirter, EH and Hackett, G and Bandalos, DL},
      title = {A causal model of the educational plans and career expectations of Mexican American high school girls},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {45},
      number = {2},
      pages = {166-181}
    }
    
    Mendl, M. Performing under pressure: stress and cognitive function {1999} APPLIED ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR SCIENCE
    Vol. {65}({3}), pp. {221-244} 
    article  
    Abstract: The way in which cognitive functioning is affected by stressors is an important area of research for applied ethologists because stress caused by captive conditions may disrupt cognitive processes and lead to welfare and husbandry problems. Such problems may be minimised through an understanding of the links between stress and cognition, The effects of stress on cognitive function have been studied in disciplines ranging from human perceptual psychology to animal neuroscience. The aim of this paper is to provide an introduction to this research, focusing on the effects of stressors on attention, memory formation and memory recall. Findings from such a diverse literature with little apparent inter-disciplinary communication are inevitably complex and often contradictory. Nevertheless, some generalities do emerge, The idea that an inverted U-shaped relationship exists between an individual's state of stress or arousal and its ability to perform a cognitive task effectively, the so-called Yerkes-Dodson law, is commonly encountered. The law has limited explanatory value because it is unlikely that different stressors act on cognitive function via the same intervening, non-specific state. Furthermore, the law only provides a very general description of the relationship between stress and cognitive function, Empirical research on attention and memory processes reveals more specific findings. Stressors appear to cause shifts, lapses and narrowing of attention, and can also influence decision speed, These processes may be viewed as serving an adaptive role helping the animal to search for and scrutinise a source of danger. There is conflicting evidence as to whether hormones involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress response play a part in these processes. These hormones and those involved in the sympathetic-adrenomedullary stress response do appear to play an important role in memory formation. Low or moderate concentrations of circulating glucocorticoids and catecholamines can enhance memory formation, while excessively high or prolonged elevations of these hormones can lead to memory disruption, The effects of stressors on memory recall are less clear. There is evidence for disruptive effects, and for facilitatory effects indicating state-dependent memory recall; events experienced under conditions of high arousal may be best recalled under similar conditions. Applied ethologists have the opportunity to extend work in this area, which often involves studies of single stressors/stress hormones acting in isolation and limited measures of cognitive function, by focusing on real-life husbandry stressors encountered by captive animals. This will yield fundamental information which also has direct relevance to animal welfare and management issues. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mendl1999,
      author = {Mendl, M},
      title = {Performing under pressure: stress and cognitive function},
      journal = {APPLIED ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR SCIENCE},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {65},
      number = {3},
      pages = {221-244}
    }
    
    Meszaros, J., Asch, D., Baron, J., Hershey, J., Kunreuther, H. & SchwartzBuzaglo, J. Cognitive processes and the decisions of some parents to forego pertussis vaccination for their children {1996} JOURNAL OF CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Vol. {49}({6}), pp. {697-703} 
    article  
    Abstract: Public health analyses suggest that, in spite of the possibility that pertussis vaccine may cause rare cases of neurological injury, catastrophic risks to individual children are lower if they are vaccinated. A number of parents, however, choose not to vaccinate their children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the decision processes of some parents who choose to vaccinate and some parents who choose not to do so. Surveys were mailed to 500 randomly selected subscribers of Mothering magazine. Two hundred and ninety-four completed questionnaires were returned (59. In addition to well-recognized factors in vaccination decisions, perceived dangers of the vaccine, and of the disease and susceptibility to the disease, several cognitive processes not previously considered in vaccination decision studies were found to be important predictors in this population of parents: perceived ability to control children's susceptibility to the disease and the outcome of the disease; ambiguity or doubts about the reliability of vaccine information; a preference for errors of omission over errors of commission; and recognition that if many other children are vaccinated, the risk to unvaccinated children may be lowered. Although perhaps most cases of undervaccination for pertussis reflect more general problems of health care access, some parents choose to forego vaccination for their children for other reasons. Traditional risk-benefit arguments alone will be unlikely to persuade these parents to reassess their decisions. Efforts to increase childhood vaccination must incorporate an understanding of the cognitive processes that help drive these decisions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Meszaros1996,
      author = {Meszaros, JR and Asch, DA and Baron, J and Hershey, JC and Kunreuther, H and SchwartzBuzaglo, J},
      title = {Cognitive processes and the decisions of some parents to forego pertussis vaccination for their children},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {49},
      number = {6},
      pages = {697-703}
    }
    
    Michie, S., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Lawton, R., Parker, D., Walker, A. & Psychological Theory Grp Making psychological theory useful for implementing evidence based practice: a consensus approach {2005} QUALITY & SAFETY IN HEALTH CARE
    Vol. {14}({1}), pp. {26-33} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Background: Evidence-based guidelines are often not implemented effectively with the result that best health outcomes are not achieved. This may be due to a lack of theoretical understanding of the processes involved in changing the behaviour of healthcare professionals. This paper reports the development of a consensus on a theoretical framework that could be used in implementation research. The objectives were to identify an agreed set of key theoretical constructs for use in ( 1) studying the implementation of evidence based practice and ( 2) developing strategies for effective implementation, and to communicate these constructs to an interdisciplinary audience. Methods: Six phases of work were conducted to develop a consensus: ( 1) identifying theoretical constructs; ( 2) simplifying into construct domains; ( 3) evaluating the importance of the construct domains; ( 4) interdisciplinary evaluation; ( 5) validating the domain list; and ( 6) piloting interview questions. The contributors were a ``psychological theory'' group ( n = 18), a ``health services research'' group ( n = 13), and a ``health psychology'' group ( n = 30). Results: Twelve domains were identified to explain behaviour change: ( 1) knowledge, ( 2) skills, ( 3) social/ professional role and identity, ( 4) beliefs about capabilities, ( 5) beliefs about consequences, ( 6) motivation and goals, ( 7) memory, attention and decision processes, ( 8) environmental context and resources, ( 9) social influences, ( 10) emotion regulation, ( 11) behavioural regulation, and ( 12) nature of the behaviour. Conclusions: A set of behaviour change domains agreed by a consensus of experts is available for use in implementation research. Applications of this domain list will enhance understanding of the behaviour change processes inherent in implementation of evidence-based practice and will also test the validity of these proposed domains.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Michie2005,
      author = {Michie, S and Johnston, M and Abraham, C and Lawton, R and Parker, D and Walker, A and Psychological Theory Grp},
      title = {Making psychological theory useful for implementing evidence based practice: a consensus approach},
      journal = {QUALITY & SAFETY IN HEALTH CARE},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {14},
      number = {1},
      pages = {26-33},
      doi = {{10.1136/qshc.2004.011155}}
    }
    
    MILLER, G. & FELLBAUM, C. SEMANTIC NETWORKS OF ENGLISH {1991} COGNITION
    Vol. {41}({1-3}), pp. {197-229} 
    article  
    Abstract: Principles of lexical semantics developed in the course of building an on-line lexical database are discussed. The approach is relational rather than componential. The fundamental semantic relation is synonymy, which is required in order to define the lexicalized concepts that words can be used to express. Other semantic relations between these concepts are then described. No single set of semantic relations or organizational structure is adequate for the entire lexicon: nouns, adjectives, and verbs each have their own semantic relations and their own organization determined by the role they must play in the construction of linguistic messages.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MILLER1991,
      author = {MILLER, GA and FELLBAUM, C},
      title = {SEMANTIC NETWORKS OF ENGLISH},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {41},
      number = {1-3},
      pages = {197-229}
    }
    
    Miller, G. & Todd, P. Mate choice turns cognitive {1998} TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES
    Vol. {2}({5}), pp. {190-198} 
    article  
    Abstract: Evolutionary psychology has revolutionized research on human mate choice and Sexual attraction in recent years, combining a rigorous Darwinian framework based On sexual selection theory with a loosely cognitivist orientation: to task analysis and mechanism modelling. This hard Darwinian, soft computational approach. has been most successful at revealing the adaptive logic behind physical beauty, demonstrating that many:sexual cues computed from face and body shape are not arbitrary, but function as reliable indicators of phenotypic and genetic quality. The same approach could be extended from physical to psychological cues if evolutionary psychology built stronger ties with personality psychology, psychometrics and behavioral genetics. A major challenge for mate choice research is to develop more explicit computational models at three levels, specifying: (1) the perceptual adaptations that register sexual cues given sensory: input, (2) the judgment adaptations that integrate multiple cues into assessments of overall attractiveness, and (3) the search strategies that people follow in trying:to form mutually attracted pairs. We describe both recent efforts and possible extensions in these directions. The resulting confluence between evolutionary principles cognitive models and game-theoretic insights can put mate choice research at the vanguard of an. emerging `evolutionary cognitive science' more concerned With domain-specific mental, adaptations than with domain-general intelligence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Miller1998,
      author = {Miller, GF and Todd, PM},
      title = {Mate choice turns cognitive},
      journal = {TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {2},
      number = {5},
      pages = {190-198}
    }
    
    Mitchell, J., Nosek, B. & Banaji, M. Contextual variations in implicit evaluation {2003} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL
    Vol. {132}({3}), pp. {455-469} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: in the present research, the authors examined contextual variations in automatic attitudes. Using 2 measures of automatic attitudes, the authors demonstrated that evaluative responses differ qualitatively as perceivers focus on different aspects of a target's social group membership (e.g., race or gender). Contextual variations in automatic attitudes were obtained when the manipulation involved overt categorization (Experiments 1-3) as well as more subtle contextual cues, such as category distinctiveness (Experiments 4-5). Furthermore, participants were shown to be unable to predict such contextual influences on automatic attitudes (Experiment 3). Taken together, these experiments support the idea of automatic attitudes being continuous, online constructions that are inherently flexible and contextually appropriate, despite being outside conscious control.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mitchell2003,
      author = {Mitchell, JP and Nosek, BA and Banaji, MR},
      title = {Contextual variations in implicit evaluation},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {132},
      number = {3},
      pages = {455-469},
      note = {71st Annual Meeting of the Midwestern-Psychological-Association, CHICAGO, IL, MAY, 1999},
      doi = {{10.1037/0096-3445.132.3.455}}
    }
    
    Mogg, K., Bradley, B., Hyare, H. & Lee, S. Selective attention to food-related stimuli in hunger: are attentional biases specific to emotional and psychopathological states, or are they also found in normal drive states? {1998} BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY
    Vol. {36}({2}), pp. {227-237} 
    article  
    Abstract: Previous work has indicated that anxiety disorders and eating disorders are associated with selective processing of stimuli relevant to patients' concerns (e.g. Mathews and MacLeod, 1994; Annual Review of Psychology, 45, 25-50; Channon et al., 1988; British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 27, 259-260). A dot probe task was used to investigate whether attentional biases are also a feature of a normal drive state. Specifically, we examined whether hunger is associated with biases in selective attention and in pre-attentive processes for food-relevant stimuli. Subjects with high levels of hunger showed a greater attentional bias for food-related words presented in a suprathreshold exposure condition (words shown for 500 msec), in comparison with those with low hunger. There was no evidence in the present study of a hunger-related bias in pre-attentive processes (i.e. when words were shown for 14 msec and masked). Results suggest that a non-emotional motivational state, such as hunger, is associated with a bias in certain aspects of information processing, such as selective attention, for stimuli that are relevant to the motivational state. Findings are discussed in relation to recent research into emotion-related cognitive biases. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mogg1998,
      author = {Mogg, K and Bradley, BP and Hyare, H and Lee, S},
      title = {Selective attention to food-related stimuli in hunger: are attentional biases specific to emotional and psychopathological states, or are they also found in normal drive states?},
      journal = {BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {36},
      number = {2},
      pages = {227-237}
    }
    
    Moll, J., de Oliveira-Souza, R. & Eslinger, P. Morals and the human brain: a working model {2003} NEUROREPORT
    Vol. {14}({3}), pp. {299-305} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Morality has been at the center of informal talks and metaphysical discussions since the beginning of history. Recently, converging lines of evidence from evolutionary biology, neuroscience and experimental psychology have shown that morality is grounded in the brain. This article reviews the main lines of investigation indicating that moral behavior is a product of evolutionary pressures that shaped the neurobehavioral processes related to the selective perception of social cues, the experience of moral emotions and the adaption of behavioral responses to the social milieu. These processes draw upon specific cortical-subcortical loops that organize social cognition, emotion and motivation into uniquely human forms of experience and behavior. We put forth a model of brain-behavior relationships underlying moral reasoning and emotion that accommodates the impairments of moral behavior observed in neuropsychiatric disorders. This model provides a framework for empirical testing with current methods of neurobehavioral analysis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Moll2003,
      author = {Moll, J and de Oliveira-Souza, R and Eslinger, PJ},
      title = {Morals and the human brain: a working model},
      journal = {NEUROREPORT},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {14},
      number = {3},
      pages = {299-305},
      doi = {{10.1097/01.wnr.0000057866.05120.28}}
    }
    
    Moore, J. One road to turnover: An examination of work exhaustion in technology professionals {2000} MIS QUARTERLY
    Vol. {24}({1}), pp. {141-168} 
    article  
    Abstract: The concept of work exhaustion (or job burnout) from the management and psychology research literature is examined in the context of technology professionals. Data were collected from 270 IT professionals and managers in various industries across the United States. Through structural equation modeling, work exhaustion was shown to partially mediate the effects of workplace factors on turnover intention, in addition, the results of the study revealed that: (1) technology professionals experiencing higher levels of exhaustion reported higher intentions to leave the job and, (2) of the variables expected to influence exhaustion (work overload, role ambiguity and conflict, lack of autonomy and lack of rewards), work overload was the strongest contributor to exhaustion in the technology workers. Moreover, exhausted IT professionals identified insufficient staff and resources as a primary cause of work overload and exhaustion. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Moore2000,
      author = {Moore, JE},
      title = {One road to turnover: An examination of work exhaustion in technology professionals},
      journal = {MIS QUARTERLY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {24},
      number = {1},
      pages = {141-168}
    }
    
    MORAN, T. AN APPLIED-PSYCHOLOGY OF THE USER {1981} COMPUTING SURVEYS
    Vol. {13}({1}), pp. {1-11} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MORAN1981,
      author = {MORAN, TP},
      title = {AN APPLIED-PSYCHOLOGY OF THE USER},
      journal = {COMPUTING SURVEYS},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-11}
    }
    
    MORGAN, W. THE TRAIT PSYCHOLOGY CONTROVERSY {1980} RESEARCH QUARTERLY FOR EXERCISE AND SPORT
    Vol. {51}({1}), pp. {50-76} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MORGAN1980,
      author = {MORGAN, WP},
      title = {THE TRAIT PSYCHOLOGY CONTROVERSY},
      journal = {RESEARCH QUARTERLY FOR EXERCISE AND SPORT},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {51},
      number = {1},
      pages = {50-76}
    }
    
    Morrow, S. Quality and trustworthiness in qualitative research in counseling psychology {2005} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {52}({2}), pp. {250-260} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This article examines concepts of the trustworthiness, or credibility, of qualitative research. Following a ``researcher-as-instrument,'' or self-reflective, statement, the paradigmatic underpinnings of various criteria for judging the quality of qualitative research are explored, setting the stage for a discussion of more transcendent standards (those not associated with specific paradigms) for conducting quality research: social validity, subjectivity and reflexivity, adequacy of data, and adequacy of interpretation. Finally, current guidelines for writing and publishing qualitative research are reviewed, and strategies for conducting and writing qualitative research reports are suggested.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Morrow2005,
      author = {Morrow, SL},
      title = {Quality and trustworthiness in qualitative research in counseling psychology},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {52},
      number = {2},
      pages = {250-260},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-0167.52.2.250}}
    }
    
    MOSER, G., TILLINGER, W., SACHS, G., GENSER, D., MAIERDOBERSBERGER, T., SPIESS, K., WYATT, J., VOGELSANG, H., LOCHS, H. & GANGL, A. DISEASE-RELATED WORRIES AND CONCERNS - A STUDY ON OUT-PATIENTS WITH INFLAMMATORY BOWEL-DISEASE {1995} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY & HEPATOLOGY
    Vol. {7}({9}), pp. {853-858} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To investigate the relationship between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients' disease-related worries and concerns and their disease-related data, sociodemographic variables and perceived information level with respect to IBD. Study design: Prospective evaluation of disease-related concerns. Setting: Out-patient IBD clinic of a university hospital. Study population: The study included 105 patients with IBD (72 with Crohn's disease and 33 with ulcerative colitis). Measurements: Worries and concerns were measured using the standardized 25-item rating form of IBD patient concerns; actual disease activity was assessed by physicians using the Crohn's disease and clinical activity indices. Sociodemographic and other disease-related data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Patients' perceived information level was measured using a visual analogue scale. Results: The issues of greatest concern to our patients were, in descending order of importance, having an ostomy bag (mean score+/-SD 63.6+/-38), the effects of medication (53.1+/-34), having surgery (51.6+/-36), the uncertain nature of the disease (46.5+/-32) and energy level (41.5+/-34). Patients with ulcerative colitis scored higher with respect to concern about loss of bowel control (P<0.03). Disease-related worries and concerns correlated poorly with disease-related data (actual disease activity, severity of the course of IBD, diagnosis, disease duration or location, medication) but showed a significant negative correlation with patients' perceived information level about IBD (t=0.2, P<0.004). Lower information-level scores were associated with gt eater concerns. Conclusion: We conclude that the patients' information level about IBD and disease-related concerns have to be considered, in clinical practice. Better information about IBD and psychosomatic counselling for patients who show high levels of concern may improve their quality of life and clinical care.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MOSER1995,
      author = {MOSER, G and TILLINGER, W and SACHS, G and GENSER, D and MAIERDOBERSBERGER, T and SPIESS, K and WYATT, J and VOGELSANG, H and LOCHS, H and GANGL, A},
      title = {DISEASE-RELATED WORRIES AND CONCERNS - A STUDY ON OUT-PATIENTS WITH INFLAMMATORY BOWEL-DISEASE},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY & HEPATOLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {7},
      number = {9},
      pages = {853-858}
    }
    
    MUMMENDEY, A., SIMON, B., DIETZE, C., GRUNERT, M., HAEGER, G., KESSLER, S., LETTGEN, S. & SCHAFERHOFF, S. CATEGORIZATION IS NOT ENOUGH - INTERGROUP DISCRIMINATION IN NEGATIVE OUTCOME ALLOCATION {1992} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {28}({2}), pp. {125-144} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MUMMENDEY1992,
      author = {MUMMENDEY, A and SIMON, B and DIETZE, C and GRUNERT, M and HAEGER, G and KESSLER, S and LETTGEN, S and SCHAFERHOFF, S},
      title = {CATEGORIZATION IS NOT ENOUGH - INTERGROUP DISCRIMINATION IN NEGATIVE OUTCOME ALLOCATION},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {28},
      number = {2},
      pages = {125-144}
    }
    
    MURRAY, J. & KELLER, P. PSYCHOLOGY AND RURAL AMERICA - CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE-DIRECTIONS {1991} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {46}({3}), pp. {220-231} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MURRAY1991,
      author = {MURRAY, JD and KELLER, PA},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY AND RURAL AMERICA - CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE-DIRECTIONS},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {46},
      number = {3},
      pages = {220-231}
    }
    
    Murray, M., Foxe, J., Higgins, B., Javitt, D. & Schroeder, C. Visuo-spatial neural response interactions in early cortical processing during a simple reaction time task: a high-density electrical mapping study {2001} NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA
    Vol. {39}({8}), pp. {828-844} 
    article  
    Abstract: The timecourse and scalp topography of interactions between neural responses to stimuli in different visual quadrants, straddling either the vertical or horizontal meridian, were studied in 15 subjects. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded From 64 electrodes during a simple reaction time (RT) task. VEPs to single stimuli displayed in different quadrants were summed ('sum') and compared to the VEP response from simultaneous stimulation of the same two quadrants ('pair'). These responses would be equivalent if the neural responses to the single stimuli were independent. Divergence between the `pair' and `sum' VEPs indicates a neural response interaction. In each visual field. interactions occurred within 72-86 ms post-stimulus over parieto-occipital brain regions. Independent of visual quadrant, RTs were faster for stimulus pairs than single stimuli. This replicates the redundant target effect (RTE) observed for bilateral stimulus pairs and generalizes the RTE to unilateral stimulus pairs. Using Miller's `race model inequality (Miller J. Divided attention: evidence for coactivation with redundant signals, Cognitive Psychology 1982:14:247-79), we found that probability summation could fully account for the RTE in each visual field. Although measurements from voltage waveforms replicated the observation of earlier peak P1 latencies for the `pair' versus `sum comparison (Miniussi C, Girelli M, Marzi CA. Neural site of the redundant target effect: electrophysiological evidence. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 1998,10:216-30), this did not hold with measurements taken from second derivative (scalp current density) waveforms. Since interaction effects for bilateral stimulus pairs occurred within 86 ms and require interhemispheric transfer. transcallosal volleys must arrive within 86 ms, which is earlier than previously calculated. Interaction effects for bilateral conditions were delayed by approximate to 10 ms versus unilateral conditions. consistent with current estimates of interhemispheric transmission time. Interaction effects place an upper limit on the lime required for neuronal ensembles to combine inputs from different quadrants of visual space ( approximate to 72 ms for unilateral and approximate to 82 ms for bilateral conditions). (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Murray2001,
      author = {Murray, MM and Foxe, JJ and Higgins, BA and Javitt, DC and Schroeder, CE},
      title = {Visuo-spatial neural response interactions in early cortical processing during a simple reaction time task: a high-density electrical mapping study},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {39},
      number = {8},
      pages = {828-844}
    }
    
    Naveh-Benjamin, M., Craik, F., Guez, J. & Dori, H. Effects of divided attention on encoding and retrieval processes in human memory: Further support for an asymmetry {1998} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION
    Vol. {24}({5}), pp. {1091-1104} 
    article  
    Abstract: Despite a tradition in cognitive psychology that views encoding and retrieval processes in human memory as being similar, F. I. M. Craik, R. Govoni, M. Naveh-Benjamin and N. D. Anderson (1996) have recently shown that notable differences exist between the 2 when divided-attention manipulations are used. In this article, the authors further examined this asymmetry by using several manipulations that changed task demands at encoding and retrieval. The authors also used a secondary-task methodology that allowed a microlevel analysis of the secondary-task costs associated with encoding and retrieval. The results illustrated the resiliency of retrieval processes to manipulations involving different task demands. They also indicated different loci of attention demands at encoding and retrieval. The authors contend that whereas encoding processes are controlled, retrieval processes are obligatory but do require attentional resources for their execution.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Naveh-Benjamin1998,
      author = {Naveh-Benjamin, M and Craik, FIM and Guez, J and Dori, H},
      title = {Effects of divided attention on encoding and retrieval processes in human memory: Further support for an asymmetry},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {24},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1091-1104},
      note = {37th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic-Society, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, OCT 31-NOV 03, 1996}
    }
    
    Neave, N., Laing, S., Fink, B. & Manning, J. Second to fourth digit ratio, testosterone and perceived male dominance {2003} PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
    Vol. {270}({1529}), pp. {2167-2172} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Previous studies have shown that male faces with extreme features associated with testosterone are perceived as dominant and masculine. Women have been reported to prefer more masculinized male faces as they may consider testosterone markers to be an `honest' indication of good health, and such considerations may underlie their aesthetic preferences. However, pronounced testosterone facial markers are also associated with dominance, and several negative personality traits. This suggests that female aesthetic preferences may be an adaptive compromise between positive attributes associated with higher than average testosterone, and negative attributes associated with more extreme masculinization. This current study attempts to clarify the role of hormone markers in female perceptions of dominance, masculinity and attractiveness, in male facial images. Recent evidence suggests that the relative length of the 2nd to 4th finger (2D : 4D ratio) is a pointer to prenatal testosterone levels and may thus serve as a window to the prenatal hormonal environment. We measured 2D : 4D in a sample of male college students and took salivary samples to analyse circulating levels of testosterone. Women rated facial images of these males for dominance, masculinity and attractiveness. Our results show that male 2D : 4D was significantly negatively related to perceived dominance and masculinity but not attractiveness. Circulating testosterone levels were not related to dominance, masculinity or attractiveness. These findings suggest that: (i) high prenatal levels of testosterone serve to `organize' male facial features to subsequently reflect dominance and masculine characteristics presumably activated during puberty; and (ii) attractiveness is not directly related to testosterone levels. We conclude that facial dominance and masculinity reflect a male's perceived status rather than his physical attraction to women.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Neave2003,
      author = {Neave, N and Laing, S and Fink, B and Manning, JT},
      title = {Second to fourth digit ratio, testosterone and perceived male dominance},
      journal = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {270},
      number = {1529},
      pages = {2167-2172},
      doi = {{10.1098/rspb.2003.2502}}
    }
    
    Nettle, D. The evolution of personality variation in humans and other animals {2006} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {61}({6}), pp. {622-631} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: A comprehensive evolutionary framework for understanding the maintenance of heritable behavioral variation in humans is yet to be developed. Some evolutionary psychologists have argued that heritable variation will not be found in important, fitness-relevant characteristics because of the winnowing effect of natural selection. This article propounds the opposite view. Heritable variation is ubiquitous in all species, and there are a number of frameworks for understanding its persistence. The author argues that each of the Big Five dimensions of human personality can be seen as the result of a trade-off between different fitness costs and benefits. As there is no unconditionally optimal value of these trade-offs, it is to be expected that genetic diversity will be retained in the population.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nettle2006,
      author = {Nettle, Daniel},
      title = {The evolution of personality variation in humans and other animals},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {61},
      number = {6},
      pages = {622-631},
      doi = {{10.1037/0003-066X.61.6.622}}
    }
    
    NOLL, R. & KRIER, J. SOME IMPLICATIONS OF COGNITIVE-PSYCHOLOGY FOR RISK REGULATION {1990} JOURNAL OF LEGAL STUDIES
    Vol. {19}({2, Part 2}), pp. {747-779} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{NOLL1990,
      author = {NOLL, RG and KRIER, JE},
      title = {SOME IMPLICATIONS OF COGNITIVE-PSYCHOLOGY FOR RISK REGULATION},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF LEGAL STUDIES},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {19},
      number = {2, Part 2},
      pages = {747-779}
    }
    
    NURMI, J. ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT IN AN AGE-GRADED CONTEXT - THE ROLE OF PERSONAL BELIEFS, GOALS, AND STRATEGIES IN THE TACKLING OF DEVELOPMENTAL TTASKS AND STANDARDS {1993} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {16}({2}), pp. {169-189} 
    article  
    Abstract: There is growing interest in how sociocultural context influences personality development, and in how people influence their own development as agents. This article represents an attempt to integrate recent models of social age systems and cognitive personality research with research on adolescence. The objective is to provide a framework for understanding adolescent development in an age-graded context. It is suggested that adolescents develop during the process of setting personal goals by comparing their individual motives with age-graded developmental tasks and role transitions. In order to realise their goals, they construct plans by considering different institutional opportunities in relevant domains, such as school, work, peer relationships, and society in a broader context. Developmental standards and beliefs concerning age-appropriate behaviour provide an eventual basis for the evalution of success along various developmental trajectories. This process also provides a basis for new self-definitions and identity. Related research is reviewed and, in conclusion, some future directions for research on adolescence are suggested.
    BibTeX:
    @article{NURMI1993,
      author = {NURMI, JE},
      title = {ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT IN AN AGE-GRADED CONTEXT - THE ROLE OF PERSONAL BELIEFS, GOALS, AND STRATEGIES IN THE TACKLING OF DEVELOPMENTAL TTASKS AND STANDARDS},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {16},
      number = {2},
      pages = {169-189}
    }
    
    OBRIEN, K. & FASSINGER, R. A CAUSAL MODEL OF THE CAREER ORIENTATION AND CAREER CHOICE OF ADOLESCENT WOMEN {1993} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {40}({4}), pp. {456-469} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present study expanded on R. E. Fassinger's (1990) model of career choice in college women by testing 2 causal models of career choice and orientation with high school women. Ss were 409 adolescent women enrolled in their last year of high school in an all-female private liberal arts high school in a large midwestern city. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that the career orientation and career choice of adolescent women were predicted by ability, agentic characteristics, gender role attitudes, and relationship with mother. Young women who possessed liberal gender role attitudes, were instrumental and efficacious with regard to math and careers, and exhibited moderate degrees of attachment and independence from their mothers valued their career pursuits. Adolescent women who selected nontraditional and prestigious careers showed high ability and strong agentic characteristics.
    BibTeX:
    @article{OBRIEN1993,
      author = {OBRIEN, KM and FASSINGER, RE},
      title = {A CAUSAL MODEL OF THE CAREER ORIENTATION AND CAREER CHOICE OF ADOLESCENT WOMEN},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {40},
      number = {4},
      pages = {456-469}
    }
    
    Ogden, J. Some problems with social cognition models: A pragmatic and conceptual analysis {2003} HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {22}({4}), pp. {424-428} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Empirical articles published between 1997 and 2001 from 4 health psychology journals that tested or applied 1 or more social cognition models (theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior, health belief model, and protection motivation theory; N = 47) were scrutinized for their pragmatic and conceptual basis. In terms of their pragmatic basis, these 4 models were useful for guiding research. The analysis of their conceptual basis was less positive. First, these models do not enable the generation of hypotheses because their constructs are unspecific; they therefore cannot be tested. Second, they focus on analytic truths rather than synthetic ones, and the conclusions resulting from their application are often true by definition rather than by observation. Finally, they may create and change both cognitions and behavior rather than describe them.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ogden2003,
      author = {Ogden, J},
      title = {Some problems with social cognition models: A pragmatic and conceptual analysis},
      journal = {HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {22},
      number = {4},
      pages = {424-428},
      doi = {{10.1037/0278-6133.22.4.424}}
    }
    
    Orbell, S. & Sheeran, P. `Inclined abstainers': A problem for predicting health-related behaviour {1998} BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {37}({Part 2}), pp. {151-165} 
    article  
    Abstract: A longitudinal test of the association between motivation to undertake a precautionary health action and subsequent behaviour was conducted on women's uptake of the cervical screening test. A sample of never-screened women (N = 166) completed measures derived from protection-motivation theory (PMT; Rogers, 1983). One year later, screening uptake was reliably determined from medical records. While regression analyses demonstrated that PMT variables predicted both motivation to undergo cervical screening and screening uptake, there was, nonetheless, a good deal of inconsistency between protection motivation and screening behaviour. Fifty-seven per cent of those who indicated they were willing to undergo the test did not do so within a one-year period. Discriminant analysis was therefore used to test the ability of cognitions specified by PMT to distinguish four patterns of association between motivation and behaviour: inclined actors, inclined abstainers, disinclined actors and disinclined abstainers. While PMT variables could successfully classify the four groups, it was not possible to derive a reliable discriminant function which distinguished between inclined actors and inclined abstainers. The results suggest that PMT provides a useful account of choice motivation but does not address the psychological processes by which intention is translated into action. Recent calls for the development of a social psychology of volition are discussed in the Light of these findings.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Orbell1998,
      author = {Orbell, S and Sheeran, P},
      title = {`Inclined abstainers': A problem for predicting health-related behaviour},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {37},
      number = {Part 2},
      pages = {151-165}
    }
    
    Orbuch, T. People's accounts count: The sociology of accounts {1997} ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY
    Vol. {23}, pp. {455-478} 
    article  
    Abstract: Humans are inexorably driven to search for order and meaning in their own and others' lives; accounts are a major avenue for sociologists to depict and understand the ways in which individuals experience and identify with that meaning and their social world. The accounts concept has a solid foundation and history in early sociological analysis and research. The current work on accounts focuses on `'story-like'' interpretations or explanations and their functions and consequences to a social actor's life. The concept is useful for gaining insight into the human experience and arriving at meanings or culturally embedded normative explanations. This concept deserves greater explicit attention in sociology and is in need of further theoretical development and stimulation. I argue that sociologists should embrace the concept of accounts; the foundation is set for a resurgence of work on accounts in sociology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Orbuch1997,
      author = {Orbuch, TL},
      title = {People's accounts count: The sociology of accounts},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF SOCIOLOGY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {23},
      pages = {455-478}
    }
    
    Osborn, M. & Smith, J. The personal experience of chronic benign lower back pain: An interpretative phenomenological analysis {1998} BRITISH JOURNAL OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {3}({Part 1}), pp. {65-83} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objectives. Chronic low back pain is a major health problem and one where pain, physical impairment and biological pathology are only very loosely correlated). It is considered that the experience of pain, its distress and disability is mediated by its meaning to the sufferer. The intention of this study was to explore the sufferers' personal experience of their pain. Design. Qualitative research is often recommended to complement the quantitative work on chronic pain that has been published to date. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was employed in an in-depth study of a small sample of chronic pain patients. Method. Semi-structured interviews were carried our with nine women pain patients. The verbatim transcripts of those interviews served as the data for an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results. Four themes emerged which are described under the broad headings: searching for an explanation; comparing this self with other selves; not being believed; and withdrawing from others. Conclusions. The participants shared an inability to explain the persistent presence of their pain or to reconstruct any contemporary self-regard. While they used social comparisons to try and help them make sense of their situation, these comparisons proved equivocal in their outcome. Participants were unable to establish the legitimacy of the chronic nature of their pain and in certain situations felt obliged to appear ill to conform to the expectations of others. By default, participants treated their own pain as a stigma and tended to withdraw from social contact. They felt confused, afraid for their future and vulnerable to shame.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Osborn1998,
      author = {Osborn, M and Smith, JA},
      title = {The personal experience of chronic benign lower back pain: An interpretative phenomenological analysis},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {3},
      number = {Part 1},
      pages = {65-83}
    }
    
    Osorio, D., Miklosi, A. & Gonda, Z. Visual ecology and perception of coloration patterns by domestic chicks {1999} EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY
    Vol. {13}({7-8}), pp. {673-689} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article suggests how we might understand the way potential predators see coloration patterns used in aposematism and visual mimicry. We start by briefly reviewing work on evolutionary function of eyes and neural mechanisms of vision. Often mechanisms used for achromatic vision are accurately modeled as adaptations for detection and recognition of the generality of optical stimuli, rather than specific stimuli such as biological signals. Colour vision is less well understood, but for photoreceptor spectral sensitivities of birds and hymenopterans there is no evidence for adaptations to species-specific stimuli, such as those of food or mates. Turning to experimental work, we investigate how achromatic and chromatic stimuli are used for object recognition by foraging domestic chicks (Gallus gallus). Chicks use chromatic and achromatic signals in different ways: discrimination of large targets uses (chromatic) colour differences, and chicks remember chromatic signals accurately. However, detection of small targets, and discrimination of visual textures requires achromatic contrast. The different roles of chromatic and achromatic information probably reflect their utility for object recognition in nature. Achromatic (intensity) variation exceeds chromatic variation, and hence is more informative about change in reflectance - for example, object borders, while chromatic signals yield more information about surface reflectance (object colour) under variable illumination.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Osorio1999,
      author = {Osorio, D and Miklosi, A and Gonda, Z},
      title = {Visual ecology and perception of coloration patterns by domestic chicks},
      journal = {EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {13},
      number = {7-8},
      pages = {673-689}
    }
    
    Page, M. Connectionist modelling in psychology: A localist manifesto {2000} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {23}({4}), pp. {443+} 
    article  
    Abstract: Over the last decade, fully distributed models have become dominant in connectionist psychological modelling, whereas the virtues of localist models have been underestimated, This target article illustrates some of the benefits of localist modelling. Localist models are characterized by the presence of localist representations rather than the absence of distributed representations. A generalized localist model is proposed that exhibits many of die properties of fully distributed models. It can be applied to a number of problems that are difficult for fully distributed models, and its applicability can be extended through comparisons with a number of classic mathematical models of behaviour. There are reasons why localist models have been underused, though these often misconstrue die localist position. In particular, many conclusions about connectionist representation, based on neuroscientific observation, can be called into question. There are still some problems inherent in the application of fully distributed systems and some inadequacies in proposed solutions to these problems. In the domain of psychological modelling, localist modelling is to be preferred.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Page2000,
      author = {Page, M},
      title = {Connectionist modelling in psychology: A localist manifesto},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {23},
      number = {4},
      pages = {443+}
    }
    
    Pannell, D.J., Marshall, G.R., Barr, N., Curtis, A., Vanclay, F. & Wilkinson, R. Understanding and promoting adoption of conservation practices by rural landholders {2006} AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL AGRICULTURE
    Vol. {46}({11}), pp. {1407-1424} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Research on the adoption of rural innovations is reviewed and interpreted through a cross-disciplinary lens to provide practical guidance for research, extension and policy relating to conservation practices. Adoption of innovations by landholders is presented as a dynamic learning process. Adoption depends on a range of personal, social, cultural and economic factors, as well as on characteristics of the innovation itself. Adoption occurs when the landholder perceives that the innovation in question will enhance the achievement of their personal goals. A range of goals is identifiable among landholders, including economic, social and environmental goals. Innovations are more likely to be adopted when they have a high `relative advantage' (perceived superiority to the idea or practice that it supersedes), and when they are readily trialable (easy to test and learn about before adoption). Non-adoption or low adoption of a number of conservation practices is readily explicable in terms of their failure to provide a relative advantage (particularly in economic terms) or a range of difficulties that landholders may have in trialing them.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pannell2006,
      author = {Pannell, D. J. and Marshall, G. R. and Barr, N. and Curtis, A. and Vanclay, F. and Wilkinson, R.},
      title = {Understanding and promoting adoption of conservation practices by rural landholders},
      journal = {AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL AGRICULTURE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {46},
      number = {11},
      pages = {1407-1424},
      doi = {{10.1071/EA5037}}
    }
    
    Paris, S. & Paris, A. Classroom applications of research on self-regulated learning {2001} EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {36}({2}), pp. {89-101} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article describes how self-regulated learning (SRL) has become a popular topic in research in educational psychology and how the research has been translated into classroom practices. Research during the past 30 years on students' learning and achievement has progressively included emphases on cognitive strategies, metacognition, motivation, task engagement, and social supports in classrooms. SRL emerged as a construct that encompassed these various aspects of academic learning and provided more holistic views of the skills, knowledge, and motivation that students acquire. The complexity of SRL has been appealing to educational researchers who seek to provide effective interventions in schools that benefit teachers and students directly. Examples of SRL, in classrooms are provided for three areas of research: strategies for reading and writing, cognitive engagement in tasks, and self-assessment. The pedagogical principles and underlying research are discussed for each area. Whether SRL, is viewed as a set of skills that can be taught explicitly or as developmental processes of self-regulation that emerge from experience, teachers can provide information and opportunities to students of all ages that will help them become strategic, motivated, and independent learners.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Paris2001,
      author = {Paris, SG and Paris, AH},
      title = {Classroom applications of research on self-regulated learning},
      journal = {EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {36},
      number = {2},
      pages = {89-101}
    }
    
    Partan, S. & Marler, P. Issues in the classification of multimodal communication signals {2005} AMERICAN NATURALIST
    Vol. {166}({2}), pp. {231-245} 
    article  
    Abstract: Communication involves complex behavior in multiple sensory channels, or ``modalities.'' We provide an overview of multimodal communication and its costs and benefits, place examples of signals and displays from an array of taxa, sensory systems, and functions into our signal classification system, and consider issues surrounding the categorization of multimodal signals. The broadest level of classification is between signals with redundant and nonredundant components, with finer distinctions in each category. We recommend that researchers gather information on responses to each component of a multimodal signal as well as the response to the signal as a whole. We discuss the choice of categories, whether to categorize signals on the basis of the signal or the response, and how to classify signals if data are missing. The choice of behavioral assay may influence the outcome, as may the context of the communicative event. We also consider similarities and differences between multimodal and unimodal composite signals and signals that are sequentially, rather than simultaneously, multimodal.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Partan2005,
      author = {Partan, SR and Marler, P},
      title = {Issues in the classification of multimodal communication signals},
      journal = {AMERICAN NATURALIST},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {166},
      number = {2},
      pages = {231-245}
    }
    
    Penner, L. Dispositional and organizational influences on sustained volunteerism: An interactionist perspective {2002} JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES
    Vol. {58}({3}), pp. {447-467} 
    article  
    Abstract: Community service often involves sustained prosocial actions by individuals. This article focuses on one kind of such actions, volunteerism. Volunteerism involves long-term, planned, prosocial behaviors that benefit strangers, and usually occur in an organizational setting. A selective review of the literature on the correlates of volunteerism is presented. One part of the review concerns the relationship between dispositional variables and volunteerism; it includes new data from an on-line survey that show significant relationships among personality traits, religiosity, and volunteer activities. The other part concerns how organizational variables, alone and in combination with dispositional variables, are related to volunteerism. A theoretical model of the causes of sustained volunteerism is presented and the practical implications of this model are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Penner2002,
      author = {Penner, LA},
      title = {Dispositional and organizational influences on sustained volunteerism: An interactionist perspective},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {58},
      number = {3},
      pages = {447-467}
    }
    
    Perkins, D. & Zimmerman, M. Empowerment theory, research, and application {1995} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {23}({5}), pp. {569-579} 
    article  
    Abstract: This introduction to the special issue briefly reviews the meaning and significance of the empowerment concept and problems associated with the proliferation of interest in empowerment. We identify some of the topics not included in this issue and relate those to the many broad and diverse areas of psychological empowerment theory and community-based research and intervention that are covered. We present synopses of each article along with some of the themes and lessons cutting across the frameworks, studies, and applications These include a wide diversity of settings, fairly representative of empowerment interventions and, at the same time, improved clarity (if not unanimity) of definitions and measurement, which has been a problem in much empowerment research and intervention.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Perkins1995,
      author = {Perkins, DD and Zimmerman, MA},
      title = {Empowerment theory, research, and application},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {23},
      number = {5},
      pages = {569-579}
    }
    
    Pinault, D. The thalamic reticular nucleus: structure, function and concept {2004} BRAIN RESEARCH REVIEWS
    Vol. {46}({1}), pp. {1-31} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: On the basis of theoretical, anatomical, psychological and physiological considerations, Francis Crick (1984) proposed that, during selective attention, the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) controls the internal attentional searchlight that simultaneously highlights all the neural circuits called on by the object of attention. In other words, he submitted that during either perception, or the preparation and execution of any cognitive and/or motor task, the TRN sets all the corresponding thalamocortical (TC) circuits in motion. Over the last two decades, behavioural, electrophysiological, anatomical and neurochemical findings have been accumulating, supporting the complex nature of the TRN and raising questions about the validity of this speculative hypothesis. Indeed, our knowledge of the actual functioning of the TRN is still sprinkled with unresolved questions. Therefore, the time has come to join forces and discuss some recent cellular and network findings concerning this diencephalic GABAergic structure, which plays important roles during various states of consciousness. On the whole, the present critical survey emphasizes the TRN's complexity, and provides arguments combining anatomy, physiology and cognitive psychology. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pinault2004,
      author = {Pinault, D},
      title = {The thalamic reticular nucleus: structure, function and concept},
      journal = {BRAIN RESEARCH REVIEWS},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {46},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-31},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.04.008}}
    }
    
    POULTON, E. INFLUENTIAL COMPANIONS - EFFECTS OF ONE STRATEGY ON ANOTHER IN THE WITHIN-SUBJECTS DESIGNS OF COGNITIVE-PSYCHOLOGY {1982} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {91}({3}), pp. {673-690} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{POULTON1982,
      author = {POULTON, EC},
      title = {INFLUENTIAL COMPANIONS - EFFECTS OF ONE STRATEGY ON ANOTHER IN THE WITHIN-SUBJECTS DESIGNS OF COGNITIVE-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {91},
      number = {3},
      pages = {673-690}
    }
    
    Powers, S. Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: Procedure-related pain {1999} JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {24}({2}), pp. {131-145} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To use the Chambless criteria for empirically supported treatments and determine if any interventions for procedure-related pain in children and adolescents can be designated as ``well established,'' ``probably efficacious,'' or ``promising.'' Methods: The Chambless criteria were applied to 13 treatment outcome studies identified by a comprehensive literature review. Results: A detailed summary is provided for each study, including the following information: citation, subjects, diagnostic criteria, baseline, experimental design, assessment measures, treatment protocol, outcome, and follow-up. Conclusions: Cognitive behavioral therapy is a ``well-established treatment'' for procedure-related pain in children and adolescents. Treatment includes breathing exercises and other forms of relaxation and distraction, imagery and other forms of cognitive coping skills, filmed modeling, reinforcement/incentive, behavioral rehearsal, and active coaching by a psychologist, parent, and/or medical staff member. I discuss future challenges for biobehavioral research and practice in the area of procedure-related pain.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Powers1999,
      author = {Powers, SW},
      title = {Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: Procedure-related pain},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {24},
      number = {2},
      pages = {131-145}
    }
    
    Pryke, S., Andersson, S. & Lawes, M. Sexual selection of multiple handicaps in the red-collared widowbird: Female choice of tail length but not carotenoid display {2001} EVOLUTION
    Vol. {55}({7}), pp. {1452-1463} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although sexual selection through female choice explains exaggerated male ornaments in many species, the evolution of the multicomponent nature of most sexual displays remains poorly understood. Theoretical models suggest that handicap signaling should converge on a single most informative quality indicator, whereas additional signals are more likely to be arbitrary Fisherian traits, amplifiers, or exploitations of receiver psychology. Male nuptial plumage in the highly polygynous red-collared widowbird (Euplectes ardens) comprises two of the commonly advocated quality advertisements (handicaps) in birds: a long graduated tail and red carotenoid coloration. Here we use multivariate selection analysis to investigate female choice in relation to male tail length, color (reflectance) of the collar, other aspects of morphology, ectoparasite load, display rate, and territory quality. The order and total number of active nests obtained are used as measures of male reproductive success. We demonstrate a strong female preference and net sexual selection for long tails, but marginal or no effects of color, morphology, or territory quality. Tail length explained 47% of male reproductive success, an unusually strong fitness effect of natural ornament variation. Fluctuating tail asymmetry was unrelated to tail length, and had no impact on mating success. For the red collar, there was negative net selection on collar area, presumably via its negative relationship with tail length. None of the color variables (hue, chroma, and brightness) had significant selection differentials, but a partial effect (selection gradient) of chroma might represent a color preference when tail length is controlled for. We suggest that the red collar functions in male agonistic interactions, which has been strongly supported by subsequent work. Thus, female choice targets only one handicap, extreme tail elongation, disregarding or even selecting against the carotenoid display. We discuss whether long tails might be better indicators of genetic quality than carotenoid pigmentation. As regards the evolution of multiple ornaments, we propose that multiple handicap signaling is stable not because of multiple messages but because of multiple receivers, in this case females and males.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pryke2001,
      author = {Pryke, SR and Andersson, S and Lawes, MJ},
      title = {Sexual selection of multiple handicaps in the red-collared widowbird: Female choice of tail length but not carotenoid display},
      journal = {EVOLUTION},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {55},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1452-1463}
    }
    
    Rachlinski, J. Gains, losses, and the psychology of litigation {1996} SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW
    Vol. {70}({1}), pp. {113-185} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rachlinski1996,
      author = {Rachlinski, JJ},
      title = {Gains, losses, and the psychology of litigation},
      journal = {SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LAW REVIEW},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {70},
      number = {1},
      pages = {113-185}
    }
    
    Radecki, C. & Jaccard, J. Psychological aspects of organ donation: A critical review and synthesis of individual and next-of-kin donation decisions {1997} HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {16}({2}), pp. {183-195} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article presents a critical review of psychological perspectives on organ donation. The review considers individual decisions to donate organs posthumously and next-of-kin consent decisions. A theoretical analysis of intention to donate is presented for both types of donation decisions, and the literature is reviewed within the context of the proposed framework. Donation decisions are examined as a function of attitude toward donation and the religious, cultural, altruistic, normative, and knowledge-based beliefs that comprise the attitude. Consent decisions are primarily influenced by prior knowledge of the deceased individual's wishes. An alternative conceptual model is offered to explain the basis of consent decisions in the absence of this knowledge. Suggestions are offered to improve measurement strategy and to guide theoretically based organ donation research within selected disciplines of psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Radecki1997,
      author = {Radecki, CMM and Jaccard, J},
      title = {Psychological aspects of organ donation: A critical review and synthesis of individual and next-of-kin donation decisions},
      journal = {HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {16},
      number = {2},
      pages = {183-195}
    }
    
    Ramos-Alvarez, M.M., Moreno-Fernandez, M.M., Valdes-Conroy, B. & Catena, A. Criteria of the peer review process for publication of experimental and quasi-experimental research in Psychology: A guide for creating research papers {2008} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {8}({3}), pp. {751-764} 
    article  
    Abstract: Experimental research in Psychology is characterized by ensuring a method that guarantees objectivity, reliability, validity and replication of results. In this theoretical study we propose a set of criteria for the preparation and review of quasi-experimental and experimental research manuscripts, which follows such methodological objective dictates. These criteria are based on a review of structural aspects in experimental research, in the modem theory of psychological theorization, and in the validity theory of scientific research. All these aspects are complemented with those proposed in revisions about empirically-based, statistically-based peer-review systems, and recently refined according to the expert judgment approach. We distinguish between essential, obligatory, complementary, and methodological criteria. These norms are organized according to a measuring tool -the ExperimenCheck2 system-, including report characteristics, antecedents, theoretical development, design, analysis and interpretation of results, format and bibliographical sources, also summarized in the form of a conceptual map. We also introduce the general guidelines of a reviewing process that fulfils scientific criteria, using the proposed evaluative guideline as the main organizing principle.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ramos-Alvarez2008,
      author = {Ramos-Alvarez, Manuel M. and Moreno-Fernandez, Maria M. and Valdes-Conroy, Berenice and Catena, Andres},
      title = {Criteria of the peer review process for publication of experimental and quasi-experimental research in Psychology: A guide for creating research papers},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {751-764}
    }
    
    Ramos-Alvarez, M.M., Valdes-Conroy, B. & Catena, A. Criteria of the peer-review process for publication of experimental and quasi-experimental research in Psychology {2006} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {6}({3}), pp. {773-787} 
    article  
    Abstract: Experimental research in Psychology is characterized by ensuring a method that guarantees objectivity, reliability, validity and replication of results. In this theoretical study we have elaborated a set of criteria for the preparation and review of quasi-experimental and experimental research manuscripts, which follows such methodological objective dictates. These criteria are based on a review of structural aspects in experimental research, in the modern theory of psychological theorization, and in the validity theory of scientific research. All these aspects are complemented with those proposed in revisions about empirically-based, and statistically-based peer-review systems. We distinguish between essential, obligatory, and complementary criteria. These criteria are organized according to a measuring tool -the ExperimenCheck system-, including report characteristics, antecedents, theoretical development, design, analysis and interpretation of results, format and bibliographical sources. We also introduce the general guidelines of a reviewing process that fulfils scientific criteria, using the proposed evaluative guideline as the main organizing principle.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ramos-Alvarez2006,
      author = {Ramos-Alvarez, Manuel M. and Valdes-Conroy, Berenice and Catena, Andres},
      title = {Criteria of the peer-review process for publication of experimental and quasi-experimental research in Psychology},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {773-787}
    }
    
    Rapin, I. Practitioner review: Developmental language disorders: A clinical update {1996} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {37}({6}), pp. {643-655} 
    article  
    Abstract: Non-specialists can identify three types of developmental language disorder. (1) mixed receptive/expressive disorders, which impair phonology, syntax, and semantics. Children who understand nothing are nonverbal, in others speech is sparse, nonfluent, poorly intelligible, and agrammatic; (2) expressive disorders with adequate comprehension affect phonologic production predominantly. Children with verbal dyspraxia, the most severe variant, may also be nonverbal but comprehend well; (3) higher order processing disorders affect semantics, pragmatics, and discourse. Semantics and pragmatics are invariably affected in preschool autistic children in whom isolated expressive deficits do not occur. Etiology of developmental language disorders is predominantly genetic. Structural brain lesions detectable by neuroimaging are exceptional. Severe receptive deficits require a sleep EEG to detect subclinical epilepsy. Early educational intervention is both critical and efficacious. Copyright (C) 1996 Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rapin1996,
      author = {Rapin, I},
      title = {Practitioner review: Developmental language disorders: A clinical update},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {37},
      number = {6},
      pages = {643-655}
    }
    
    Rappaport, J. Empowerment meets narrative: Listening to stories and creating settings {1995} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {23}({5}), pp. {795-807} 
    article  
    Abstract: Comments on and summarizes some of the themes of a special issue on empowerment. Extends empowerment theory with the suggestion that both research and practice would benefit from a narrative approach that links process to practice and attends to the voices of the people of interest. Narrative theory and method tends to open the field to a more inclusive attitude as to what counts as data and to cross-disciplinary insights as well as citizen collaboration. Communal narratives are defined at various levels of analysis, including the community, the organizational and the cultural. A definition of empowerment that includes a concern with resources calls attention to the fact that communal narratives and personal stories are resources. implications for personal and social change are suggested.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rappaport1995,
      author = {Rappaport, J},
      title = {Empowerment meets narrative: Listening to stories and creating settings},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {23},
      number = {5},
      pages = {795-807}
    }
    
    Raz, A. & Buhle, J. Typologies of attentional networks {2006} NATURE REVIEWS NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {7}({5}), pp. {367-379} 
    article  
    Abstract: Attention is a central theme in cognitive science - it exemplifies the links between the brain and behaviour, and binds psychology to the techniques of neuroscience. A visionary model suggested by Michael Posner described attention as a set of independent control networks. This challenged the previously held view of attention as a uniform concept. The idea that disparate attentional networks correlate with discrete neural circuitry and can be influenced by focal brain injuries, mental state and specific drugs has since been supported by converging data from several modern methodologies. Given the recent explosion in empirical data, attentional typologies provide powerful conceptual tools with which to contextualize and integrate these findings.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Raz2006,
      author = {Raz, A and Buhle, J},
      title = {Typologies of attentional networks},
      journal = {NATURE REVIEWS NEUROSCIENCE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {7},
      number = {5},
      pages = {367-379}
    }
    
    REPPUCCI, N. & SAUNDERS, J. SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF BEHAVIOR-MODIFICATION - PROBLEMS OF IMPLEMENTATION IN NATURAL SETTINGS {1974} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {29}({9}), pp. {649-660} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{REPPUCCI1974,
      author = {REPPUCCI, ND and SAUNDERS, JT},
      title = {SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF BEHAVIOR-MODIFICATION - PROBLEMS OF IMPLEMENTATION IN NATURAL SETTINGS},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1974},
      volume = {29},
      number = {9},
      pages = {649-660}
    }
    
    RESCHLY, D. & WILSON, M. SCHOOL-PSYCHOLOGY PRACTITIONERS AND FACULTY - 1986 TO 1991-92 - TRENDS IN DEMOGRAPHICS, ROLES, SATISFACTION, AND SYSTEM REFORM {1995} SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {24}({1}), pp. {62-80} 
    article  
    Abstract: Results from 1986 and 1991-92 surveys of school psychology practitioners and faculty were analyzed regarding changes in demographic characteristics, role preferences, delivery system reform attitudes, and job satisfaction. Trends in practitioner and faculty characteristics are in the direction of (a) increasing age, (b) women dominating in practitioner and men dominating in faculty positions, (c) continued emphasis on services to students with disabilities, and (d) specialist level training dominating among practitioners. Role preferences among practitioners and faculty are in the direction of reduced emphasis on psychoeducational assessment with more emphasis on direct interventions and problem-solving consultation. Overall job satisfaction was positive for both groups; however, higher satisfaction existed among faculty and practitioner dissatisfaction was evident with career advancement opportunities. Overall, practitioners and faculty held positive attitudes toward system reform themes. Results suggest slight changes in the characteristics of school psychologists, stability in the school psychology clientele, and possible significant changes in school psychologists' roles and services.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RESCHLY1995,
      author = {RESCHLY, DJ and WILSON, MS},
      title = {SCHOOL-PSYCHOLOGY PRACTITIONERS AND FACULTY - 1986 TO 1991-92 - TRENDS IN DEMOGRAPHICS, ROLES, SATISFACTION, AND SYSTEM REFORM},
      journal = {SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {24},
      number = {1},
      pages = {62-80}
    }
    
    Resnicow, K., Dilorio, C., Soet, J., Borrelli, B., Hecht, J. & Ernst, D. Motivational interviewing in health promotion: It sounds like something is changing {2002} HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {21}({5}), pp. {444-451} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Motivational interviewing (MI), initially developed for addiction counseling, has increasingly been applied in public health, medical, and health promotion settings. This article provides an overview of MI, outlining its philosophic orientation and essential strategies. Major outcome studies are reviewed, nuances associated with the use of MI, in health promotion and chronic disease prevention are described, and future directions are offered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Resnicow2002,
      author = {Resnicow, K and Dilorio, C and Soet, JE and Borrelli, B and Hecht, J and Ernst, D},
      title = {Motivational interviewing in health promotion: It sounds like something is changing},
      journal = {HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {21},
      number = {5},
      pages = {444-451},
      doi = {{10.1037//0278-6133.21.5.444}}
    }
    
    Richardson, G. The metatheory of resilience and resiliency {2002} JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {58}({3}), pp. {307-321} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Resiliency and resilience theory is presented as three waves of resiliency inquiry. The identification of resilient qualities was the first wave characterized through phenomenological identification of developmental assets and protective factors. The second wave described resilience as a disruptive and reintegrative process for accessing resilient qualities, The third wave exemplified the postmodern and multidisciplinary view of resilience, which is the force that drives a person to grow through adversity and disruptions. Application of resilience using an educational and practical framework provides a means for connecting with and nurturing a client's resilience. Practical paradigms of resiliency that empower client control and choice are suggested. (C) 2002 Wiley Periodicals,
    BibTeX:
    @article{Richardson2002,
      author = {Richardson, GE},
      title = {The metatheory of resilience and resiliency},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {58},
      number = {3},
      pages = {307-321},
      doi = {{10.1002/jclp.10020}}
    }
    
    Richell, R., Mitchell, D., Newman, C., Leonard, A., Baron-Cohen, S. & Blair, R. Theory of mind and psychopathy: can psychopathic individuals read the `language of the eyes'? {2003} NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA
    Vol. {41}({5}), pp. {523-526} 
    article  
    Abstract: There have been suggestions that Theory of Mind (ToM) impairment might lead to aggressive behaviour and psychopathy. Psychopathic and matched non-psychopathic individuals, as defined by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist [The Hare Psychopath Checklist-Revised, 1991] completed the `Reading the Mind in the Eyes' ToM Test [Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1997;38:813]. This test requires the self-paced identification of mental states from photographs of the eye region alone. Results indicated that the psychopathic individuals did not present with any generalised impairment in ToM. The data are discussed with reference to the putative neural system mediating performance on this task and models of psychopathy. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Richell2003,
      author = {Richell, RA and Mitchell, DGV and Newman, C and Leonard, A and Baron-Cohen, S and Blair, RJR},
      title = {Theory of mind and psychopathy: can psychopathic individuals read the `language of the eyes'?},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {41},
      number = {5},
      pages = {523-526}
    }
    
    Richters, J. The Hubble hypothesis and the developmentalist's dilemma {1997} DEVELOPMENT AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
    Vol. {9}({2}), pp. {193-229} 
    article  
    Abstract: Development psychopathology stands poised at the close of the 20th century on the horns of a major scientific dilemma. The essence of this dilemma lies in the contrast between its heuristically rich open system concepts on the one hand, and the closed system paradigm it adopted from mainstream psychology for investigating those models on the other. Many of the research methods, assessment strategies, and data analytic models of psychology's paradigm are predicted on closed system assumptions and explanatory models. Thus, they are fundamentally inadequate for studying humans, who are unparalleled among open systems in their wide ranging capacities for equifinal and multifinal functioning. Development psychopathology faces two challenges in successfully negotiating the developmentalist's dilemma. The first lies in recognizing how the current paradigm encourages research practices that are antithetical to development principles, yet continue to flourish. I argue that the developmentalist's dilemma is sustained by long standing, mutually enabling weaknesses in the paradigm's discovery methods and scientific standards. These interdependent weaknesses function like a distorted lens on the research process by variously sustaining the illusion of theoretical progress, obscuring the need for fundamental reforms, and both constraining and misguiding reform efforts. An understanding of how these influences arise and take their toll provides a foundation and rationale for engaging the second challenge. The essence of this challenge will be finding ways to resolve the developmentalist's dilemma outside the constraints of the existing paradigm by developing indigenous research strategies, methods, and standards with fidelity to the complexity of development phenomena.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Richters1997,
      author = {Richters, JE},
      title = {The Hubble hypothesis and the developmentalist's dilemma},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENT AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {9},
      number = {2},
      pages = {193-229}
    }
    
    Rieber, L. Seriously considering play: Designing interactive learning environments based on the blending of microworlds, simulations, and games {1996} ETR&D-EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {44}({2}), pp. {43-58} 
    article  
    Abstract: Little attention has been given to the psychological and sociological value of play despite its many advantages to guiding the design of interactive multimedia learning environments for children and adults. This paper provides a brief overview of the history, research, and theory related to play. Research from education, psychology, and anthropology suggests that play is a powerful mediator for learning throughout a person's life. The time has come to couple the ever increasing processing capabilities of computers with the advantages of play. The design of hybrid interactive learning environments is suggested based on the constructivist concept of a microworld and supported with elements of both games and simulations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rieber1996,
      author = {Rieber, LP},
      title = {Seriously considering play: Designing interactive learning environments based on the blending of microworlds, simulations, and games},
      journal = {ETR&D-EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {44},
      number = {2},
      pages = {43-58}
    }
    
    RIEGEL, K. INFLUENCE OF ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES ON DEVELOPMENT OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY {1972} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {78}({2}), pp. {129-\&} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{RIEGEL1972,
      author = {RIEGEL, KF},
      title = {INFLUENCE OF ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES ON DEVELOPMENT OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1972},
      volume = {78},
      number = {2},
      pages = {129-&}
    }
    
    RILEY, A., FINNEY, J., MELLITS, E., STARFIELD, B., KIDWELL, S., QUASKEY, S., CATALDO, M., FILIPP, L. & SHEMATEK, J. DETERMINANTS OF CHILDRENS HEALTH-CARE USE - AN INVESTIGATION OF PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS {1993} MEDICAL CARE
    Vol. {31}({9}), pp. {767-783} 
    article  
    Abstract: Factors related to the amount of health care used by 5- to 11-year-old children in a health maintenance organization (HMO) were investigated using a comprehensive multivariate model that assessed the contribution of child health need, mental health, and social functioning; maternal mental health, social support and health care utilization; and family functioning and life events. Mothers reported on the 450 participating children. Health care visits for a two-year retrospective period were obtained from the computerized encounter system. Child health need and maternal patterns of health care use were powerful predictors of the overall amount of health care used, and these factors discriminated high users from low users of care. Family conflict was associated with a higher volume of care, while children's depressive symptoms and non-white race were related to lower use. Maternal social support, mental health, and life events were not predictive of use in either full multivariate model. Enabling factors were held relatively constant by participation of all families in a prepaid HMO. The multiple regression model explained 33% of the variance in use, slightly more than in previous studies of children's health care use. When included in a comprehensive analysis, child and family psychosocial characteristics help to explain children's health care use beyond what is possible using simple health and illness variables. The implications of these findings in the development of further research and to the practice of routine pediatric care are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RILEY1993,
      author = {RILEY, AW and FINNEY, JW and MELLITS, ED and STARFIELD, B and KIDWELL, S and QUASKEY, S and CATALDO, MF and FILIPP, L and SHEMATEK, JP},
      title = {DETERMINANTS OF CHILDRENS HEALTH-CARE USE - AN INVESTIGATION OF PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS},
      journal = {MEDICAL CARE},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {31},
      number = {9},
      pages = {767-783},
      note = {4TH ANNUAL NIMH INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH CONF ON THE CLASSIFICATION AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DISORDERS IN GENERAL MEDICAL SETTINGS, BETHESDA, MD, JUN, 1990}
    }
    
    RISSEL, C. EMPOWERMENT - THE HOLY-GRAIL OF HEALTH PROMOTION {1994} HEALTH PROMOTION INTERNATIONAL
    Vol. {9}({1}), pp. {39-47} 
    article  
    Abstract: Potentially, empowerment has much to offer health promotion. However, some caution needs to be exercised before the notion is wholeheartedly embraced as the major goal of health promotion. The lack of a clear theoretical underpinning, distortion of the concept by different users, measurement ambiguities, and structural barriers make `empowerment' difficult to attain. To further discussion, this paper proposes several assertions about the definition, components, process and outcome of `empowerment, including the need for a distinction between psychological and community empowerment. These assertions and a model of community empowerment are offered in an attempt to clarify an important issue for health promotion.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RISSEL1994,
      author = {RISSEL, C},
      title = {EMPOWERMENT - THE HOLY-GRAIL OF HEALTH PROMOTION},
      journal = {HEALTH PROMOTION INTERNATIONAL},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {39-47}
    }
    
    Rizzo, M., McGehee, D., Dawson, J. & Anderson, S. Simulated car crashes at intersections in drivers with Alzheimer disease {2001} ALZHEIMER DISEASE & ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    Vol. {15}({1}), pp. {10-20} 
    article  
    Abstract: Current evidence suggests that car crashes in cognitively impaired older drivers often occur because of failure to notice other drivers at intersections. We tested whether licensed drivers with mild to moderate cognitive impairment clue to Alzheimer disease (AD) are at greater risk for intersection crashes. In this experiment, 30 participants drove on a virtual highway in a simulator scenario where the approach to within 3.6 seconds of an intersection triggered an illegal incursion by another vehicle. To avoid collision with the incurring vehicle, the driver had to perceive, attend to, and interpret the roadway situation; formulate an evasive plan; and then exert appropriate action on the accelerator, brake, or steering controls, all under pressure of time. The results showed that 6 of 18 drivers with AD (33 experienced crashes versus none of 12 nondemented drivers of similar age. Use of a visual tool that plots control over steering wheel position, brake and accelerator pedals, vehicle speed, and vehicle position during the 5 seconds preceding a crash event showed inattention and control responses that were either inappropriate or too slow. The findings were combined with those in another recent study of collision avoidance in drivers with AD that focused on potential rear end collisions. Predictors of crashes in the combined studies included visuospatial impairment, disordered attention, reduced processing of visual motion cues, and overall cognitive decline. The results help to specify the linkage between decline in certain cognitive domains and increased crash risk in AD and also support the use of high-fidelity simulation and neuropsychologic assessment in an effort to standardize the assessment of fitness to drive in persons with medical impairments.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rizzo2001,
      author = {Rizzo, M and McGehee, DV and Dawson, JD and Anderson, SN},
      title = {Simulated car crashes at intersections in drivers with Alzheimer disease},
      journal = {ALZHEIMER DISEASE & ASSOCIATED DISORDERS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {15},
      number = {1},
      pages = {10-20}
    }
    
    ROBBINS, S. & PATTON, M. SELF-PSYCHOLOGY AND CAREER-DEVELOPMENT - CONSTRUCTION OF THE SUPERIORITY AND GOAL INSTABILITY SCALES {1985} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {32}({2}), pp. {221-231} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ROBBINS1985,
      author = {ROBBINS, SB and PATTON, MJ},
      title = {SELF-PSYCHOLOGY AND CAREER-DEVELOPMENT - CONSTRUCTION OF THE SUPERIORITY AND GOAL INSTABILITY SCALES},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {32},
      number = {2},
      pages = {221-231}
    }
    
    Roberts, B. Plaster or plasticity: Are adult work experiences associated with personality change in women? {1997} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {65}({2}), pp. {205-232} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present study tested whether work experiences were associated with personality change across two periods of adulthood (age 21 to 27 and 27 to 43) in a longitudinal sample of women (N = 81). Two competing theoretical perspectives were tested: the plaster theory, which claims that personality does not change after age 30, and the plasticity theory, which claims that personality can change at any time in adulthood. Evidence was found for both correlational consistency of personality in adulthood and for the socialization effect of work on personality change. Work experiences were not associated with personality change in young adulthood but were associated with changes between young adulthood and midlife. In the period from age 27 to age 43 women who worked more became more agentic, and women who were more successful in their work became both more agentic and more norm-adhering. This pattern of associations between personality change and work experience provided support for the plasticity model of personality change.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Roberts1997,
      author = {Roberts, BW},
      title = {Plaster or plasticity: Are adult work experiences associated with personality change in women?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {65},
      number = {2},
      pages = {205-232},
      note = {Nags Head Conference on Personality and Social Behavior, HIGHLAND BEACH, FL, JUN 19-24, 1995}
    }
    
    Robins, R., Caspi, A. & Moffitt, T. It's not just who you're with, it's who you are: Personality and relationship experiences across multiple relationships {2002} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {70}({6}), pp. {925-964} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present study examined the influence of stable personality traits on romantic relationships using longitudinal data on a large, representative sample of young adults. Relationship experiences (quality, conflict, and abuse) showed relatively small mean-level changes over time and significant levels of rank-order stability, even across different relationship partners. Antecedent personality traits (assessed at age 18) predicted relationship experiences at age 26 and change in relationship experiences from age 21 to 26. Conversely, relationship experiences also predicted change in personality. Importantly, these findings generally held across relationship partners, suggesting that some people tend to be generally happy (or unhappy) across relationships, and this is due, in part, to stable individual differences in personality. Discussion focuses on the broader implications of the findings, in particular the need for relationship researchers to consider the importance of personality for why relationships thrive or fail and the need for personality researchers to consider the impact of relationship experiences on intraindividual personality development.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Robins2002,
      author = {Robins, RW and Caspi, A and Moffitt, TE},
      title = {It's not just who you're with, it's who you are: Personality and relationship experiences across multiple relationships},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {70},
      number = {6},
      pages = {925-964}
    }
    
    ROCK, I. & PALMER, S. THE LEGACY OF GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY {1990} SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
    Vol. {263}({6}), pp. {84-90} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ROCK1990,
      author = {ROCK, I and PALMER, S},
      title = {THE LEGACY OF GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {263},
      number = {6},
      pages = {84-90}
    }
    
    Rodan, S. & Galunic, C. More than network structure: How knowledge heterogeneity influences managerial performance and innovativeness {2004} STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT JOURNAL
    Vol. {25}({6}), pp. {541-562} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study deals with individual managerial performance, both overall and in generating innovation. While prior work has demonstrated a relationship between network structure and managerial performance, inadequate attention has been paid to network content. We consider several micro-social processes that might account for differences in managerial performance, taken front economic sociology and studies of managers' exploitation of their social networks and derived from work in psychology on the genesis of ideas. We compare the influence of these mechanisms on managerial performance using a sample of 106 middle managers in a European telecommunications company. Our findings suggest that, while network structure matters, access to heterogeneous knowledge is of equal importance for overall managerial performance and of greater importance for innovation performance. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rodan2004,
      author = {Rodan, S and Galunic, C},
      title = {More than network structure: How knowledge heterogeneity influences managerial performance and innovativeness},
      journal = {STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT JOURNAL},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {25},
      number = {6},
      pages = {541-562}
    }
    
    Roesch, S. & Weiner, B. A meta-analytic review of coping with illness - Do causal attributions matter? {2001} JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC RESEARCH
    Vol. {50}({4}), pp. {205-219} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: The present meta-analytic review assessed the relations between causal attributions, coping, and psychological adjustment in individuals with physical illnesses or undergoing medical procedures. A theoretical model predicting psychological adjustment was proposed. It was hypothesized that causal attributions would be both directly related to psychological adjustment and indirectly related to psychology adjustment via coping strategies. Methods: Relevant methodological and statistical information was extracted from 27 target studies. Weighted correlations from 27 studies were used as the unit of analysis to test the theoretical model. Results: Overall, internal, unstable, and controllable attributions were indirectly associated with positive psychological adjustment through the use of Approach and Emotion-Focused coping (P < .01). In addition, stable and uncontrollable attributions were indirectly associated with negative psychological adjustment through the use of Avoidance coping (P < .01). Conclusion: These results suggest that attributions guide some motivated cognitions and behaviors within the context of illness, and are related to specific coping strategies. The discussion focuses on the predictive validity of these findings using the proposed theoretical model. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Roesch2001,
      author = {Roesch, SC and Weiner, B},
      title = {A meta-analytic review of coping with illness - Do causal attributions matter?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC RESEARCH},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {50},
      number = {4},
      pages = {205-219}
    }
    
    ROGLER, L. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATIONS - A FRAMEWORK FOR DIRECTING RESEARCH {1994} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {49}({8}), pp. {701-708} 
    article  
    Abstract: Current, large-scale, cross-cultural migrations offer promising research targets for the study of human adaptations. The opportunities for such research, however, remain substantially unused in the mainstream of psychology. The purpose here is to provide a framework encompassing components of the migration experience to aid such research. Contextual factors in the sending and receiving societies impinge on the components of the migration experience: social networks, socioeconomic status, and culture. The components, treated as intertwining transitional experiences in migration, should be juxtaposed in research to examine their effects. Gender and age mediate the effects. The framework aims to benefit research that implicates, directly or heuristically, the experiences of persons exposed to rapid sociocultural change and the consequences of such changes in their lives.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ROGLER1994,
      author = {ROGLER, LH},
      title = {INTERNATIONAL MIGRATIONS - A FRAMEWORK FOR DIRECTING RESEARCH},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {49},
      number = {8},
      pages = {701-708}
    }
    
    Romans, S., Belaise, C., Martin, J., Morris, E. & Raffi, A. Childhood abuse and later medical disorders in women - An epidemiological study {2002} PSYCHOTHERAPY AND PSYCHOSOMATICS
    Vol. {71}({3}), pp. {141-150} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background. There have been many studies documenting adverse psychiatric consequences for people who have experienced childhood and adult sexual and physical abuse. These include posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, substance abuse, eating disorders and probably some personality disorders or trait abnormalities. Much less is known about the links between abuse and physical/psychosomatic conditions in adult life. Hints of causal links are evident in the literature discussing headache, lower back pain, pelvic pain and irritable bowel syndrome. These studies are not definitive as they use clinic-based samples. Methods: This study used interview data with a random community sample of New Zealand women, half of whom reported childhood sexual abuse and half who did not. Details about childhood physical abuse and adult abuse were also collected in a two-phase study. Results: Complex relationships were found, as abuses tended to co-occur. Seven of 18 potentially relevant medical conditions emerged as significantly increased in women with one or more types of abuse. These were chronic fatigue, bladder problems, headache including migraine, asthma, diabetes and heart problems. Several of these associations with abuse are previously unreported. Conclusions: In this random community sample, a number of chronic physical conditions were found more often in women who reported different types of sexual and physical abuse, both in childhood and in adult life. The causal relationships cannot be studied in a cross-sectional retrospective design, but immature coping strategies and increased rates of dissociation appeared important only in chronic fatigue and headache, suggesting that these are not part of the causal pathway between abuse experiences and the other later physical health problems. This finding and the low co-occurrence of the identified physical conditions suggest relative specificity rather than a general vulnerability to psychosomatic conditions in women who have suffered abuses. Each condition may require separate further study. Copyright (C) 2002 S, Karger AG, Basel.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Romans2002,
      author = {Romans, S and Belaise, C and Martin, J and Morris, E and Raffi, A},
      title = {Childhood abuse and later medical disorders in women - An epidemiological study},
      journal = {PSYCHOTHERAPY AND PSYCHOSOMATICS},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {71},
      number = {3},
      pages = {141-150}
    }
    
    ROSNOW, R. & ROSENTHAL, R. FOCUSED TESTS OF SIGNIFICANCE AND EFFECT SIZE ESTIMATION IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY {1988} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {35}({2}), pp. {203-208} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ROSNOW1988,
      author = {ROSNOW, RL and ROSENTHAL, R},
      title = {FOCUSED TESTS OF SIGNIFICANCE AND EFFECT SIZE ESTIMATION IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {35},
      number = {2},
      pages = {203-208}
    }
    
    ROTH, A. & XING, X. JUMPING THE GUN - IMPERFECTIONS AND INSTITUTIONS RELATED TO THE TIMING OF MARKET TRANSACTIONS {1994} AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
    Vol. {84}({4}), pp. {992-1044} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper concerns the difficulties associated with establishing a time at which a market will operate. We first describe the experience of several dozen markets and submarkets, from entry-level professional labor markets in the United States, Canada, England, and Japan, to the (American) market for postseason college football bowls. The difficulties these markets have experienced in coordinating the timing of transactions have been decisive in determining how they are organized today. The paper develops a framework in which to address the timing of transactions and the tendency observed in many of these markets for transactions to become earlier and earlier.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ROTH1994,
      author = {ROTH, AE and XING, XL},
      title = {JUMPING THE GUN - IMPERFECTIONS AND INSTITUTIONS RELATED TO THE TIMING OF MARKET TRANSACTIONS},
      journal = {AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {84},
      number = {4},
      pages = {992-1044}
    }
    
    Roth, P. & BeVier, C. Response rates in HRM/OB survey research: Norms and correlates, 1990-1994 {1998} JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT
    Vol. {24}({1}), pp. {97-117} 
    article  
    Abstract: Literature from marketing, sociology, and public opinion measurement reveals several variables associated with high response rates. The literature suggests that advance notice, follow-rep reminders, monetary incentives, and issue salience are associated with higher response rates in consumer populations. Further, the literature suggests that length of questionnaire decreases response rates. An analysis of articles from the Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, Human Relations, Group & Organization Management, Journal of Business and Psychology, and Public Personnel Management was conducted for the years 1990 to 1994 to determine if these trends generalized to industrial samples. Multiple regression analyses found that Sour variables were significantly associated with response rates. These variables were advance notice, identification numbers, follow-up reminders, and salience. The associations of follow-up reminders and salience to higher response rates were only found in mailed surveys. Future research and theoretical orientation toward study of response rates are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Roth1998,
      author = {Roth, PL and BeVier, CA},
      title = {Response rates in HRM/OB survey research: Norms and correlates, 1990-1994},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {24},
      number = {1},
      pages = {97-117}
    }
    
    Rounds, J. & Tracey, T. Cross-cultural structural equivalence of RIASEC models and measures {1996} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {43}({3}), pp. {310-329} 
    article  
    Abstract: A structural meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the fit of J. L. Holland's (1985a) circular order model, I. Gati's (1982) three-group partition, and an alternative three-class partition on vocational interest correlation matrices drawn from the cross-cultural literature. The randomization test of hypothesized order relations (L. Hubert & P. Arabie, 1987) was used to evaluate the model fit for 20 U.S. ethnic matrices, 76 international matrices (representing 18 countries), and a U.S. benchmark sample of 73 matrices. The cross-culture structural equivalence of Holland's circular order model was not supported. Both Gati's partition and the alternative partition fit the U.S. benchmark and international samples equally well. None of the 3 models were found to be an adequate representation of the structure of vocational interests for U.S. ethnic samples.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rounds1996,
      author = {Rounds, J and Tracey, TJ},
      title = {Cross-cultural structural equivalence of RIASEC models and measures},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {43},
      number = {3},
      pages = {310-329}
    }
    
    Rudmin, F. Critical history of the acculturation psychology of assimilation, separation, integration, and marginalization {2003} REVIEW OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {7}({1}), pp. {3-37} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The psychology of intercultural adaptation was first discussed by Plato. Many modern enculturation theories claim that ethnic minorities (including aboriginal natives, immigrants, refugees, and sojourners) can favor either the dominant culture, or their own minority culture, or both, or neither. Between 1918 and 1984, 68 such theories showed varied and inconsistent terminology, poor citation of earlier research, conflicting and poorly tested predictions of acculturative stress, and lack of logic, for example, 2 cultures in contact logically allow 16 types of acculturation, not just 4. Logic explains why assimilation = negative chauvinism = marginality, why measures of incompatible acculturative attitudes can be positively correlated, and why bicultural integration and marginalisation are confounded constructs. There is no robust evidence that biculturalism is most adaptive.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rudmin2003,
      author = {Rudmin, FW},
      title = {Critical history of the acculturation psychology of assimilation, separation, integration, and marginalization},
      journal = {REVIEW OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-37},
      doi = {{10.1037/1089-2680.7.1.3}}
    }
    
    Ruiter, R., Abraham, C. & Kok, G. Scary warnings and rational precautions: A review of the psychology of fear appeals {2001} PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH
    Vol. {16}({6}), pp. {613-630} 
    article  
    Abstract: Research into the effects of fear-arousal on precautionary motivation and action is reviewed. Current models do not adequately distinguish between emotional (i.e., fear arousal) and cognitive (i.e., threat perception) responses to fear appeals and, in general, are not well supported. Evidence suggesting that (i) coping appraisals are more powerful predictors of precautionary action than threat perception and that (ii) fear control processes may interfere with precautionary motivation, recommends cautious and limited use of fear appeals in health promotion. It seems likely that fear arousal is less important in motivating precautionary action than perceptions of action effectiveness and self-efficacy. Moreover, perceived personal relevance may be critical to the emotional and cognitive impact of threat information. Available findings are summarised in the form of a process model that highlights the potential complexity of fear arousal effects. Sequential measurement of fear arousal, other than by self-report, is recommended in studies seeking to clarify these effects.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ruiter2001,
      author = {Ruiter, RAC and Abraham, C and Kok, G},
      title = {Scary warnings and rational precautions: A review of the psychology of fear appeals},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {16},
      number = {6},
      pages = {613-630}
    }
    
    RUSSELL, C. & BOBKO, P. MODERATED REGRESSION-ANALYSIS AND LIKERT SCALES - TOO COARSE FOR COMFORT {1992} JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {77}({3}), pp. {336-342} 
    article  
    Abstract: One of the most commonly accepted models of relationships among three variables in applied industrial and organizational psychology is the simple moderator effect. However, many authors have expressed concern over the general lack of empirical support for interaction effects reported in the literature. We demonstrate in the current sample that use of a continuous, dependent-response scale instead of a discrete, Likert-type scale, causes moderated regression analysis effect sizes to increase an average of 93 We suggest that use of relatively coarse Likert scales to measure fine dependent responses causes information loss that, although varying widely across subjects, greatly reduces the probability of detecting true interaction effects. Specific recommendations for alternate research strategies are made.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RUSSELL1992,
      author = {RUSSELL, CJ and BOBKO, P},
      title = {MODERATED REGRESSION-ANALYSIS AND LIKERT SCALES - TOO COARSE FOR COMFORT},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {77},
      number = {3},
      pages = {336-342}
    }
    
    RUSSELL, J. & FEHR, B. FUZZY CONCEPTS IN A FUZZY HIERARCHY - VARIETIES OF ANGER {1994} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {67}({2}), pp. {186-205} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article argues that the concept of anger is not well characterized from the classical perspective. Instead, its membership is graded, its borders are fuzzy, and its subcategories fail to form a true class-inclusion hierarchy. Ss rated potential anger subcategories (fury, jealousy, annoyance, etc.) and remembered instances of their own anger as varying in degree of membership in anger. Degree of membership (prototypicality) predicted each subcategory's availability from memory given the category name, reaction time to verify its status as a subcategory, and its substitutability within naturally generated sentences about anger. Two predictions of a true class-inclusion hierarchy failed: that Ss would agree in adjudicating the membership of potential subcategories of anger and that all instances of a subcategory of anger would also be instances of anger. As an alternative to the classical view, emotion concepts are hypothesized to vary in their degree of breadth and overlap and to be mentally represented as scripts that allow different instantiations in different contexts.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RUSSELL1994,
      author = {RUSSELL, JA and FEHR, B},
      title = {FUZZY CONCEPTS IN A FUZZY HIERARCHY - VARIETIES OF ANGER},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {67},
      number = {2},
      pages = {186-205}
    }
    
    Russell, J., Jarrold, C. & Henry, L. Working memory in children with autism and with moderate learning difficulties {1996} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {37}({6}), pp. {673-686} 
    article  
    Abstract: We asked whether children with autism are specifically impaired on tests of working memory. Experiment 1 showed that children with autism were at least as likely as normal children to employ articulatory rehearsal (criterion: evincing the `'word length effect'') and that they had superior spans to that of children with moderate learning difficulties. In Experiment 2, participants were given `'capacity tasks'' in order to examine group differences in the capacity of the central executive of working memory. The performance of the children with autism was inferior to that of the normally developing group and similar to that of the children with moderate learning difficulties. Copyright (C) 1996 Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Russell1996,
      author = {Russell, J and Jarrold, C and Henry, L},
      title = {Working memory in children with autism and with moderate learning difficulties},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {37},
      number = {6},
      pages = {673-686}
    }
    
    RUSSELL, J. & WARD, L. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY {1982} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {33}, pp. {651-688} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{RUSSELL1982,
      author = {RUSSELL, JA and WARD, LM},
      title = {ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {33},
      pages = {651-688}
    }
    
    RYDING, E. INVESTIGATION OF 33 WOMEN WHO DEMANDED A CESAREAN-SECTION FOR PERSONAL REASONS {1993} ACTA OBSTETRICIA ET GYNECOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA
    Vol. {72}({4}), pp. {280-285} 
    article  
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of women who demand a cesarean section when obstetricians do not think it is necessary. Thirty-three pregnant women were interviewed about their reasons for the demand. The 28 parous women referred to previous childbirth experiences and feared mainly for intractable labor pain and for the life and health of the child. The most prevalent fear of the five nulliparae was for vaginal rupture. According to their wishes and prerequisites the women received counselling or short-term psychotherapy by a psychotherapeutically trained obstetrician. At term 14 women chose vaginal delivery and 19 had elective cesareans, three on obstetric indications and 16 at their own choice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RYDING1993,
      author = {RYDING, EL},
      title = {INVESTIGATION OF 33 WOMEN WHO DEMANDED A CESAREAN-SECTION FOR PERSONAL REASONS},
      journal = {ACTA OBSTETRICIA ET GYNECOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {72},
      number = {4},
      pages = {280-285}
    }
    
    SABNANI, H., PONTEROTTO, J. & BORODOVSKY, L. WHITE RACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT AND CROSS-CULTURAL COUNSELOR TRAINING - A STAGE MODEL {1991} COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {19}({1}), pp. {76-102} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SABNANI1991,
      author = {SABNANI, HB and PONTEROTTO, JG and BORODOVSKY, LG},
      title = {WHITE RACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT AND CROSS-CULTURAL COUNSELOR TRAINING - A STAGE MODEL},
      journal = {COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {19},
      number = {1},
      pages = {76-102}
    }
    
    Sagiv, L. & Schwartz, S. Value priorities and subjective well-being: direct relations and congruity effects {2000} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {30}({2}), pp. {177-198} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two studies investigated relations of value priorities to measures of subjective of well-being. Samples of students and adults, from Israel and former East and West Germany (N = 1261), participated in Part I. Hypothesized direct relations of nine types of values to Ir cll-being, based on `healthy' values from the psychotherapy, literature, relations of values to needs, self-determination theory, and the emotional resources needed to pursue various values were tested in each sample. Achievement, self-direction, stimulation, tradition, conformity and security values correlated with affective well-being, as predicted, but not,with cognitive well-being. Part II tested the hypothesis that well-being depends upon congruence between personal values and the prevailing value environment. Results largely supported specific hypotheses regarding the values conductive to positive and negative well-being among students of business administration (n = 40) and psychology (n = 42). Hypotheses were derived from the social sanctions, environmental affordances for value attainment, and internal value conflicts likely to be experienced in each department. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sagiv2000,
      author = {Sagiv, L and Schwartz, SH},
      title = {Value priorities and subjective well-being: direct relations and congruity effects},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {30},
      number = {2},
      pages = {177-198}
    }
    
    SAMELSON, F. HISTORY, ORIGIN MYTH AND IDEOLOGY - DISCOVERY OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY {1974} JOURNAL FOR THE THEORY OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR
    Vol. {4}({2}), pp. {217-231} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SAMELSON1974,
      author = {SAMELSON, F},
      title = {HISTORY, ORIGIN MYTH AND IDEOLOGY - DISCOVERY OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {JOURNAL FOR THE THEORY OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR},
      year = {1974},
      volume = {4},
      number = {2},
      pages = {217-231}
    }
    
    SARASON, B., PIERCE, G., SHEARIN, E., SARASON, I., WALTZ, J. & POPPE, L. PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT AND WORKING MODELS OF SELF AND ACTUAL OTHERS {1991} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {60}({2}), pp. {273-287} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SARASON1991,
      author = {SARASON, BR and PIERCE, GR and SHEARIN, EN and SARASON, IG and WALTZ, JA and POPPE, L},
      title = {PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT AND WORKING MODELS OF SELF AND ACTUAL OTHERS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {60},
      number = {2},
      pages = {273-287}
    }
    
    SARASON, S. AN ASOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND A MISDIRECTED CLINICAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1981} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {36}({8}), pp. {827-836} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SARASON1981,
      author = {SARASON, SB},
      title = {AN ASOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND A MISDIRECTED CLINICAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {36},
      number = {8},
      pages = {827-836}
    }
    
    SARDELL, A. & TRIERWEILER, S. DISCLOSING THE CANCER-DIAGNOSIS - PROCEDURES THAT INFLUENCE PATIENT HOPEFULNESS {1993} CANCER
    Vol. {72}({11}), pp. {3355-3365} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background. Physicians view enhancing patient hopefulness as a critical aspect of cancer treatment, yet little is known about how the circumstances of the initial disclosure of a cancer diagnosis affects this important psychosocial variable. The authors examined the extent to which various forms of physician disclosure of a cancer diagnosis are seen by patients as more or less hopeful and as favorable or unfavorable. Methods. Statements describing various circumstances of diagnostic disclosure were generated from interviews with 10 physicians and 10 patients with cancer. Fifty-seven statements were rated on two bipolar rating scales describing hopefulness and favorability by an additional 56 patients with recent onset of cancer. To determine if overall emotional adjustment to the illness affected these ratings, scores on the Mental Adjustment Scale were also obtained. Results. Results revealed that patients had clear ideas about which procedures were most and least hopeful and favorable or unfavorable, that the ratings demonstrated clear factorial validity suggesting broad areas of diagnostic disclosure procedure where physicians may make efforts to enhance hope, and that ratings of hopefulness and favorability were related to overall emotional adjustment to the illness. Conclusions. There was consensus among patients that certain procedures enhanced hopefulness and certain procedures reduced it. Physicians would do well to attend carefully to this aspect of treatment and continually seek patient input concerning their preferences for the conduct of the treatment relationship.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SARDELL1993,
      author = {SARDELL, AN and TRIERWEILER, SJ},
      title = {DISCLOSING THE CANCER-DIAGNOSIS - PROCEDURES THAT INFLUENCE PATIENT HOPEFULNESS},
      journal = {CANCER},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {72},
      number = {11},
      pages = {3355-3365}
    }
    
    Saxe, R. Against simulation: the argument from error {2005} TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES
    Vol. {9}({4}), pp. {174-179} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: According to Simulation Theory, to understand what is going on in another person's mind, the observer uses his or her own mind as a model of the other mind. Recently, philosophers and cognitive neuroscientists have proposed that mirror neurones (which fire in response to both executing and observing a goal directed action) provide a plausible neural substrate for simulation, a mechanism for directly perceiving, or `resonating' with, the contents of other minds. This article makes the case against Simulation Theory, using evidence from cognitive neuroscience, developmental psychology, and social psychology. In particular, the errors that adults and children make when reasoning about other minds are not consistent with the `resonance' versions of Simulation Theory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Saxe2005,
      author = {Saxe, R},
      title = {Against simulation: the argument from error},
      journal = {TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {174-179},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.tics.2005.01.012}}
    }
    
    Schaubroeck, J. & Jones, J. Antecedents of workplace emotional labor dimensions and moderators of their effects on physical symptoms {2000} JOURNAL OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {21}({Sp. Iss. SI}), pp. {163-183} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present study distinguished between two modal emotional display rules, demands to express positive efference and demands to suppress negative efference, that partially constitute the work roles of many employees. Perceived demands to express positive emotion were positively related to health symptoms primarily among those reporting: (1) lower identification with the organization; (2) lower job involvement; and (3) lower emotional adaptability, The effects of various personality traits and situational variables on perceived emotional labor differed depending on the nature of the emotional labor. The findings are discussed in terms of implications of emotional labor for health and practices through which organizations might intervene to minimize its unhealthful consequences among employees. We also attempt to reconcile the findings with some of the related research in psychology suggesting that some forms of required efference may have salutary physiological consequences. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schaubroeck2000,
      author = {Schaubroeck, J and Jones, JR},
      title = {Antecedents of workplace emotional labor dimensions and moderators of their effects on physical symptoms},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {21},
      number = {Sp. Iss. SI},
      pages = {163-183}
    }
    
    Schmitt, D. & Allik, J. Simultaneous administration of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 53 nations: Exploring the universal and culture-specific features of global self-esteem {2005} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {89}({4}), pp. {623-642} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) was translated into 28 languages and administered to 16,998 participants across 53 nations. The RSES factor structure was largely invariant across nations. RSES scores correlated with neuroticism, extraversion, and romantic attachment styles within nearly all nations, providing additional support for cross-cultural equivalence of the RSES. All nations scored above the theoretical midpoint of the RSES, indicating generally positive self-evaluation may be culturally universal. Individual differences in self-esteem were variable across cultures, with a neutral response bias prevalent in more collectivist cultures. Self-competence and self-liking subscales of the RSES varied with cultural individualism. Although positively and negatively worded items of the RSES were correlated within cultures and were uniformly related to external personality variables, differences between aggregates of positive and negative items were smaller in developed nations. Because negatively worded items were interpreted differently across nations, direct cross-cultural comparisons using the RSES may have limited value.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schmitt2005,
      author = {Schmitt, DP and Allik, J},
      title = {Simultaneous administration of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 53 nations: Exploring the universal and culture-specific features of global self-esteem},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {89},
      number = {4},
      pages = {623-642},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-3514.89.4.623}}
    }
    
    Schultheis, M. & Rizzo, A. The application of virtual reality technology in rehabilitation {2001} REHABILITATION PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {46}({3}), pp. {296-311} 
    article  
    Abstract: Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging technology with a variety of potential benefits for many aspects of rehabilitation assessment, treatment, and research. Through its capacity to allow the creation and control of dynamic 3-dimensional, ecologically valid stimulus environments within which behavioral responding can be recorded and measured, VR offers clinical assessment and rehabilitation options that are not available with traditional methods. Initial applications of VR in other aspects of medicine and psychology have yielded encouraging results, but continued research and understanding of this evolving technology will be crucial for its effective integration into rehabilitation. This article provides a brief introduction to VR technology, examines the specific benefits VR offers consumers and providers of rehabilitation services, and discusses potential areas of application and important considerations in applying this technology. Finally, 2 examples of current VR applications are presented.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schultheis2001,
      author = {Schultheis, MT and Rizzo, AA},
      title = {The application of virtual reality technology in rehabilitation},
      journal = {REHABILITATION PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {46},
      number = {3},
      pages = {296-311}
    }
    
    Schultz, I., Crook, J., Meloche, G., Berkowitz, J., Milner, R., Zuberbier, O. & Meloche, W. Psychosocial factors predictive of occupational low back disability: towards development of a return-to-work model {2004} PAIN
    Vol. {107}({1-2}), pp. {77-85} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the identification and testing of potential psychosocial factors contributing to an integrated multivariate predictive model of occupational low back disability. Psychosocial predictors originate from five traditions of psychosocial research: psychopathological, cognitive, diathesis-stress, human adaptation and organizational psychology. The psychosocial variables chosen for this study reflect a full range of research findings. They were investigated using 253 subacute and chronic pain injured workers. Three outcome measures were utilized: return-to-work status, duration of disability and disability costs. The key psychosocial predictors identified were expectations of recovery and perception of health change. Also implicated, but to a lesser degree, were occupational stability, skill discretion at work, co-worker support, and the response of the workers' compensation system and employer to the disability. All psychosocial models were better at predicting who will return than who will not return to work. (C) 2003 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schultz2004,
      author = {Schultz, IZ and Crook, J and Meloche, GR and Berkowitz, J and Milner, R and Zuberbier, OA and Meloche, W},
      title = {Psychosocial factors predictive of occupational low back disability: towards development of a return-to-work model},
      journal = {PAIN},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {107},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {77-85},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.pain.2003.09.019}}
    }
    
    SCHWARTZBERG, S. STRUGGLING FOR MEANING - HOW HIV-POSITIVE GAY MEN MAKE SENSE OF AIDS {1993} PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY-RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
    Vol. {24}({4}), pp. {483-490} 
    article  
    Abstract: For individuals living with HIV, AIDS presents an existential as well as medical crisis. HIV-positive gay men (N = 19) participated in intensive clinical interviews to discern how, if at all, they ascribed meaning to AIDS and their HIV infection. The study used phenomenological research methodology (Polkinghorne, 1989) and was informed by the theoretical perspectives of assumptive world theory (Janoff-Bulman, 1992) and humanist-existential psychology (e.g., Frank], 1959; Lifton, 1980). Ten specific cognitive `'representations'' of AIDS and HIV emerged (e.g., HIV as catalyst for personal growth or HIV as punishment). Four patterns typified subjects' attempts to integrate HIV into an overall framework for meaning: shattered meaning, high meaning, defensive meaning, and irrelevant meaning. For some, HIV was a transformative catalyst for positive change. Many subjects had adapted well and were coping effectively with the challenges they faced.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SCHWARTZBERG1993,
      author = {SCHWARTZBERG, SS},
      title = {STRUGGLING FOR MEANING - HOW HIV-POSITIVE GAY MEN MAKE SENSE OF AIDS},
      journal = {PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY-RESEARCH AND PRACTICE},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {24},
      number = {4},
      pages = {483-490}
    }
    
    SCOTT, W. INTER-REFEREE AGREEMENT ON SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF MANUSCRIPTS SUBMITTED TO JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1974} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {29}({9}), pp. {698-702} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SCOTT1974,
      author = {SCOTT, WA},
      title = {INTER-REFEREE AGREEMENT ON SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF MANUSCRIPTS SUBMITTED TO JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1974},
      volume = {29},
      number = {9},
      pages = {698-702}
    }
    
    SEIDMAN, E. BACK TO THE FUTURE, COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY - UNFOLDING A THEORY OF SOCIAL-INTERVENTION {1988} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {16}({1}), pp. {3-24} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SEIDMAN1988,
      author = {SEIDMAN, E},
      title = {BACK TO THE FUTURE, COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY - UNFOLDING A THEORY OF SOCIAL-INTERVENTION},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {16},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-24}
    }
    
    Seymour, B., O'Doherty, J., Koltzenburg, M., Wiech, K., Frackowiak, R., Friston, K. & Dolan, R. Opponent appetitive-aversive neural processes underlie predictive learning of pain relief {2005} NATURE NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {8}({9}), pp. {1234-1240} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Termination of a painful or unpleasant event can be rewarding. However, whether the brain treats relief in a similar way as it treats natural reward is unclear, and the neural processes that underlie its representation as a motivational goal remain poorly understood. We used fMRI ( functional magnetic resonance imaging) to investigate how humans learn to generate expectations of pain relief. Using a pavlovian conditioning procedure, we show that subjects experiencing prolonged experimentally induced pain can be conditioned to predict pain relief. This proceeds in a manner consistent with contemporary reward-learning theory ( average reward/loss reinforcement learning), reflected by neural activity in the amygdala and midbrain. Furthermore, these reward-like learning signals are mirrored by opposite aversion-like signals in lateral orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. This dual coding has parallels to `opponent process' theories in psychology and promotes a formal account of prediction and expectation during pain.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Seymour2005,
      author = {Seymour, B and O'Doherty, JP and Koltzenburg, M and Wiech, K and Frackowiak, R and Friston, K and Dolan, R},
      title = {Opponent appetitive-aversive neural processes underlie predictive learning of pain relief},
      journal = {NATURE NEUROSCIENCE},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {8},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1234-1240},
      doi = {{10.1038/nn1527}}
    }
    
    Shadmehr, R. & Krakauer, J.W. A computational neuroanatomy for motor control {2008} EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH
    Vol. {185}({3}), pp. {359-381} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The study of patients to infer normal brain function has a long tradition in neurology and psychology. More recently, the motor system has been subject to quantitative and computational characterization. The purpose of this review is to argue that the lesion approach and theoretical motor control can mutually inform each other. Specifically, one may identify distinct motor control processes from computational models and map them onto specific deficits in patients. Here we review some of the impairments in motor control, motor learning and higher-order motor control in patients with lesions of the corticospinal tract, the cerebellum, parietal cortex, the basal ganglia, and the medial temporal lobe. We attempt to explain some of these impairments in terms of computational ideas such as state estimation, optimization, prediction, cost, and reward. We suggest that a function of the cerebellum is system identification: to build internal models that predict sensory outcome of motor commands and correct motor commands through internal feedback. A function of the parietal cortex is state estimation: to integrate the predicted proprioceptive and visual outcomes with sensory feedback to form a belief about how the commands affected the states of the body and the environment. A function of basal ganglia is related to optimal control: learning costs and rewards associated with sensory states and estimating the ``cost-to-go'' during execution of a motor task. Finally, functions of the primary and the premotor cortices are related to implementing the optimal control policy by transforming beliefs about proprioceptive and visual states, respectively, into motor commands.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Shadmehr2008,
      author = {Shadmehr, Reza and Krakauer, John W.},
      title = {A computational neuroanatomy for motor control},
      journal = {EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {185},
      number = {3},
      pages = {359-381},
      doi = {{10.1007/s00221-008-1280-5}}
    }
    
    SHAH, S. DANGEROUSNESS - PARADIGM FOR EXPLORING SOME ISSUES IN LAW AND PSYCHOLOGY {1978} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {33}({3}), pp. {224-238} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SHAH1978,
      author = {SHAH, SA},
      title = {DANGEROUSNESS - PARADIGM FOR EXPLORING SOME ISSUES IN LAW AND PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1978},
      volume = {33},
      number = {3},
      pages = {224-238}
    }
    
    Shapira, N., Lessig, M., Goldsmith, T., Szabo, S., Lazoritz, M., Gold, M. & Stein, D. Problematic Internet use: Proposed classification and diagnostic criteria {2003} DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY
    Vol. {17}({4}), pp. {207-216} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Since the mid-1990s, there have been frequent reports of individuals whose use of the computer and internet is problematic. Given the recent expansion and the expected increase in internet availability and usage in the coming years, it is important that healthcare professionals be informed about this behavior and its associated problems. Recently, psychological and psychiatric literature has described individuals that exhibit problematic internet use who often suffer from other psychiatric disorders. In the face of this comorbidity, it is essential to evaluate whether these individuals represent a distinct class of disorder, or a manifestation/coping mechanism related to other underlying diagnosis. In either event, problematic internet use negatively impacts social and emotional functioning. Based on the current limited empirical evidence, problematic internet use may best be classified as an impulse control disorder. It is therefore imperative that problematic internet use be appropriately identified among symptomatic individuals. For these reasons, we propose specific diagnostic criteria that will allow for consistent identification and assist in further study of this behavior. (C) 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Shapira2003,
      author = {Shapira, NA and Lessig, MC and Goldsmith, TD and Szabo, ST and Lazoritz, M and Gold, MS and Stein, DJ},
      title = {Problematic Internet use: Proposed classification and diagnostic criteria},
      journal = {DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {17},
      number = {4},
      pages = {207-216},
      doi = {{10.1002/da.10094}}
    }
    
    Shapiro, D., Schwartz, C. & Astin, J. Controlling ourselves, controlling our world - Psychology's role in understanding positive and negative consequences of seeking and gaining control {1996} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {51}({12}), pp. {1213-1230} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article begins by examining psychology's contributions to understanding the positive consequences of control for individual mental and physical health. Person-environment control mismatches and the negative personal, interpersonal, and societal consequences of seeking and having control are then discussed. As corrections to mismatches and negative consequences, three methods of analyses are provided. First, definitional and conceptual precision is offered, including a more careful matching of control-related interventions to multidimensional, individual-specific control profiles. Second, therapeutic assessment and interventions are placed within a biopsychosocial model of control. Finally, philosophy of science and paradigmatic issues underlying control theories are highlighted, particularly as they affect psychology's role in examining values toward which control efforts should be directed. These topics are important for people's personal and collective well-being.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Shapiro1996,
      author = {Shapiro, DH and Schwartz, CE and Astin, JA},
      title = {Controlling ourselves, controlling our world - Psychology's role in understanding positive and negative consequences of seeking and gaining control},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {51},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1213-1230}
    }
    
    SHAPIRO, E. PSYCHODYNAMICS AND DEVELOPMENTAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF BORDERLINE PATIENT - REVIEW OF LITERATURE {1978} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {135}({11}), pp. {1305-1315} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SHAPIRO1978,
      author = {SHAPIRO, ER},
      title = {PSYCHODYNAMICS AND DEVELOPMENTAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF BORDERLINE PATIENT - REVIEW OF LITERATURE},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1978},
      volume = {135},
      number = {11},
      pages = {1305-1315}
    }
    
    Sharpe, D. Of apples and oranges, file drawers and garbage: Why validity issues in meta-analysis will not go away {1997} CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {17}({8}), pp. {881-901} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper examines how threats to the validity of meta-analysis have been dealt with by clinical researchers employing this approach to literature review Three validity threats were identified - mixing of dissimilar studies, publication bins, and inclusion of poor quality studies. Approaches to addressing these threats were evaluated for their effectiveness and popularity by surveying 32 published meta-analyses in clinical psychology. Distrust of meta-analysis, however, was found to transcend these validity threats. Other explanations for why this popular research strategy continues to receive widespread criticism were considered. Suggestions were made for how meta-analysis might better address these concerns. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sharpe1997,
      author = {Sharpe, D},
      title = {Of apples and oranges, file drawers and garbage: Why validity issues in meta-analysis will not go away},
      journal = {CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {17},
      number = {8},
      pages = {881-901},
      note = {Annual Conference of the Canadian-Psychological-Association, CHARLOTTETOWN, CANADA, JUN, 1995}
    }
    
    Shaver, P., Belsky, J. & Brennan, K. The adult attachment interview and self-reports of romantic attachment: Associations across domains and methods {2000} PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
    Vol. {7}({1}), pp. {25-43} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two lines of research on adult attachment have emerged; both are based on Bowlby and Ainsworth's attachment theory, which in turn relies on evolutionary theory Investigators in one tradition use the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to assess ``state of mind with respect to attachment.'' The AAI has been validated primarily by its ability to predict the attachment classification of an interviewee's child in Ainsworth's ``strange situation.'' Investigators in the second tradition use self-report measures to assess romantic ``attachment style.'' The self-report measures have been validated by their ability to predict features of romantic/marital relationships. Although the two constructs, state of mind and romantic attachment, are importantly different and so would not be expected to relate highly, some of their components. especially ability to depend on attachment figures, should be related if both stem from a person's attachment history. We report associations between components, or aspects, of the two measures. Overlap occurs mainly in the areas of comfort depending on attachment figures and comfort serving as an attachment figure for others. Implications of the findings for attachment theory and research, as well as for evolutionary psychology, are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Shaver2000,
      author = {Shaver, PR and Belsky, J and Brennan, KA},
      title = {The adult attachment interview and self-reports of romantic attachment: Associations across domains and methods},
      journal = {PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {25-43}
    }
    
    SHEPPARD, W. & MACDERMO.HG DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A PROGRAMMED COURSE IN INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY {1970} JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS
    Vol. {3}({1}), pp. {5-\&} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SHEPPARD1970,
      author = {SHEPPARD, WC and MACDERMO.HG},
      title = {DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A PROGRAMMED COURSE IN INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS},
      year = {1970},
      volume = {3},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5-&}
    }
    
    Sherman, D. & Cohen, G. The psychology of self-defense: Self-affirmation theory {2006}
    Vol. {38}ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, VOL 38, pp. {183-242} 
    incollection DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{Sherman2006,
      author = {Sherman, DK and Cohen, GL},
      title = {The psychology of self-defense: Self-affirmation theory},
      booktitle = {ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, VOL 38},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {38},
      pages = {183-242},
      doi = {{10.1016/S0065-2601(06)38004-5}}
    }
    
    Shipherd, J. & Beck, J. The effects of suppressing trauma-related thoughts on women with rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder {1999} BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY
    Vol. {37}({2}), pp. {99-112} 
    article  
    Abstract: A hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the presence of intrusive thoughts that come to mind against an individual's will and are frequently accompanied by considerable distress. This investigation examined the effects of deliberate suppression of rape-related thoughts on female sexual assault survivors, in order to explore this facet of PTSD. Seventeen women with chronic PTSD following a sexual assault were contrasted with nineteen survivors without PTSD, using a thought suppression paradigm (e.g. [Wegner, Schneider, Carter, & White (1987) Paradoxical effects of thought suppression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53 5-13]). Results indicated that PTSD participants experienced a rebound in the frequency of rape-related thoughts following deliberate suppression, whereas non-PTSD participants did not experience a rebound. Reported level of perceived controllability over rape-related thoughts for the PTSD participants was significantly lower during the suppression phase (as compared with the expression phase) relative to the non-PTSD participants. PTSD participants were significantly more anxious, depressed and distressed throughout the procedure relative to non-PTSD participants, although mood changes did not parallel the rebound effect found with rape-related thoughts in the PTSD group. Results are discussed in light of the role that intrusive thoughts may play in the maintenance of PTSD. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Shipherd1999,
      author = {Shipherd, JC and Beck, JG},
      title = {The effects of suppressing trauma-related thoughts on women with rape-related posttraumatic stress disorder},
      journal = {BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {37},
      number = {2},
      pages = {99-112}
    }
    
    SHOHAMSALOMON, V. & HANNAH, M. CLIENT TREATMENT INTERACTION IN THE STUDY OF DIFFERENTIAL CHANGE PROCESSES {1991} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {59}({2}), pp. {217-225} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SHOHAMSALOMON1991,
      author = {SHOHAMSALOMON, V and HANNAH, MT},
      title = {CLIENT TREATMENT INTERACTION IN THE STUDY OF DIFFERENTIAL CHANGE PROCESSES},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {59},
      number = {2},
      pages = {217-225}
    }
    
    Shulman, R. & Rothman, D. Interpreting functional imaging studies in terms of neurotransmitter cycling {1998} PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
    Vol. {95}({20}), pp. {11993-11998} 
    article  
    Abstract: Functional imaging experiments, in particular positron-emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging, can be analyzed either in psychological terms or on the basis of neuroscience, In the usual psychological interpretation, stimulations are designed to activate specific mental processes identified by cognitive psychology, which are then Localized by the signals in functional imaging experiments. An alternate approach would be to analyze experiments in terms of the neurobiological processes responsible for the signals. Recent in vivo C-13 NMR measurements of the glutamate-to-glutamine neurotransmitter cycling in rat and human brains facilitate a neuroscientific interpretation of functional imaging data in terms of neurobiological processes since incremental neurotransmitter flux showed a 1:1 stoichiometry with the incremental rate of glucose oxidation. Because functional imaging signals depend on brain energy consumption, a quantitative relationship can be established between the signal (S) and the specific neurochemical cerebral neurotransmitter activity (N) of glutamate-to-glutamine neurotransmitter cycling. The quantitation of neuronal activity proposed has implications for the psychological design and interpretation of functional imaging experiments. Measurements of the neurotransmitter cycling flux at rest in functional imaging experiments suggest that performing cognitive tasks and sensory stimulations increases neurotransmitter cycling by only 10-20 Therefore it cannot be assumed that reference state activities are negligible, nor that they are constant during stimulation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Shulman1998,
      author = {Shulman, RG and Rothman, DL},
      title = {Interpreting functional imaging studies in terms of neurotransmitter cycling},
      journal = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {95},
      number = {20},
      pages = {11993-11998}
    }
    
    Simonton, D. Scientific creativity as constrained Stochastic behavior the integration of product, person, and process perspectives {2003} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {129}({4}), pp. {475-494} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Psychologists have primarily investigated scientific creativity from 2 contrasting in vitro perspectives: correlational studies of the creative person and experimental studies of the creative process. Here the same phenomenon is scrutinized using a 3rd, in vivo perspective, namely, the actual creative products that emerge from individual scientific careers and communities of creative scientists. This behavioral analysis supports the inference that scientific creativity constitutes a form of constrained stochastic behavior. That is, it can be accurately modeled as a quasi-random combinatorial process. Key findings from both correlational and experimental research traditions corroborate this conclusion. The author closes the article by arguing that all 3 perspectives-regarding the product, person, and process-must be integrated into a unified view of scientific creativity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Simonton2003,
      author = {Simonton, DK},
      title = {Scientific creativity as constrained Stochastic behavior the integration of product, person, and process perspectives},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {129},
      number = {4},
      pages = {475-494},
      doi = {{10.1037/0033-2909.129.4.475}}
    }
    
    SKINNER, B. CAN PSYCHOLOGY BE A SCIENCE OF MIND {1990} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {45}({11}), pp. {1206-1210} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SKINNER1990,
      author = {SKINNER, BF},
      title = {CAN PSYCHOLOGY BE A SCIENCE OF MIND},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {45},
      number = {11},
      pages = {1206-1210}
    }
    
    Skotzko, C., Krichten, C., Zietowski, G., Alves, L., Freudenberger, R., Robinson, S., Fisher, M. & Gottlieb, S. Depression is common and precludes accurate assessment of functional status in elderly patients with congestive heart failure {2000} JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE
    Vol. {6}({4}), pp. {300-305} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Congestive heart failure (CHF) and depression are independently known to result in physical decline and diminished functional capacity in the general population. The prevalence and relationship of depressive symptoms in CHF to physical limitations has not been objectively examined. Methods and Results: The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to ascertain depressive symptoms in 33 elderly ambulatory individuals with CHF. Self-report assessment of functional status, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX), and measurement of energy expenditure by doubly labeled water and Caltrac Accelerometer (Muscle Dynamics, Torrance, CA) were performed. Depressed and nondepressed groups were compared. Forty-two percent of the patients scored in the depressed range (CES-D score of 16 or greater). There were no differences in demographic variables or severity of illness between the depressed and nondepressed patients. Energy expenditure was comparable across groups. Although obtaining similar maximal heart rate and maximal oxygen consumption (V) over dot O-2 on CPX, the depressed group showed less exertion on exercise testing with a significantly lower respiratory quotient (P =.017). Conclusion: Depressive symptoms were common and unrelated to the severity of CHF. Although depressed individuals tended to report worse physical functioning than nondepressed individuals, objective assessment of energy expenditure was comparable. Depressed patients appear to underestimate their functional ability. Subsequently, inaccurate assessment of functional status may occur.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Skotzko2000,
      author = {Skotzko, CE and Krichten, C and Zietowski, G and Alves, L and Freudenberger, R and Robinson, S and Fisher, M and Gottlieb, SS},
      title = {Depression is common and precludes accurate assessment of functional status in elderly patients with congestive heart failure},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {6},
      number = {4},
      pages = {300-305}
    }
    
    Slusarek, M., Velling, S., Bunk, D. & Eggers, C. Motivational effects on inhibitory control in children with ADHD {2001} JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {40}({3}), pp. {355-363} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: The problems children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) encounter in tasks measuring inhibitory control are often theoretically related to deficits in cognitive processes. This study investigated the effects of different motivational incentives on the ability of children to inhibit intended or ongoing actions. Method: In a large German industrial town, 33 children with ADHD were compared with 33 members of a combined group of children with major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, oppositional defiant disorder, or conduct disorder, and 33 children without any psychiatric disorder with respect to their performances in a stop-signal task. The children received continuous feedback under high- or low-incentive conditions. The children's performance was compared in terms of qualitative (inhibition rate) and quantitative (reaction time) measures. Results: There were no indications of deficits in sustained attention in children with ADHD. Under conditions of low incentives, children with ADHD were less able to inhibit their reactions and had longer stop-signal reaction times. But when given high incentives, children with ADHD performed the task as well as both other groups. Conclusions: Supposed deficits in children with ADHD should be regarded from a perspective that differentiates performance from ability. Furthermore, the findings support a motivational explanation of the origins of lowered inhibitory control in children with ADHD.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Slusarek2001,
      author = {Slusarek, M and Velling, S and Bunk, D and Eggers, C},
      title = {Motivational effects on inhibitory control in children with ADHD},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {40},
      number = {3},
      pages = {355-363}
    }
    
    SMITH, B. & SECHREST, L. TREATMENT OF APTITUDE X TREATMENT INTERACTIONS {1991} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {59}({2}), pp. {233-244} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SMITH1991a,
      author = {SMITH, B and SECHREST, L},
      title = {TREATMENT OF APTITUDE X TREATMENT INTERACTIONS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {59},
      number = {2},
      pages = {233-244}
    }
    
    SMITH, E., LANGSTON, C. & NISBETT, R. THE CASE FOR RULES IN REASONING {1992} COGNITIVE SCIENCE
    Vol. {16}({1}), pp. {1-40} 
    article  
    Abstract: A number of theoretical positions in psychology-including variants of case-based reasoning, instance-based analogy, and connectionist models-maintain that rules are not involved in human reasoning, or at best play a minor role. Other views hold that the use of abstract rules is a core aspect of human reasoning. We propose eight criteria for determining whether or not people use abstract rules in reasoning, and examine evidence relevant to each criterion for several rule systems. We argue that there is substantial evidence that several different inferential rules, including modus ponens, contractual rules, causal rules, and the law of large numbers, are used in solving everyday problems. We discuss the implications for various theoretical positions and consider hybrid mechanisms that combine aspects of instance and rule models.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SMITH1992,
      author = {SMITH, EE and LANGSTON, C and NISBETT, RE},
      title = {THE CASE FOR RULES IN REASONING},
      journal = {COGNITIVE SCIENCE},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {16},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-40}
    }
    
    Smith, J., Shields, W. & Washburn, D. The comparative psychology of uncertainty monitoring and metacognition {2003} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {26}({3}), pp. {317+} 
    article  
    Abstract: Researchers have begun to explore animals' capacities for uncertainty monitoring and metacognition. This exploration could extend the study of animal self-awareness and establish the relationship of self-awareness to other-awareness. it could sharpen descriptions of metacognition in the human literature and suggest the earliest roots of metacognition in human development. We summarize research on uncertainty monitoring by humans, monkeys, and a dophin within perceptual and metamemory tasks. We extend phylogenetically the search for metacognitive capacities by considering studies that have tested less cognitively sophisticated species. By using the same uncertainty-nionitoring paradigins across species, it should be possible to inap the phylogenctic distribution ofirietacognition and illuminate the emergence of mind. We provide a unifying formal description of animals' performances and examine the optimality of their decisional strategies. Finally, we interpret animals' and humans' nearly identical performances psychologically. low-level, stimulus-based accounts cannot explain the phenomena. The results Suggest granting animals a higher-level decision-making process that involves criterion setting using controlled cognitive processes. This conclusion raises the difficult question of animal consciousness. The results show that animals have functional features of or parallels to human conscious cognition. Remaining questions are whether animals also have the phenomenal features that are the feeling/knowing states of human conscious cognition, and whether the present paradigms can be extended to demonstrate that they do. Thus, the comparative study of metacognition potentially grounds the systematic study of animal consciousness.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Smith2003,
      author = {Smith, JD and Shields, WE and Washburn, DA},
      title = {The comparative psychology of uncertainty monitoring and metacognition},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {26},
      number = {3},
      pages = {317+}
    }
    
    SMITH, M. SELFHOOD AT RISK - POSTMODERN PERILS AND THE PERILS OF POSTMODERNISM {1994} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {49}({5}), pp. {405-411} 
    article  
    Abstract: Various commentaries on the threats to personal well-being involved in contemporary Western middle-class life are examined, especially Gergen's (1991) treatment of the `'saturated self.'' The version of postmodernism that Gergen advocated is criticized as representing an increasingly fashionable style of metatheory that reflects contemporary threats to selfhood but paralyzes endeavors to cope with them. Giddens's (1991) treatment of self and society in late modernity is selectively described as better fitted to a stance within which scientific and professional psychology can contribute to realistic hopefulness rather than to fin de siecle hopelessness.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SMITH1994,
      author = {SMITH, MB},
      title = {SELFHOOD AT RISK - POSTMODERN PERILS AND THE PERILS OF POSTMODERNISM},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {49},
      number = {5},
      pages = {405-411}
    }
    
    Smith, S. & Levin, I. Need for cognition and choice framing effects {1996} JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL DECISION MAKING
    Vol. {9}({4}), pp. {283-290} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two experiments tested the hypothesis that framing biases in decision making would affect more strongly individuals with relatively low levels of need for cognition (NC). Participants were classified as high or low NC based on responses to a standard scale and subsequently were exposed to one of two framings of a choice problem. Different choice problems were used in each experiment, modeled after those developed by Kahneman and Tversky. Experiment 1 employed a monetary task and Experiment 2 a medical decision-making task. Consistent with expectations, framing effects on choice were observed in both experiments, but only for low NC participants. High NC participants were unaffected by problem framing, showing that they were less susceptible to attempts to alter their frame of reference.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Smith1996,
      author = {Smith, SM and Levin, IP},
      title = {Need for cognition and choice framing effects},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL DECISION MAKING},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {283-290}
    }
    
    Smith, T., Glazer, K., Ruiz, J. & Gallo, L. Hostility, anger, aggressiveness, and coronary heart disease: An interpersonal perspective on personality, emotion, and health {2004} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {72}({6}), pp. {1217-1270} 
    article  
    Abstract: The related traits of hostility, anger, and aggressiveness have long been suggested as risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Our prior review of this literature (Smith, 1992) found both considerable evidence in support of this hypothesis and important limitations that precluded firm conclusions. In the present review, we discuss recent research on the assessment of these traits, their association with CHD and longevity, and mechanisms possibly underlying the association. In doing so, we illustrate the value of the interpersonal tradition in personality psychology (Sullivan, 1953; Leary, 1957; Carson, 1969; Kiesler, 1996) for not only research on the health consequences of hostility, anger, and aggressiveness, but also for the general study of the effects of emotion, personality and other psychosocial characteristics on physical health.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Smith2004,
      author = {Smith, TW and Glazer, K and Ruiz, JM and Gallo, LC},
      title = {Hostility, anger, aggressiveness, and coronary heart disease: An interpersonal perspective on personality, emotion, and health},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {72},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1217-1270}
    }
    
    SMITH, V. RATIONAL CHOICE - THE CONTRAST BETWEEN ECONOMICS AND PSYCHOLOGY {1991} JOURNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY
    Vol. {99}({4}), pp. {877-897} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SMITH1991,
      author = {SMITH, VL},
      title = {RATIONAL CHOICE - THE CONTRAST BETWEEN ECONOMICS AND PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {99},
      number = {4},
      pages = {877-897}
    }
    
    Soukoreff, R. & MacKenzie, I. Towards a standard for pointing device evaluation, perspectives on 27 years of Fitts' law research in HCI {2004} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES
    Vol. {61}({6}), pp. {751-789} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This paper makes seven recommendations to HCI researchers wishing to construct Fitts' law models for either movement time prediction, or for the comparison of conditions in an experiment. These seven recommendations support (and in some cases supplement) the methods described in the recent ISO 9241-9 standard on the evaluation of pointing devices. In addition to improving the robustness of Fitts' law models, these recommendations (if widely employed) will improve the comparability and consistency of forthcoming publications. Arguments to support these recommendations are presented, as are concise reviews of 24 published Fitts' law models of the mouse, and 9 studies that used the new ISO standard. (C) 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Soukoreff2004,
      author = {Soukoreff, RW and MacKenzie, IS},
      title = {Towards a standard for pointing device evaluation, perspectives on 27 years of Fitts' law research in HCI},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {61},
      number = {6},
      pages = {751-789},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.ijhcs.2004.09.001}}
    }
    
    SPEED, M. MUELLERIAN MIMICRY AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PREDATION {1993} ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR
    Vol. {45}({3}), pp. {571-580} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SPEED1993,
      author = {SPEED, MP},
      title = {MUELLERIAN MIMICRY AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PREDATION},
      journal = {ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {45},
      number = {3},
      pages = {571-580}
    }
    
    STAATS, A. UNIFIED POSITIVISM AND UNIFICATION PSYCHOLOGY - FAD OR NEW FIELD {1991} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {46}({9}), pp. {899-912} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{STAATS1991,
      author = {STAATS, AW},
      title = {UNIFIED POSITIVISM AND UNIFICATION PSYCHOLOGY - FAD OR NEW FIELD},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {46},
      number = {9},
      pages = {899-912}
    }
    
    Steger, M., Frazier, P., Oishi, S. & Kaler, M. The meaning in life questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life {2006} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {53}({1}), pp. {80-93} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Counseling psychologists often work with clients to increase their well-being as well as to decrease their distress. One important aspect of well-being, highlighted particularly in humanistic theories of the counseling process, is perceived meaning in life. However, poor measurement has hampered research on meaning in life. In 3 studies, evidence is provided for the internal consistency, temporal stability, factor structure, and validity of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), a new 10-item measure of the presence of, and the search for, meaning in life. A multitrait-multimethod matrix demonstrates the convergent and discriminant validity of the MLQ subscales across time and informants, in comparison with 2 other meaning scales. The MLQ offers several improvements over current meaning in life measures, including no item overlap with distress measures, a stable factor structure, better discriminant validity, a briefer format, and the ability to measure the search for meaning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Steger2006,
      author = {Steger, MF and Frazier, P and Oishi, S and Kaler, M},
      title = {The meaning in life questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {53},
      number = {1},
      pages = {80-93},
      note = {7th European Conference on Psychological Assessment, Malaga, SPAIN, MAR, 2004},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-0167.53.1.80}}
    }
    
    Sternberg, R. & Williams, W. Does the Graduate Record Examination predict meaningful success in the graduate training of psychologists? - A case study {1997} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {52}({6}), pp. {630-641} 
    article  
    Abstract: The authors consider the empirical validity of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) as a predictor of various kinds of performance in a graduate psychology program, including 1st- and 2nd-year grades; professors' ratings of students' dissertations; and professors' ratings of students' analytical, creative, practical, research, and teaching abilities. On the basis of the triarchic theory of intelligence, the GRE was predicted to be of some use in predicting graduate grades but of limited or no use in predicting other aspects of performance. In fact, the test was found to be useful in predicting 1st-year grades but not other kinds of performance, with one exception-performance on the GRE Analytical test was predictive, but only for men. The authors conclude that there is a need to develop better theory-based tests.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sternberg1997,
      author = {Sternberg, RJ and Williams, WM},
      title = {Does the Graduate Record Examination predict meaningful success in the graduate training of psychologists? - A case study},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {52},
      number = {6},
      pages = {630-641}
    }
    
    STEWART, I. & PEREGOY, P. CATASTROPHE-THEORY MODELING IN PSYCHOLOGY {1983} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {94}({2}), pp. {336-362} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{STEWART1983,
      author = {STEWART, IN and PEREGOY, PL},
      title = {CATASTROPHE-THEORY MODELING IN PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {94},
      number = {2},
      pages = {336-362}
    }
    
    Steyer, R., Schmitt, M. & Eid, M. Latent state-trait theory and research in personality and individual differences {1999} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {13}({5}), pp. {389-408} 
    article  
    Abstract: Latent state-trait (LST) theory is a generalization of classical test theory designed to take account of the fact that psychological measurement does not take place in a situational vacuum. The basic concepts of latent state-trait theory (LST theory) are introduced The core of LST theory consists of two decompositions: (a) the decomposition of any observed score into latent state and measurement error, and (b) the decomposition of any latent state into latent trait and latent state residual representing situational and/or interaction effects. Latent states and latent traits are defined as special conditional expectations. A score on a latent state variable is defined as the expectation of an observable variable Y-ik given a person in a situation whereas a score on a latent trait variable is the expectation of Y-ik given a person. The theory also comprises the definition of consistency, occasion specificity, reliability, and stability coefficients. An overview of different models of LST theory is given. It is shown how different research questions of personality psychology can be and have been analysed within the LST framework and why research in personality and individual differences can profit from LST theory and methodology. (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Steyer1999,
      author = {Steyer, R and Schmitt, M and Eid, M},
      title = {Latent state-trait theory and research in personality and individual differences},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {13},
      number = {5},
      pages = {389-408}
    }
    
    Stores, G. Practitioner review: Assessment and treatment of sleep disorders in children and adolescents {1996} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {37}({8}), pp. {907-925} 
    article  
    Abstract: Sleep disorders in children are diverse in type, common, often serious in their effects yet neglected in professional education. They complicate many psychiatric disorders and can cause various cognitive and behavioural problems as well as more widespread difficulties in the family as a whole. Accurate assessment allows an appropriate choice from the various types of treatments that are now available but often under used. Diagnostic points and treatment approaches are outlined for the three main categories of childhood sleep disorder: sleeplessness; excessive sleepiness; and episodic disturbances related to sleep (parasomnias). The need for more widespread awareness of and provision for sleep disorders is emphasized. Copyright (C) 1996 Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Stores1996,
      author = {Stores, G},
      title = {Practitioner review: Assessment and treatment of sleep disorders in children and adolescents},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {37},
      number = {8},
      pages = {907-925}
    }
    
    STRICKER, G. & TRIERWEILER, S. THE LOCAL CLINICAL SCIENTIST - A BRIDGE BETWEEN SCIENCE AND PRACTICE {1995} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {50}({12}), pp. {995-1002} 
    article  
    Abstract: The local clinical scientist brings the attitudes and knowledge base of the scientist to bear on the problems that must be addressed by the clinician in the consulting room. The problems of inadequate generalizability are reduced by a recognition of the value of local observations and local solutions to problems. However, these observations and solutions benefit by the scientific attitude of the clinician and are subjected to the same need for verifiability that greets all scientific enterprises. The clinical setting is viewed as analogous to a scientific laboratory, and by doing so, the scientist-practitioner model is enacted.
    BibTeX:
    @article{STRICKER1995,
      author = {STRICKER, G and TRIERWEILER, SJ},
      title = {THE LOCAL CLINICAL SCIENTIST - A BRIDGE BETWEEN SCIENCE AND PRACTICE},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {50},
      number = {12},
      pages = {995-1002}
    }
    
    STROEBE, W. & FREY, B. SELF-INTEREST AND COLLECTIVE ACTION - THE ECONOMICS AND PSYCHOLOGY OF PUBLIC-GOODS {1982} BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {21}({JUN}), pp. {121-137} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{STROEBE1982,
      author = {STROEBE, W and FREY, BS},
      title = {SELF-INTEREST AND COLLECTIVE ACTION - THE ECONOMICS AND PSYCHOLOGY OF PUBLIC-GOODS},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {21},
      number = {JUN},
      pages = {121-137}
    }
    
    Sue, D. Multidimensional facets of cultural competence {2001} COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {29}({6}), pp. {790-821} 
    article  
    Abstract: Calls for incorporating cultural competence in psychology have been hindered for a number of reasons: belief in the universality of psychological laws and theories, the invisibility of monocultural policies and practices, differences over defining a cultural competence, and the lack of a conceptual framework for organizing its multifaceted dimensions. A proposed multidimensional model of cultural competence (MDCC) incorporates three primary dimensions: (a) racial and culture-specific attributes of competence. (b) components of cultural competence, and (c) foci of cultural competence. Based on a 3 (Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills) x 4 (Individual, Professional, Organizational. and Societal) x 5 (African American, Asian American, Latino/Hispanic American, Native American, and European American) factorial combination, the MDCC allows for the systematic identification of cultural competence in a number of different areas. Its uses in education and training, practice, and research are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sue2001,
      author = {Sue, DW},
      title = {Multidimensional facets of cultural competence},
      journal = {COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {29},
      number = {6},
      pages = {790-821}
    }
    
    Suh, E. Culture, identity consistency, and subjective well-being {2002} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {83}({6}), pp. {1378-1391} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: All individuals have multiple views of themselves. Whereas the consistency among the different aspects of identity is emphasized in Western cultures, the ``multiple selves'' are often viewed as coexisting realities in East Asian cultures. This research revisits the classic thesis in psychology that identity consistency is a prerequisite condition of psychological well-being. Between individuals (Study 1), people with a more consistent self-view had a more clear self-knowledge, were more assertive, and, most notably, had self-experiences that were less affected by the perspectives of others. Compared with North American participants. (Study 2), Koreans viewed themselves more flexibly across situations, and their subjective well-being was less predictable from levels of identity consistency. Also, consistent individuals received positive social evaluations from others in the United States but not in Korea.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Suh2002,
      author = {Suh, EM},
      title = {Culture, identity consistency, and subjective well-being},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {83},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1378-1391},
      note = {Meeting of the Society-for-Personality-and-Social-Psychology, SAVANNAH, GEORGIA, FEB, 2002},
      doi = {{10.1037//0022-3514.83.6.1378}}
    }
    
    SUMMERFIELD, Q. LIPREADING AND AUDIOVISUAL SPEECH-PERCEPTION {1992} PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
    Vol. {335}({1273}), pp. {71-78} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper reviews progress in understanding the psychology of lipreading and audio-visual speech perception. It considers four questions. What distinguishes better from poorer lipreaders? What are the effects of introducing a delay between the acoustical and optical speech signals? What have attempts to produce computer animations of talking faces contributed to our understanding of the visual cues that distinguish consonants and vowels? Finally, how should the process of audio-visual integration in speech perception be described; that is, how are the sights and sounds of talking faces represented at their conflux?
    BibTeX:
    @article{SUMMERFIELD1992,
      author = {SUMMERFIELD, Q},
      title = {LIPREADING AND AUDIOVISUAL SPEECH-PERCEPTION},
      journal = {PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {335},
      number = {1273},
      pages = {71-78}
    }
    
    Sunstein, C. Terrorism and probability neglect {2003} JOURNAL OF RISK AND UNCERTAINTY
    Vol. {26}({2-3}), pp. {121-136} 
    article  
    Abstract: When strong emotions are involved, people tend to focus on the badness of the outcome, rather than on the probability that the outcome will occur. The resulting ``probability neglect'' helps to explain excessive reactions to low-probability risks of catastrophe. Terrorists show a working knowledge of probability neglect, producing public fear that might greatly exceed the discounted harm. As a result of probability neglect, people often are far more concerned about the risks of terrorism than about statistically larger risks that they confront in ordinary life. In the context of terrorism and analogous risks, the legal system frequently responds to probability neglect, resulting in regulation that might be unjustified or even counterproductive. But public fear is itself a cost, and it is associated with many other costs, in the form of ``ripple effects'' produced by fear. As a normative matter, government should reduce even unjustified fear, if the benefits of the response can be shown to outweigh the costs.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sunstein2003,
      author = {Sunstein, CR},
      title = {Terrorism and probability neglect},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF RISK AND UNCERTAINTY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {26},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {121-136}
    }
    
    Surtees, P., Wainwright, N., Luben, R., Khaw, K. & Day, N. Sense of coherence and mortality in men and women in the EPIC-Norfolk United Kingdom Prospective Cohort Study {2003} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Vol. {158}({12}), pp. {1202-1209} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This study tested the hypothesis that a personality disposition defined by a strong sense of coherence is associated with a reduced risk of mortality. The authors prospectively examined, for less than or equal to6 years, the relation between a strong sense of coherence and mortality due to all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer among 20,579 participants aged 41-80 years from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk Study in the United Kingdom. Data were collected in 1996-2002. Participants were recruited by post from general practice age-sex registers and subsequently completed a postal assessment of their sense of coherence. During follow-up, 1,024 deaths were recorded. A strong sense of coherence was associated with a 30% reduction in mortality from all causes (rate ratio = 0.69, p < 0.0001), cardiovascular disease (rate ratio = 0.70, p = 0.001), and cancer (rate ratio = 0.74, p = 0.003), independent of age, sex, and prevalent chronic disease. These associations were consistent by sex, except that no association was observed for cancer mortality in women. The association for all-cause mortality remained after adjustment for cigarette smoking history, social class, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, hostility, and neuroticism (rate ratio = 0.76, p = 0.002). Results suggest that a strong sense of coherence may confer some resilience to the risk of chronic disease.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Surtees2003,
      author = {Surtees, P and Wainwright, N and Luben, R and Khaw, KT and Day, N},
      title = {Sense of coherence and mortality in men and women in the EPIC-Norfolk United Kingdom Prospective Cohort Study},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {158},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1202-1209},
      doi = {{10.1093/aje/kwg272}}
    }
    
    SVRAKIC, D., PRZYBECK, T. & CLONINGER, C. FURTHER CONTRIBUTION TO THE CONCEPTUAL VALIDITY OF THE UNIFIED BIOSOCIAL MODEL OF PERSONALITY - UNITED-STATES AND YUGOSLAV DATA {1991} COMPREHENSIVE PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {32}({3}), pp. {195-209} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SVRAKIC1991,
      author = {SVRAKIC, DM and PRZYBECK, TR and CLONINGER, CR},
      title = {FURTHER CONTRIBUTION TO THE CONCEPTUAL VALIDITY OF THE UNIFIED BIOSOCIAL MODEL OF PERSONALITY - UNITED-STATES AND YUGOSLAV DATA},
      journal = {COMPREHENSIVE PSYCHIATRY},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {32},
      number = {3},
      pages = {195-209}
    }
    
    Target, M. & Fonagy, P. Playing with reality .2. The Development of psychic reality from a theoretical perspective {1996} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHO-ANALYSIS
    Vol. {77}({Part 3}), pp. {459-479} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this paper the authors extend their examination of the child's perception of psychic reality, and the integration of the `psychic equivalent' and `pretend' modes into a reflective mode at around the oedipal stage. A model is presented of the elaboration of a core or psychological self through Early object relationships, and they describe how the transition in modes of experiencing inner and outer reality fits in with this model. They then look at evidence from both developmental psychology, and psychoanalytic thinking, and consider to what extent their thinking is compatible with these. They maintain that there is consistent empirical evidence supporting the model they have presented, and that it can be seen as complementing and extending previous psychoanalytic developmental theories.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Target1996,
      author = {Target, M and Fonagy, P},
      title = {Playing with reality .2. The Development of psychic reality from a theoretical perspective},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHO-ANALYSIS},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {77},
      number = {Part 3},
      pages = {459-479},
      note = {39th Congress of the International-Psychoanalytical-Association, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, JUL 31-AUG 04, 1995}
    }
    
    Tetlock, P. Social functionalist frameworks for judgment and choice: Intuitive politicians, theologians, and prosecutors {2002} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {109}({3}), pp. {451-471} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Research on judgment and choice has been dominated by functionalist assumptions that depict people as either intuitive scientists animated by epistemic goals or intuitive economists animated by utilitarian ones. This article identifies 3 alternative social functionalist starting points for inquiry: people as pragmatic politicians trying to cope with accountability demands from key constituencies in their lives, principled theologians trying to protect sacred values from secular encroachments, and prudent prosecutors trying to enforce social norms. Each functionalist framework stimulates middle-range theories that specify (a) cognitive-affective-behavioral strategies of coping with adaptive challenges and (b) the implications of these coping strategies for identifying empirical and normative boundary conditions on judgmental tendencies classified as errors or biases within the dominant research programs.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tetlock2002,
      author = {Tetlock, PE},
      title = {Social functionalist frameworks for judgment and choice: Intuitive politicians, theologians, and prosecutors},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {109},
      number = {3},
      pages = {451-471},
      doi = {{10.1037//0033-295X.109.3.451}}
    }
    
    Thompson, B. ``Statistical,'' ``practical,'' and ``clinical'': How many kinds of significance do counselors need to consider? {2002} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING AND DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {80}({1}), pp. {64-71} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present article reviews and distinguishes 3 related but different types of significance: ``statistical,'' ``practical,'' and ``clinical.'' A framework for conceptualizing the many ``practical'' effect size indices is described. Several effect size indices that counseling researchers can use, or that counselors reading the literature may encounter, are summarized. A way of estimating ``corrected'' intervention effects is proposed. It is suggested that readers should expect authors to report indices of ``practical'' or ``clinical'' significance, or both, within their research reports; and it is noted that indeed some journals now require such reports.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Thompson2002,
      author = {Thompson, B},
      title = {``Statistical,'' ``practical,'' and ``clinical'': How many kinds of significance do counselors need to consider?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING AND DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {80},
      number = {1},
      pages = {64-71}
    }
    
    THOMPSON, C., POLLIO, H. & LOCANDER, W. THE SPOKEN AND THE UNSPOKEN - A HERMENEUTIC APPROACH TO UNDERSTANDING THE CULTURAL VIEWPOINTS THAT UNDERLIE CONSUMERS EXPRESSED MEANINGS {1994} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH
    Vol. {21}({3}), pp. {432-452} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article draws on the philosophical concept of the hermeneutical circle to explore the cultural viewpoints that underlie the meanings expressed by consumers. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with adult female consumers. The interviews are interpreted first by the identification of an exemplary image or event that we describe as a symbolic metaphor. We show that these symbolic metaphors highlight key personal meanings that each participant ascribed to her consumer experiences. We then use a hermeneutic logic known as intertextual analysis to show that these personal meanings reflect more general cultural viewpoints that are implicitly conveyed in language. These intertextual interpretations offer insights into the sociocultural meanings that underlie skeptical, nostalgic, and pragmatic consumer orientations. A concluding discussion is given to key implications and areas for future research that follow from this hermeneutic approach.
    BibTeX:
    @article{THOMPSON1994,
      author = {THOMPSON, CJ and POLLIO, HR and LOCANDER, WB},
      title = {THE SPOKEN AND THE UNSPOKEN - A HERMENEUTIC APPROACH TO UNDERSTANDING THE CULTURAL VIEWPOINTS THAT UNDERLIE CONSUMERS EXPRESSED MEANINGS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {21},
      number = {3},
      pages = {432-452}
    }
    
    THOMPSON, L. FEMINIST METHODOLOGY FOR FAMILY STUDIES {1992} JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY
    Vol. {54}({1}), pp. {3-18} 
    article  
    Abstract: Feminists disagree about the appropriateness of qualitative and quantitative methods for doing social science research. To push readers beyond a squabble about methods, I focus on more fundamental aspects of research methodology: agenda, epistemology, and ethics. I review the feminist literature on each of these aspects of methodology and consider the implications for methods. A feminist agenda for family studies includes experience embedded in broader context, the struggle to adapt to the contradictions of family life, a vision of nonoppressive families, diversity among women and families, and rethinking the discipline. Feminists grapple with the epistemological concerns of value-sustaining and politicized inquiry, the connection between researcher and researched, women's experience as source and justification of knowledge, and the nature of truth. Feminists also face two prevailing ethical concerns: Whose interests are served by research, and how can the subjectivity and authority of research participants be preserved? Both qualitative and quantitative methods must be adapted and elaborated to serve feminist family studies. An inclusive approach to methods is best, but we also should question the authority and glorification of quantitative methods.
    BibTeX:
    @article{THOMPSON1992,
      author = {THOMPSON, L},
      title = {FEMINIST METHODOLOGY FOR FAMILY STUDIES},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {54},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-18}
    }
    
    Thornhill, R. & Grammer, K. The body and face of woman: One ornament that signals quality? {1999} EVOLUTION AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {20}({2}), pp. {105-120} 
    article  
    Abstract: Evidence has accumulated in recent years supporting the hypothesis that both facial and bodily physical attractiveness in humans are certifications of developmental and hormonal health. Such evidence indicates that physical attractiveness is an honest or Zahavian signal of phenotypic and genetic quality. The hypothesis that physical beauty connotes health was first proposed by Westermarck and was discussed later by Ellis and Symons, It has been suggested that facial attractiveness in women is a deceptive signal of youth, unrelated to phenotypic and genetic quality. This sensory-bias or super-stimulus hypothesis is not supported by this study of men's ratings of the attractiveness of photographs of 92 nude women. Independent ratings of photographs of faces, fronts with faces covered, and backs of the same women are significantly, positively correlated. The correlation between the ratings of different photos implies that women's faces and external bodies comprise a single ornament of honest mate value, apparently constructed during puberty by estrogen and also probably by developmental adaptations for symmetry. Thus, women's physical attractiveness in face and body honestly signal hormonal and perhaps developmental health. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Thornhill1999,
      author = {Thornhill, R and Grammer, K},
      title = {The body and face of woman: One ornament that signals quality?},
      journal = {EVOLUTION AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {20},
      number = {2},
      pages = {105-120}
    }
    
    THORNHILL, R. & THORNHILL, N. THE EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY OF MENS COERCIVE SEXUALITY {1992} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {15}({2}), pp. {363-375} 
    article  
    Abstract: Psychological adaptation underlies all human behavior. Thus, sexual coercion by men could either arise from a rape-specific psychological adaptation or it could be a side-effect of a more general psychological adaptation not directly related to rape. Determining the specific environmental cues that men's brains have been designed by selection to process may help us decide which of these rival explanations is correct. We examine six testable predictions against existing data: (1) Both coercive and noncoercive sex will be associated with high levels of sexual arousal and performance in men. (2) Achieving physical control of a sexually unwilling woman will be sexually arousing to men. (3) Young men will be more sexually coercive than older men. (4) Men of low socioeconomic status will likewise be more sexually coercive. (5) A man's motivation to use sexual coercion will be influenced by its effects on his social image. (6) Even in long-term relationships men will be motivated to use coercion when their mates show a lack of interest in or resistance to sex because these are interpreted as signs of sexual infidelity. Current data support all six predictions and are hence consistent with the rape-specific hypothesis, but this does not eliminate the side-effect hypothesis, which is likewise compatible with the findings, as well as with the further evidence that forced matings increased the fitness of ancestral males during human evolution. We suggest some research that may help decide between the two hypotheses.
    BibTeX:
    @article{THORNHILL1992,
      author = {THORNHILL, R and THORNHILL, NW},
      title = {THE EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY OF MENS COERCIVE SEXUALITY},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {15},
      number = {2},
      pages = {363-375}
    }
    
    Tiggemann, M. & Slater, A. A test of objectification theory in former dancers and non-dancers {2001} PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN QUARTERLY
    Vol. {25}({1}), pp. {57-64} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this study we aimed to test the complete model proposed in objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) as it applies to disordered eating. Two samples of women, 50 former students of classical ballet and 51 undergraduate psychology students, completed questionnaire measures of self-objectification and its proposed consequences. It was found, as predicted, that former dancers scored more highly on self-objectification, self-surveillance, and disordered eating, with the differences on disordered eating accounted for by the objectification measures. For both samples, the relationship between self-objectification and disordered eating was mediated by body shame but not by appearance anxiety, flow, or awareness of internal states. It was concluded that the findings provide strong support for objectification theory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tiggemann2001,
      author = {Tiggemann, M and Slater, A},
      title = {A test of objectification theory in former dancers and non-dancers},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN QUARTERLY},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {25},
      number = {1},
      pages = {57-64}
    }
    
    Tinsley, H. The congruence myth: An analysis of the efficacy of the person-environment fit model {2000} JOURNAL OF VOCATIONAL BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {56}({2}), pp. {147-179} 
    article  
    Abstract: The idea that person-environment (P-E) fit is an important moderator of outcomes is a central theoretical construct and the subject of empirical scrutiny in vocational, counseling, educational, social, industrial/organizational, and management psychology. For the most part the research reveals that the P-E fit model is valid. Indeed, the research evidence may understate the efficacy of P-E fit models because of sampling inadequacies, the use of fit indices to evaluate the models, and the lack of commensurate measurement, but these design flaws are offset to some extent by the confirmatory bias that has characterized P-E fit research. The literature also demonstrates that hexagonal congruence is nor related to satisfaction or other important vocational outcomes and that Holland's (1997) circumplex hypothesis lacks validity. The lack of support for Holland's theory is not due to design flaws involving the sample size, the validity of the instruments used in the research, nor the validity of the fit indices used, but the lack of commensurate measurement in research investigating Holland's theory may be a contributing factor. The needs for further conceptual development, research using longitudinal designs, and the use of conceptually sound approaches to data analysis are discussed, (C) 2000 Academic Press.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tinsley2000,
      author = {Tinsley, HEA},
      title = {The congruence myth: An analysis of the efficacy of the person-environment fit model},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF VOCATIONAL BEHAVIOR},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {56},
      number = {2},
      pages = {147-179}
    }
    
    Tourangeau, R. Survey research and societal change {2004} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {55}, pp. {775-801} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Surveys reflect societal change in away that few other research tools do. Over the past two decades, three developments have transformed surveys. First, survey organizations have adopted new methods for selecting telephone samples; these new methods were made possible by the creation of large databases that include all listed telephone numbers in the United States. A second development has been the widespread decline in response rates for all types of surveys. In the face of this problem, survey researchers have developed new theories of nonresponse that build on the persuasion literature in social psychology. Finally, surveys have adopted many new methods of data collection; the new modes reflect technological developments in computing and the emergence of the Internet. Research has spawned several theories that examine how characteristics of the data collection method shape the answers obtained. Rapid change in survey methods is likely to continue in the coming years.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tourangeau2004,
      author = {Tourangeau, R},
      title = {Survey research and societal change},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {55},
      pages = {775-801},
      doi = {{10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.142040}}
    }
    
    Tranfield, D., Denyer, D. & Smart, P. Towards a methodology for developing evidence-informed management knowledge by means of systematic review {2003} BRITISH JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT
    Vol. {14}({3}), pp. {207-222} 
    article  
    Abstract: Undertaking a review of the literature is an important part of any research project. The researcher both maps and assesses the relevant intellectual territory in order to specify a research question which will further develop the knowledge base. However, traditional narrative' reviews frequently lack thoroughness, and in many cases are not undertaken as genuine pieces of investigatory science. Consequently they can lack a means for making sense of what the collection of studies is saying. These reviews can be biased by the researcher and often lack rigour. Furthermore, the use of reviews of the available evidence to provide insights and guidance for intervention into operational needs of practitioners and policymakers has largely been of secondary importance. For practitioners, making sense of a mass of often-contradictory evidence has become progressively harder. The quality of evidence underpinning decision-making and action has been questioned, for inadequate or incomplete evidence seriously impedes policy formulation and implementation. In exploring ways in which evidence-informed management reviews might be achieved, the authors evaluate the process of systematic review used in the medical sciences. Over the last fifteen years, medical science has attempted to improve the review process by synthesizing research in a systematic, transparent, and reproducible manner with the twin aims of enhancing the knowledge base and informing policymaking and practice. This paper evaluates the extent to which the process of systematic review can be applied to the management field in order to produce a reliable knowledge stock and enhanced practice by developing context-sensitive research. The paper highlights the challenges in developing an appropriate methodology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tranfield2003,
      author = {Tranfield, D and Denyer, D and Smart, P},
      title = {Towards a methodology for developing evidence-informed management knowledge by means of systematic review},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {14},
      number = {3},
      pages = {207-222}
    }
    
    TRIANDIS, H. & BRISLIN, R. CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY {1984} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {39}({9}), pp. {1006-1016} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{TRIANDIS1984,
      author = {TRIANDIS, HC and BRISLIN, RW},
      title = {CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {39},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1006-1016}
    }
    
    Turner, A. & Coyle, A. What does it mean to be a donor offspring? The identity experiences of adults conceived by donor insemination and the implications for counselling and therapy {2000} HUMAN REPRODUCTION
    Vol. {15}({9}), pp. {2041-2051} 
    article  
    Abstract: In the absence of research with adult donor offspring, this study begins to bridge that gap by asking individuals about their experiences as donor offspring and considering the implications for psychotherapeutic and counselling practice. Sixteen participants (13 female, three male, age range 26-55 years) recruited through donor insemination support networks in the UK, USA, Canada and Australia, were sent semi-structured questionnaires by E-mail and post. Using identity process theory as a framework for understanding participants' accounts, the data were qualitatively analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Participants consistently reported mistrust within the family, negative distinctiveness, lack of genetic continuity, frustration in being thwarted in the search for their biological fathers and a need to talk to a significant other (i.e. someone who would understand). These experiences could be postulated as being indicative of a struggle to assimilate, accommodate and evaluate information about their new identities as donor offspring. Psychotherapists and counsellors need to be aware of these identity issues if they are to meet the needs of donor offspring within therapeutic practice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Turner2000,
      author = {Turner, AJ and Coyle, A},
      title = {What does it mean to be a donor offspring? The identity experiences of adults conceived by donor insemination and the implications for counselling and therapy},
      journal = {HUMAN REPRODUCTION},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {15},
      number = {9},
      pages = {2041-2051}
    }
    
    TURNER, J. & OAKES, P. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SOCIAL IDENTITY CONCEPT FOR SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY WITH REFERENCE TO INDIVIDUALISM, INTERACTIONISM AND SOCIAL-INFLUENCE {1986} BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {25}({Part 3}), pp. {237-252} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{TURNER1986,
      author = {TURNER, JC and OAKES, PJ},
      title = {THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SOCIAL IDENTITY CONCEPT FOR SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY WITH REFERENCE TO INDIVIDUALISM, INTERACTIONISM AND SOCIAL-INFLUENCE},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {25},
      number = {Part 3},
      pages = {237-252}
    }
    
    Vera, E. & Speight, S. Multicultural competence, social justice, and counseling psychology: Expanding our roles {2003} COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {31}({3}), pp. {253-272} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The construct of multicultural competence has gained much currency in the counseling psychology literature. This article provides a critique of the multicultural counseling competencies and argues that counseling psychology's operationalization of multicultural competence must be grounded in a commitment to social justice. Such a commitment necessitates an expansion of our professional activities beyond counseling and psychotherapy While counseling is one way to provide services to clients from oppressed groups, it is limited in its ability to foster social change. Engaging in advocacy, prevention, and outreach is critical to social justice efforts, as is grounding teaching and research in collaborative and social action processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Vera2003,
      author = {Vera, EM and Speight, SL},
      title = {Multicultural competence, social justice, and counseling psychology: Expanding our roles},
      journal = {COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {31},
      number = {3},
      pages = {253-272},
      doi = {{10.1177/001100002250634}}
    }
    
    Wagenmakers, E., Farrell, S. & Ratcliff, R. Estimation and interpretation of 1/f(alpha) noise in human cognition {2004} PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW
    Vol. {11}({4}), pp. {579-615} 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent analyses of serial correlations in cognitive tasks have provided preliminary evidence of the presence of a particular form of long-range serial dependence known as 1/f noise. It has been argued that long-range dependence has been largely ignored in mainstream cognitive psychology even though it accounts for a substantial proportion of variability in behavior (see, e.g., Gilden, 1997, 200 1). In this article, we discuss the defining characteristics of long-range dependence and argue that claims about its presence need to be evaluated by testing against the alternative hypothesis of short-range dependence. For the data from three experiments, we accomplish such tests with autoregressive fractionally integrated moving-average time series modeling. We find that long-range serial dependence in these experiments can be explained by any of several mechanisms, including mixtures of a small number of short-range processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wagenmakers2004,
      author = {Wagenmakers, EJ and Farrell, S and Ratcliff, R},
      title = {Estimation and interpretation of 1/f(alpha) noise in human cognition},
      journal = {PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {11},
      number = {4},
      pages = {579-615}
    }
    
    WALLER, N., LILIENFELD, S., TELLEGEN, A. & LYKKEN, D. THE TRIDIMENSIONAL PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE - STRUCTURAL VALIDITY AND COMPARISON WITH THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE {1991} MULTIVARIATE BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH
    Vol. {26}({1}), pp. {1-23} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) is a self-report inventory designed to assess Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Reward Dependence, the three primary dimensions of his Biosocial Learning Model of normal and abnormal personality. We examined the structural validity of the TPQ and the relations among the TPQ lower- and higher-order scales to those of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; Tellegen, 1982) in a sample of 1,236 adults. The factor structure of the TPQ was congruent with Cloninger's predicted three-factor genotypic structure with one notable exception: the component scales of the Reward Dependence dimension share essentially no variance, and thus load on different factors. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that the TPQ and the MPQ share considerable variance, but that each inventory contains variance unpredicted by the other. In addition, the TPQ Harm Avoidance dimension appears to tap primarily a Negative Emotionality or neuroticism factor, rather than a disposition toward behavioral inhibition. These results support a number of Cloninger's predictions concerning the structural and external validity of the TPQ, but also suggest that the TPQ may fail to adequately operationalize several components of his model.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WALLER1991,
      author = {WALLER, NG and LILIENFELD, SO and TELLEGEN, A and LYKKEN, DT},
      title = {THE TRIDIMENSIONAL PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE - STRUCTURAL VALIDITY AND COMPARISON WITH THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE},
      journal = {MULTIVARIATE BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {26},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-23}
    }
    
    Walton, G. & Cohen, G. Stereotype Lift {2003} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {39}({5}), pp. {456-467} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: When a negative stereotype impugns the ability or worth of an outgroup, people may experience stereotype lift a performance boost that occurs when downward comparisons are made with a denigrated outgroup. In a meta-analytic review, members of non-stereotyped groups were found to perform better when a negative stereotype about an outgroup was linked to an intellectual test than when it was not (d = .24, p < .0001). Notably, people appear to link negative stereotypes to evaluative tests more or less automatically. Simply presenting a test as diagnostic of ability was thus sufficient to induce stereotype lift. Only when negative stereotypes were explicitly invalidated or rendered irrelevant to the test did the lift effect disappear. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Walton2003,
      author = {Walton, GM and Cohen, GL},
      title = {Stereotype Lift},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {39},
      number = {5},
      pages = {456-467},
      doi = {{10.1016/S0022-1031(03)00019-2}}
    }
    
    WAMPOLD, B. & FREUND, R. USE OF MULTIPLE-REGRESSION IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH - A FLEXIBLE DATA-ANALYTIC STRATEGY {1987} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {34}({4}), pp. {372-382} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{WAMPOLD1987,
      author = {WAMPOLD, BE and FREUND, RD},
      title = {USE OF MULTIPLE-REGRESSION IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH - A FLEXIBLE DATA-ANALYTIC STRATEGY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {34},
      number = {4},
      pages = {372-382}
    }
    
    Wandersman, A. Community science: Bridging the gap between science and practice with community-centered models {2003} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {31}({3-4}), pp. {227-242} 
    article  
    Abstract: A major goal of community science is to improve the quality of life in our communities by improving the quality of the practice of treatment, prevention, health promotion, and education. Community science is an interdisciplinary field, which develops and researches community-centered models that enable communities to use evidence-based interventions more effectively and efficiently. In this article, the gap between science and practice and the need to bridge the gap with new models serve as an entry point and guide to the development of a community science. Therefore, the article describes ( 1) the ``prevention science'' model of bringing science to practice, ( 2) why this model is necessary but not sufficient for influencing the quality of interventions in our everyday world, ( 3) the gap between science and practice and the need to integrate ``prevention science'' models with community-centered models in order to bridge the gap, and ( 4) features of community science.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wandersman2003,
      author = {Wandersman, A},
      title = {Community science: Bridging the gap between science and practice with community-centered models},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {31},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {227-242}
    }
    
    WARBURTON, D. & WESNES, K. DRUGS AS RESEARCH TOOLS IN PSYCHOLOGY - CHOLINERGIC DRUGS AND INFORMATION-PROCESSING {1984} NEUROPSYCHOBIOLOGY
    Vol. {11}({2}), pp. {121-132} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{WARBURTON1984,
      author = {WARBURTON, DM and WESNES, K},
      title = {DRUGS AS RESEARCH TOOLS IN PSYCHOLOGY - CHOLINERGIC DRUGS AND INFORMATION-PROCESSING},
      journal = {NEUROPSYCHOBIOLOGY},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {11},
      number = {2},
      pages = {121-132}
    }
    
    WARD, T., LOUDEN, K., HUDSON, S. & MARSHALL, W. A DESCRIPTIVE MODEL OF THE OFFENSE CHAIN FOR CHILD MOLESTERS {1995} JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE
    Vol. {10}({4}), pp. {452-472} 
    article  
    Abstract: A grounded theory approach was taken to the qualitative analysis of the descriptions of thoughts and feelings provided by 26 incarcerated child molesters while describing their most recent or typical offense. The resulting descriptive model comprised nine stages, with three contributing factors that describe the sequence of cognitive and behavioral events that form an offense chain. The model incorporates offender type, offense type, and offers a description of the possible interactions between the various stages and factors. The model was then applied to the offense descriptions of an independent sample of 12 incarcerated child molesters in order to ascertain its cross-sample validity and the reliability of classification. The results suggest that the model has provisional validity and adequate interrater reliability. The theoretical, research, and clinical implications of the descriptive model are then discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WARD1995,
      author = {WARD, T and LOUDEN, K and HUDSON, SM and MARSHALL, WL},
      title = {A DESCRIPTIVE MODEL OF THE OFFENSE CHAIN FOR CHILD MOLESTERS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {452-472}
    }
    
    WATKINS, C., LOPEZ, F., CAMPBELL, V. & HIMMELL, C. CONTEMPORARY COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY - RESULTS OF A NATIONAL SURVEY {1986} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {33}({3}), pp. {301-309} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{WATKINS1986,
      author = {WATKINS, CE and LOPEZ, FG and CAMPBELL, VL and HIMMELL, CD},
      title = {CONTEMPORARY COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY - RESULTS OF A NATIONAL SURVEY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {33},
      number = {3},
      pages = {301-309}
    }
    
    WEBER, E. FROM SUBJECTIVE PROBABILITIES TO DECISION WEIGHTS - THE EFFECT OF ASYMMETRIC LOSS FUNCTIONS ON THE EVALUATION OF UNCERTAIN OUTCOMES AND EVENTS {1994} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {115}({2}), pp. {228-242} 
    article  
    Abstract: Much of decision aiding uses a divide-and-conquer strategy to help people with risky decisions. Assessing the utility of outcomes and one's degree of belief in their likelihood are assumed to be separable tasks, the results of which can then be combined to determine the preferred alternative. Evidence from different areas of psychology now provides a growing consensus that this assumption is too simplistic. Observed dependencies in the evaluation of uncertain outcomes and the likelihood of the events giving rise to them are frequent and systematic. Dependencies seem to derive from general strategic processes that take into consideration asymmetric costs of over- vs. underestimates of uncertain quantities. This asymmetric-loss-function interpretation provides a psychological explanation for observed judgments and decisions under uncertainty and links them to other judgment tasks. The decision weights estimated when applying dependent-utility models to choices are not simply reflections of perceived subjective probability but a response to several constraints, all of which modify the weight of risky or uncertain outcomes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WEBER1994,
      author = {WEBER, EU},
      title = {FROM SUBJECTIVE PROBABILITIES TO DECISION WEIGHTS - THE EFFECT OF ASYMMETRIC LOSS FUNCTIONS ON THE EVALUATION OF UNCERTAIN OUTCOMES AND EVENTS},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {115},
      number = {2},
      pages = {228-242}
    }
    
    Weiner, B. Attributional thoughts about consumer behavior {2000} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH
    Vol. {27}({3}), pp. {382-387} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two fundamental principles from attribution theory were examined for the role they might play in the psychology of the consumer. They are: (1) perceptions of causality along a stability dimension influence the anticipated likelihood of product satisfaction, and (2) perceptions of causality along a controllability dimension influence judgments of responsibility and retributive actions. Comments about the longevity of an attributional framework, methodological recommendations, and the heuristic value of the theory also are included.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Weiner2000,
      author = {Weiner, B},
      title = {Attributional thoughts about consumer behavior},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {27},
      number = {3},
      pages = {382-387}
    }
    
    Wells, G. & Olson, E. Eyewitness testimony {2003} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {54}, pp. {277-295} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The criminal justice system relies heavily on eyewitness identification for investigating and prosecuting crimes. Psychology has built the only scientific literature on eyewitness identification and has warned the justice system of problems with eyewitness identification evidence. Recent DNA exoneration cases have corroborated the warnings of eyewitness identification researchers by showing that mistaken eyewitness identification was the largest single factor contributing to the conviction of these innocent people. We review major developments in the experimental literature concerning the way that various factors relate to the accuracy of eyewitness identification. These factors include characteristics of the witness, characteristics of the witnessed event, characteristics of testimony, lineup content, lineup instructions, and methods of testing. Problems with the literature are noted with respect to both the relative paucity of theory and the scarcity of base-rate information from actual cases.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wells2003,
      author = {Wells, GL and Olson, EA},
      title = {Eyewitness testimony},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {54},
      pages = {277-295},
      doi = {{10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145028}}
    }
    
    Wenzlaff, R. & Bates, D. Unmasking a cognitive vulnerability to depression: How lapses in mental control reveal depressive thinking {1998} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {75}({6}), pp. {1559-1571} 
    article  
    Abstract: This research tested the idea that a cognitive vulnerability to depression can be concealed by thought suppression and revealed when cognitive demands undermine mental control. Depressive, at-risk, and nondepressive participants unscrambled sentences that could form either positive or depressive statements. Half of the participants also received a cognitive load. The results indicated that without a load, at-risk participants showed little evidence of depressive thinking, producing a similar rate of positive statements as did nondepressive individuals and a lower percentage of negative statements than did depressive participants. However, the cognitive load caused an increase in at-risk participants' production of negative statements, revealing a previously undetected tendency toward negative thinking that made them resemble depressive participants. As predicted, this effect was especially pronounced among individuals who routinely engaged in thought suppression.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wenzlaff1998,
      author = {Wenzlaff, RM and Bates, DE},
      title = {Unmasking a cognitive vulnerability to depression: How lapses in mental control reveal depressive thinking},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {75},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1559-1571}
    }
    
    WEST, R., BARRON, K. & CROOK, T. EVERYDAY MEMORY PERFORMANCE ACROSS THE LIFE-SPAN - EFFECTS OF AGE AND NONCOGNITIVE INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES {1992} PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING
    Vol. {7}({1}), pp. {72-82} 
    article  
    Abstract: Gerontologists have long been concerned with the impact of individual-difference factors on memory. This study used a large sample (N = 2,495) of adult volunteers aged 18 to 90 years to determine if a set of individual-difference variables-vocabulary, education, depression, gender, marital status, and employment status-mediates the effects of aging on a wide range of laboratory-analogue tests of everyday memory. The data indicated that age was consistently the most significant predictor of memory performance, followed by vocabulary and gender. Vocabulary totally mediated age effects on a prose memory measure, and partial mediation of aging effects-primarily by vocabulary and gender-was observed on 5 other memory tests. These data suggest that when healthy samples of volunteers serve as research subjects, these individual differences can affect some memory test scores, but age remains the best overall predictor of memory performance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WEST1992,
      author = {WEST, RL and BARRON, KL and CROOK, TH},
      title = {EVERYDAY MEMORY PERFORMANCE ACROSS THE LIFE-SPAN - EFFECTS OF AGE AND NONCOGNITIVE INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {72-82}
    }
    
    Weston, R. & Gore, Jr., P.A. A brief guide to structural equation modeling {2006} COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {34}({5}), pp. {719-751} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: To complement recent articles in this journal on structural equation modeling (SEM) practice and principles by Martens and by Quintana and Maxwell, respectively, the authors offer a consumer's guide to SEM. Using an example derived from theory and research on vocational psychology, the authors outline six steps in SEM: model specification, identification, data preparation and screening, estimation, evaluation of fit, and modification. In addition, the authors summarize the debates surrounding some aspects of SEM (e.g., acceptable sample size, fit indices), with recommendations for application. They also discuss the need for considering and testing alternative models and present an example, with details on determining whether alternative models result in a significant improvement in fit to the observed data.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Weston2006,
      author = {Weston, Rebecca and Gore, Jr., Paul A.},
      title = {A brief guide to structural equation modeling},
      journal = {COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {34},
      number = {5},
      pages = {719-751},
      doi = {{10.1177/0011000006286345}}
    }
    
    WHITE, M. & WHITE, K. CITATION ANALYSIS OF PSYCHOLOGY JOURNALS {1977} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {32}({5}), pp. {301-305} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{WHITE1977,
      author = {WHITE, MJ and WHITE, KG},
      title = {CITATION ANALYSIS OF PSYCHOLOGY JOURNALS},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      year = {1977},
      volume = {32},
      number = {5},
      pages = {301-305}
    }
    
    Whitfield, M., Grunau, R. & Holsti, L. Extremely premature (<=800 g) schoolchildren: multiple areas of hidden disability {1997} ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD
    Vol. {77}({2, Sp. Iss. SI}), pp. {F85-F90} 
    article  
    Abstract: Aim-To examine the functional abilities of extremely low birthweight (ELBW, less than or equal to 800 g) children at school age compared with full term children. Methods-ELBW children (n=115) in a geographically defined regional cohort born between 1974 and mid-1985 (comprising 96% of 120 survivors of 400 ELBW infants admitted to the Provincial Tertiary neonatal intensive care unit), were compared with (n=50) children of comparable age and sociodemographic status. Each child was categorised by the pattern and degree of disability, using a system derived from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM IV). Psyche-educational, behavioural, and motor results for ELBW children free of severe/multiple neurosensory disabilities (n=90; 91% return rate) were compared with the term children. Results-Severe/multiple neurosensory disabilities were present in 16 ELBW children (14, and 15 (13 had borderline intelligence. ELBW children of global IQ greater than or equal to 85 scored significantly lower in standardised tests of fine and gross motor control, visuo-motor pencil output, visual memory, and academic achievement (reading, arithmetic, written language). ELBW survivors were three times more likely to have learning disorders (47% vs 18 and 22 (41 of the 54 ELBW children with learning disorders had multiple areas of learning difficulty. Of the ELBW group, 30 (26 were not disabled compared with 41 (82 of the term group. Only five (12 of the ELBW boys were not disabled, compared with 25 (35 of the ELBW girls. Finally, ELBW children had significantly worse scores on ratings of behaviour during testing by the psychologist and behaviour by parental report. Conclusion-The most likely outcome for ELBW survivors at school age is a learning disorder, often multiple, or borderline intellectual functioning, combined with behavioural and motor risk factors rather than severe/multiple disability. Mean scores on psyche-educational testing showed poorer performance of the ELBW children, but grossly understated the complex nature of the individual degree of educational difficulty faced by these children.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Whitfield1997,
      author = {Whitfield, MF and Grunau, RVE and Holsti, L},
      title = {Extremely premature (<=800 g) schoolchildren: multiple areas of hidden disability},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {77},
      number = {2, Sp. Iss. SI},
      pages = {F85-F90}
    }
    
    WICKETT, J., VERNON, P. & LEE, D. IN-VIVO BRAIN SIZE, HEAD PERIMETER, AND INTELLIGENCE IN A SAMPLE OF HEALTHY ADULT FEMALES {1994} PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
    Vol. {16}({6}), pp. {831-838} 
    article  
    Abstract: The issue of the connection between brain size and intelligence has long been of interest to psychology. A review of past research using external head size measures as estimates of internal brain size indicates that head size-IQ correlations are typically in the order of r = 0.10 to 0.30 (mean r = 0.194). Today, a more direct and accurate measure of brain size is afforded by the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the present study the relationship between brain size (measured via MRI), head size, and intelligence was examined in a sample of 40 healthy, right-handed females (ages 20 to 30 years). Whereas head size correlated r = 0.109 (NS) with full scale IQ, brain size and IQ correlated r = 0.395 (P < 0.05). It is clearly indicated that there is a positive relationship between the size of the brain and intelligence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WICKETT1994,
      author = {WICKETT, JC and VERNON, PA and LEE, DH},
      title = {IN-VIVO BRAIN SIZE, HEAD PERIMETER, AND INTELLIGENCE IN A SAMPLE OF HEALTHY ADULT FEMALES},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {16},
      number = {6},
      pages = {831-838}
    }
    
    WIEDERMAN, M. & ALLGEIER, E. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SEXUAL JEALOUSY - ADAPTIONIST OR SOCIAL-LEARNING EXPLANATION {1993} ETHOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY
    Vol. {14}({2}), pp. {115-140} 
    article  
    Abstract: It has often been speculated, and some evidence suggests, that men and women differ in the elicitation of jealousy: Men appear to be more likely than women to become upset over threats to sexual exclusivity; whereas women are more likely than men to react negatively to potential loss of partner time and attention. Both adaptionist and traditional social learning theories have been used to explain these apparent gender differences. In the present article we outline both explanations and review the relevant psychological literature on gender differences in the elicitation of jealousy. We propose that the difference in men's and women's psychological mechanisms for elicitation of jealousy is best characterized (at least in this culture) as a greater sensitivity among men to cues indicative of possible sexual infidelity rather than greater emotional upset in response to the occurrence of extradyadic sex on the part of one's mate. We also provide data testing a traditional social learning explanation for the elicitation of jealousy. Results of a survey administered to college students (N = 223) demonstrate the subtle nature of gender differences in the elicitation of jealousy within this culture. Men and women were most likely to differ (in the hypothesized directions) when items pertained to concern over a partner's potential extradyadic sex rather than to reactions to sexual infidelity that is suspected to have already occurred. Although men reported placing more value on sexual activity within dating relationships and women reported placing more value on emotional intimacy, these ratings of relationship rewards did not explain the gender differences in reported jealousy. Results failed to support a traditional social learning explanation of jealousy and are discussed with regard to evolutionary theory and directions for future research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WIEDERMAN1993,
      author = {WIEDERMAN, MW and ALLGEIER, ER},
      title = {GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SEXUAL JEALOUSY - ADAPTIONIST OR SOCIAL-LEARNING EXPLANATION},
      journal = {ETHOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {14},
      number = {2},
      pages = {115-140}
    }
    
    Williams, A. Facial expression of pain: An evolutionary account {2002} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {25}({4}), pp. {439+} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper proposes that human expression of pain in the presence or absence of caregivers, and the detection of pain by observers, arises from evolved propensities. The function of pain is to demand attention and prioritise escape, recovery, and healing; where others can help achieve these goals, effective communication of pain is required. Evidence is reviewed of a distinct and specific facial expression of pain from infancy to old age, consistent across stimuli, and recognizable as pain by observers. Voluntary control over amplitude is incomplete, and observers can better detect pain that the individual attempts to suppress rather than amplify or simulate. In many clinical and experimental settings, the facial expression of pain is incorporated with verbal and nonverbal vocal activity, posture, and movement in an overall category of pain behaviour. This is assumed by clinicians to be under operant control of social contingencies such as sympathy, caregiving, and practical help; thus, strong facial expression is presumed to constitute an attempt to manipulate these contingencies by amplification of the normal expression. Operant formulations support skepticism about the presence or extent of pain, judgments of malingering, and sometimes the withholding of caregiving and help. To the extent that pain expression is influenced by environmental contingencies, however, ``amplification'' could equally plausibly constitute the release of suppression according to evolved contingent propensities that guide behaviour. Pain has been largely neglected in the evolutionary literature and the literature on expression of emotion, but an evolutionary account can generate improved assessment of pain and reactions to it.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Williams2002,
      author = {Williams, ACD},
      title = {Facial expression of pain: An evolutionary account},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {25},
      number = {4},
      pages = {439+}
    }
    
    Williams, A. & Reilly, T. Talent identification and development in soccer {2000} JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES
    Vol. {18}({9}), pp. {657-667} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this review, we attempt to integrate the main research findings concerned with talent identification and development in soccer. Research approaches in anthropometry, physiology, psychology and sociology are considered and, where possible, integrated. Although some progress has been made in identifying correlates of playing success, it appears that no unique characteristics can be isolated with confidence. Both biological and behavioural scientists have indicated a strong genetic component in performance of sports such as soccer; nevertheless, the influence of systematic training and development programmes should not be underestimated. We conclude that the sport and exercise sciences have an important support role in the processes of identifying, monitoring and nurturing talented soccer players towards realizing their potential.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Williams2000,
      author = {Williams, AM and Reilly, T},
      title = {Talent identification and development in soccer},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {18},
      number = {9},
      pages = {657-667}
    }
    
    WILSON, D. ADAPTIVE GENETIC-VARIATION AND HUMAN EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY {1994} ETHOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY
    Vol. {15}({4}), pp. {219-235} 
    article  
    Abstract: Phenotypic differences between individuals can be adaptive (the product of natural selection) or nonadaptive. Adaptive individual differences can be caused by underlying genetic differences or by mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity that allow single genotypes to achieve multiple forms. Many examples of adaptive individual differences have been documented in nonhuman species and these differences tend to be caused by a mixture of genetic polymorphisms and phenotypic plasticity. Human evolutionary psychologists appreciate the adaptive nature of individual differences at the phenotypic level but they tend to overemphasize the importance of phenotypic plasticity as the proximate cause. I criticize this position, focusing on the work of J. Tooby and L. Cosmides. I briefly review the literature on nonhuman species, review and criticize arguments against adaptive genetic variation in humans, and present a model that shows how a combination of genetic polymorphism and phenotypic plasticity might be favored by natural selection in humans and other species.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WILSON1994,
      author = {WILSON, DS},
      title = {ADAPTIVE GENETIC-VARIATION AND HUMAN EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {ETHOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {15},
      number = {4},
      pages = {219-235}
    }
    
    Wilson, D., Near, D. & Miller, R. Machiavellianism: A synthesis of the evolutionary and psychological literatures {1996} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {119}({2}), pp. {285-299} 
    article  
    Abstract: Manipulative strategies of social conduct (Machiavellianism) have been studied by both psychologists and evolutionary biologists. The authors use the psychological literature as a database to test evolutionary hypotheses about the adaptive advantages of manipulative social behavior. Machiavellianism does not correlate with general intelligence and does not consistently lead to real-world success. It is best regarded as 1 of several social strategies, broadly similar to the `'defect'' strategy of evolutionary game theory, which is successful in some situations but not others. In general, human evolutionary psychology and evolutionary game theory provide useful frameworks for thinking about behavioral strategies, such as Machiavellianism, and identify a large number of specific hypotheses that have not yet been tested by personality and social psychologists.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wilson1996a,
      author = {Wilson, DS and Near, D and Miller, RR},
      title = {Machiavellianism: A synthesis of the evolutionary and psychological literatures},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {119},
      number = {2},
      pages = {285-299}
    }
    
    Wilson, M. & Reschly, D. Assessment in school psychology training and practice {1996} SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {25}({1}), pp. {9-23} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study is an empirical analysis of current use of assessment instruments by school psychologists. Data collected from a national survey of 251 practitioners found the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, Bender-Gestalt, and Draw-A-Person to be most often utilized. Information regarding training practices collected from 156 school psychology faculty indicated strong relationships between training and practice. The frequency and specific measures employed were strikingly similar to those reported by Goh, Teslow, and Fuller (1981) over a decade ago. The effectiveness of the current measures used to solve the increasingly diverse problems of educators, the role of trainers as programmers of assessment, and the resistance of the field to change are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wilson1996,
      author = {Wilson, MS and Reschly, DJ},
      title = {Assessment in school psychology training and practice},
      journal = {SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {25},
      number = {1},
      pages = {9-23}
    }
    
    Winans, S. & Bassler, B. Mob psychology {2002} JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY
    Vol. {184}({4}), pp. {873-883} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Winans2002,
      author = {Winans, SC and Bassler, BL},
      title = {Mob psychology},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {184},
      number = {4},
      pages = {873-883}
    }
    
    WINKLER, I., REINIKAINEN, K. & NAATANEN, R. EVENT-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIALS REFLECT TRACES OF ECHOIC MEMORY IN HUMANS {1993} PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS
    Vol. {53}({4}), pp. {443-449} 
    article  
    Abstract: In sequences of identical auditory stimuli, infrequent deviant stimuli elicit an event-related brain potential component called mismatch negativity (MMN). MMN is presumed to reflect the existence of a memory trace of the frequent stimulus at the moment of presentation of the infrequent stimulus. This hypothesis was tested by applying the recognition-masking paradigm of cognitive psychology. In this paradigm, a masking sound presented shortly before or after a test stimulus diminishes the recognition memory of this stimulus, the more so the shorter the interval between the test and masking stimuli. This interval was varied in the present study. It was found that the MMN amplitude strongly correlated with the subject's ability to discriminate between frequent and infrequent stimuli. This result strongly suggests that MMN provides a measure for a trace of sensory memory, and further, that with MMN, this memory can be studied without performance-related distortions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WINKLER1993,
      author = {WINKLER, I and REINIKAINEN, K and NAATANEN, R},
      title = {EVENT-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIALS REFLECT TRACES OF ECHOIC MEMORY IN HUMANS},
      journal = {PERCEPTION & PSYCHOPHYSICS},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {53},
      number = {4},
      pages = {443-449}
    }
    
    WOOD, J., GIORDANOBEECH, M., TAYLOR, K., MICHELA, J. & GAUS, V. STRATEGIES OF SOCIAL-COMPARISON AMONG PEOPLE WITH LOW SELF-ESTEEM - SELF-PROTECTION AND SELF-ENHANCEMENT {1994} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {67}({4}), pp. {713-731} 
    article  
    Abstract: People with low self-esteem (LSE) seem to focus on self-protection; rather than trying to achieve gains for their self-esteem, they try to avoid losses. This research examined, in a social comparison context, the hypothesis that LSEs seek self-enhancement when they have an opportunity that is `'safe,'' that is, carrying little risk of humiliation. Experiments 1 and 2 indicated that LSEs sought the most social comparisons after receiving success feedback, whereas high-self-esteem Ss (HSEs) sought the most comparisons after failure. Further results suggested that LSEs who succeeded were seizing a safe means of self-enhancement and that HSEs who failed were seeking to compensate for the failure. Also supporting this interpretation for LSEs was Experiment 3, in which LSEs who succeeded sought the most comparisons when such comparisons promised to be favorable. All three studies illustrate the value of a new measure of social comparison selection.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WOOD1994,
      author = {WOOD, JV and GIORDANOBEECH, M and TAYLOR, KL and MICHELA, JL and GAUS, V},
      title = {STRATEGIES OF SOCIAL-COMPARISON AMONG PEOPLE WITH LOW SELF-ESTEEM - SELF-PROTECTION AND SELF-ENHANCEMENT},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {67},
      number = {4},
      pages = {713-731}
    }
    
    Wood, W., Quinn, J. & Kashy, D. Habits in everyday life: Thought, emotion, and action {2002} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {83}({6}), pp. {1281-1297} 
    article  
    Abstract: To illustrate the differing thoughts and emotion's involved in guiding habitual and nonhabitual behavior, 2,. diary studies were conducted in which participants provided hourly reports of their ongoing experiences. When participants were engaged in habitual behavior, defined as behavior that had been performed almost daily in stable contexts, they were likely to think about issues unrelated to their behavior, presumably because they did not have to consciously guide their actions. When engaged in nonhabitual behavior,or actions performed less often or :in shifting contexts; participants' thoughts tended to correspond to their behavior, suggesting that thought was necessary to guide action. Furthermore, the self-regulatory, benefits of habits were apparent in the lesser feelings of stress associated with habitual,. than nonhabitual behavior.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wood2002,
      author = {Wood, W and Quinn, JM and Kashy, DA},
      title = {Habits in everyday life: Thought, emotion, and action},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {83},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1281-1297}
    }
    
    WRIGHT, J. & MISCHEL, W. CONDITIONAL HEDGES AND THE INTUITIVE PSYCHOLOGY OF TRAITS {1988} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {55}({3}), pp. {454-469} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{WRIGHT1988,
      author = {WRIGHT, JC and MISCHEL, W},
      title = {CONDITIONAL HEDGES AND THE INTUITIVE PSYCHOLOGY OF TRAITS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {55},
      number = {3},
      pages = {454-469}
    }
    
    Wynn, K. Psychological foundations of number: numerical competence in human infants {1998} TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES
    Vol. {2}({8}), pp. {296-303} 
    article  
    Abstract: An enduring question in philosophy and psychology is that of how we come to possessknowledge of number. Here I review research suggesting that the capacity to represent and reason about number is part of the inherent structure of the human mind. In the first few months of life, human infants can enumerate sets of entities and perform numerical computations. One proposal is that these abilities arise from general cognitive capacities not specific to number. I argue that the body of data supports a very different proposal: humans possess a specialized mental mechanism for number, one which we share with other species and which has evolved through natural selection. This mechanism is inherently restricted in the kinds of numerical knowledge it can support, leading to some striking limitations to early competence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wynn1998,
      author = {Wynn, K},
      title = {Psychological foundations of number: numerical competence in human infants},
      journal = {TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {2},
      number = {8},
      pages = {296-303}
    }
    
    Yap, A., Dworkin, S., Chua, E., List, T., Tan, K. & Tan, H. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder subtypes, psychologic distress, and psychosocial dysfunction in Asian patients {2003} JOURNAL OF OROFACIAL PAIN
    Vol. {17}({1}), pp. {21-28} 
    article  
    Abstract: Aims: To use the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) to investigate the physical diagnoses, psychologic distress, and psychosocial dysfunction in Asian TMD patients. The RDC/TMD Axis I and II findings were compared to those of Swedish and American TMD patients. Methods: One hundred ninety-one patients (53 male and 138 female) referred to 2 institutionalized TMD clinics in Singapore were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the predominantly Chinese population (83.2 was 33.6 +/- 9.3 years. Data from a RDC/TMD history questionnaire and clinical examination were fed directly by patients and clinicians into a computerized diagnostic system (NUS TMDv1.1). Axis I and II findings were generated on-line, based on RDC/TMD rule engines. Data were automatically exported to SPSS for statistical analysis. Results: Group I (muscle) disorders were found in 31.4% of the patients; Group II (disc displacement) disorders were found in 15.1 % and 15.7% of the patients in the left and right temporomandibular joints, respectively; and Group III (arthralgia, arthritis, and arthrosis) disorders were found in 12.6% and 13.0% of the patients in the left and right joints, respectively. Axis II assessment of psychologic status showed that 39.8% of patients experienced moderate to severe depression and 47.6% had moderate to severe nonspecific physical symptom scores. Psychosocial dysfunction was observed in only 4.2% of patients based on graded chronic pain scores. Conclusion: Axis I and II findings of Asian TMD patients were generally similar to their Swedish and American cohorts. In all 3 populations, women of child-bearing age represented the majority of patients. Muscle disorders were the most prevalent type of TMD. A substantial portion of TMD patients were depressed and experienced moderate to severe somatization.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Yap2003,
      author = {Yap, AUJ and Dworkin, SF and Chua, EK and List, T and Tan, KBC and Tan, HH},
      title = {Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder subtypes, psychologic distress, and psychosocial dysfunction in Asian patients},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF OROFACIAL PAIN},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {17},
      number = {1},
      pages = {21-28}
    }
    
    Yardley, L. Dilemmas in qualitative health research {2000} PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH
    Vol. {15}({2}), pp. {215-228} 
    article  
    Abstract: As the use of qualitative methods in health research proliferates, it becomes increasingly necessary to consider how the value of a piece of qualitative research should be assessed. This article discusses the problem posed by the novelty and diversity of qualitative approaches within health psychology and considers the question of what criteria are appropriate for assessing the validity of a qualitative analysis. In keeping with the ethos of much qualitative research, some open-ended, flexible principles are suggested as a guide to the quality of a qualitative study: sensitivity to context; commitment and rigour; transparency and coherence; impact and importance. Examples are given of the very different ways in which various forms of qualitative research can meet these criteria.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Yardley2000,
      author = {Yardley, L},
      title = {Dilemmas in qualitative health research},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {15},
      number = {2},
      pages = {215-228}
    }
    
    Yi, M. & Hwang, Y. Predicting the use of web-based information systems: self-efficacy, enjoyment, learning goal orientation, and the technology acceptance model {2003} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES
    Vol. {59}({4}), pp. {431-449} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: With the growing reliance on computerized systems and increasing rapidity of the introduction of new technologies, user acceptance of technology continues to be an important issue. Drawing upon recent findings in information systems, human computer interaction, and social psychology, the present research extends the technology acceptance model by incorporating the motivation variables of self-efficacy, enjoyment, and learning goal orientation in order to predict the use of Web-based information systems. One hundred nine subjects participated in the study, which was conducted in a field setting with the Blackboard system, a Web-based class management system. A survey was administered after a 2-week trial period and the actual use of the system was recorded by the Blackboard system over 8 weeks. The results largely support the proposed model, highlighting the important roles of self-efficacy, enjoyment, and learning goal orientation in determining the actual use of the system. Practical implications of the results are provided. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Yi2003,
      author = {Yi, MY and Hwang, YJ},
      title = {Predicting the use of web-based information systems: self-efficacy, enjoyment, learning goal orientation, and the technology acceptance model},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {59},
      number = {4},
      pages = {431-449},
      doi = {{10.1016/S0171-5819(03)00114-9}}
    }
    
    YOUNG, M. INSTRUCTIONAL-DESIGN FOR SITUATED LEARNING {1993} ETR&D-EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {41}({1}), pp. {43-58} 
    article  
    Abstract: The design of situated learning must be closely linked to the ecological psychology of `'situated cognition, `' as exemplified by problem solving in a complex situated context, the Jasper Series. The extreme view of situated learning contends that all thinking must be viewed as situated, and is therefore better explained by concepts of perception and action than by the concepts of information processing psychology. In this article, ideas of ecological psychology provide the background for describing four broad tasks for the design of situated learning: selecting the situations, providing scaffolding, determining and supporting the role of the teacher, and assessing situated learning. Further, three metrics for evaluating situated learning are suggested: affording transfer, providing meaning, and providing an anchor for cross-curricular investigation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{YOUNG1993,
      author = {YOUNG, MF},
      title = {INSTRUCTIONAL-DESIGN FOR SITUATED LEARNING},
      journal = {ETR&D-EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {41},
      number = {1},
      pages = {43-58}
    }
    
    Yuan, K. & Bentler, P. Normal theory based test statistics in structural equation modelling {1998} BRITISH JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL & STATISTICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {51}({Part 2}), pp. {289-309} 
    article  
    Abstract: Even though data sets in psychology are seldom normal, the statistics used to evaluate covariance structure models are typically based on the assumption of multivariate normality. Consequently, many conclusions based on normal theory methods are suspect. In this paper, we develop test statistics that can be correctly applied to the normal theory maximum likelihood estimator. We propose three new asymptotically distribution-free (ADF) test statistics that technically must yield improved behaviour in samples of realistic size, and use Monte Carlo methods to study their actual finite sample behaviour. Results indicate that there exists an ADF test statistic that also performs quite well in finite sample situations. Our analysis shows that various forms of ADF test statistics are sensitive to model degrees of freedom rather than to model complexity. A new index is proposed for evaluating whether a rescaled statistic will be robust. Recommendations are given regarding the application of each test statistic.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Yuan1998,
      author = {Yuan, KH and Bentler, PM},
      title = {Normal theory based test statistics in structural equation modelling},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL & STATISTICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {51},
      number = {Part 2},
      pages = {289-309}
    }
    
    ZANDER, A. PSYCHOLOGY OF GROUP PROCESSES {1979} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {30}, pp. {417-451} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ZANDER1979,
      author = {ZANDER, A},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY OF GROUP PROCESSES},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      year = {1979},
      volume = {30},
      pages = {417-451}
    }
    
    ZAYAS, L. & SOLARI, F. EARLY-CHILDHOOD SOCIALIZATION IN HISPANIC FAMILIES - CONTEXT, CULTURE, AND PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS {1994} PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY-RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
    Vol. {25}({3}), pp. {200-206} 
    article  
    Abstract: Research on early childhood socialization suggests that Hispanic parents differ from parents of other ethnic groups in their child rearing values and the interpersonal behavior they want their children to display at home and school. In this article, the influence of context and culture on child rearing is shown through a review of conceptual frameworks for understanding child socialization in both minority and nonminority families and research on infant-mother attachment and parental beliefs about young children's behavior. This review indicates that parent and child behaviors are a result of different socialization processes that encompass specific cultural values. Implications for professional practice are drawn for child assessment and psychotherapy, family therapy, and parenting skills programs conducted with Hispanics.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ZAYAS1994,
      author = {ZAYAS, LH and SOLARI, F},
      title = {EARLY-CHILDHOOD SOCIALIZATION IN HISPANIC FAMILIES - CONTEXT, CULTURE, AND PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS},
      journal = {PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY-RESEARCH AND PRACTICE},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {25},
      number = {3},
      pages = {200-206}
    }
    
    ZBRODOFF, N. & LOGAN, G. ON THE RELATION BETWEEN PRODUCTION AND VERIFICATION TASKS IN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SIMPLE ARITHMETIC {1990} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION
    Vol. {16}({1}), pp. {83-97} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ZBRODOFF1990,
      author = {ZBRODOFF, NJ and LOGAN, GD},
      title = {ON THE RELATION BETWEEN PRODUCTION AND VERIFICATION TASKS IN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SIMPLE ARITHMETIC},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {16},
      number = {1},
      pages = {83-97}
    }
    
    ZUROFF, D. & FITZPATRICK, D. DEPRESSIVE PERSONALITY STYLES - IMPLICATIONS FOR ADULT ATTACHMENT {1995} PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
    Vol. {18}({2}), pp. {253-265} 
    article  
    Abstract: The depressive personality styles described by Blatt (dependency and self-criticism) and Beck (sociotropy and autonomy) are thought to be associated with distinctive approaches to close relationships. Two studies were conducted to examine the interpersonal correlates of Blatt and Beck's constructs using the conceptual framework of attachment theory. In Study 1, male and female undergraduates completed the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), the Personal Style Inventory (PSI), Collins and Read's (Journal of personality and Social Psychology, 58, 644-663, 1990) measure of adult attachment style, and measures of satisfaction, trust, and self-disclosure in romantic relationships. In Study 2, male and female undergraduates completed the DEQ, the PSI, and a measure of the two dimensions underlying Bartholomew and Horowitz' (Journal of Personlity and Social Psychology, 61, 226-244, 1991) four-category attachment system. Dependency and Sociotropy were associated with an anxious attachment style. Self-Criticism and Autonomy were associated with a fearful avoidant attachment style, although Autonomy implied higher levels of avoidance. Similarities and differences between Blatt and Beck's constructs were discussed, and processes mediating vulnerability to dysphoria were identified.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ZUROFF1995,
      author = {ZUROFF, DC and FITZPATRICK, DK},
      title = {DEPRESSIVE PERSONALITY STYLES - IMPLICATIONS FOR ADULT ATTACHMENT},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {18},
      number = {2},
      pages = {253-265}
    }
    

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