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    AuthorTitleYearJournal/ProceedingsReftypeDOI/URL
    vandenBos, K., Lind, E., Vermunt, R. & Wilke, H. How do I judge my outcome when I do not know the outcome of others? The psychology of the fair process effect {1997} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {72}({5}), pp. {1034-1046} 
    article  
    Abstract: On the basis of fairness heuristic theory, the authors provide an explanation of the frequently replicated fair process effect (the finding that perceived procedural fairness positively affects how people react to outcomes). The authors argue that, in many situations, people may find it difficult to assess whether their outcome is fair or unfair and satisfying or unsatisfying because they only have information about their own outcome and they do not know the outcomes of others and that, in these situations, people use the fairness of the procedure as a heuristic substitute to assess how to judge their outcome. The results of 2 experiments corroborate the authors' line of reasoning. Findings are discussed in terms of recent developments toward an integration of the procedural and distributive justice domains.
    BibTeX:
    @article{1997,
      author = {vandenBos, K and Lind, EA and Vermunt, R and Wilke, HAM},
      title = {How do I judge my outcome when I do not know the outcome of others? The psychology of the fair process effect},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {72},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1034-1046}
    }
    
    Aaker, J. The malleable self: The role of self-expression in persuasion {1999} JOURNAL OF MARKETING RESEARCH
    Vol. {36}({1}), pp. {45-57} 
    article  
    Abstract: Considerable research in consumer experimental psychology has examined the self-expressive role of brands but has found little support for the premise that the interaction of the personality traits associated with a brand and those associated with an individual's self-concept influence attitudes. The current research focuses on the influence of the malleable self-concept on consumer attitudes toward a brand, based on the its personality associations. The results of two experiments demonstrate that traits that are made accessible by salient situational cues and those that are chronically accessible (schematic traits) positively influence consumer attitudes toward a brand based on its personality associations. More important, these effects are tested in a set of theory-based interactions that rely on the self-monitoring individual difference variable. Self congruity is enhanced for low versus high self-monitoring subjects, whereas situation congruity is enhanced for high versus low self-monitoring subjects. Together, these experiments shed light on the self-expressive use of brands and the role of the malleable self-concept in influencing consumer attitudes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aaker1999,
      author = {Aaker, JL},
      title = {The malleable self: The role of self-expression in persuasion},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF MARKETING RESEARCH},
      publisher = {AMER MARKETING ASSOC},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {36},
      number = {1},
      pages = {45-57}
    }
    
    Aaker, J. & Williams, P. Empathy versus pride: The influence of emotional appeals across cultures {1998} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH
    Vol. {25}({3}), pp. {241-261} 
    article  
    Abstract: This research examines the persuasive effect of emotional appeals on members of collectivist versus individualist cultures. The results of two experiments demonstrate that ego-focused (e.g., pride, happiness) Versus other-focused (e.g., empathy, peacefulness) emotional appeals lead to more favorable attitudes for members of a collectivist culture, while other-focused Versus ego-focused emotional appeals lead to more favorable attitudes for members of an individualist culture. Experiment 2 was conducted to examine the psychological mechanism underlying these effects. The results indicated that the generation of and elaboration on a relatively novel type of thought (individual thoughts for members of a collectivist culture, collective thoughts for members of an individualist culture) account for the persuasive effects found in this research. These results are interpreted within an ability-motivation framework, and theoretical implications involving cross-cultural persuasion effects are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aaker1998,
      author = {Aaker, JL and Williams, P},
      title = {Empathy versus pride: The influence of emotional appeals across cultures},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH},
      publisher = {UNIV CHICAGO PRESS},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {25},
      number = {3},
      pages = {241-261}
    }
    
    Affleck, G., Zautra, A., Tennen, H. & Armeli, S. Multilevel daily process designs for consulting and clinical psychology: A preface for the perplexed {1999} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {67}({5}), pp. {746-754} 
    article  
    Abstract: The next 3 articles in this issue use multilevel statistical procedures to analyze data collected in daily process studies of (a) stress and coping, (b) binge eating, and (c) chronic pain experience. Important differences in the methods and procedures of these studies illustrate the many options available to investigators and data analysts. This article serves as a preface to help readers who are new to these studies' methodology appreciate their novel contributions to the literature in consulting and clinical psychology. Four frequently asked questions are addressed concerning the design of daily process studies, the distinctive meaning of a within-person finding, the possibility that self-monitoring studies are measurement reactive, and complexities in the use of multilevel statistical procedures for analyzing person-day data sets.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Affleck1999,
      author = {Affleck, G and Zautra, A and Tennen, H and Armeli, S},
      title = {Multilevel daily process designs for consulting and clinical psychology: A preface for the perplexed},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {67},
      number = {5},
      pages = {746-754}
    }
    
    AIKEN, L., WEST, S., SECHREST, L., RENO, R., ROEDIGER, H., SCARR, S., KAZDIN, A. & SHERMAN, S. GRADUATE TRAINING IN STATISTICS, METHODOLOGY, AND MEASUREMENT IN PSYCHOLOGY - A SURVEY OF PHD PROGRAMS IN NORTH-AMERICA {1990} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {45}({6}), pp. {721-734} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{AIKEN1990,
      author = {AIKEN, LS and WEST, SG and SECHREST, L and RENO, RR and ROEDIGER, HL and SCARR, S and KAZDIN, AE and SHERMAN, SJ},
      title = {GRADUATE TRAINING IN STATISTICS, METHODOLOGY, AND MEASUREMENT IN PSYCHOLOGY - A SURVEY OF PHD PROGRAMS IN NORTH-AMERICA},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {45},
      number = {6},
      pages = {721-734},
      note = {SYMP AT THE MEETING OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC, NEW YORK, NY, AUG, 1987}
    }
    
    Al-Ghazal, S., Fallowfield, L. & Blamey, R. Comparison of psychological aspects and patient satisfaction following breast conserving surgery, simple mastectomy and breast reconstruction {2000} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER
    Vol. {36}({15}), pp. {1938-1943} 
    article  
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the psychological outcome and satisfaction of patients whom underwent wide local excision, mastectomy alone and mastectomy with breast reconstruction. A total of 577 patients had different types of operations for primary breast cancer (254 (44 had wide local excision, 202 (35 had simple mastectomy and 121 (21 had breast reconstruction). Psychosocial morbidity and satisfaction were studied retrospectively using self-evaluation questionnaires. The three different surgical groups were cross-matched into four different age group. Significant statistical differences existed between the three procedures regarding satisfaction and psychosocial morbidity (anxiety, depression, body image, sexuality and self-esteem) in favour of wide local excision followed by breast reconstruction. Greatest morbidity was seen in the mastectomy group. Patient satisfaction of cosmetic outcome and psychosocial aspects was greater with wide local excision than with breast reconstruction or mastectomy. However, since wide local excision is indicated in only a group of patients, breast reconstruction should be an option available to patients requiring mastectomy. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Al-Ghazal2000,
      author = {Al-Ghazal, SK and Fallowfield, L and Blamey, RW},
      title = {Comparison of psychological aspects and patient satisfaction following breast conserving surgery, simple mastectomy and breast reconstruction},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {36},
      number = {15},
      pages = {1938-1943}
    }
    
    Alario, F. & Ferrand, L. A set of 400 pictures standardized for French: Norms for name agreement, image agreement, familiarity visual complexity, image variability, and age of acquisition {1999} BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS INSTRUMENTS & COMPUTERS
    Vol. {31}({3}), pp. {531-552} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present article provides French normative measures for 400 line drawings taken from Cycowicz, Friedman, Rothstein, and Snodgrass (1997), including the 260 line drawings that were normed by Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980). The pictures have been standardized on the following variables: name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, visual complexity, image variability, and age of acquisition. These normative data also include word frequency values and the first verbal associate (taken from Ferrand & Alario, 1998). The six variables obtained are important because of their potential effect in many fields of psychology, especially the study of cognitive processes such as visual perception, language, and memory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alario1999,
      author = {Alario, FX and Ferrand, L},
      title = {A set of 400 pictures standardized for French: Norms for name agreement, image agreement, familiarity visual complexity, image variability, and age of acquisition},
      journal = {BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS INSTRUMENTS & COMPUTERS},
      publisher = {PSYCHONOMIC SOC INC},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {31},
      number = {3},
      pages = {531-552}
    }
    
    ALBEE, G. UNCERTAIN FUTURE OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY {1970} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {25}({12}), pp. {1071-\&} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ALBEE1970,
      author = {ALBEE, GW},
      title = {UNCERTAIN FUTURE OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1970},
      volume = {25},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1071-&}
    }
    
    Alexander, P., Kulikowich, J. & Jetton, T. Interrelationship of knowledge, interest, and recall: Assessing a model of domain learning {1995} JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {87}({4}), pp. {559-575} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two experiments examined the interrelationship of subject-matter knowledge, interest, and recall in the field of human immunology/human biology and assessed cross-domain performance in the field of physics. Framed by a stage model of domain learning, cluster-analytic methods were used to group individuals on the basis of their performance on cognitive and affective measures in immunology. Resulting cluster profiles were compared with predictions expected from the stage model. Performance for students in these clusters was compared with their performance on similar measures in the field of physics. in Experiment 1, 30 premedical students and 17 graduate students in educational psychology served as participants. Results revealed 3 unique clusters of students that tended to conform to predictions of the domain learning model. Individuals' knowledge, interest, and recall of immunology generally paralleled their performance in the domain of physics. Experiment 2 sought to test and extend the findings of the initial experiment. Participants were 78 undergraduate students in education. Although 4 clusters emerged, patterns in knowledge, interest, and recall were similar to those revealed in Experiment 1.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alexander1995,
      author = {Alexander, PA and Kulikowich, JM and Jetton, TL},
      title = {Interrelationship of knowledge, interest, and recall: Assessing a model of domain learning},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {87},
      number = {4},
      pages = {559-575},
      note = {1993 Annual Meeting of the American-Educational-Research-Association, ATLANTA, GA, APR 12-16, 1993}
    }
    
    Alicke, M. Culpable control and the psychology of blame {2000} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {126}({4}), pp. {556-574} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: A culpable control model is advanced to describe the conditions that encourage as well as mitigate blame and to assess the process by which blame and mitigation occur. The fundamental assumptions of the model are that evidence concerning harmful events is scrutinized for its contribution to personal control and spontaneously evaluated for its favorableness or unfavorableness. Spontaneous evaluations encourage a blame-validation mode of processing in which evidence concerning the event is reviewed in a manner that favors ascribing blame to the person or persons who evoke the most negative affect or whose behavior confirms unfavorable expectations. The author delineates the elements of perceived control and then discusses spontaneous evaluation influences on control and blame assessments. The blame-validation process is described next. Finally, the culpable control model is compared with extant theories of blame and responsibility and its basic tenets summarized.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alicke2000,
      author = {Alicke, MD},
      title = {Culpable control and the psychology of blame},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {126},
      number = {4},
      pages = {556-574},
      doi = {{10.1037//0033-2909.126.4.556}}
    }
    
    Anderson, C. An update on the effects of playing violent video games {2004} JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENCE
    Vol. {27}({1}), pp. {113-122} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This article presents a brief overview of existing research on the effects of exposure to violent video games. An updated meta-analysis reveals that exposure to violent video games is significantly linked to increases in aggressive behaviour, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, and cardiovascular arousal, and to decreases in helping behaviour. Experimental studies reveal this linkage to be causal. Correlational studies reveal a linkage to serious, real-world types of aggression. Methodologically weaker studies yielded smaller effect sizes than methodologically stronger studies, suggesting that previous meta-analytic studies of violent video games underestimate the true magnitude of observed deleterious effects on behaviour, cognition, and affect. (C) 2003 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Anderson2004,
      author = {Anderson, CA},
      title = {An update on the effects of playing violent video games},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENCE},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS LTD ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {27},
      number = {1},
      pages = {113-122},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.adolescence.2003.10.009}}
    }
    
    Anderson, C. The psychology of doing nothing: Forms of decision avoidance result from reason and emotion {2003} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {129}({1}), pp. {139-167} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Several independent lines of research bear on the question of why individuals avoid decisions by postponing them, failing to act, or accepting the status quo. This review relates findings across several different disciplines and uncovers 4 decision avoidance effects that offer insight into this common but troubling behavior: choice deferral, status quo bias, omission bias, and inaction inertia. These findings are related by common antecedents and consequences in a rational-emotional model of the factors that predispose humans to do nothing. Prominent components of the model include cost-benefit calculations, anticipated regret, and selection difficulty. Other factors affecting decision avoidance through these key components, such as anticipatory negative emotions, decision strategies, counterfactual thinking, and preference uncertainty, are also discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Anderson2003,
      author = {Anderson, CJ},
      title = {The psychology of doing nothing: Forms of decision avoidance result from reason and emotion},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {129},
      number = {1},
      pages = {139-167},
      doi = {{10.1037//0033-2909.129.1.139}}
    }
    
    Anderson, C., Lindsay, A. & Bushman, B. Research in the psychological laboratory: Truth or triviality? {1999} CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {8}({1}), pp. {3-9} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article examines the truism that studies from psychological laboratories are low in external validity. Past rational and empirical explorations of this truism found little support for it. A broader empirical approach was taken for the study reported here; correspondence between lab and field was compared across a broad range of domains, including aggression, helping, leadership style, social loafing, self-efficacy, depression, and memory, among others. Correspondence between lab- and field-based effect sizes of conceptually similar independent and dependent variables was considerable. In brief, the psychological laboratory has generally produced psychological truths, rather than trivialities. These same data suggest that a companion truism about field studies in psychology-that they are generally low on internal validity-is also false.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Anderson1999,
      author = {Anderson, CA and Lindsay, AJ and Bushman, BJ},
      title = {Research in the psychological laboratory: Truth or triviality?},
      journal = {CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      publisher = {CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {8},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-9},
      note = {Annual Meeting of the American-Psychological-Society, WASHINGTON, D.C., MAY, 1998}
    }
    
    Archer, J. Sex differences in social behavior - Are the social role and evolutionary explanations compatible? {1996} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {51}({9}), pp. {909-917} 
    article  
    Abstract: The competing claims of two explanations of sex differences in social behavior, social role theory, and evolutionary psychology are examined. The origin and scope of research on sex differences in social behavior are outlined, and the application of social role theory is discussed. Research that is based on modern sexual selection theory is described, and whether its findings can be explained by social role theory is considered. Findings associated with social role theory are weighed against evolutionary explanations. It is concluded that evolutionary theory accounts much better for the overall pattern of sex differences and for their origins. A coevolutionary approach is proposed to explain cross-cultural consistency in socialization patterns.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Archer1996,
      author = {Archer, J},
      title = {Sex differences in social behavior - Are the social role and evolutionary explanations compatible?},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {51},
      number = {9},
      pages = {909-917}
    }
    
    Argote, L., Ingram, P., Levine, J. & Moreland, R. Knowledge transfer in organizations: Learning from the experience of others {2000} ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES
    Vol. {82}({1}), pp. {1-8} 
    article  
    Abstract: In the introduction to this special issue of Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes on the psychological foundations of knowledge transfer in organizations, we argue that knowledge transfer is becoming increasingly important in organizations, Organizations that are able to transfer knowledge effectively from one unit to another are more productive and more likely to survive than those that are less adept at knowledge transfer, Although organizations are able to realize remarkable increases in performance through knowledge transfer, successful knowledge transfer is difficult to achieve, The articles in this special issue identify factors affecting knowledge transfer in organizations. These articles provide empirical evidence about effective mechanisms for transferring knowledge as well as about barriers to and facilitators of knowledge transfer. By focusing on the psychological processes that underlie knowledge transfer within a unit and between units within a firm, this special issue complements work in cognitive psychology on knowledge transfer at the individual level of analysis as well as work in strategy and organizational theory on knowledge transfer at the firm or industry levels of analysis. This special issue opens up the ``black box'' of knowledge transfer in organizations by providing new theory and empirical evidence on the psychological processes that are the foundations for knowledge transfer in organizations. (C) 2000 Academic Press.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Argote2000,
      author = {Argote, L and Ingram, P and Levine, JM and Moreland, RL},
      title = {Knowledge transfer in organizations: Learning from the experience of others},
      journal = {ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS INC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {82},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-8}
    }
    
    ARGYRIS, C. DANGERS IN APPLYING RESULTS FROM EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1975} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {30}({4}), pp. {469-485} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ARGYRIS1975,
      author = {ARGYRIS, C},
      title = {DANGERS IN APPLYING RESULTS FROM EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1975},
      volume = {30},
      number = {4},
      pages = {469-485}
    }
    
    Ariely, D. Controlling the information flow: Effects on consumers' decision making and preferences {2000} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH
    Vol. {27}({2}), pp. {233-248} 
    article  
    Abstract: One of the main objectives facing marketers is to present consumers with information on which to base their decisions. In doing so, marketers have to select the type of information system they want to utilize in order to deliver the most appropriate information to their consumers. One of the most interesting and distinguishing dimensions of such information systems is the level of control the consumer has over the information system. The current work presents and tests a general model for understanding the advantages and disadvantages of information control on consumers' decision quality, memory, knowledge, and confidence. The results show that controlling the information flow can help consumers better match their preferences, have better memory and knowledge about the domain they are examining, and be more confident in their judgments. However, it is also shown that controlling the information flow creates demands on processing resources and therefore under some circumstances can have detrimental effects on consumers' ability to utilize information. The article concludes with a summary of the findings, discussion of their application for electronic commerce, and suggestions for future research avenues.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ariely2000,
      author = {Ariely, D},
      title = {Controlling the information flow: Effects on consumers' decision making and preferences},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH},
      publisher = {UNIV CHICAGO PRESS},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {27},
      number = {2},
      pages = {233-248}
    }
    
    Arnett, J. The psychology of globalization {2002} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {57}({10}), pp. {774-783} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The influence of globalization on psychological functioning is examined. First, descriptions of how globalization is occurring in various world regions are presented. Then the psychological consequences of globalization are described, with a focus on identify issues. Specifically, it is argued that most people worldwide now develop a bicultural identity that combines their local identity with an identity linked to the global culture; that identity confusion may be increasing among young people in non-Western cultures as a result of globalization; that some people join self-selected cultures to maintain an identity that is separate from the global culture; and that a period of emerging adulthood increasingly extends identity explorations beyond adolesence, through the mid- to late twenties.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Arnett2002,
      author = {Arnett, JJ},
      title = {The psychology of globalization},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {57},
      number = {10},
      pages = {774-783},
      doi = {{10.1037//0003-066X.57.10.774}}
    }
    
    ASCIONE, F. CHILDREN WHO ARE CRUEL TO ANIMALS - A REVIEW OF RESEARCH AND IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOPATHOLOGY {1993} ANTHROZOOS
    Vol. {6}({4}), pp. {226-247} 
    article  
    Abstract: The relation between childhood cruelty toward animals and interpersonal aggression has long been of interest to developmental psychology, psychiatry, and related disciplines but the empirical study of this relation is relatively recent This review highlights existing quantitative and qualitative research on childhood animal cruelty, organized according to four areas: (1) the relation between childhood cruelty to animals and concurrent and later antisocial behavior; (2) the significance of cruelty to animals as a specific symptom in the DSM-III-R classification Conduct Disorder; (3) the implication of cruelty to animals in various forms of family and community violence, including child physical and sexual abuse and wife battering; and (4) suggestions for research in the areas of definition, prevention, and intervention.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ASCIONE1993,
      author = {ASCIONE, FR},
      title = {CHILDREN WHO ARE CRUEL TO ANIMALS - A REVIEW OF RESEARCH AND IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOPATHOLOGY},
      journal = {ANTHROZOOS},
      publisher = {DELTA SOCIETY},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {6},
      number = {4},
      pages = {226-247},
      note = {Biennial Meeting of the Society-for-Research-in-Child-Development, NEW ORLEANS, LA, MAR 25-28, 1993}
    }
    
    Asmundson, G., Frombach, I., McQuaid, J., Pedrelli, P., Lenox, R. & Stein, M. Dimensionality of posttraumatic stress symptoms: a confirmatory factor analysis of DSM-IV symptom clusters and other symptom models {2000} BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY
    Vol. {38}({2}), pp. {203-214} 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent exploratory [Taylor. S., Kuch, K., Koch, W. J., Crockett, D. J., & Passey, G. (1998). The structure of posttraumatic stress symptons. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 154-160.] and confirmatory [Buckley, T. C., Blanchard, E. B., & Hickling, E. J. (1998). A confirmatory factor analysis of posttraumatic stress symptons. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 1091-1099; King, D. W., Leskin, G. A., King, L. A., & Weathers, F. W. (1998). Confirmatory factor analysis of the clinician-administered PTSD scale: evidence for the dimensionality of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Assessment, 10, 90-96.] factor analytic investigations suggest that the three symptom clusters of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual [4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.] may not provide the best conceptualization of symptom dimensionality. However, the alternative models have not been in agreement, nor have they been compared against each other or models based on the DSM-IV. The purpose of the present investigation was to test a series of dimensional models suggested by these recent factor analytic investigations and the DSM-IV. Using data collected with the PTSD Checklist--Civilian Version [Weathers, F. W., Litz, B. T., Huska, J. A., & Keane, T. M. (1994). PCL-C for DSM-IV. Boston: National Center for PTSD--Behavioral Science Division.] from 349 referrals to a primary care medical clinic, we used confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate a: (1) hierarchical four-factor model, (2) four-factor intercorrelated model, (3) hierarchicalthree-factor model, (4) three-factor intercorrelated model, and (5) hierarchical two-factor model. The hierarchical four-factor model (comprising four first-order factors corresponding to reexperiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal all subsumed by a higher-order general factor) provided the best overall fit to the data; although, all models met some standards specified for good model fit. More research is needed to establish the dimensional nature of PTSD symptoms and to assess whether identified dimensions differ as a function of the trauma experience. Implications for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment are also discussed. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Asmundson2000,
      author = {Asmundson, GJG and Frombach, I and McQuaid, J and Pedrelli, P and Lenox, R and Stein, MB},
      title = {Dimensionality of posttraumatic stress symptoms: a confirmatory factor analysis of DSM-IV symptom clusters and other symptom models},
      journal = {BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {38},
      number = {2},
      pages = {203-214}
    }
    
    Atance, C. & O'Neill, D. Episodic future thinking {2001} TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES
    Vol. {5}({12}), pp. {533-539} 
    article  
    Abstract: Thinking about the future is an integral component of human cognition one that has been claimed to distinguish us from other species. Building on the construct of episodic memory, we introduce the concept of `episodic future thinking': a projection of the self into the future to pre-experience an event. We argue that episodic future thinking has explanatory value when considering recent work in many areas of psychology: cognitive, social and personality, developmental, clinical and neuropsychology. Episodic future thinking can serve as a unifying concept, connecting aspects of diverse research findings and identifying key questions requiring further reflection and study.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Atance2001,
      author = {Atance, CM and O'Neill, DK},
      title = {Episodic future thinking},
      journal = {TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE LONDON},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {5},
      number = {12},
      pages = {533-539}
    }
    
    ATKINSON, D. ETHNIC SIMILARITY IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY - A REVIEW OF RESEARCH {1983} COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {11}({3}), pp. {79-92} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ATKINSON1983,
      author = {ATKINSON, DR},
      title = {ETHNIC SIMILARITY IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY - A REVIEW OF RESEARCH},
      journal = {COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {11},
      number = {3},
      pages = {79-92}
    }
    
    Atran, S. Folk biology and the anthropology of science: Cognitive universals and cultural particulars {1998} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {21}({4}), pp. {547+} 
    article  
    Abstract: This essay in the ``anthropology of science'' is about how cognition constrains culture in producing science. The example is folk biology, whose cultural recurrence issues from the very same domain-specific cognitive universals that provide the historical backbone of systematic biology. Humans everywhere think about plants and animals in highly structured ways. People have similar folk-biological taxonomies composed of essence-based, species-like groups and the ranking of species into lower and higher-order groups. Such taxonomies are not as arbitrary in structure and content, nor as variable across cultures, as the assembly of entities into cosmologies, materials, or social groups. These structures are routine products of our ``habits of mind,'' which may in part be naturally selected to grasp relevant and recurrent ``habits of the world.'' An experiment illustrates that the same taxonomic rank is preferred for making biological inferences in two diverse populations: Lowland Maya and Midwest Americans. These findings cannot be explained by domain-general models of similarity because such models cannot account for why both cultures prefer species-like groups, although Americans have relatively little actual knowledge or experience at this level. This supports a modular view of folk biology as a core domain of human knowledge and as a special player, or ``core meme,'' in the selection processes by which cultures evolve. Structural aspects of folk taxonomy provide people in different cultures with the built-in constraints and flexibility that allow them to understand and respond appropriately to different cultural and ecological settings. Another set of reasoning experiments shows that Maya, American folk, and scientists use similarly structured taxonomies in somewhat different ways to extend their understanding of the world in the face of uncertainty. Although folk and scientific taxonomies diverge historically they continue to interact. The theory of evolution may ultimately dispense with the core concepts of folk biology, including species, taxonomy, and teleology; in practice, however, these may remain indispensable to doing scientific work. Moreover, theory-driven scientific knowledge cannot simply replace folk knowledge in everyday life. Folk-biological knowledge is not driven by implicit or inchoate theories of the sort science aims to make more accurate and perfect.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Atran1998,
      author = {Atran, S},
      title = {Folk biology and the anthropology of science: Cognitive universals and cultural particulars},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      publisher = {CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {21},
      number = {4},
      pages = {547+}
    }
    
    AUSTIN, J. & VILLANOVA, P. THE CRITERION PROBLEM - 1917-1992 {1992} JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {77}({6}), pp. {836-874} 
    article  
    Abstract: Individuals differ on multiple aspects of their job-role behavior; criteria are measures that attempt to capture these differences. Measures of criteria are used by several constituencies within applied psychology. Among them, researchers used criteria for the evaluation of theories of work behavior, the effective administration of human resources and the provision of feedback to individuals. One index of the importance of criteria is the observation that most, if not all, of the pioneers of industrial-organizational psychology addressed this issue during their careers. This article reviews conceptual and methodological developments pertaining to the criterion problem since 1917, using as an organizing device dimensions, methods of measurement and analysis, and categorizing frameworks. A shift away from an emphasis on brute prediction toward a balanced treatment of both empirical and conceptual issues is highlighted by calls for the validation of criteria and by increased attention to modeling performance, as well as a recognition of multiple perspectives and competing values from which to view performance and criterion measurement.
    BibTeX:
    @article{AUSTIN1992,
      author = {AUSTIN, JT and VILLANOVA, P},
      title = {THE CRITERION PROBLEM - 1917-1992},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {77},
      number = {6},
      pages = {836-874}
    }
    
    Baddeley, A., Baddeley, H., Bucks, R. & Wilcock, G. Attentional control in Alzheimer's disease {2001} BRAIN
    Vol. {124}({Part 8}), pp. {1492-1508} 
    article  
    Abstract: Attentional control of executive function declines during the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Controversy exists as to whether this decline results from a single global deficit or whether attentional control can be fractionated, with some aspects being more vulnerable than others. We investigated three proposed domains of attention, namely (i) focal attention, based on simple and choice reaction times; (ii) the capacity to resist distraction in a visual search task; and (iii) the capacity to divide attention between two simultaneous tasks. For each domain, two levels of difficulty were used to study Alzheimer's disease patients, who were compared with elderly and young control subjects. The unitary attentional hypothesis predicted that the impacts of level of difficulty, age and disease would be qualitatively similar across the three attentional domains. In fact we observed different patterns for each domain. We obtained no differential impairment for patients in the focal attentional task, whereas patients were somewhat more susceptible than control subjects to the similarity of the distractor items in visual search. Finally, we observed marked impairment in the capacity of Alzheimer's disease patients to combine performance on two simultaneous tasks, in contrast to preserved dual-task performance in the normal elderly group. These results suggest a need to fractionate executive processes, and reinforce earlier evidence for a specific dual-task processing deficit in Alzheimer's disease.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baddeley2001,
      author = {Baddeley, AD and Baddeley, HA and Bucks, RS and Wilcock, GK},
      title = {Attentional control in Alzheimer's disease},
      journal = {BRAIN},
      publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {124},
      number = {Part 8},
      pages = {1492-1508}
    }
    
    BAGOZZI, R., BAUMGARTNER, H. & YI, Y. STATE VERSUS ACTION ORIENTATION AND THE THEORY OF REASONED ACTION - AN APPLICATION TO COUPON USAGE {1992} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH
    Vol. {18}({4}), pp. {505-518} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article investigates how the individual difference variable of state versus action orientation moderates the pattern of relationships among constructs in the theory of reasoned action. State orientation refers to a low capacity for the enactment of action-related mental structures, whereas action orientation refers to a high capacity for this type of enactment. A field study was conducted in the context of consumers' self-reported usage of coupons for grocery shopping. The results showed that state versus action orientation moderates the relative importance of determinants of intentions; specifically, subjective norms become more important as people become state oriented, whereas the relative importance of attitudes increases as people become action oriented. In addition, the study showed that past behavior is a determinant of intentions to use coupons.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BAGOZZI1992,
      author = {BAGOZZI, RP and BAUMGARTNER, H and YI, YJ},
      title = {STATE VERSUS ACTION ORIENTATION AND THE THEORY OF REASONED ACTION - AN APPLICATION TO COUPON USAGE},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH},
      publisher = {UNIV CHICAGO PRESS},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {18},
      number = {4},
      pages = {505-518}
    }
    
    BAILEY, J., GAULIN, S., AGYEI, Y. & GLADUE, B. EFFECTS OF GENDER AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION ON EVOLUTIONARILY RELEVANT ASPECTS OF HUMAN MATING PSYCHOLOGY {1994} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {66}({6}), pp. {1081-1093} 
    article  
    Abstract: Sexual selection theory provides a powerful model for the analysis of psychological sex differences. This research examined (a) tests of several sex differences in mating psychology predicted from sexual selection theory, (b) broad developmental hypotheses about sex differences in mating psychology-through the relationship of mating psychology to sexual orientation, and (c) the structure of within-sex differences in mating psychology. Scales measuring aspects of mating psychology were administered to heterosexual and homosexual Ss of both sexes. The structure of scale intercorrelations was similar across groups. All scales yielded sex differences consistent with sexual selection theory. Homosexual Ss generally obtained scores similar to those of same-sex heterosexual Ss, though several scales were significantly related to sexual orientation. Findings constrain hypotheses concerning the origins of sex differences.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BAILEY1994,
      author = {BAILEY, JM and GAULIN, S and AGYEI, Y and GLADUE, BA},
      title = {EFFECTS OF GENDER AND SEXUAL ORIENTATION ON EVOLUTIONARILY RELEVANT ASPECTS OF HUMAN MATING PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {66},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1081-1093}
    }
    
    Baltes, P. & Smith, J. New frontiers in the future of aging: From successful aging of the young old to the dilemmas of the fourth age {2003} GERONTOLOGY
    Vol. {49}({2}), pp. {123-135} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We review research findings on the oldest old that demonstrate that the fourth age entails a level of biocultural incompleteness, vulnerability and unpredictability that is distinct from the positive views of the third age (young old). The oldest old are at the limits of their functional capacity and science and social policy are constrained in terms of intervention. New theoretical and practical endeavors are required to deal with the challenges of increased numbers of the oldest old and the associated prevalence of frailty and forms of psychological mortality (e.g., loss of identity, psychological autonomy and a sense of control). Investigation of the fourth age is a new and challenging interdisciplinary research territory. Future study and discussion should focus on the critical question of whether the continuing major investments into extending the life span into the fourth age actually reduce the opportunities of an increasing number of people to live and die in dignity. Copyright (C) 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baltes2003,
      author = {Baltes, PB and Smith, J},
      title = {New frontiers in the future of aging: From successful aging of the young old to the dilemmas of the fourth age},
      journal = {GERONTOLOGY},
      publisher = {KARGER},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {49},
      number = {2},
      pages = {123-135},
      doi = {{10.1159/000067946}}
    }
    
    Band, G. & van Boxtel, G. Inhibitory motor control in stop paradigms: review and reinterpretation of neural mechanisms {1999} ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA
    Vol. {101}({2-3}), pp. {179-211} 
    article  
    Abstract: What is the neurophysiological locus of inhibition when preparation for a manual response is countermanded? This paper evaluates data and models that pertain to inhibitory mechanisms operating in stop paradigms. In a model of De Jong, Coles and Logan (1995), (Strategies and mechanisms in nonselective and selective inhibitory motor control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21, 3, 498-511), a mechanism for nonselective inhibition operates peripheral to the motor cortex, while a selective mechanism operates at a central cortical level. We argue, however, that a peripheral mechanism of inhibition is incorrectly inferred from inhibition data available to date. Neurophysiological and psychophysiological data suggest that inhibitory processes always involve the cortex, and inhibitory effects are exerted upstream from the primary motor cortex. The prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia are candidate agents of response inhibition, whereas possible sites of inhibition are the thalamus and motor cortex. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PsycINFO classifications: 2260; 2330; 2530; 2540; 2560.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Band1999,
      author = {Band, GPH and van Boxtel, GJM},
      title = {Inhibitory motor control in stop paradigms: review and reinterpretation of neural mechanisms},
      journal = {ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {101},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {179-211}
    }
    
    Barber, N. The evolutionary psychology of physical attractiveness: Sexual selection and human morphology {1995} ETHOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY
    Vol. {16}({5}), pp. {395-424} 
    article  
    Abstract: Psychological evidence suggests that sex differences in morphology have been modified by sexual selection so as to attract mates (intersexual selection) or intimidate rivals (intrasexual selection), Women compete with each other for high quality husbands by advertising reproductive value in terms of the distribution of fat reserves and by exaggerating morphological indicators of youthfulness such as a small nose and small feet and pale, hairless skin, Men's physical appearance tends to communicate social dominance, which has the combined effects of intimidating reproductive rivals and attracting mates, In addition to their attractiveness and intimidatory effects, human secondary sexual characters also provide cues to hormonal status and phenotypic quality consistent with the good genes model of sexual selection (which includes parasite resistance), Low waist-hip ratio is sexually attractive in women and indicates a high estrogen/testosterone ratio (which favors reproductive function), Facial attractiveness provides honest cues to health and mate value, The permanently enlarged female breast appears to have evolved under the influence of both the good genes and the runaway selection mechanisms. The male beard is not obviously related to phenotypic quality and may have evolved through a process of runaway intersexual selection.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barber1995,
      author = {Barber, N},
      title = {The evolutionary psychology of physical attractiveness: Sexual selection and human morphology},
      journal = {ETHOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {16},
      number = {5},
      pages = {395-424}
    }
    
    Bargh, J. & McKenna, K. The Internet and social life {2004} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {55}, pp. {573-590} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The Internet is the latest in a series of technological breakthroughs in interpersonal communication, following the telegraph, telephone, radio, and television. It combines innovative features of its predecessors, such as bridging great distances and reaching a mass audience. However, the Internet has novel features as well, most critically the relative anonymity afforded to users and the provision of group venues in which to meet others with similar interests and values. We place the Internet in its historical context, and then examine the effects of Internet use on the user's psychological well-being, the formation and maintenance of personal relationships, group memberships and social identity, the workplace, and community involvement. The evidence suggests that while these effects are largely dependent on the particular goals that users bring to the interaction-such as self-expression, affiliation, or competition-they also interact in important ways with the unique qualities of the Internet communication situation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bargh2004,
      author = {Bargh, JA and McKenna, KYA},
      title = {The Internet and social life},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {55},
      pages = {573-590},
      doi = {{10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141922}}
    }
    
    Barlow, D. Unraveling the mysteries of anxiety and its disorders from the perspective of emotion theory {2000} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {55}({11}), pp. {1247-1263} 
    article  
    Abstract: The ascendance of emotion theory recent advances in cognitive science and neuroscience, and increasingly important findings from developmental psychology and learning make possible an integrative account of the nature and etiology of anxiety and its disorders. This model specifies an integrated set of triple vulnerabilities: a generalized biological (heritable) vulnerability, a generalized psychological vulnerability based on early experiences in developing a sense of control over salient events, and a more specific psychological vulnerability in which one learns to focus anxiety on specific objects or situations. The author recounts rite development of anxiety and related disorders based on these triple vulnerabilities and discusses implications for the classification of emotional disorders.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barlow2000,
      author = {Barlow, DH},
      title = {Unraveling the mysteries of anxiety and its disorders from the perspective of emotion theory},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {55},
      number = {11},
      pages = {1247-1263},
      note = {108th Annual Meeting of the APA, WASHINGTON, D.C., AUG 04-08, 2000}
    }
    
    Barnett, R. Toward a review and reconceptualization of the work/family literature {1998} GENETIC SOCIAL AND GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY MONOGRAPHS
    Vol. {124}({2}), pp. {125-182} 
    article  
    Abstract: Research on work/family issues is currently being done by investigators from a variety of disciplines, including psychology, occupational health, sociology, and, less centrally, organizational behavior. Such energy and diversity might be expected to yield significant advances; however, for the most pare, this promise has not been realized. Progress has been hampered by the lack of an inclusive model for understanding the processes by which work and family variables influence one another, a model that is theoretically grounded and integrates the major paradigms from these several disciplines. In an effort to develop a more inclusive and theoretically-grounded research model, I have organized this review around three critical theoretical issues that strongly shape the research literature and that need to be addressed in any proposed model.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barnett1998,
      author = {Barnett, RC},
      title = {Toward a review and reconceptualization of the work/family literature},
      journal = {GENETIC SOCIAL AND GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY MONOGRAPHS},
      publisher = {HELDREF PUBLICATIONS},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {124},
      number = {2},
      pages = {125-182}
    }
    
    BARON, J. NONCONSEQUENTIALIST DECISIONS {1994} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {17}({1}), pp. {1-10} 
    article  
    Abstract: According to a simple form of consequentialism, we should base decisions on our judgments about their consequences for achieving our goals. Our goals give us reason to endorse consequentialism as a standard of decision making. Alternative standards invariably lead to consequences that are less good in this sense. Yet some people knowingly follow decision rules that violate consequentialism. For example, they prefer harmful omissions to less harmful acts, they favor the status quo over alternatives they would otherwise judge to be better, they provide third-party compensation on the basis of the cause of an injury rather than the benefit from the compensation, they ignore deterrent effects in decisions about punishment, and they resist coercive reforms they judge to be beneficial. I suggest that nonconsequentialist principles arise from overgeneralizing rules that are consistent with consequentialism in a limited set of cases. Commitment to such rules is detached from their original purposes. The existence of such nonconsequentialist decision biases has implications for philosophical and experimental methodology, the relation between psychology and public policy and education.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BARON1994,
      author = {BARON, J},
      title = {NONCONSEQUENTIALIST DECISIONS},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      publisher = {CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {17},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-10}
    }
    
    Baron-Cohen, S., Richler, J., Bisarya, D., Gurunathan, N. & Wheelwright, S. The systemizing quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences {2003} PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
    Vol. {358}({1430}), pp. {361-374} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Systemizing is the drive to analyse systems or construct systems. A recent model of psychological sex differences suggests that this is a major dimension in which the sexes differ, with males being more drawn to systemize than females. Currently, there are no self-report measures to assess this important dimension. A second major dimension of sex differences is empathizing (the drive to identify mental states and respond to these with an appropriate emotion). Previous studies find females score higher on empathy measures. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Systemizing Quotient (SQ), for use with adults of normal intelligence. It contains 40 systemizing items and 20 control items. On each systemizing item, a person can score 2, 1 or 0, so the SQ has a maximum score of 80 and a minimum of zero. In Study 1, we measured the SQ of n = 278 adults (114 males, 164 females) from a general population, to test for predicted sex differences (male superiority) in systemizing. All subjects were also given the Empathy Quotient (EQ) to test if previous reports of female superiority would be replicated. In Study 2 we employed the SQ and the EQ with n = 47 adults (33 males, 14 females) with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA), who are predicted to be either normal or superior at systemizing, but impaired at empathizing. Their scores were compared with n = 47 matched adults from the general population in Study 1. In Study 1, as predicted, normal adult males scored significantly higher than females on the SQ and significantly lower on the EQ. In Study 2, again as predicted, adults with AS/HFA scored. significantly higher on the SQ than matched controls, and significantly lower on the EQ than matched controls. The SQ reveals both a sex difference in systemizing in the general population and an unusually strong drive to systemize in AS/HFA. These results are discussed in relation to two linked theories: the `empathizing-systemizing' (E-S) theory of sex differences and the extreme male brain (EMB) theory of autism.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baron-Cohen2003,
      author = {Baron-Cohen, S and Richler, J and Bisarya, D and Gurunathan, N and Wheelwright, S},
      title = {The systemizing quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences},
      journal = {PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES},
      publisher = {ROYAL SOC LONDON},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {358},
      number = {1430},
      pages = {361-374},
      doi = {{10.1098/rstb.2002.1206}}
    }
    
    Barrett, L. & Russell, J. Independence and bipolarity in the structure of current affect {1998} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {74}({4}), pp. {967-984} 
    article  
    Abstract: The independence of positive and negative affect has been heralded as a major and counterintuitive finding in the psychology of mood and emotion. Still, other findings support the older view that positive and negative fall at opposite ends of a single bipolar continuum. Independence versus bipolarity can be reconciled by considering (a) the activation dimension of affect, (b) random and systematic measurement error, and (c) how items are selected to achieve an appropriate test of bipolarity. In 3 studies of self-reported current affect, random and systematic error were controlled through multiformat measurement and confirmatory factor analysis. Valence was found to be independent of activation, positive affect the bipolar opposite of negative affect, and deactivation the bipolar opposite of activation. The dimensions underlying D. Watson, L. A. Clark, and A. Tellegen's (1988) Positive and Negative Affect schedule were accounted for by the valence and activation dimensions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barrett1998,
      author = {Barrett, LF and Russell, JA},
      title = {Independence and bipolarity in the structure of current affect},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {74},
      number = {4},
      pages = {967-984}
    }
    
    Barrett, L., Tugade, M. & Engle, R. Individual differences in working memory capacity and dual-process theories of the mind {2004} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {130}({4}), pp. {553-573} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Dual-process theories of the mind are ubiquitous in psychology. A central principle of these theories is that behavior is determined by the interplay of automatic and controlled processing. In this article, the authors examine individual differences in the capacity to control attention as a major contributor to differences in working memory capacity (WMC). The authors discuss the enormous implications of this individual difference for a host of dual-process theories in social, personality, cognitive, and clinical psychology. In addition, the authors propose several new areas of investigation that derive directly from applying the concept of WMC to dual-process theories of the mind.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barrett2004,
      author = {Barrett, LF and Tugade, MM and Engle, RW},
      title = {Individual differences in working memory capacity and dual-process theories of the mind},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {130},
      number = {4},
      pages = {553-573},
      doi = {{10.1037/0033-2909.130.4.553}}
    }
    
    BARTON, S. CHAOS, SELF-ORGANIZATION, AND PSYCHOLOGY {1994} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {49}({1}), pp. {5-14} 
    article  
    Abstract: A variety of investigators in recent years have proposed models of psychological systems based on the concepts of chaos, nonlinear dynamics, and self-organization. Unfortunately, psychologists in general have little understanding of these important ideas. These terms are defined, and their relationships are discussed. The value of applying these concepts to psychological systems is demonstrated by exploring their utility in areas ranging from neuroscience to clinical psychology. Same of the difficulties in using nonlinear concepts and methodologies in empirical investigations are also discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BARTON1994,
      author = {BARTON, S},
      title = {CHAOS, SELF-ORGANIZATION, AND PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {49},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5-14}
    }
    
    Battistich, V., Solomon, D., Watson, M. & Schaps, E. Caring school communities {1997} EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {32}({3}), pp. {137-151} 
    article  
    Abstract: There recently has been a renewed appreciation of the importance of social context to effective schools. This article describes an ongoing program of research on schools as caring communities. The research spans about a decade and a half and involves a diverse set of elementary schools from across the United States. The findings indicate that sense of school community can be enhanced for both students and teachers, that it is associated with a wide range of positive outcomes for both, and that the potential benefits of enhancing school community may be greatest in schools with large numbers of economically disadvantaged students. At the same time, it is noted that enhancing community has the potential for producing negative as well as positive outcomes, and that the content of the community values is of critical importance. Overall, the concept of school as community appears to provide a powerful framework for looking at educational practice and guiding educational reform efforts.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Battistich1997,
      author = {Battistich, V and Solomon, D and Watson, M and Schaps, E},
      title = {Caring school communities},
      journal = {EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC INC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {32},
      number = {3},
      pages = {137-151},
      note = {1995 Annual Meeting of the American-Educational-Research-Association, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, APR 18-22, 1995}
    }
    
    Baum, A. & Posluszny, D. Health psychology: Mapping biobehavioral contributions to health and illness {1999} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {50}, pp. {137-163} 
    article  
    Abstract: Our evolving understanding of how psychosocial and behavioral factors affect health and disease processes has been marked by investigation of specific relationships and mechanisms underlying them. Stress and other emotional responses are components of complex interactions of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors that affect the body's ability to remain or become healthy or to resist or overcome disease. Regulated by nervous, endocrine, and immune systems, and exerting powerful influence on other bodily systems and key health-relevant behaviors, stress and emotion appear to have important implications for the initiation or progression of cancer, HIV, cardiovascular disease, and other illnesses. Health-enhancing and health-impairing behaviors, including diet, exercise, tobacco use, and protection from the sun, can compromise or benefit health and are directed by a number of influences as well. Finally, health behaviors related to being ill or trying to avoid disease or its severest consequences are important. Seeking care and adhering to medical regimens and recommendations for disease surveillance allow for earlier identification of health threats and more effective treatment. Evidence that biobehavioral factors are linked to health in integrated, complex ways continues to mount, and knowledge of these influences has implications for medical outcomes and health care practice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baum1999,
      author = {Baum, A and Posluszny, DM},
      title = {Health psychology: Mapping biobehavioral contributions to health and illness},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS INC},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {50},
      pages = {137-163}
    }
    
    Bazerman, M., Curhan, J., Moore, D. & Valley, K. Negotiation {2000} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {51}, pp. {279-314} 
    article  
    Abstract: The first part of this paper traces a short history of the psychological study of negotiation. Although negotiation was an active research topic within social psychology in the 1960s and 1970s, in the 1980s, the behavioral decision perspective dominated. The 1990s has witnessed a rebirth of social factors in the psychological study of negotiation, including social relationships, egocentrism, motivated illusions, and emotion. The second part of this paper reviews five emerging research areas, each of which provides useful insight into how negotiators subjectively understand the negotiation: (a) mental models in negotiation; (b) how concerns of ethics, fairness, and values define the rules of the game being played; (c) how the selection of a communication medium impacts the way the game is played; (d) how cross-cultural issues in perception and behavior affect the negotiation game; and (e) how negotiators organize and simplify their understandings of the negotiation game when more than two actors are involved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bazerman2000,
      author = {Bazerman, MH and Curhan, JR and Moore, DA and Valley, KL},
      title = {Negotiation},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS INC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {51},
      pages = {279-314}
    }
    
    BEM, D. & HONORTON, C. DOES PSI EXIST - REPLICABLE EVIDENCE FOR AN ANOMALOUS PROCESS OF INFORMATION-TRANSFER {1994} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {115}({1}), pp. {4-18} 
    article  
    Abstract: Most academic psychologists do not yet accept the existence of psi, anomalous processes of information or energy transfer (such as telepathy or other forms of extrasensory perception) that are currently unexplained in terms of known physical or biological mechanisms. We believe that the replication rates and effect sizes achieved by one particular experimental method, the ganzfeld procedure, are now sufficient to warrant bringing this body of data to the attention of the wider psychological community. Competing meta-analyses of the ganzfeld database are reviewed, 1 by R. Hyman (1985), a skeptical critic of psi research, and the other by C. Honorton (1985), a parapsychologist and major contributor to the ganzfeld database. Next the results of 11 new ganzfeld studies that comply with guidelines jointly authored by R. Hyman and C. Honorton (1986) are summarized. Finally, issues of replication and theoretical explanation are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BEM1994,
      author = {BEM, DJ and HONORTON, C},
      title = {DOES PSI EXIST - REPLICABLE EVIDENCE FOR AN ANOMALOUS PROCESS OF INFORMATION-TRANSFER},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {115},
      number = {1},
      pages = {4-18}
    }
    
    Berglund, B. & Job, R. The psychology of reactions to environmental agents {1996} ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL
    Vol. {22}({1}), pp. {1} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Berglund1996,
      author = {Berglund, B and Job, RFS},
      title = {The psychology of reactions to environmental agents},
      journal = {ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {22},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1}
    }
    
    Berry, J. A psychology of immigration {2001} JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES
    Vol. {57}({3}), pp. {615-631} 
    article  
    Abstract: The discipline of psychology has much to contribute to our understanding of immigrants and the process of immigration. A framework is proposed that lays out two complementary domains of psychological research, both rooted in contextual factors, and both leading to policy and program development. The first (acculturation) stems from research in anthropology and is now a central part of crosscultural psychology; the second (intergroup relations) stems from sociology and is now a core feature of social psychology. Both domains are concerned with two fundamental issues that face immigrants and the society of settlement: maintenance of group characteristics and contact between groups. The intersection of these issues creates an intercultural space, within which members of both groups develop their cultural boundaries and social relationships. A case is made for the benefits of integration as a strategy for immigrants and for multiculturalism as a policy for the larger society. The articles in this issue are then discussed in relation to these conceptual frameworks and empirical findings.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Berry2001,
      author = {Berry, JW},
      title = {A psychology of immigration},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES},
      publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHERS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {57},
      number = {3},
      pages = {615-631}
    }
    
    Biggs, J. Enhancing teaching through constructive alignment {1996} HIGHER EDUCATION
    Vol. {32}({3}), pp. {347-364} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two lines of thinking are becoming increasingly important in higher educational practice. The first derives from constructivist learning theory, and the second from the instructional design literature. Constructivism comprises a family of theories but all have in common the centrality of the learner's activities in creating meaning. These and related ideas have important implications for teaching and assessment. Instructional designers for their part have emphasised alignment between the objectives of a course or unit and the targets for assessing student performance. `'Constructive alignment'' represents a marriage of the two thrusts, constructivism being used as a framework to guide decision-making at all stages in instructional design: in deriving curriculum objectives in terms of performances that represent a suitably high cognitive level, in deciding teaching/learning activities judged to elicit those performances, and to assess and summatively report student performance. The `'performances of understanding'' nominated in the objectives are thus used to systematically align the teaching methods and the assessment. The process is illustrated with reference to a professional development unit in educational psychology for teachers, but the model may be generalized to most units or programs in higher education.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Biggs1996,
      author = {Biggs, J},
      title = {Enhancing teaching through constructive alignment},
      journal = {HIGHER EDUCATION},
      publisher = {KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {32},
      number = {3},
      pages = {347-364},
      note = {20th International Conference on Improving University Teaching, HONG KONG, HONG KONG, JUL 10-13, 1995}
    }
    
    Billig, M. Critical discourse analysis and conversation analysis: an exchange between Michael Billig and Emanuel A. Schegloff {1999} DISCOURSE & SOCIETY
    Vol. {10}({4}), pp. {543-558} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article examines Schegloff's (1997) defence of Conversation Analysis (CA) and his attack on critical discourse analysis. The article focuses on Schegloff's claims that CA takes an empirical stance without a priori assumptions and that it examines participants' talk in `their own terms', It is suggested that these claims are problematic, and that CA, as depicted by Schegloff, contains an ideological view of the social world. This can be seen by examining CA's own rhetoric, which conversation analysts themselves tend to take for granted. First, CA uses a specialist rhetoric which is literally not the participants' own terms. Moreover, this specialist rhetoric enables conversation analysts to `disattend' to the topics of conversation. Second, CA's `foundational rhetoric' is examined. It is suggested that this foundational rhetoric, which includes terms such as `conversation', `member', etc., conveys a participatory View of the world, in which equal rights of speakership are often assumed. The assumptions of these rhetorical conventions are revealed if they are applied to talk in which direct power is exercised. In this respect, CA is not, as Schegloff suggests, ideologically neutral, but habitually deploys a rhetoric that conveys a contestable view of social order.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Billig1999,
      author = {Billig, M},
      title = {Critical discourse analysis and conversation analysis: an exchange between Michael Billig and Emanuel A. Schegloff},
      journal = {DISCOURSE & SOCIETY},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {10},
      number = {4},
      pages = {543-558}
    }
    
    BILLINGS, R. & WROTEN, S. USE OF PATH-ANALYSIS IN INDUSTRIAL-ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY - CRITICISMS AND SUGGESTIONS {1978} JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {63}({6}), pp. {677-688} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BILLINGS1978,
      author = {BILLINGS, RS and WROTEN, SP},
      title = {USE OF PATH-ANALYSIS IN INDUSTRIAL-ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY - CRITICISMS AND SUGGESTIONS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1978},
      volume = {63},
      number = {6},
      pages = {677-688}
    }
    
    Birbaumer, N., Viet, R., Lotze, M., Erb, M., Hermann, C., Grodd, W. & Flor, H. Deficient fear conditioning in psychopathy - A functional magnetic resonance imaging study {2005} ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {62}({7}), pp. {799-805} 
    article  
    Abstract: Context: Psychopaths belong to a larger group of persons with antisocial personality disorder and are characterized by an inability to have emotional involvement and by the repeated Violation of the rights of others. It was hypothesized that this behavior might be the consequence of deficient fear conditioning. Objective: To study the cerebral, peripheral, and subjective correlates of fear conditioning in criminal psychopaths and healthy control subjects. Design: An aversive differential pavlovian delay conditioning paradigm with slides of neutral faces serving as conditioned and painful pressure as unconditioned stimuli. Setting: The Department of Medical Psychology at the University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany. Participants: Ten male psychopaths as defined by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and 10 age- and education-matched healthy male controls. The psychopaths were criminal offenders on bail and waiting for their trial or were on parole. The healthy controls were recruited from the community. Main Outcome Measures: Brain activation based on functional magnetic resonance imaging, electrodermal responses, emotional valence, arousal, and contingency ratings. Results: The healthy controls showed enhanced differential activation in the limbic-prefrontal circuit (amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, insula, and anterior cingulate) during the acquisition of fear and successful verbal and autonomic conditioning. The psychopaths displayed no significant activity in this circuit and failed to show conditioned skin conductance and emotional valence ratings, although contingency and arousal ratings were normal. Conclusion: This dissociation of emotional and cognitive processing may be the neural basis of the lack of anticipation of aversive events in criminal psychopaths.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Birbaumer2005,
      author = {Birbaumer, N and Viet, R and Lotze, M and Erb, M and Hermann, C and Grodd, W and Flor, H},
      title = {Deficient fear conditioning in psychopathy - A functional magnetic resonance imaging study},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY},
      publisher = {AMER MEDICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {62},
      number = {7},
      pages = {799-805}
    }
    
    Birnbaum, M. Human research and data collection via the Internet {2004} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {55}, pp. {803-832} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Advantages and disadvantages of Web and lab research are reviewed. Via the World Wide Web, one can efficiently recruit large, heterogeneous samples quickly, recruit specialized samples (people with rare characteristics), and standardize procedures, making studies easy to replicate. Alternative programming techniques (procedures for data collection) are compared, including client-side as opposed to server-side programming. Web studies have methodological problems; for example, higher rates of drop out and of repeated participation. Web studies must be thoroughly analyzed and tested before launching on-line. Many studies compared data obtained in Web versus lab. These two methods usually reach the same conclusions; however, there are significant differences between college students tested in the lab and people recruited and tested via the Internet. Reasons that Web researchers are enthusiastic about the potential of the new methods are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Birnbaum2004,
      author = {Birnbaum, MH},
      title = {Human research and data collection via the Internet},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {55},
      pages = {803-832},
      doi = {{10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141601}}
    }
    
    BJORKQVIST, K., OSTERMAN, K. & HJELTBACK, M. AGGRESSION AMONG UNIVERSITY EMPLOYEES {1994} AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {20}({3}), pp. {173-184} 
    article  
    Abstract: Harassment among university employees (n = 338; 162 males, 176 females) was investigated by help of the Work Harassment Scale (WHS), developed for the study. Nineteen cases of severe victimization by harassment were interviewed. Subjectively experienced symptoms of depression and anxiety were estimated with two subscales from SCL-90 [Derogatis LR, Lipman RS, Covi L (1973): Psychopharmacology Bulletin 9:13-28] and aggressiveness was measured with the Buss-Durkee Inventory [Buss A, Durkee A(1957): Journal of Consulting Psychology 21:343-349]. Females experienced themselves as significantly more harassed than men. Position was related to harassment: individuals in superior positions harassed more often than individuals in subordinate positions. Less victimization by harassment was experienced among individuals involved in research and teaching than among individuals involved in administration and service. The experienced reasons for harassment were predominantly envy and competition about jobs and status. In 25% of cases, victims felt that their sex might be a reason. Victims of harassment experienced higher levels of depression, anxiety, and aggression than others. The interviewed cases showed evidence of symptoms reminiscent of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (C) 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BJORKQVIST1994,
      author = {BJORKQVIST, K and OSTERMAN, K and HJELTBACK, M},
      title = {AGGRESSION AMONG UNIVERSITY EMPLOYEES},
      journal = {AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR},
      publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {20},
      number = {3},
      pages = {173-184},
      note = {10th World Meeting of the International-Society-for-Research-on-Aggression: Aggression, Gender, and Sex, SIENA, ITALY, 1992}
    }
    
    Blanton, H. & Jaccard, J. Arbitrary metrics in psychology {2006} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {61}({1}), pp. {27-41} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context Of 2 case studies in which psychologists need to develop inventories with nonarbitrary metrics. One example comes from social psychology, where researchers have begun using the Implicit Association Test to provide the lay public with feedback about their ``hidden biases'' via popular Internet Web pages. The other example comes from clinical psychology, where researchers often wish to evaluate the real-world importance of interventions. As the authors show, both pursuits require researchers to conduct formal research that makes their metrics nonarbitrary by linking test scores to meaningful real-world events.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Blanton2006,
      author = {Blanton, H and Jaccard, J},
      title = {Arbitrary metrics in psychology},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC/EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING FOUNDATION},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {61},
      number = {1},
      pages = {27-41},
      doi = {{10.1037/0003-066X.61.1.27}}
    }
    
    BLOCK, N. ADVERTISEMENT FOR A SEMANTICS FOR PSYCHOLOGY {1986} MIDWEST STUDIES IN PHILOSOPHY
    Vol. {10}, pp. {615-678} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BLOCK1986,
      author = {BLOCK, N},
      title = {ADVERTISEMENT FOR A SEMANTICS FOR PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {MIDWEST STUDIES IN PHILOSOPHY},
      publisher = {UNIV NOTRE DAME PRESS},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {10},
      pages = {615-678}
    }
    
    Bobo, L. Prejudice as group position: Microfoundations of a sociological approach to racism and race relations {1999} JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES
    Vol. {55}({3}), pp. {445-472} 
    article  
    Abstract: This research integrates and elaborates the basic premises of Blumer's group position theory of prejudice. It does so in order to make explicit, more fully integrated, and empirically pliable the theoretical foundations of a sociological analysis of the nature of racial prejudice. In so doing, the research identifies important areas of agreement between Gordon Allport's approach to prejudice and that of Blumer. Blumer neither provided a full synthetic statement of his several major pieces on prejudice nor pursued sustained empirical research in the area. Hence, the present article (1) identifies the core assumptions of the group position model, (2) summarizes a recent line of empirical work examining claims embedded in the group position approach, (3) specifies how this approach differs from other closely related approaches, and (4) identifies major tasks for future theoretical and empirical work.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bobo1999,
      author = {Bobo, LD},
      title = {Prejudice as group position: Microfoundations of a sociological approach to racism and race relations},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES},
      publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHERS},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {55},
      number = {3},
      pages = {445-472},
      note = {Gordon W Allport Centennial Symposium on Prejudice and Intergroup Relations, CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS, OCT 31, 1997}
    }
    
    BOCK, K., LOEBELL, H. & MOREY, R. FROM CONCEPTUAL ROLES TO STRUCTURAL RELATIONS - BRIDGING THE SYNTACTIC CLEFT {1992} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {99}({1}), pp. {150-171} 
    article  
    Abstract: The distinction between underlying and superficial linguistic structure is a staple of modern cognitive psychology Despite increasingly diverse conceptions of syntactic relations in linguistic theory, the received view in psycholinguistics has remained one in which the entities assigned to underlying relations may assume different surface relations. The present article examines this view in the context of language production and reviews evidence that the disposition to bind animate entities to the surface subject relation is a basic feature of language use, suggesting that mappings from conceptual categories to syntactic relations form a main support of the bridge from conception to language. Proceeding on this assumption, the article also evaluates competing accounts of the mapping process in production. The results argue against syntactic relation-changing operations, but favor a division between meaning- and form-related mechanisms.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BOCK1992,
      author = {BOCK, K and LOEBELL, H and MOREY, R},
      title = {FROM CONCEPTUAL ROLES TO STRUCTURAL RELATIONS - BRIDGING THE SYNTACTIC CLEFT},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {99},
      number = {1},
      pages = {150-171},
      note = {ATLANTA MEETING OF THE PSYCHONOMIC SOC, ATLANTA, GA, NOV, 1989}
    }
    
    BOITEN, F., FRIJDA, N. & WIENTJES, C. EMOTIONS AND RESPIRATORY PATTERNS - REVIEW AND CRITICAL ANALYSIS {1994} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY
    Vol. {17}({2}), pp. {103-128} 
    article  
    Abstract: The literature on emotions and respiration is reviewed. After the early years of experimental psychology, attention to their relationship has been sparse, presumably due to difficulties in adequate measurement of respiration. The available data suggest nevertheless that respiration patterns reflect the general dimensions of emotional response that are linked to response requirements of the emotional situations. It is suggested that the major dimensions are those of calm-excitement, relaxation-tenseness, and active versus passive coping. Research on the emotion-respiration relationships has been largely restricted to the correlates of respiration rate, amplitude, and volume. Finer distinctions than those indicated may well be possible if a wider range of parameters, such as the form of the respiratory cycle, is included in the investigation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BOITEN1994,
      author = {BOITEN, FA and FRIJDA, NH and WIENTJES, CJE},
      title = {EMOTIONS AND RESPIRATORY PATTERNS - REVIEW AND CRITICAL ANALYSIS},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {17},
      number = {2},
      pages = {103-128}
    }
    
    Borsboom, D., Mellenbergh, G. & van Heerden, J. The theoretical status of latent variables {2003} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {110}({2}), pp. {203-219} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This article examines the theoretical status of latent variables as used in modern test theory models. First, it is argued that a consistent interpretation of such models requires a realist ontology for latent variables. Second, the relation between latent variables and their indicators is discussed. It is maintained that this relation can be interpreted as a causal one but that in measurement models for interindividual differences the relation does not apply to the level of the individual person. To substantiate intraindividual causal conclusions, one must explicitly represent individual level processes in the measurement model. Several research strategies that may be useful in this respect are discussed, and a typology of constructs is proposed on the basis of this analysis. The need to link individual processes to latent variable models for interindividual differences is emphasized.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Borsboom2003,
      author = {Borsboom, D and Mellenbergh, GJ and van Heerden, J},
      title = {The theoretical status of latent variables},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {110},
      number = {2},
      pages = {203-219},
      doi = {{10.1037/0033-295X.110.2.203}}
    }
    
    van den Bos, K. Uncertainty management: The influence of uncertainty salience on reactions to perceived procedural fairness {2001} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {80}({6}), pp. {931-941} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: On the basis of fairness heuristic theory, it is argued in this article that people especially need fairness when they are reminded about aspects of their lives that make them uncertain. It is therefore proposed that thinking about uncertainty should make fairness a more important issue to people. The findings of 3 experiments support this line of reasoning: Asking (vs. not asking) participants 2 questions that solicited their thoughts and feelings of being uncertain led to stronger effect, of perceived procedural fairness on participants' affective reactions toward the way they were treated. It is argued that these findings suggest that fairness matters to people especially when they are trying to deal with things that make them uncertain. An implication of the cur-rent findings therefore may be that fairness is important to people because it gives them an opportunity to manage uncertain aspects of their lives.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bos2001,
      author = {van den Bos, K},
      title = {Uncertainty management: The influence of uncertainty salience on reactions to perceived procedural fairness},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {80},
      number = {6},
      pages = {931-941},
      doi = {{10.1037//0022-3514.80.6.931}}
    }
    
    Brager, G. & de Dear, R. Thermal adaptation in the built environment: a literature review {1998} ENERGY AND BUILDINGS
    Vol. {27}({1}), pp. {83-96} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper presents the results of an extensive literature review on the topic of thermal adaptation in the built environment. The adaptive approach to modeling thermal comfort acknowledges that thermal perception in `real world' settings is influenced by the complexities of past thermal history and cultural and technical practices. An important premise of the adaptive model is that the person is no longer a passive recipient of the given thermal environment, but instead is an active agent interacting with the person-environment system via multiple feedback loops. Thermal adaptation can be attributed to three different processes-behavioral adjustment, physiological acclimatization and psychological habituation or expectation. Both climate chamber and field evidence indicates that the slower process of acclimatization is not so relevant to thermal adaptation in the relatively moderate conditions found in buildings, whereas behavioral adjustment and expectation have a much greater influence. One of the most important findings from our review of field evidence was the distinction between thermal comfort responses in air-conditioned vs. naturally ventilated buildings, most likely resulting from a combination of past thermal history in the buildings and differences in levels of perceived control. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science S.A.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brager1998,
      author = {Brager, GS and de Dear, RJ},
      title = {Thermal adaptation in the built environment: a literature review},
      journal = {ENERGY AND BUILDINGS},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {27},
      number = {1},
      pages = {83-96}
    }
    
    Brainerd, C., Wright, R., Reyna, V. & Mojardin, A. Conjoint recognition and phantom recollection {2001} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION
    Vol. {27}({2}), pp. {307-327} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: A new methodology for measuring illusory conscious experience of the ``presentation'' of unstudied material (phantom recollection) is evaluated that extracts measurements directly from recognition responses, rather than indirectly from introspective reports. Application of this methodology in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Experiments 1 and 2) and in a more conventional paradigm (Experiment 3) showed that 2 processes (phantom recollection and familiarity) contribute to false recognition of semantically related distractors. Phantom recollection was the larger contributor to false recognition of critical distractors in the DRM paradigm, but surprisingly, it was also the larger contributor to false recognition of other types of distractors. Variability in false recognition was tied to variability in phantom recollection. Experimental control of phantom recollection was achieved with manipulations that were motivated by fuzzy-trace theory's hypothesis that the phenomenon is gist-based.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brainerd2001,
      author = {Brainerd, CJ and Wright, R and Reyna, VF and Mojardin, AH},
      title = {Conjoint recognition and phantom recollection},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {27},
      number = {2},
      pages = {307-327},
      doi = {{10.1037//0278-7393.27.2.307}}
    }
    
    Breen, C., Abernethy, A., Abbott, K. & Tulsky, J. Conflict associated with decisions to limit life-sustaining treatment in intensive care units {2001} JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE
    Vol. {16}({5}), pp. {283-289} 
    article  
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and nature of interpersonal conflicts that arise when patients in the intensive care unit are considered for limitation of life-sustaining treatment. DESIGN: Qualitative analysis of prospectively gathered interviews. SETTING: Six intensive care units at a university medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Semistructured interviews addressed disagreement during life-sustaining treatment decision making. Two raters coded transcripts of the audiotaped interviews. MAIN RESULTS: At least 1 health care provider in 78% of the cases described a situation coded as conflict. Conflict occurred between the staff and family members in 48% of the cases, among staff members in 48 and among family members in 24 In 63% of the cases, conflict arose over the decision about life-sustaining treatment itself. In 45% of the cases, conflict occurred over other tasks such as communication and pain control. Social issues caused conflict in 19% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Conflict is more prevalent in the setting of intensive care decision making than has previously been demonstrated. While conflict over the treatment decision itself is most common, conflict over other issues, including social issues, is also significant. By identifying conflict and by recognizing that the treatment decision may not be the only conflict present, or even the main one, clinicians may address conflict more constructively.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Breen2001,
      author = {Breen, CM and Abernethy, AP and Abbott, KH and Tulsky, JA},
      title = {Conflict associated with decisions to limit life-sustaining treatment in intensive care units},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE},
      publisher = {BLACKWELL SCIENCE INC},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {16},
      number = {5},
      pages = {283-289}
    }
    
    Breiter, H. & Rosen, B. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of brain reward circuitry in the human {1999}
    Vol. {877}ADVANCING FROM THE VENTRAL STRIATUM TO THE EXTENDED AMYGDALA - IMPLICATIONS FOR NEUROPSYCHIATRY AND DRUG ABUSE: IN HONOR OF LENNART HEIMER , pp. {523-547} 
    inproceedings  
    Abstract: To produce behavior, motivational states necessitate at least three fundamental operations, including (1) selection of objectives focused on goal-objects, (2) compilation of goal-object information, and (3) determination of physical plans for securing goal-objects. The second of these general operations has been theorized to involve three subprocesses: (a) feature detection and other perceptual processing of putative goal-object ``rewards,'' (b) valuation of goal-object worth in the context of potential hedonic deficit states, and (c) extraction of incidence and temporal data regarding the goal-object. A number of subcortical brain regions appear to be involved in these three informational subprocesses, in particular, the amygdala, sublenticular extended amygdala (SLEA) of the basal forebrain, and nucleus accumbens/subcallosal cortex (NAc/SCC), Components of the amygdala, SLEA, and NAc/SCC together constitute the larger anatomic structure of the extended amygdala, Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of humans have recently begun to localize these subcortical regions within the extended amygdala during specific experimental conditions. In this manuscript, two human cocaine- infusion studies and one cognitive psychology experiment are reviewed in relation to their pattern of fMRI activation within regions of the extended amygdala. Activation in the NAc/SCC, in particular, is evaluated in relation to a hypothesis that one function of the NAc/SCC and associated brain regions is the evaluation of goal-object incidence data for the computation of conditional probabilities regarding goal-object availability. Further work is warranted to test hypothesized functions for all regions within the extended amygdala and integrate them toward an understanding of motivated behavior.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Breiter1999,
      author = {Breiter, HC and Rosen, BR},
      title = {Functional magnetic resonance imaging of brain reward circuitry in the human},
      booktitle = {ADVANCING FROM THE VENTRAL STRIATUM TO THE EXTENDED AMYGDALA - IMPLICATIONS FOR NEUROPSYCHIATRY AND DRUG ABUSE: IN HONOR OF LENNART HEIMER },
      publisher = {NEW YORK ACAD SCIENCES},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {877},
      pages = {523-547},
      note = {Conference on Advancing from the Ventral Striatum to the Extended Amygdala - Implications for Neuropsychiatry and Drug Abuse-In Honor of Lennart Heimer, CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA, OCT 18-21, 1998}
    }
    
    Brendl, C., Markman, A. & Messner, C. How do indirect measures of evaluation work? Evaluating the inference of prejudice in the implicit association test {2001} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {81}({5}), pp. {760-773} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: There has been significant interest in indirect measures of attitudes like the Implicit Association Test (IAT), presumably because of the possibility of uncovering implicit prejudices. The authors derived a set of qualitative predictions for people's performance in the IAT on the basis of random walk models. These were supported in 3 experiments comparing clearly positive or negative categories to nonwords. They also provided evidence that participants shift their response criterion when doing the IAT. Because of these criterion shifts, a response pattern in the IAT can have multiple causes. Thus, it is not possible to infer a single cause (such as prejudice) from IAT results. A surprising additional result was that nonwords were treated as though they were evaluated more negatively than obviously negative items like insects, suggesting that low familiarity items may generate the pattern of data previously interpreted as evidence for implicit prejudice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brendl2001,
      author = {Brendl, CM and Markman, AB and Messner, C},
      title = {How do indirect measures of evaluation work? Evaluating the inference of prejudice in the implicit association test},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {81},
      number = {5},
      pages = {760-773},
      doi = {{10.1037//0022-3514.81.5.760}}
    }
    
    Brenner, V. Psychology of computer use .47. Parameters of Internet use, abuse and addiction: The first 90 days of the Internet usage survey {1997} PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORTS
    Vol. {80}({3, Part 1}), pp. {879-882} 
    article  
    Abstract: While the addictive potential of Internet usage is a topic that has attracted a great deal of attention, as yet little research has addressed this topic. Preliminary data from the Internet Usage Survey shows that most of the 563 users reported instances of Internet use interfering with other aspects of their lives, most commonly problems with managing time. A subgroup of users endorsed multiple usage-related problems, including several similar to those found in addictions. Younger users tended to have experienced more problems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brenner1997,
      author = {Brenner, V},
      title = {Psychology of computer use .47. Parameters of Internet use, abuse and addiction: The first 90 days of the Internet usage survey},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORTS},
      publisher = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORTS},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {80},
      number = {3, Part 1},
      pages = {879-882}
    }
    
    BROSSCHOT, J., BENSCHOP, R., GODAERT, G., DESMET, M., OLFF, M., HEIJNEN, C. & BALLIEUX, R. EFFECTS OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS ON DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION OF PERIPHERAL-BLOOD CELLS {1992} PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE
    Vol. {54}({4}), pp. {394-406} 
    article  
    Abstract: Fifty male subjects (aged 24 to 55 years) were subjected to a mild and potentially uncontrollable interpersonal stress situation. They were asked to solve a difficult puzzle. Subsequently they were requested to explain their solution to ``another subject,'' actually a confederate to the researchers. The confederate frustrated the subjects' explanation efforts. Care was taken that neither solving nor explaining of the puzzle was successful. The experimental situation induced mild psychological strain as documented by mood changes in the experimental group when compared with a control group of 36 male subjects. Peripheral blood was drawn by an indwelling catheter just before, directly after, 15 minutes after, and 30 minutes after the stress situation. Numbers of leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, T-cell subsets, natural killer (NK) cells, and B-cells were determined. As functional assays we used in vitro proliferative responses of T- and B-cells to mitogenic stimulation (PHA and PWM) and to an antigen cocktail. The potential influences of health- and biobehavioral variables were taken into account in the analyses, as well as incidental differences in initial mood or immunological baseline. The results replicated and expanded on previous research. In contrast to controls, experimental subjects showed a significant increase in numbers of NK cells after the stress-period, returning to baseline values after 15 minutes of rest. A similar effect was shown on T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells and, inversely, on T-helper/suppressor ratio, but these effects could be attributed to changes in the numbers of CD8+CD57+ cells. No effects were observed on proliferation. From the results we conclude that the effects of a short lasting mild psychological stressor are mainly restricted to cells of the NK cell population.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BROSSCHOT1992,
      author = {BROSSCHOT, JF and BENSCHOP, RJ and GODAERT, GLR and DESMET, MBM and OLFF, M and HEIJNEN, CJ and BALLIEUX, RE},
      title = {EFFECTS OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS ON DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION OF PERIPHERAL-BLOOD CELLS},
      journal = {PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE},
      publisher = {WILLIAMS & WILKINS},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {54},
      number = {4},
      pages = {394-406}
    }
    
    Buchel, C. & Dolan, R. Classical fear conditioning in functional neuroimaging {2000} CURRENT OPINION IN NEUROBIOLOGY
    Vol. {10}({2}), pp. {219-223} 
    article  
    Abstract: Classical conditioning, the simplest form of associative learning, is one of the most studied paradigms in behavioural psychology. Since the formal description of classical conditioning by Pavlov, lesion studies in animals have identified a number of anatomical structures involved in, and necessary for, classical conditioning, In the 1980s, with the advent of functional brain imaging techniques, particularly positron emission tomography (PET), it has been possible to study the functional anatomy of classical conditioning in humans. The development of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) - in particular single-trial or event-related fMRI - has now considerably advanced the potential of neuroimaging for the study of this form of learning. Recent event-related fMRI and PET studies are adding crucial data to the current discussion about the putative role of the amygdala in classical fear conditioning in humans.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Buchel2000,
      author = {Buchel, C and Dolan, RJ},
      title = {Classical fear conditioning in functional neuroimaging},
      journal = {CURRENT OPINION IN NEUROBIOLOGY},
      publisher = {CURRENT BIOLOGY LTD},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {10},
      number = {2},
      pages = {219-223}
    }
    
    Burgess, C. & Lund, K. Modelling parsing constraints with high-dimensional context space {1997} LANGUAGE AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES
    Vol. {12}({2-3}), pp. {177-210} 
    article  
    Abstract: Deriving representations of meaning has been a long-standing problem in cognitive psychology and psycholinguistics. The lack of a model for representing semantic and grammatical knowledge has been a handicap in attempting to model the effects of semantic constraints in human syntactic processing. A computational model of high-dimensional context space, the Hyperspace Analogue to Language (HAL), is presented with a series of simulations modelling a variety of human empirical results. HAL learns its representations from the unsupervised processing of 300 million words of conversational text. We propose that HAL's high-dimensional context space can be used to (1) provide a basic categorisation of semantic and grammatical concepts, (2) model certain aspects of morphological ambiguity in verbs, and (3) provide an account of semantic context effects in syntactic processing. We propose that the distributed and contextually derived representations that HAL acquires provide a basis for the subconceptual knowledge that can be used in accounting for a diverse set of cognitive phenomena.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Burgess1997,
      author = {Burgess, C and Lund, K},
      title = {Modelling parsing constraints with high-dimensional context space},
      journal = {LANGUAGE AND COGNITIVE PROCESSES},
      publisher = {PSYCHOLOGY PRESS},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {12},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {177-210}
    }
    
    BUSS, D. PSYCHOLOGICAL SEX-DIFFERENCES - ORIGINS THROUGH SEXUAL SELECTION {1995} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {50}({3}), pp. {164-168} 
    article  
    Abstract: Men and women clearly differ in some psychological domains. A. H. Eagly (1995) shows that these differences are not artifactual or unstable. Ideally, the next scientific step is to develop a cogent explanatory framework for understanding why the sexes differ in some psychological domains and not in others and for generating accurate predictions about sex differences as yet undiscovered. This article offers a brief outline of an explanatory framework for psychological sex differences-one that is anchored in the new theoretical paradigm of evolutionary psychology Men and women differ, in this view in domains in which they have faced different adaptive problems over human evolutionary history In all other domains, the sexes are predicted to be psychologically similar. Evolutionary psychology jettisons the false dichotomy between biology and environment and provides a powerful metatheory of why sex differences exist, where they exist, and in what contexts they are expressed (D. M Buss, 1995).
    BibTeX:
    @article{BUSS1995,
      author = {BUSS, DM},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SEX-DIFFERENCES - ORIGINS THROUGH SEXUAL SELECTION},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {50},
      number = {3},
      pages = {164-168}
    }
    
    Buss, D. & Shackelford, T. From vigilance to violence: Mate retention tactics in married couples {1997} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {72}({2}), pp. {346-361} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although much research has explored the adaptive problems of mate selection and mate attraction, little research has investigated the adaptive problem of mace retention. We tested several evolutionary psychological hypotheses about the determinants of mate retention in 214 married people. We assessed the usage of 19 mate retention tactics ranging from vigilance to violence. Key hypothesized findings include the following: Men's, but not women's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's youth and physical attractiveness. Women's, but not men's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's income and status striving. Men's mate retention positively covaried with perceived probability of partner's infidelity. Men, mon than women, reported using resource display, submission and debasement, and intrasexual threats to retain their mates. Women, more than men, reported using appearance enhancement and verbal signals of possession. Discussion includes an evolutionary psychological analysis of mate retention in married couples.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Buss1997,
      author = {Buss, DM and Shackelford, TK},
      title = {From vigilance to violence: Mate retention tactics in married couples},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {72},
      number = {2},
      pages = {346-361}
    }
    
    Buss, D., Shackelford, T., Kirkpatrick, L., Choe, J., Lim, H., Hasegawa, M., Hasegawa, T. & Bennett, K. Jealousy and the nature of beliefs about infidelity: Tests of competing hypotheses about sex differences in the United States, Korea, and Japan {1999} PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
    Vol. {6}({1}), pp. {125-150} 
    article  
    Abstract: The different adaptive problems faced by men and women over evolutionary history led evolutionary psychologists to hypothesize and discover sex differences in jealousy as a function of infidelity type. An alternative hypothesis proposes that beliefs about the conditional probabilities of sexual and emotional infidelity account for these sex differences Four studies tested these hypotheses Study 1 tested the hypotheses in an American sample (N = 1,122) by rendering the types of infidelity mutually exclusive. Study 2 tested the hypotheses in an American sample (N = 234) by asking participants to identify which aspect of infidelity was more upsetting when both forms occurred, and by using regression to identify the unique contributions of sex and beliefs. Study 3 replicated Study 2 in a Korean sample (N = 190). Study 4 replicated Study 2 in a Japanese sample (N = 316). Across the studies, the evolutionary hypothesis, but not the belief hypothesis, accounted for sex differences in jealousy when the types of infidelity are rendered mutually exclusive; sex differences in which aspect of infidelity is more upsetting when both occur; significant variance attributable to sex, after controlling for beliefs; sex-differentiated patterns of beliefs; and the cross-cultural prevalence of all these sex differences.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Buss1999,
      author = {Buss, DM and Shackelford, TK and Kirkpatrick, LA and Choe, JC and Lim, HK and Hasegawa, M and Hasegawa, T and Bennett, K},
      title = {Jealousy and the nature of beliefs about infidelity: Tests of competing hypotheses about sex differences in the United States, Korea, and Japan},
      journal = {PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS},
      publisher = {CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {125-150}
    }
    
    Buunk, B., Angleitner, A., Oubaid, V. & Buss, D. Sex differences in jealousy in evolutionary and cultural perspective: Tests from the Netherlands, Germany, and the United States {1996} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {7}({6}), pp. {359-363} 
    article  
    Abstract: As predicted by models derived from evolutionary psychology, men within the United States have been shown to exhibit greater psychological and physiological distress to sexual than to emotional infidelity of their partner, and women have been shown to exhibit more distress to emotional than to sexual infidelity. Because cross-cultural tests are critical for evolutionary hypotheses, we examined these sex differences in three parallel studies conducted in the Netherlands (N = 207), Germany (N = 200), and the United States (N = 224). Two key findings emerged. First, the sex differences in sexual jealousy are robust across these cultures, providing support for the evolutionary psychological model. Second, the magnitude of the sex differences varies somewhat across cultures-large for the United States, medium for Germany and the Netherlands. Discussion focuses on the evolutionary psychology of jealousy and on the sensitivity of sex differences in the sexual sphere to cultural input.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Buunk1996,
      author = {Buunk, BP and Angleitner, A and Oubaid, V and Buss, DM},
      title = {Sex differences in jealousy in evolutionary and cultural perspective: Tests from the Netherlands, Germany, and the United States},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      publisher = {CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {7},
      number = {6},
      pages = {359-363}
    }
    
    CABANAC, M. PLEASURE - THE COMMON CURRENCY {1992} JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL BIOLOGY
    Vol. {155}({2}), pp. {173-200} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{CABANAC1992,
      author = {CABANAC, M},
      title = {PLEASURE - THE COMMON CURRENCY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL BIOLOGY},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS LTD},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {155},
      number = {2},
      pages = {173-200}
    }
    
    Cacioppo, J., Berntson, G., Sheridan, J. & McClintock, M. Multilevel integrative analyses of human behavior: Social neuroscience and the complementing nature of social and biological approaches {2000} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {126}({6, Sp. Iss. SI}), pp. {829-843} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Social and biological explanations traditionally have been cast as incompatible, but advances in recent years have revealed a new view synthesized from these 2 very different levels of analysis. The authors review evidence underscoring the complementing nature of social and biological levels of analysis and how the 2 together can foster understanding of the mechanisms underlying complex behavior and the mind. Specifically, they review the utility of considering social influences on biological processes that are often viewed as outside the social domain including genetic constitution, gene expression, disease, and autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immune activity. This research underscores the unity of psychology and the importance of retaining multilevel integrative research that spans molar and molecular levels of analysis. Especially needed in the coming years is more research on the mechanisms linking social and biological events and processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cacioppo2000,
      author = {Cacioppo, JT and Berntson, GG and Sheridan, JF and McClintock, MK},
      title = {Multilevel integrative analyses of human behavior: Social neuroscience and the complementing nature of social and biological approaches},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {126},
      number = {6, Sp. Iss. SI},
      pages = {829-843},
      doi = {{10.1037//0033-2909.126.6.829}}
    }
    
    Calder, A., Burton, A., Miller, P., Young, A. & Akamatsu, S. A principal component analysis of facial expressions {2001} VISION RESEARCH
    Vol. {41}({9}), pp. {1179-1208} 
    article  
    Abstract: Pictures of facial expressions from the Ekman and Friesen set (Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., (1976). Pictures of facial affect. Pale Alto. California: Consulting Psychologists Press) were submitted to a principal component analysis (PCA) of their pixel intensities. The output of the PCA was submitted to a series of linear discriminant analyses which revealed three principal findings: (1) a PCA-based system can support facial expression recognition, (2) continuous two-dimensional models of emotion (e.g. Russell, J. A. (1980). A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 1161-1178) are reflected in the statistical structure of the Ekman and Friesen facial expressions, and (3) components for coding facial expression information are largely different to components for facial identity information. The implications for models of face processing are discussed. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Calder2001,
      author = {Calder, AJ and Burton, AM and Miller, P and Young, AW and Akamatsu, S},
      title = {A principal component analysis of facial expressions},
      journal = {VISION RESEARCH},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {41},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1179-1208}
    }
    
    Camara, W., Nathan, J. & Puente, A. Psychological test usage: Implications in professional psychology {2000} PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY-RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
    Vol. {31}({2}), pp. {141-154} 
    article  
    Abstract: Do psychological assessments require more time than third parties and managed care are willing to reimburse? A survey of clinical psychologists and neuropsychologists was conducted to evaluate the current uses of psychological assessment instruments. Respondents reported their use of tests for 8 different areas of assessment, the average time spent in performing various assessment services and other assessment practices. Results suggested that a majority of neuropsychologists devote a substantial portion of their time to assessment, but only 12% of clinical psychologists reported spending more than 10 hr in assessment-related practice each week. The authors describe the typical time required to administer, score, and interpret various tests and assessments; factors that affect the time required to conduct assessments; and provide a current ranking of the most frequently used assessments in clinical and neuropsychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Camara2000,
      author = {Camara, WJ and Nathan, JS and Puente, AE},
      title = {Psychological test usage: Implications in professional psychology},
      journal = {PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY-RESEARCH AND PRACTICE},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {31},
      number = {2},
      pages = {141-154}
    }
    
    Cao, X. & Liu, R. General approach to blind source separation {1996} IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING
    Vol. {44}({3}), pp. {562-571} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper identifies and studies two major issues in the blind source separation problem: separability and separation principles, We show that separability is an intrinsic property of the measured signals and can be described by the concept of m-row decomposability introduced in this paper; we also show that separation principles can be developed by using the structure characterization theory of random variables, In particular, we show that these principles can be derived concisely and intuitively by applying the Darmois-Skitovich theorem, which is well known in statistical inference theory and psychology. Some new insights are gained for designing blind source separation filters.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cao1996,
      author = {Cao, XR and Liu, RW},
      title = {General approach to blind source separation},
      journal = {IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING},
      publisher = {IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {44},
      number = {3},
      pages = {562-571}
    }
    
    Carlsmith, K., Darley, J. & Robinson, P. Why do we punish? Deterrence and just deserts as motives for punishment {2002} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {83}({2}), pp. {284-299} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: One popular justification for punishment is the just deserts rationale: A person deserves punishment proportionate to the moral wrong committed. A competing justification is the deterrence rationale: Punishing an offender reduces the frequency and likelihood of future offenses. The authors examined the motivation underlying laypeople's use of punishment for prototypical wrongs. Study 1 (N = 336) revealed high sensitivity to factors uniquely associated with the just deserts perspective (e.g., offense seriousness, moral trespass) and insensitivity to factors associated with deterrence (e.g.. likelihood of detection, offense frequency). Study 2 (N = 329) confirmed the proposed model through structural equation modeling (SEM). Study 3 (N = 351) revealed that despite strongly stated preferences for deterrence theory, individual sentencing decisions seemed driven exclusively by just deserts concerns.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Carlsmith2002,
      author = {Carlsmith, KM and Darley, JM and Robinson, PH},
      title = {Why do we punish? Deterrence and just deserts as motives for punishment},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {83},
      number = {2},
      pages = {284-299},
      doi = {{10.1037//0022-3514.83.2.284}}
    }
    
    CASCIO, W. WHITHER INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL-PSYCHOLOGY IN A CHANGING WORLD OF WORK {1995} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {50}({11}), pp. {928-939} 
    article  
    Abstract: Dramatic changes are affecting the world of work. Examples include increased global competition, the impact of information technology, the re-engineering of business processes, smaller companies that employ fewer people, the shift from making a product to providing a service, and the growing disappearance of `'the job'' as a fixed bundle of tasks. These trends are producing a redefinition of work itself They provide great opportunities for industrial and organizational psychologists to contribute to the betterment of human welfare. This article identifies 6 key areas in which to start:job analysis, employee selection, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation (including incentives), and organizational development. Relevant research in these areas can provide substantial payoffs for individuals, organizations, and society as psychology moves into the 21st century.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CASCIO1995,
      author = {CASCIO, WF},
      title = {WHITHER INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL-PSYCHOLOGY IN A CHANGING WORLD OF WORK},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {50},
      number = {11},
      pages = {928-939}
    }
    
    Chambers, C., Bellgrove, M., Stokes, M., Henderson, T., Garavan, H., Robertson, I., Morris, A. & Mattingley, J. Executive ``brake failure'' following deactivation of human frontal lobe {2006} JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {18}({3}), pp. {444-455} 
    article  
    Abstract: in the course of daily living, humans frequently encounter situations in which a motor activity, once initiated, becomes unnecessary or inappropriate. Under such circumstances, the ability to inhibit motor responses can be of vital importance. Although the nature of response inhibition has been studied in psychology for several decades, its neural basis remains unclear. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation, we found that temporary deactivation of the pars opercularis in the right inferior frontal gyrus selectively impairs the ability to stop an initiated action. Critically, deactivation of the same region did not affect the ability to execute responses, nor did it influence physiological arousal. These findings confirm and extend recent reports that the inferior frontal gyrus is vital for mediating response inhibition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chambers2006,
      author = {Chambers, CD and Bellgrove, MA and Stokes, MG and Henderson, TR and Garavan, H and Robertson, IH and Morris, AP and Mattingley, JB},
      title = {Executive ``brake failure'' following deactivation of human frontal lobe},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE},
      publisher = {M I T PRESS},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {18},
      number = {3},
      pages = {444-455}
    }
    
    Chan, D. & Schmitt, N. Video-based versus paper-and-pencil method of assessment in situational judgment tests: Subgroup differences in test performance and face validity perceptions {1997} JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {82}({1}), pp. {143-159} 
    article  
    Abstract: On the basis of a distinction between test content and method of testing, the present study examined several conceptually and practically important effects relating race, reading comprehension, method of assessment, face validity perceptions, and performance on a situational judgment test using a sample of 241 psychology undergraduates (113 Blacks and 128 Whites). Results showed that the Black-White differences in situational judgment test performance and face validity reactions to the test were substantially smaller in the video-based method of testing than in the paper-and-pencil method. The Race X Method interaction effect on test performance was attributable to differences in reading comprehension and face validity reactions associated with race and method of testing. Implications of the findings were discussed in the context of research on adverse impact and examinee test reactions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chan1997,
      author = {Chan, D and Schmitt, N},
      title = {Video-based versus paper-and-pencil method of assessment in situational judgment tests: Subgroup differences in test performance and face validity perceptions},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {82},
      number = {1},
      pages = {143-159}
    }
    
    CHANDLER, P. & SWELLER, J. THE SPLIT-ATTENTION EFFECT AS A FACTOR IN THE DESIGN OF INSTRUCTION {1992} BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {62}({Part 2}), pp. {233-246} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cognitive load theory suggests that many conventional instructional formats are ineffective as they involve extraneous cognitive activities, which interfere with learning. The split-attention effect provides one example of the consequences of inappropriate cognitive activities caused by poor instructional design. Learners are often forced to split their attention between and mentally integrate disparate sources of information (e.g., text and diagrams) before the instructional material can be rendered intelligible. This preliminary process of mental integration, while an essential precursor to learning, is likely to impose a heavy extraneous cognitive load. Physical integration (e.g., combining text and diagrams) may reduce cognitive load and so facilitate learning. This study reports findings from two experiments investigating the split-attention effect. Using an engineering programming language (Numerical Control programming), the first experiment investigated the possible advantage of physically integrating text and diagrams. In a normal training environment, the integrated instructions group outperformed the conventional group. Experiment 2 was designed to see if the split-attention effect would generalise to an area where mutually referring segments of text are conventionally separated, namely, empirical reports in psychology and education. In a laboratory study, Experiment 2 showed that students in an conventional group on test questions. The consequences of these results for cognitive load theory and for instruction design are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CHANDLER1992,
      author = {CHANDLER, P and SWELLER, J},
      title = {THE SPLIT-ATTENTION EFFECT AS A FACTOR IN THE DESIGN OF INSTRUCTION},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOC},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {62},
      number = {Part 2},
      pages = {233-246}
    }
    
    Chen, C., Greene, P. & Crick, A. Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers? {1998} JOURNAL OF BUSINESS VENTURING
    Vol. {13}({4}), pp. {295-316} 
    article  
    Abstract: Previous research on the psychology of entrepreneurs is found that personality traits such as locus of control failed to distinguish entrepreneurs front managers. In search of an individual characteristic that is distinctively entrepreneurial, we proposed an entrepreneurial self-efficacy construct (ESE) to predict the likelihood of an individual being an entrepreneur ESE refers to the strength of a person's belief that he or she is capable of successfully performing the various roles and tasks of entrepreneurship. It consists of five factors: marketing, innovation, management, risk-taking and financial control. We conducted two studies, one on students and the other on small business executives. Study I found that the total ESE score differentiated entrepreneurship students from students of both management and organizational psychology, and that across the three types of students, ESE was positively related to the intention to set up one's own business. We also found the entrepreneurship students to have higher self-efficacy in marketing, management, and financial control than the management and psychology students. In study 2, we simultaneously tested effects of ESE cad locus of control on the criteria of founders vs. nonfounders of current current businesses. After controlling for individual and company background variables, the effect of ESE scores was significant, but the effect of locus of control IL ns not. More specifically, it was found that business for founders had higher self-efficacy in innovation and risk-taking than did nonfounders. The results of this study demonstrate rile potential of entrepreneurial self-efficacy as a distinct characteristic of the entrepreneur Front these results, some important implications can he drawn non entrepreneurial assessment, education, counselling, and community intervention. First, ESE can be used to identify reasons for mtr entrepreneurial avoidance. There may be many individuals who shun entrepreneurial activities not because they, actually lack necessary skills brit because they believe they do. Tills is especially true for sectors of the population such Irs women or those minority groups who nle perceived as lacking entrepreneurial traditions. Communications and individuals could benefit from identifying sources of entrepreneurial avoidance by targeting their efforts toward enhancing ESE of particular groups or individuals for specific aspects of entrepreneurship. An additional rise of ESE is to identify areas of strength and weakness to assess the entrepreneurial potential of both an individual and a community. Once entrepreneurial potential is identified, resources can be channeled and more effectively used to promote entrepreneurship. Finally,, diagnosis and treatment of ESE can be performed on real entrepreneurs. The entrepreneur may be completely avoiding, or performing forming less frequently: certain critical entrepreneurial activities because s/he lacks self-efficacy. For example the entrepreneur may be avoiding company growth for fear of losing control. Identification and removal of self-doubt will enable the entrepreneur to be actively engaged ill entrepreneurial tasks, more persistent in the face of difficulty and setbacks, and more confident in meeting challenges. Overall, ESE is a moderately stable belief and requires systematic miti continuous efforts to be changed Two broad approaches call be taken toward desired change. One is the micro-approach that directly focuses or people's beliefs. fn designing and conducting entrepreneurship courses, training institutions should not just train students in critical entrepreneurial skills and capabilities but also strengthen their entrepreneurial self-efficacy. The current state of entrepreneurial, courses in most management schools may fall short in both respects. Courses focus on commonly identified management skills, brit of the ignore entrepreneurial skills such as innovation and risk-taking. Furthermore, the teaching of entrepreneurial skills skills tends to be technical, with insufficient attention paid to the cognition and belief systems of the entrepreneur. Educators should take into account entrepreneurial attitudes and perceptions when designing or assessing their. course objectives Conscious efforts could be made to enhance ESE by involving the students in ``real-life'' business design or community small business assistance by inviting successful entrepreneurs to lecture, and by verbal persuasion from the instructor and renowned entrepreneurs. The second approach to enhancing ESE is to work on the environment of potential and actual entrepreneurs. According to the reciprocal causation model, the environment may affect self-efficacy not only directly but also indirectly through performance. An environment perceived to be more supportive will increase entrepreneurial self-efficacy because individuals assess their entrepreneurial capacities in reference to perceived results opportunities, and obstacles existing in the environment. Personal efficacy is more likely to be developed and sustained in a supportive environment than in an adverse one. A supportive environment is also more likely to breed entrepreneurial success, which in turn further enhances entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Communities can work toward creating an efficacy enhancing environment by making resources both available and visible, publicizing entrepreneurial successes, increasing the diversity of opportunities, and avoiding policies that create real or perceived obstacles. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chen1998,
      author = {Chen, CC and Greene, PG and Crick, A},
      title = {Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF BUSINESS VENTURING},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {13},
      number = {4},
      pages = {295-316}
    }
    
    CHISHOLM, J. DEATH, HOPE, AND SEX - LIFE-HISTORY THEORY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES {1993} CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY
    Vol. {34}({1}), pp. {1-24} 
    article  
    Abstract: ManY social scientists reject evolutionary views of human behavior because of their supposed genetic determinism. To establish that not all evolutionary models are inherently deterministic, I first review the perennial adaptationist-mechanist controversy in evolutionary biology. I then outline life-history theory, a burgeoning field of biology devoted to the study of reproduction, growth and development, and ecology in an evolutionary context. I undertake next to show how life-history theory can provide a satisfactory resolution to the adaptationist-mechanist debate. Combining Promislow and Harvey's arguments about the role of mortality rates in the evolution of life-history traits with Belsky, Steinberg, and Draper's attachment-theory model of the development of alternative reproductive strategies in humans, I propose that the allocation of reproductive (''mating'' and `'parenting'') effort in adults may be partially contingent on their early experience with the causes and correlates of local high death rates. I conclude with a discussion of some implications of this proposal for the emerging field of evolutionary psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CHISHOLM1993,
      author = {CHISHOLM, JS},
      title = {DEATH, HOPE, AND SEX - LIFE-HISTORY THEORY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES},
      journal = {CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY},
      publisher = {UNIV CHICAGO PRESS},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {34},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-24},
      note = {INTERNATIONAL SYMP ON THE POLITICS OF REPRODUCTION, TERESOPOLIS, BRAZIL, NOV 01-09, 1991}
    }
    
    Chorpita, B., Yim, L., Moffitt, C., Umemoto, L. & Francis, S. Assessment of symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety and depression in children: a revised child anxiety and depression scale {2000} BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY
    Vol. {38}({8}), pp. {835-855} 
    article  
    Abstract: The practical significance of assessing disorders of emotion in children is well documented, yet few scales exist that possess conceptual if not empirical relevance to dimensions of DSM anxiety or depressive disorders. The current study evaluated an adaptation of a recently developed anxiety measure (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale; [Spence, S. H. (1997). Structure of anxiety symptoms among children: a confirmatory factor-analytic study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 280-297; Spence, S. H. (1998). A measure of anxiety symptoms among children. Behaviour Research ann Therapy, 36, 545-566]), revised to correspond to dimensions of several DSM-IV anxiety disorders as well as major depression. This investigation involved initial evaluation of the factorial validity of the revised measure in a school sample of 1641 children and adolescents and reliability and validity in an independent sample of 246 children and adolescents. Results yielded an item set and factor definitions that demonstrated structure consistent with DSM-IV anxiety disorders and depression. The revised factor structure and definitions were further supported by the reliability and validity analyses. Some implications for assessment of childhood anxiety and depressive disorders are discussed. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chorpita2000,
      author = {Chorpita, BF and Yim, L and Moffitt, C and Umemoto, LA and Francis, SE},
      title = {Assessment of symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety and depression in children: a revised child anxiety and depression scale},
      journal = {BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {38},
      number = {8},
      pages = {835-855}
    }
    
    Chua, S., Chen, D. & Wong, A. Computer anxiety and its correlates: a meta-analysis {1999} COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {15}({5}), pp. {609-623} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this study we report results from a meta-analysis of relationships between computer anxiety and its three correlates-age, gender, and computer experience. Only studies published between 1990 and 1996 were included in the analysis. Findings of this meta-analysis are: (1) female university undergraduates are generally more anxious than male undergraduates, but the strength of this relationship is not conclusive; (2) instruments measuring computer anxiety are generally reliable, but not compatible with one another; and (3) computer anxiety is inversely related to computer experience, but the strength of this relationship remains inconclusive. Limitations of the methodology and implications of the findings are discussed. Directions for future studies are suggested. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chua1999,
      author = {Chua, SL and Chen, DT and Wong, AFL},
      title = {Computer anxiety and its correlates: a meta-analysis},
      journal = {COMPUTERS IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {15},
      number = {5},
      pages = {609-623}
    }
    
    CICCHETTI, D. THE RELIABILITY OF PEER-REVIEW FOR MANUSCRIPT AND GRANT SUBMISSIONS - A CROSS-DISCIPLINARY INVESTIGATION {1991} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {14}({1}), pp. {119-134} 
    article  
    Abstract: The reliability of peer review of scientific documents and the evaluative criteria scientists apply to judge the work of their peers are critically re-examined with special attention to the consistently low levels of reliability that have been reported. Referees of grant proposals agree much more about what is unworthy of support than about what does have scientific value. In the case of manuscript submissions this seems to depend on whether a discipline (or subfield) is general and diffuse (e.g., cross disciplinary physics, general fields of medicine, cultural anthropology, social psychology) or specific and well defined (e.g. nuclear physics, medical speciality areas, physical anthropoloty, and behavioral neuroscience). In the former there is likewise substantially more agreement on rejection than acceptance, but in the latter both the wide differential in manuscript rejection rates and the high correlation between referee recommendations and editorial decisions suggests that reviewers and editors agree more on acceptance than on rejection. Several suggestions are made for improving the reliability and quality of peer review. Further research is needed, especially in the physical sciences.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CICCHETTI1991,
      author = {CICCHETTI, DV},
      title = {THE RELIABILITY OF PEER-REVIEW FOR MANUSCRIPT AND GRANT SUBMISSIONS - A CROSS-DISCIPLINARY INVESTIGATION},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      publisher = {CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {14},
      number = {1},
      pages = {119-134}
    }
    
    CLAUSEN, J. ADOLESCENT COMPETENCE AND THE SHAPING OF THE LIFE COURSE {1991} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY
    Vol. {96}({4}), pp. {805-842} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{CLAUSEN1991,
      author = {CLAUSEN, JS},
      title = {ADOLESCENT COMPETENCE AND THE SHAPING OF THE LIFE COURSE},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY},
      publisher = {UNIV CHICAGO PRESS},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {96},
      number = {4},
      pages = {805-842}
    }
    
    Compas, B., Haaga, D., Keefe, F., Leitenberg, H. & Williams, D. Sampling of empirically supported psychological treatments from health psychology: Smoking, chronic pain, cancer, and bulimia nervosa {1998} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {66}({1}), pp. {89-112} 
    article  
    Abstract: Interventions in health psychology and behavioral medicine represent an integral area of research for the development of psychological therapies to enhance health behaviors, manage symptoms and sequelae of disease, treat psychological symptoms and disorders, prolong survival in the face of a life-threatening illness, and improve quality of life. A sampling of interventions in health psychology and behavioral medicine is offered that meet the criteria for empirically supported treatments for smoking cessation, chronic pain, cancer, and bulimia nervosa. Evidence for empirically supported treatments is identified, along with promising interventions that do not yet meet the criteria as outlined by D. L. Chambless and S. D. Hollon (1998). Evidence for the effectiveness and clinical significance of these interventions is reviewed, and issues in this area of research are outlined.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Compas1998,
      author = {Compas, BE and Haaga, DAF and Keefe, FJ and Leitenberg, H and Williams, DA},
      title = {Sampling of empirically supported psychological treatments from health psychology: Smoking, chronic pain, cancer, and bulimia nervosa},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {66},
      number = {1},
      pages = {89-112}
    }
    
    COMPAS, B., HINDEN, B. & GERHARDT, C. ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT - PATHWAYS AND PROCESSES OF RISK AND RESILIENCE {1995} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {46}, pp. {265-293} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{COMPAS1995,
      author = {COMPAS, BE and HINDEN, BR and GERHARDT, CA},
      title = {ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT - PATHWAYS AND PROCESSES OF RISK AND RESILIENCE},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS INC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {46},
      pages = {265-293}
    }
    
    COOKE, N. VARIETIES OF KNOWLEDGE ELICITATION TECHNIQUES {1994} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES
    Vol. {41}({6}), pp. {801-849} 
    article  
    Abstract: Information on knowledge elicitation methods is widely scattered across the fields of psychology, business management, education, counseling, cognitive science, linguistics, philosophy, knowledge engineering and anthropology. The purpose of this review is to (1) identify knowledge elicitation techniques and the associated bibliographic information, (2) organize the techniques into categories on the basis of methodological similarity, and (3) summarize for each category of techniques strengths, weaknesses, and recommended applications. The review is intended to provide a starting point for those interested in applying or developing knowledge elicitation techniques, as well as for those more generally interested in exploring the scope of the available methodology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{COOKE1994,
      author = {COOKE, NJ},
      title = {VARIETIES OF KNOWLEDGE ELICITATION TECHNIQUES},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS (LONDON) LTD},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {41},
      number = {6},
      pages = {801-849}
    }
    
    COTE, J., SALMELA, J., BARIA, A. & RUSSELL, S. ORGANIZING AND INTERPRETING UNSTRUCTURED QUALITATIVE DATA {1993} SPORT PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {7}({2}), pp. {127-137} 
    article  
    Abstract: In die last several years there has been an increase in the amount of qualitative research using in-depth interviews and comprehensive content analyses in sport psychology. However, no explicit method has been provided to deal with the large amount of unstructured data. This article provides common guidelines for organizing and interpreting unstructured data. Two main operations are suggested and discussed: first, coding meaningful text segments, or creating tags, and second, regrouping similar text segments, or creating categories. Furthermore, software programs for the microcomputer are presented as a way to facilitate the organization and interpretation of qualitative data.
    BibTeX:
    @article{COTE1993,
      author = {COTE, J and SALMELA, JH and BARIA, A and RUSSELL, SJ},
      title = {ORGANIZING AND INTERPRETING UNSTRUCTURED QUALITATIVE DATA},
      journal = {SPORT PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {HUMAN KINETICS PUBL INC},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {127-137}
    }
    
    COX, W. & CATT, V. PRODUCTIVITY RATINGS OF GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN PSYCHOLOGY BASED ON PUBLICATION IN JOURNALS OF AMERICAN-PSYCHOLOGICAL-ASSOCIATION {1977} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {32}({10}), pp. {793-813} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{COX1977,
      author = {COX, WM and CATT, V},
      title = {PRODUCTIVITY RATINGS OF GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN PSYCHOLOGY BASED ON PUBLICATION IN JOURNALS OF AMERICAN-PSYCHOLOGICAL-ASSOCIATION},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1977},
      volume = {32},
      number = {10},
      pages = {793-813}
    }
    
    Crabbe, J. Genetic contributions to addiction {2002} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {53}, pp. {435-462} 
    article  
    Abstract: Even the most extreme environmentalists along the nature-nurture continuum in psychology now acknowledge that genes often contribute to individual differences in behavior. Behavioral traits are complex, reflecting the aggregate effects of many genes. These genetic effects are interactive, inter se and with the environments in which they are expressed. Human studies of addictive behaviors have clearly implicated both environmental and genetic influences. This review selects drug dependence as a paradigmatic addiction, and further, concentrates on the extensive literature with genetic animal models. Both traditional studies with inbred strains and selected lines and studies exploiting the new molecularly based technologies of the genomics era are discussed. Future directions for further contribution of animal models studies to our understanding of the brain dysregulations characteristic of addictions are identified.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Crabbe2002,
      author = {Crabbe, JC},
      title = {Genetic contributions to addiction},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {53},
      pages = {435-462}
    }
    
    Crowley, T., Macdonald, M., Whitmore, E. & Mikulich, S. Cannabis dependence, withdrawal, and reinforcing effects among adolescents with conduct symptoms and substance use disorders {1998} DRUG AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE
    Vol. {50}({1}), pp. {27-37} 
    article  
    Abstract: The prevalence of cannabis use is rising among adolescents, many of whom perceive little risk from cannabis. However, clinicians who treat adolescent substance users hear frequent reports of serious cannabis-use disorders and problems. This study asked whether cannabis produced dependence and withdrawal among such patients, and whether patients' reports supported previous laboratory findings of reinforcing effects from cannabis. This was a screening and diagnostic study of serial treatment admissions. The diagnostic standard was the DSM-III-R dependence criteria, and the setting was a university-based adolescent substance treatment program with male residential and female outpatient services. The patients were 165 males and 64, females from consecutive samples of 255 male and 85 female 13-19-year-olds referred for substance and conduct problems (usually from social service or criminal justice agencies). Eighty-seven patients were not evaluated, usually due to early elopement. Twenty-four others did not meet study admission criteria: greater than or equal to one dependence diagnoses and greater than or equal to three lifetime conduct-disorder symptoms. The main measures were items from diagnostic interview instruments for substance dependence, psychiatric disorders, and patterns of substance use. Diagnoses were substance dependence, 100 current conduct disorder, 82.1 major depression, 17.5 attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: 14.8 The results show that most patients claimed serious problems from cannabis, and 78.6% met standard adult criteria for cannabis dependence. Two-thirds of cannabis-dependent patients reported withdrawal. Progression from first to regular cannabis use was as rapid as tobacco progression, and more rapid than that of alcohol, suggesting that cannabis is a reinforcer. The data indicate that for adolescents with conduct problems cannabis use is not benign, and that the drug potently reinforces cannabis-taking, producing both dependence and withdrawal. However, findings from this severely affected clinical population should not be generalized broadly to all other adolescents. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Crowley1998,
      author = {Crowley, TJ and Macdonald, MJ and Whitmore, EA and Mikulich, SK},
      title = {Cannabis dependence, withdrawal, and reinforcing effects among adolescents with conduct symptoms and substance use disorders},
      journal = {DRUG AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCI IRELAND LTD},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {50},
      number = {1},
      pages = {27-37},
      note = {National Marijuana Conference of the National-Institute-on-Drug-Abuse, WASHINGTON, D.C., JUL 20, 1995}
    }
    
    Culbertson, F. Depression and gender - An international review {1997} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {52}({1}), pp. {25-31} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article reviews and updates major research findings on depressive disorders and gender relationships in the United States and abroad. It also considers some of the World Health Organization's assessment instruments that may clarify the relationship between depression and gender and its cross-cultural ramifications. With psychology converging across national boundaries and with gender being a variable in psychological research both nationally and internationally, gender and its relationship to depressive states is emerging as a focal point of interest and concern.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Culbertson1997,
      author = {Culbertson, FM},
      title = {Depression and gender - An international review},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {52},
      number = {1},
      pages = {25-31},
      note = {103rd Annual Convention of the American-Psychological-Association, NEW YORK, NY, AUG 11-15, 1995}
    }
    
    CULLUM, C., HARRIS, J., WALDO, M., SMERNOFF, E., MADISON, A., NAGAMOTO, H., GRIFFITH, J., ADLER, L. & FREEDMAN, R. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR ATTENTIONAL DYSFUNCTION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA {1993} SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH
    Vol. {10}({2}), pp. {131-141} 
    article  
    Abstract: The behavior of the P50 wave of the auditory evoked potential in a paired stimulus or conditioning-testing paradigm has been used as a measure of sensory gating disturbance in schizophrenia. Schizophrenics fail to decrement the P50 response to the second stimulus of the pair, so that the ratio of the test to the conditioning amplitude is elevated over normal values. The aim of this study was to compare this neurophysiological measure to neuropsychological measures of attention and memory. As expected, schizophrenics performed worse than controls on most measures. The time to complete a digit cancellation test, a measure of sustained attention, was found to be particularly longer in schizophrenics than in control subjects. Furthermore, the increased time to complete this task correlated with the increased ratio of the amplitude of the test P50 response to the conditioning response in the schizophrenics. Thus, a neurophysiological defect in sensory gating may relate to a disorder in sustained attention in schizophrenia. Although the P50 wave may come from the hippocampus, neuropsychological measures of verbal learning and memory were not correlated with alterations in the P50 ratio.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CULLUM1993,
      author = {CULLUM, CM and HARRIS, JG and WALDO, MC and SMERNOFF, E and MADISON, A and NAGAMOTO, HT and GRIFFITH, J and ADLER, LE and FREEDMAN, R},
      title = {NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR ATTENTIONAL DYSFUNCTION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA},
      journal = {SCHIZOPHRENIA RESEARCH},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {10},
      number = {2},
      pages = {131-141}
    }
    
    Cumming, G. & Finch, S. Inference by eye - Confidence intervals and how to read pictures of data {2005} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {60}({2}), pp. {170-180} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Wider use in psychology of confidence intervals (CIs), especially as error bars in figures, is a desirable development. However, psychologists seldom use CIs and may not understand them well. The authors discuss the interpretation of figures with error bars and analyze the relationship between CIs and statistical significance testing. They propose 7 rules of eye to guide the inferential use of figures with error bars. These include general principles: Seek bars that relate directly to effects of interest, be sensitive to experimental design, and interpret the intervals. They also include guidelines for inferential interpretation of the overlap of CIs on independent group means. Wider use of interval estimation in psychology has the potential to improve research communication substantially.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cumming2005,
      author = {Cumming, G and Finch, S},
      title = {Inference by eye - Confidence intervals and how to read pictures of data},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {60},
      number = {2},
      pages = {170-180},
      doi = {{10.1037/0003-066X.60.2.170}}
    }
    
    Cumming, G. & Finch, S. A primer on the understanding, use, and calculation of confidence intervals that are based on central and noncentral distributions {2001} EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT
    Vol. {61}({4}), pp. {532-574} 
    article  
    Abstract: Reform of statistical practice in the social and behavioral sciences requires wider use of confidence intervals (CIs), effect size measures, and meta-analysis. The authors discuss four reasons for promoting use of CIs: They (a) are readily interpretable, (b) are linked to familiar statistical significance tests, (c) can encourage meta-analytic thinking, and (d) give information about precision. The authors discuss calculation of Cls for a basic standardized effect size measure, Cohen's delta (also known as Cohen's d), and contrast these with the familiar CIs for original score means. CIs for delta require use of noncentral t distributions, which the authors apply also to statistical power and simple meta-analysis of standardized effect sizes. They provide the ESCI graphical software, which runs under Microsoft Excel, to illustrate the discussion. Wider use of CIs for delta and other effect size measures should help promote highly desirable reform of statistical practice in the social sciences.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cumming2001,
      author = {Cumming, G and Finch, S},
      title = {A primer on the understanding, use, and calculation of confidence intervals that are based on central and noncentral distributions},
      journal = {EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {61},
      number = {4},
      pages = {532-574}
    }
    
    DAIGNEAULT, S. & BRAUN, C. WORKING-MEMORY AND THE SELF-ORDERED POINTING TASK - FURTHER EVIDENCE OF EARLY PREFRONTAL DECLINE IN NORMAL AGING {1993} JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {15}({6}), pp. {881-895} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two major lines of investigation are currently clarifying the nature of the impairment of working memory associated with normal aging. Cognitive psychology has formulated the problem in terms such as the balance of impairment of encoding, retrieval, storage and/or attention, whereas neuropsychology has formulated the problem in terms such as the balance of frontal (executive) versus temporal (mnemonic) degeneration. The findings of this study support the contention that the primary impairment of working memory in early normal aging is an active attentional executive processing deficit. Specifically, on the Self-Ordered Pointing Task, there is significantly ineffective exploitation of top-down clustering strategy as a function of aging. On this task, self-organization of encoding and retrieval must occur simultaneously with ongoing responding. The finding cannot be explained as an impairment of encoding, retrieval, storage, or build-up and/or release of proactive interference, since indexes of these did not discriminate young-adult from middle-aged samples.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DAIGNEAULT1993,
      author = {DAIGNEAULT, S and BRAUN, CMJ},
      title = {WORKING-MEMORY AND THE SELF-ORDERED POINTING TASK - FURTHER EVIDENCE OF EARLY PREFRONTAL DECLINE IN NORMAL AGING},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {SWETS ZEITLINGER PUBLISHERS},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {15},
      number = {6},
      pages = {881-895}
    }
    
    DALY, M. & WILSON, M. EVOLUTIONARY SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY AND FAMILY HOMICIDE {1988} SCIENCE
    Vol. {242}({4878}), pp. {519-524} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{DALY1988,
      author = {DALY, M and WILSON, M},
      title = {EVOLUTIONARY SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY AND FAMILY HOMICIDE},
      journal = {SCIENCE},
      publisher = {AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {242},
      number = {4878},
      pages = {519-524}
    }
    
    Davison, K., Pennebaker, J. & Dickerson, S. Who talks? The social psychology of illness support groups {2000} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {55}({2}), pp. {205-217} 
    article  
    Abstract: More Americans try to change their health behaviors through self-help than through all other forms of professionally designed programs. Mutual support groups, involving little or no cost to participants, have a powerful effect on mental and physical health, yet little is known about patterns of support group participation in health care. What kinds of illness experiences prompt patients to seek each other's company? In art effort to observe social comparison processes with real-world relevance, support group participation was measured for 20 disease categories in 4 metropolitan areas (New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Dallas) and on 2 on-line forums. Support seeking was highest for diseases viewed as stigmatizing (e.g., AIDS, alcoholism, breast and prostate cancer) and was lowest for less embarrassing but equally devastating disorders, such as heart disease. The authors discuss implications for social comparison theory and its applications in health care.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Davison2000,
      author = {Davison, KP and Pennebaker, JW and Dickerson, SS},
      title = {Who talks? The social psychology of illness support groups},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {55},
      number = {2},
      pages = {205-217}
    }
    
    Deacon, D., Hewitt, S., Yang, C. & Nagata, M. Event-related potential indices of semantic priming using masked and unmasked words: evidence that the N400 does not reflect a post-lexical process {2000} COGNITIVE BRAIN RESEARCH
    Vol. {9}({2}), pp. {137-146} 
    article  
    Abstract: Several authors have contended that the N400 is a reflection of a post-lexical event such as that proposed by Neely and Keefe [J.H. Neely, D.E. Keefe, Semantic context effects on visual word processing: a hybrid prospective/retrospective processing theory, in: G.H. Bower (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, Vol. 23, Academic Press, New York, 1989, pp. 207-248.], whereby the subject compares the word on the current trial to the ``context'' provided by the word on the preceding trial [M. Besson, M. Kutas, The many facets of repetition: A cued-recall and event-related potential analysis of repeating words in same versus different sentence contexts, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 19 (5) (1993), 1115-1133; C. Brown, P. Hagoort, The processing nature of the N400: Evidence from masked priming. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 5(1) (1993), 34-44; P.J. Holcomb, Semantic priming and stimulus degradation: Implications for the role of the N400 in language processing, Psychophysiology 30 (1993), 47-61; M.D. Rugg, M.C. Doyle, Event-related potentials and stimulus repetition in indirect and direct tests of memory, in: H. Heinze, T. Munte, G.R. Mangun (Eds), Cognitive Electrophysiology, Birkhauser Boston, Cambridge, MA, 1994]. A study which used masked primes to directly test this possibility has been reported by Brown and Hagoort [C. Brown, P. Hagoort, The processing nature of the N400: evidence from masked priming. Journal of Cognitive :Neuroscience, 5(1) (1993), 34-44]. When the primes were masked, no priming effect was observed on the N400. When behavioral data were collected in the same paradigm, from another group of subjects, the usual priming effect on RT was obtained. Considered together, the data from the two groups of subjects indicated that activation of semantic representations had occurred without conscious awareness. As no N400 priming effect was observed, it was suggested that N400 must reflect a post-lexical process. This interpretation, however, is at odds with the findings of other studies which have reported N400 priming effects under conditions where post-lexical processes would not be thought to operate[J. Anderson, P. Holcomb, Auditory and visual semantic priming using different stimulus onset asynchronies: an event-related brain potential study. Psychophysiology 32 (1995), 177-190; J. Boddy, Event-related potentials in chronometric analysis of primed word recognition with different stimulus onset asynchronies, Psychophysiology 23 (1986), 232-245; D. Deacon, T. Uhm, W. Ritter, S. Hewitt, The lifetime of automatic priming effects may exceed two seconds, Cognitive Brain Research 7 (1999), 465-472; P.J. Holcomb, Automatic and attentional process: an event-related brain potential analysis of semantic priming. Brain and Language 35 (1998) 66-85]. The present study replicated Brown and Hagoort using a repeated measures design, a shorter SOA (stimulus onset asynchrony), and a slightly different threshold setting procedure. Significant priming effects were obtained on the mean amplitude of the N400 regardless of whether the words were masked or unmasked. The findings imply that the processing subserving the N400 is not postlexical, since the N400 was manipulated without the subjects being aware of the identity of the words. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Deacon2000,
      author = {Deacon, D and Hewitt, S and Yang, CM and Nagata, M},
      title = {Event-related potential indices of semantic priming using masked and unmasked words: evidence that the N400 does not reflect a post-lexical process},
      journal = {COGNITIVE BRAIN RESEARCH},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {9},
      number = {2},
      pages = {137-146}
    }
    
    DEAUX, K. RECONSTRUCTING SOCIAL IDENTITY {1993} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {19}({1}), pp. {4-12} 
    article  
    Abstract: As a concept with a tradition in both social and personality psychology, identity lends itself to a variety of interpretations. In the present analysis, identity refers to social categories in which an individual claims membership as well as the personal meaning associated with those categories. Four key issues for research are discussed: (a) the structure and interrelationships among multiple identities, (b) the several functions that identities serve, (c) the importance of context to the development and enactment of identities, and (d) the need for longitudinal studies of identity change.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DEAUX1993,
      author = {DEAUX, K},
      title = {RECONSTRUCTING SOCIAL IDENTITY},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {19},
      number = {1},
      pages = {4-12}
    }
    
    DEFFENBACHER, J., OETTING, E. & LYNCH, R. DEVELOPMENT OF A DRIVING ANGER SCALE {1994} PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORTS
    Vol. {74}({1}), pp. {83-91} 
    article  
    Abstract: A cluster analysis of responses from more than 1500 college students to 53 potentially angering driving-related situations yielded a 33-item driving anger scale (alpha reliability = .90) with six reliable subscales involving hostile gestures, illegal driving, police presence, slow driving, discourtesy, and traffic obstructions. Sub-scales all correlated positively, suggesting a general dimension of driving anger as well as anger related to specific driving-related situations. Men were more angered by police presence and slow driving whereas women were more angered by illegal behavior and traffic obstructions, but differences compensated so there were no gender differences on total score. A 14-item short form (alpha reliability = .80) was developed from scores more highly correlated (r = .95) with scores on the long form. Driving anger may have potential value for research on accident prevention and health psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DEFFENBACHER1994,
      author = {DEFFENBACHER, JL and OETTING, ER and LYNCH, RS},
      title = {DEVELOPMENT OF A DRIVING ANGER SCALE},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORTS},
      publisher = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORTS},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {74},
      number = {1},
      pages = {83-91}
    }
    
    DeSteno, D. & Salovey, P. Evolutionary origins of sex differences in jealousy? Questioning the `'fitness'' of the model {1996} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {7}({6}), pp. {367-372} 
    article  
    Abstract: Evolutionary psychology has become a popular framework for studying jealousy. Much of this popularity can be attributed to work by Buss and his colleagues showing an apparent relation between an individual's sex and jealousy for certain types of infidelity (i.e., sexual vs. emotional) that is consistent with evolutionary theory (Buss, Larsen, Westen, & Semmelroth, 1992). In two studies, we take issue with these findings and argue that the relation between sex and jealousy reported by Buss and his colleagues is more properly explained by considering individuals' beliefs concerning the covariation between sexual and emotional infidelity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DeSteno1996,
      author = {DeSteno, DA and Salovey, P},
      title = {Evolutionary origins of sex differences in jealousy? Questioning the `'fitness'' of the model},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      publisher = {CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {7},
      number = {6},
      pages = {367-372},
      note = {7th Annual Convention of the American-Psychological-Society, NEW YORK, NY, JUN, 1995}
    }
    
    Di Tella, R., MacCulloch, R. & Oswald, A. The macroeconomics of happiness {2003} REVIEW OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS
    Vol. {85}({4}), pp. {809-827} 
    article  
    Abstract: We show that macroeconomic movements have strong effects on the happiness of nations. First, we find that there are clear microeconomic patterns in the psychological well-being levels of a quarter of a million randomly sampled Europeans and Americans from the 1970s to the 1990s. Happiness equations are monotonically increasing in income, and have similar structure in different countries. Second, movements in reported well-being are correlated with changes in macroeconomic variables such as gross domestic product. This holds true after controlling for the personal characteristics of respondents, country fixed effects, year dummies, and country-specific time trends. Third, the paper establishes that recessions create psychic losses that extend beyond the fall in GDP and rise in the number of people unemployed. These losses are large. Fourth, the welfare state appears to be a compensating force: higher unemployment benefits are associated with higher national well-being.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DiTella2003,
      author = {Di Tella, R and MacCulloch, RJ and Oswald, AJ},
      title = {The macroeconomics of happiness},
      journal = {REVIEW OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS},
      publisher = {M I T PRESS},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {85},
      number = {4},
      pages = {809-827}
    }
    
    Dingemanse, N., Both, C., Drent, P., Van Oers, K. & Van Noordwijk, A. Repeatability and heritability of exploratory behaviour in great tits from the wild {2002} ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR
    Vol. {64}({Part 6}), pp. {929-938} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We investigated whether individual great tits, Parus major, vary consistently in their exploratory behaviour in a novel environment and measured the repeatability and heritability of this trait. Wild birds were caught in their natural habitat, tested in the laboratory in an open field test on the following morning, then released at the capture site. We measured individual consistency of exploratory behaviour for recaptured individuals (repeatability) and estimated the heritability with parent-offspring regressions and sibling analyses. Measures of exploratory behaviour of individuals at repeated captures were consistent in both sexes and study areas (repeatabilities ranged from 0.27 to 0.48). Exploration scores did not differ between the sexes, and were unrelated to age, condition at fledging or condition during measurement. Heritability estimates were 0.22-0.41 (parent-offspring regressions) and 0.37-0.40 (sibling analyses). We conclude that (1) consistent individual variation in open field behaviour exists in individuals from the wild, and (2) this behavioural variation is heritable. This is one of the first studies showing heritable variation in a behavioural trait in animals from the wild, and poses the question of how this variation is maintained under natural conditions. (C) 2002 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dingemanse2002,
      author = {Dingemanse, NJ and Both, C and Drent, PJ and Van Oers, K and Van Noordwijk, AJ},
      title = {Repeatability and heritability of exploratory behaviour in great tits from the wild},
      journal = {ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS LTD ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {64},
      number = {Part 6},
      pages = {929-938},
      doi = {{10.1006/anbe.2002.2006}}
    }
    
    DIPBOYE, R. & FLANAGAN, M. RESEARCH SETTINGS IN INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL-PSYCHOLOGY - ARE FINDINGS IN THE FIELD MORE GENERALIZABLE THAN IN THE LABORATORY {1979} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {34}({2}), pp. {141-150} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{DIPBOYE1979,
      author = {DIPBOYE, RL and FLANAGAN, MF},
      title = {RESEARCH SETTINGS IN INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL-PSYCHOLOGY - ARE FINDINGS IN THE FIELD MORE GENERALIZABLE THAN IN THE LABORATORY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1979},
      volume = {34},
      number = {2},
      pages = {141-150}
    }
    
    DOHRENWEND, B. SOCIAL STRESS AND COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY {1978} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {6}({1}), pp. {1-14} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{DOHRENWEND1978,
      author = {DOHRENWEND, BS},
      title = {SOCIAL STRESS AND COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {PLENUM PUBL CORP},
      year = {1978},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-14}
    }
    
    Dole, J. & Sinatra, G. Reconceptualizing change in the cognitive construction of knowledge {1998} EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {33}({2-3}), pp. {109-128} 
    article  
    Abstract: How is knowledge acquired and represented in memory? By what process do individuals come to change their ideas, conceptions, or knowledge? Although the first question has been central to cognitive psychologists' research agendas for many years, relatively less is known about the change process. We examine 3 research literatures to broaden our understanding of the process of knowledge change. In particular, we draw on models of conceptual change from cognitive psychology, social psychology, and science education. Each model adds a new perspective on the change process. Based on the literature from these models of change, we developed a new model that represents our reconceptualization of the change process. We describe the model and use it to point out new areas of research to be addressed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dole1998,
      author = {Dole, JA and Sinatra, GM},
      title = {Reconceptualizing change in the cognitive construction of knowledge},
      journal = {EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC INC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {33},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {109-128}
    }
    
    DONOVAN, R., ROSSITER, J., MARCOOLYN, G. & NESDALE, A. STORE ATMOSPHERE AND PURCHASING BEHAVIOR {1994} JOURNAL OF RETAILING
    Vol. {70}({3}), pp. {283-294} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study extends the Donovan and Rossiter (1982) study which introduced the Mehrabian-Russell (M-R) environmental psychology model into the store atmosphere literature. Donovan and Rossiter's study was exploratory in that student subjects were used and intentions rather than shopping behavior were measured. The present study uses a broader sample of shoppers, measures emotions during the shopping experience rather than before or after, and records the effects on actual shopping behavior. The 1982 study found that experienced pleasantness of the in-store environment was a significant predictor of willingness to spend time in the store and intentions to spend more money than originally planned. This finding was extended behaviorally in the new study: pleasure, as rated five minutes into the shopping duration was a significant predictor of extra time spent in the store and actual incremental spending. Arousal was found to vary in its effects across the two studies and bears further investigation. The effects of the emotional factors of pleasure and arousal were shown to be additional to cognitive factors such as variety and quality of merchandise, price specialing and value for money. The practical significance for retailers is that emotional responses induced by the store environment can affect the time and money that consumers spend in the store.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DONOVAN1994,
      author = {DONOVAN, RJ and ROSSITER, JR and MARCOOLYN, G and NESDALE, A},
      title = {STORE ATMOSPHERE AND PURCHASING BEHAVIOR},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF RETAILING},
      publisher = {JOURNAL OF RETAILING},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {70},
      number = {3},
      pages = {283-294}
    }
    
    Dougherty, M., Gettys, C. & Ogden, E. MINERVA-DM: A memory processes model for judgments of likelihood {1999} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {106}({1}), pp. {180-209} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article describes an integration of most of the disparate likelihood judgment phenomena in behavioral decision making using a mathematical memory model. A new theory of likelihood judgments based on D. L. Hintzman's (1984, 1988) MINERVA2 memory model is described. The model, MINERVA-DM (DM = decision making), accounts for a wide range of likelihood judgment phenomena including frequency judgments, conditional likelihood judgments, conservatism, the availability and representativeness heuristics, base-rate neglect, the conjunction error, the validity effect, the simulation heuristic, and the hindsight bias. In addition, the authors extend the model to expert probability judgment and show how MINERVA-DM can account for both good and poor calibration (overconfidence) as a function of varying degrees of expertise. The authors' work is presented as a case study of the advantages of applying memory theory to study decision making.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dougherty1999,
      author = {Dougherty, MRP and Gettys, CF and Ogden, EE},
      title = {MINERVA-DM: A memory processes model for judgments of likelihood},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {106},
      number = {1},
      pages = {180-209}
    }
    
    Druckman, J. Political preference formation: Competition, deliberation, and the (Ir)relevance of framing effects {2004} AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW
    Vol. {98}({4}), pp. {671-686} 
    article  
    Abstract: One of the most contested questions in the social sciences is whether people behave rationally. A large body of work assumes that individuals do in fact make rational economic, political, and social decisions. Yet hundreds of experiments suggest that this is not the case. Framing effects constitute one of the most stunning and influential demonstrations of irrationality. The effects not only challenge the foundational assumptions of much of the social sciences (e.g., the existence of coherent preferences or stable attitudes), but also lead many scholars to adopt alternative approaches (e.g., prospect theory). Surprisingly, virtually no work has sought to specify the political conditions under which framing effects occur I fill this gap by offering a theory and experimental test. I show how contextual forces (e.g., elite competition, deliberation) and individual attributes (e.g., expertise) affect the success of framing. The results provide insight into when rationality assumptions apply and, also, have broad implications for political psychology and experimental methods.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Druckman2004,
      author = {Druckman, JN},
      title = {Political preference formation: Competition, deliberation, and the (Ir)relevance of framing effects},
      journal = {AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW},
      publisher = {CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {98},
      number = {4},
      pages = {671-686}
    }
    
    Druckman, J. On the limits of framing effects: Who can frame? {2001} JOURNAL OF POLITICS
    Vol. {63}({4}), pp. {1041-1066} 
    article  
    Abstract: Public opinion often depends on which frames elites choose to use. For example, citizens' opinions about a Ku Klux Klan rally may depend on whether elites frame it as a free speech issue or a public safety issue. An important concern is that elites face few constraints to using frames to influence and manipulate citizens' opinions. Indeed, virtually no work has investigated the limits of framing effects. In this article, I explore these limits by focusing on one particular constraint-the credibility of the frame's source. I present two laboratory experiments that suggest that elites face a clear and systematic constraint to using frames to influence and manipulate public opinion.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Druckman2001,
      author = {Druckman, JN},
      title = {On the limits of framing effects: Who can frame?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF POLITICS},
      publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHERS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {63},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1041-1066}
    }
    
    Duckworth, K., Bargh, J., Garcia, M. & Chaiken, S. The automatic evaluation of novel stimuli {2002} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {13}({6}), pp. {513-519} 
    article  
    Abstract: From classic theory and research in psychology, we distill a broad theoretical statement that evaluative responding can be immediate, unintentional, implicit, stimulus based, and linked directly to approach and avoidance motives. This statement suggests that evaluative responses should be elicited by novel, nonrepresentational stimuli (e.g., abstract art, ``foreign'' words). We tested this hypothesis through combining the best features of relevant automatic-affect research paradigms. We first obtained explicit evaluative ratings of novel stimuli. From these, we selected normatively positive and negative stimuli to use as primes in a sequential priming paradigm. Two experiments using this paradigm demonstrated that briefly presented novel prime stimuli were evaluated automatically, as they facilitated responses to subsequently presented target stimuli of the same valence just as much as did pictures or names of real objects. A final experiment revealed that exposure to novel stimuli produces muscular predispositions to approach or avoid them.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Duckworth2002,
      author = {Duckworth, KL and Bargh, JA and Garcia, M and Chaiken, S},
      title = {The automatic evaluation of novel stimuli},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHERS},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {13},
      number = {6},
      pages = {513-519}
    }
    
    Dykens, E., Leckman, J. & Cassidy, B. Obsessions and compulsions in Prader-Willi syndrome {1996} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {37}({8}), pp. {995-1002} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study examines the nature, severity and correlates of non-food obsessions and compulsions in 91 people with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) aged 5-47 years (mean age = 19 years). Prominent symptoms, seen in 37-58% of the sample, included hoarding; ordering and arranging; concerns with symmetry and exactness; rewriting; and needs to tell, know or ask. A remarkably high proportion of participants had moderate to severe symptom severity ratings; 64% showed symptom-related distress, and 80% showed symptom-related adaptive impairment. The study also compared obsessive-compulsive symptoms in 43 adults with PWS to age- and sex-matched non-retarded adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The PWS and OCD groups showed similar levels of symptom severity and numbers of compulsions; they also showed more areas of symptom similarity than difference. Increased risks of OCD in persons with PWS are strongly indicated. Implications are discussed for pharmacotherapy, behavioral therapy and family support. Copyright (C) 1996 Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dykens1996,
      author = {Dykens, EM and Leckman, JF and Cassidy, B},
      title = {Obsessions and compulsions in Prader-Willi syndrome},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {37},
      number = {8},
      pages = {995-1002}
    }
    
    Earley, P. & Gibson, C. Taking stock in our progress on individualism-collectivism: 100 years solidarity and community {1998} JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT
    Vol. {24}({3}), pp. {265-304} 
    article  
    Abstract: The tension existing between an inherent desire for companionship and personal identity forms the basis for one of the most highly researched cultural and personal dimensions in the field of management. This dichotomy, commonly called individualism-collectivism, is the focus of our review. Although much attention has been drawn toward this construct, its operationalization and measure have been problematic. In our review, we examine the theoretical and empirical bases for individualism and collectivism and its application in the field of organizational studies.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Earley1998,
      author = {Earley, PC and Gibson, CB},
      title = {Taking stock in our progress on individualism-collectivism: 100 years solidarity and community},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT},
      publisher = {JAI PRESS INC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {24},
      number = {3},
      pages = {265-304}
    }
    
    EasterbySmith, M. Disciplines of organizational learning: Contributions and critiques {1997} HUMAN RELATIONS
    Vol. {50}({9}), pp. {1085-1113} 
    article  
    Abstract: The paper argues against attempts to create a single framework for understanding organizational learning. Relevant literature is reviewed from six disciplinary perspectives: psychology and OD; management science; sociology and organizational theory; strategy; production management; and cultural anthropology. It is argued that each discipline provides distinct contributions and conceptions of problems. Furthermore, a basic distinction between organizational learning and the new idea of the learning organization is noted. Whereas the former is discipline based and analytic, the latter is multidisciplinary and emphasizes action and the creation of an `'ideal-type'' of organization. Due to the diversity of purpose and perspective, it is suggested that it is better to consider organizational learning as a multidisciplinary field containing complementary contributions and research agendas.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EasterbySmith1997,
      author = {EasterbySmith, M},
      title = {Disciplines of organizational learning: Contributions and critiques},
      journal = {HUMAN RELATIONS},
      publisher = {PLENUM PUBL CORP},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {50},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1085-1113}
    }
    
    ECCLESTON, C. CHRONIC PAIN AND ATTENTION - A COGNITIVE APPROACH {1994} BRITISH JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {33}({Part 4}), pp. {535-547} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present study draws upon resource-based models of attention in suggesting that the processing of chronic and persistent pain is a task that demands the application of central and executive attention. If a chronic and persistent pain stimulus is demanding of central, attentional resources, it follows that it will compete with a second attention-demanding task for those limited resources. Here it is hypothesized that performance of an attention-demanding interference task will be detrimentally affected by the demands of persistent pain. In Expt 1, patients in high pain, patients in low pain and control subjects without pain performed an attention-demanding numerical interference task. There were no significant differences between any of the groups on any measure of performance. Expt 2 repeated Expt I with a more difficult and more complex task. Only when the task was at its most difficult and its most complex (i.e. at the greatest demand of limited resources) did those patients in high levels of pain (i.e. at the greatest demand of limited resources) show performance decrements. The results of both experiments are discussed in relation to the debate concerning the use of cognitive methods for pain control and in relation to the application of cognitive psychology to the study of chronic pain.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ECCLESTON1994,
      author = {ECCLESTON, C},
      title = {CHRONIC PAIN AND ATTENTION - A COGNITIVE APPROACH},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOC},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {33},
      number = {Part 4},
      pages = {535-547}
    }
    
    Eccleston, C., Morley, S., Williams, A., Yorke, L. & Mastroyannopoulou, K. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of psychological therapy for chronic pain in children and adolescents, with a subset meta-analysis of pain relief {2002} PAIN
    Vol. {99}({1-2}), pp. {157-165} 
    article  
    Abstract: A systematic review and subset meta-analysis of published randomised controlled trials of psychological therapies for children and adolescents with chronic pain is reported. A search of four computerised abstracting services recovered 123 papers from which 28 potential trials were identified. Eighteen met the criteria for inclusion in the review. The majority of these papers reported brief behavioural and cognitive behavioural interventions for children with headache and many were conducted in community (i.e. school) settings. Meta-analysis was applicable for 12 headache trials and one trial of recurrent abdominal pain using the Pain Index. The odds-ratio for a 50% reduction in pain was 9.62 and the number needed to treat was 2.32, indicating that the psychological treatments examined are effective in reducing the pain of headache. The quality of the 18 trials retrieved is narratively reviewed and suggestions for the development of trials in this field are made. (C) 2002 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eccleston2002,
      author = {Eccleston, C and Morley, S and Williams, A and Yorke, L and Mastroyannopoulou, K},
      title = {Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of psychological therapy for chronic pain in children and adolescents, with a subset meta-analysis of pain relief},
      journal = {PAIN},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {99},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {157-165}
    }
    
    EDWARDS, D. & POTTER, J. LANGUAGE AND CAUSATION - A DISCURSIVE ACTION MODEL OF DESCRIPTION AND ATTRIBUTION {1993} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {100}({1}), pp. {23-41} 
    article  
    Abstract: Everyday explanations of human actions have been studied as event perception, with language part of method, used by experimenters for describing events and obtaining causal judgments from Ss. Recently, language has acquired theoretical importance as the medium of causal thinking. Two developments are the linguistic category model of Au (1986), Brown and Fish (1983), and Fiedler and Semin (1988) and the conversational model of Turnbull and Slugoski (1988) and Hilton (1990). Three areas of weaknesses are identified: the relation between linguistic and psychological analysis, the nature of ordinary discourse, and the action orientation of event descriptions. A Discursive Action Model is proposed for investigating everyday causal attribution. Although a cognitive psychology of discursive attribution is considered feasible, this must follow a reconceptualization of language as social action.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EDWARDS1993,
      author = {EDWARDS, D and POTTER, J},
      title = {LANGUAGE AND CAUSATION - A DISCURSIVE ACTION MODEL OF DESCRIPTION AND ATTRIBUTION},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {100},
      number = {1},
      pages = {23-41}
    }
    
    Edwards, J.R. & Lambert, L.S. Methods for integrating moderation and mediation: A general analytical framework using moderated path analysis {2007} PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS
    Vol. {12}({1}), pp. {1-22} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Studies that combine moderation and mediation are prevalent in basic and applied psychology research. Typically, these studies are framed in terms of moderated mediation or mediated moderation, both of which involve similar analytical approaches. Unfortunately, these approaches have important shortcomings that conceal the nature of the moderated and the mediated effects under investigation. This article presents a general analytical framework for combining moderation and mediation that integrates moderated regression analysis and path analysis. This framework clarifies how moderator variables influence the paths that constitute the direct, indirect, and total effects of mediated models. The authors empirically illustrate this framework and give step-by-step instructions for estimation and interpretation. They summarize the advantages of their framework over current approaches, explain how it subsumes moderated mediation and mediated moderation, and describe how it can accommodate additional moderator and mediator variables, curvilinear relationships, and structural equation models with latent variables.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Edwards2007,
      author = {Edwards, Jeffrey R. and Lambert, Lisa Schurer},
      title = {Methods for integrating moderation and mediation: A general analytical framework using moderated path analysis},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC/EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING FOUNDATION},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {12},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-22},
      note = {19th Annual Conference of the Society-for-Industrial-and-Organizational-Psychology, Chicago, IL, APR 02-04, 2004},
      doi = {{10.1037/1082-989X.12.1.1}}
    }
    
    Eimer, M. Facilitatory and inhibitory effects of masked prime stimuli on motor activation and behavioural performance {1999} ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA
    Vol. {101}({2-3}), pp. {293-313} 
    article  
    Abstract: Three experiments investigated the impact of information provided by masked stimuli on motor activation. Masked primes were presented prior to target stimuli and these primes were identical to the target on compatible trials, identical to the target mapped to the opposite response on incompatible trials and task-irrelevant on neutral trials. A previous study [Eimer, M., & Schlaghecken, F. (1998). Effects of masked stimuli on motor activation: Behavioural and electrophysiological evidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24, 1737-1747] found performance costs for compatible trials and benefits for incompatible trials. Experiment 1 showed that these effects are not due to `perceptual repetition blindness'. Experiments 2 and 3 obtained evidence for an initial response facilitation triggered by the primes that was followed by inhibition. With short intervals between prime presentation and response execution, performance benefits were found for compatible trials and these turned into costs at longer intervals. It is argued that an early response facilitation mediated by direct perceptuo-motor links is subsequently inhibited by a central mechanism operating to prevent behaviour from being controlled by irrelevant information. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PsycINFO classifications: 2340; 2346; 2530; 2560.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eimer1999,
      author = {Eimer, M},
      title = {Facilitatory and inhibitory effects of masked prime stimuli on motor activation and behavioural performance},
      journal = {ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {101},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {293-313}
    }
    
    EISENBERG, M. THE LIMITS OF COGNITION AND THE LIMITS OF CONTRACT {1995} STANFORD LAW REVIEW
    Vol. {47}({2}), pp. {211-259} 
    article  
    Abstract: Contract law recognizes a number of exceptions to the rule that courts should fully enforce bargains between capable actors. In this article, Professor Eisenberg argues that we can best justify a number of these doctrines by reference to the limits of human cognition. He canvasses recent empirical research on the cognitive limits relevant to contracting and then shows how these discoveries shed light on six areas of contract: liquidated damages, the excuse of express conditions, form contracts, contracts to waive fiduciary obligations, agreements governing thick relationships, and prenuptial agreements. While the limits of cognition do not explain all of contract law, Professor Eisenberg argues, an understanding of the psychological constraints on decisionmaking should play a central role in the development of contract doctrine.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EISENBERG1995,
      author = {EISENBERG, MA},
      title = {THE LIMITS OF COGNITION AND THE LIMITS OF CONTRACT},
      journal = {STANFORD LAW REVIEW},
      publisher = {STANFORD UNIV},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {47},
      number = {2},
      pages = {211-259}
    }
    
    Elfhag, K. & Rossner, S. Who succeeds in maintaining weight loss? A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain {2005} OBESITY REVIEWS
    Vol. {6}({1}), pp. {67-85} 
    article  
    Abstract: Weight loss is difficult to achieve and maintaining the weight loss is an even greater challenge. The identification of factors associated with weight loss maintenance can enhance our understanding for the behaviours and prerequisites that are crucial in sustaining a lowered body weight. In this paper we have reviewed the literature on factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain. We have used a definition of weight maintenance implying intentional weight loss that has subsequently been maintained for at least 6 months. According to our review, successful weight maintenance is associated with more initial weight loss, reaching a self-determined goal weight, having a physically active lifestyle, a regular meal rhythm including breakfast and healthier eating, control of over-eating and self-monitoring of behaviours. Weight maintenance is further associated with an internal motivation to lose weight, social support, better coping strategies and ability to handle life stress, self-efficacy, autonomy, assuming responsibility in life, and overall more psychological strength and stability. Factors that may pose a risk for weight regain include a history of weight cycling, disinhibited eating, binge eating, more hunger, eating in response to negative emotions and stress, and more passive reactions to problems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Elfhag2005,
      author = {Elfhag, K and Rossner, S},
      title = {Who succeeds in maintaining weight loss? A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain},
      journal = {OBESITY REVIEWS},
      publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHING},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {67-85}
    }
    
    ELLISON, C. RELIGIOUS INVOLVEMENT AND SELF-PERCEPTION AMONG BLACK-AMERICANS {1993} SOCIAL FORCES
    Vol. {71}({4}), pp. {1027-1055} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study focuses on the relationships between the religious involvement of black Americans and two important dimensions of self-perception: self-esteem, or one's sense of personal worth, and personal mastery, or feelings of control over one's affairs. This article argues that participation in church communities may foster positive self-perception through the interpersonal supportiveness and positive reflected appraisals of coreligionists. Private devotional activities may also be linked with positive self-regard via processes of religious role taking. Analyses of data from the 1979-80 National Survey of Black Americans support these arguments with regard to self-esteem, but not personal mastery. In addition, the findings suggest that public religious participation buffers the negative influence of physical unattractiveness on self-esteem, while private religious devotion buffers the negative impact of chronic illness on self-esteem. The results shed new light on the contemporary psychosocial role of religious life among black Americans.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ELLISON1993,
      author = {ELLISON, CG},
      title = {RELIGIOUS INVOLVEMENT AND SELF-PERCEPTION AMONG BLACK-AMERICANS},
      journal = {SOCIAL FORCES},
      publisher = {UNIV NORTH CAROLINA PRESS},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {71},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1027-1055}
    }
    
    ELMS, A. CRISIS OF CONFIDENCE IN SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1975} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {30}({10}), pp. {967-976} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ELMS1975,
      author = {ELMS, AC},
      title = {CRISIS OF CONFIDENCE IN SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1975},
      volume = {30},
      number = {10},
      pages = {967-976}
    }
    
    ELY, R. THE EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEMOGRAPHICS AND SOCIAL IDENTITY ON RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PROFESSIONAL WOMEN {1994} ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE QUARTERLY
    Vol. {39}({2}), pp. {203-238} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of women's proportional representation in the upper echelons of organizations on hierarchical and peer relationships among professional women at work. I propose that social identity is the principal mechanism through which the representation of women influences their relationships. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses of interview and questionnaire data are used to compare women's same-sex relationships in firms with relatively low and high proportions of senior women. Compared with women in firms with many senior women, women in firms with few senior women were less likely to experience common gender as a positive basis for identification with women, less likely to perceive senior women as role models with legitimate authority, more likely to perceive competition in relationships with women peers, and less likely to find support in these relationships. These results challenge person-centered views about the psychology of women's same-sex work relationships and suggest that social identity may link an organization's demographic composition with individuals' workplace experiences.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ELY1994,
      author = {ELY, RJ},
      title = {THE EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEMOGRAPHICS AND SOCIAL IDENTITY ON RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PROFESSIONAL WOMEN},
      journal = {ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE QUARTERLY},
      publisher = {ADMINISTRATIVE, SCI QUARTERLY},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {39},
      number = {2},
      pages = {203-238}
    }
    
    ENDLER, N., RUSHTON, J. & ROEDIGER, H. PRODUCTIVITY AND SCHOLARLY IMPACT (CITATIONS) OF BRITISH, CANADIAN, AND UNITED-STATES DEPARTMENTS OF PSYCHOLOGY (1975) {1978} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {33}({12}), pp. {1064-1082} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ENDLER1978,
      author = {ENDLER, NS and RUSHTON, JP and ROEDIGER, HL},
      title = {PRODUCTIVITY AND SCHOLARLY IMPACT (CITATIONS) OF BRITISH, CANADIAN, AND UNITED-STATES DEPARTMENTS OF PSYCHOLOGY (1975)},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1978},
      volume = {33},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1064-1082}
    }
    
    EPSTEIN, S., LIPSON, A., HOLSTEIN, C. & HUH, E. IRRATIONAL REACTIONS TO NEGATIVE OUTCOMES - EVIDENCE FOR 2 CONCEPTUAL SYSTEMS {1992} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {62}({2}), pp. {328-339} 
    article  
    Abstract: According to cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST), individuals have 2 systems for processing information, a rational system and an experiential system. Research conducted under norm theory (NT) has provided impressive evidence of an if only (IO) effect associated with postoutcome processing of aversive events that are highly consistent with formulations in CEST. Two studies involving vignettes adapted from NT were conducted that tested 4 hypotheses and corollaries derived from CEST. It was demonstrated, in support of hypotheses, that the IO effect can be obtained with ratings of one's own and of a protagonist's specific behaviors, as well as with ratings of a protagonist's diffuse emotions (the usual procedure); that a rational orientation decreases the IO effect; that increasing the intensity of outcomes increases it; and that priming the experiential system reduces people's ability to subsequently think rationally. The theoretical and research implications of these findings are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EPSTEIN1992,
      author = {EPSTEIN, S and LIPSON, A and HOLSTEIN, C and HUH, E},
      title = {IRRATIONAL REACTIONS TO NEGATIVE OUTCOMES - EVIDENCE FOR 2 CONCEPTUAL SYSTEMS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {62},
      number = {2},
      pages = {328-339}
    }
    
    Espelage, D. & Swearer, S. Research on school bullying and victimization: What have we learned and where do we go from here? {2003} SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {32}({3}), pp. {365-383} 
    article  
    Abstract: This special issue on bullying and victimization in School Psychology Review highlights current research efforts in American schools on bullying and peer victimization, and how this research can inform prevention and intervention planning. This introductory article provides a brief overview of several major insights gained over the last decade from research on bullying in school-aged youth and sets the stage for the special issue. Research on psychosocial correlates in bullying behaviors is reviewed and four insights that provide directions for future research are derived. The contributing authors in the special issue augment these insights by examining the influence of the peer ecology on bullying (Rodkin & Hodges, 2003), using longitudinal and multivariate methodologies in bullying research (Long & Pellegrini, 2003), assessing the climates within the school where bullying typically occurs (Leff, Power, Costigan, & Manz, 2003), exploring implementation issues of school-wide bullying prevention programming (Orpinas, Home, & Staniszewski, 2003), reviewing laws and policies to address bullying (Limber & Small, 2003), and challenging researchers to reach a consensus on bullying research (Furlong, Morrison, Greif, 2003).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Espelage2003,
      author = {Espelage, DL and Swearer, SM},
      title = {Research on school bullying and victimization: What have we learned and where do we go from here?},
      journal = {SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      publisher = {NATL ASSN SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGISTS},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {32},
      number = {3},
      pages = {365-383}
    }
    
    Etter, J., Perneger, T. & Ronchi, A. Distributions of smokers by stage: International comparison and association with smoking prevalence {1997} PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
    Vol. {26}({4}), pp. {580-585} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objectives. The goals of this study were to describe the distribution of smokers by stage of change in Geneva, Switzerland; to compare this result with distributions observed in other countries; and to assess whether, across samples from different countries, the stage distribution of current smokers was associated with the prevalence of smoking. Methods. Two mailed surveys were conducted in Geneva in 1995-1996, in a representative sample of residents (n = 742) and in a representative sample of university members (n = 2,270). A literature review produced seven studies describing the stage distribution in representative samples. Results. In the Geneva population, 74% of smokers were in the precontemplation stage, 22% in contemplation, and 4% in preparation. In the university sample, the corresponding figures were 72, 20, and 8 Our results were similar to other European samples, but less favorable than in American samples, where these distributions were typically 40, 40, and 20 respectively. Across all samples, a low prevalence of smoking was associated with a more favorable stage distribution (r = 0.88, P = 0.002). Conclusions. Interventions in Europe need to take into account the large proportion of precontemplators repeatedly observed among smokers. A shift to the right of the distribution of current smokers across stages may help increase quit rates and thereby reduce smoking prevalence. This hypothesis should be tested in prospective intervention studies. (C) 1997 Academic Press.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Etter1997,
      author = {Etter, JF and Perneger, TV and Ronchi, A},
      title = {Distributions of smokers by stage: International comparison and association with smoking prevalence},
      journal = {PREVENTIVE MEDICINE},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS INC JNL-COMP SUBSCRIPTIONS},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {26},
      number = {4},
      pages = {580-585}
    }
    
    Evans, J.S.B.T. Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment, and social cognition {2008} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {59}, pp. {255-278} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This article reviews a diverse set of proposals for dual processing in higher cognition within largely disconnected literatures in cognitive and social psychology. All these theories have in common the distinction between cognitive processes that are fast, automatic, and unconscious and those that are slow, deliberative, and conscious. A number of authors have recently suggested that there may be two architecturally (and evolutionarily) distinct cognitive systems underlying these dual-process accounts. However, it emerges that (a) there are multiple kinds of implicit processes described by different theorists and (b) not all of the proposed attributes of the two kinds of processing can be sensibly mapped on to two systems as currently conceived. It is suggested that while some dual-process theories are concerned with parallel competing processes involving explicit and implicit knowledge systems, others are concerned with the influence of preconscious processes that contextualize and shape deliberative reasoning and decision-making.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Evans2008,
      author = {Evans, Jonathan St. B. T.},
      title = {Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment, and social cognition},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {59},
      pages = {255-278},
      doi = {{10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093629}}
    }
    
    EWART, C. SOCIAL-ACTION THEORY FOR A PUBLIC-HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY {1991} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {46}({9}), pp. {931-946} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{EWART1991,
      author = {EWART, CK},
      title = {SOCIAL-ACTION THEORY FOR A PUBLIC-HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {46},
      number = {9},
      pages = {931-946}
    }
    
    FALLSHORE, M. & SCHOOLER, J. VERBAL VULNERABILITY OF PERCEPTUAL EXPERTISE {1995} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION
    Vol. {21}({6}), pp. {1608-1623} 
    article  
    Abstract: Three experiments explored the role of perceptual expertise in mediating the finding (termed verbal overshadowing) that describing a face can impair later recognition. In Experiment 1, verbalization impaired White participants' recognition of White faces (expert domain) but not African American faces (novice domain). In Experiment 2, judges attempted to identify targets on the basis of the verbal descriptions generated in Experiment 1. Experiment 2 revealed a significant relationship between verbalization participants' recognition performance and yoked judges' identification performance for other-race but not own-race faces, suggesting that other-race recognition may involve a unique reliance on `'verbalizable'' information. In Experiment 3, the interaction between verbalization and race of face was replicated with upright faces but was attenuated with inverted recognition arrays (a manipulation that reduces the influence of configural information). Collectively, these findings suggest that verbalization may disrupt the nonreportable configural processes associated with recognizing stimuli with which one is an expert.
    BibTeX:
    @article{FALLSHORE1995,
      author = {FALLSHORE, M and SCHOOLER, JW},
      title = {VERBAL VULNERABILITY OF PERCEPTUAL EXPERTISE},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-LEARNING MEMORY AND COGNITION},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {21},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1608-1623},
      note = {Meeting of the American-Psychological-Society, SAN DIEGO, CA, JUN 21, 1992}
    }
    
    Fan, X. & Thompson, B. Confidence intervals about score reliability coefficients, please: An EPM guidelines editorial {2001} EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT
    Vol. {61}({4}), pp. {517-531} 
    article  
    Abstract: Confidence intervals for reliability coefficients can be estimated in various ways. The present article illustrates a variety of these applications. This guidelines editorial also promulgates a request that EPM authors report confidence intervals for reliability estimates whenever they report score reliabilities and note what interval estimation methods they have used. This will reinforce reader understanding that all statistical estimates, including those for score reliability, are affected by sampling error variance. And these requirements may also facilitate understanding that tests are not impregnated with invariant reliability as a routine part of printing.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fan2001,
      author = {Fan, XT and Thompson, B},
      title = {Confidence intervals about score reliability coefficients, please: An EPM guidelines editorial},
      journal = {EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {61},
      number = {4},
      pages = {517-531}
    }
    
    Farrow, T., Zheng, Y., Wilkinson, I., Spence, S., Deakin, J., Tarrier, N., Griffiths, P. & Woodruff, P. Investigating the functional anatomy of empathy and forgiveness {2001} NEUROREPORT
    Vol. {12}({11}), pp. {2433-2438} 
    article  
    Abstract: Previous functional brain imaging studies suggest that the ability to infer the intentions and mental states of others (social cognition) is mediated by medial prefrontal cortex. Little is known about the anatomy of empathy and forgiveness. We used functional MRI to detect brain regions engaged by judging others' emotional states and the forgivability of their crimes. Ten volunteers read and made judgements based an social scenarios and a high level baseline task (social reasoning). Both empathic and forgivability judgements activated left superior frontal gyrus, orbitofrontal gyrus and precuneus. Empathic judgements also activated left anterior middle temporal and left inferior frontal gyri, while forgivability judgements activated posterior cingulate gyrus. Empathic and forgivability judgements activate specific regions of the human brain, which we propose contribute to social cohesion. NeuroReport 12:2433-2438 (C) 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Farrow2001,
      author = {Farrow, TFD and Zheng, Y and Wilkinson, ID and Spence, SA and Deakin, JFW and Tarrier, N and Griffiths, PD and Woodruff, PWR},
      title = {Investigating the functional anatomy of empathy and forgiveness},
      journal = {NEUROREPORT},
      publisher = {LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {12},
      number = {11},
      pages = {2433-2438}
    }
    
    FASSINGER, R. USE OF STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH {1987} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {34}({4}), pp. {425-436} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{FASSINGER1987,
      author = {FASSINGER, RE},
      title = {USE OF STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING IN COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {34},
      number = {4},
      pages = {425-436}
    }
    
    Fernandez-Duque, D., Baird, J. & Posner, M. Executive attention and metacognitive regulation {2000} CONSCIOUSNESS AND COGNITION
    Vol. {9}({2, Part 1}), pp. {288-307} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Metacognition refers to any knowledge or cognitive process that monitors or controls cognition. We highlight similarities between metacognitive and executive control functions, and ask how these processes might be implemented in the human brain. A review of brain imaging studies reveals a circuitry of attentional networks involved in these control processes, with its source located in midfrontal areas. These areas are active during conflict resolution, error correction, and emotional regulation. A developmental approach to the organization of the anatomy involved in executive control provides an added perspective on how these mechanisms are influenced by maturation and learning, and how they relate to metacognitive activity. (C) 2000 Academic Press.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fernandez-Duque2000,
      author = {Fernandez-Duque, D and Baird, JA and Posner, MI},
      title = {Executive attention and metacognitive regulation},
      journal = {CONSCIOUSNESS AND COGNITION},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS INC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {9},
      number = {2, Part 1},
      pages = {288-307},
      doi = {{10.1006/ccog.2000.0447}}
    }
    
    Ferraro, F., Pfeffer, J. & Sutton, R. Economics language and assumptions: How theories can become self-fulfilling {2005} ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW
    Vol. {30}({1}), pp. {8-24} 
    article  
    Abstract: Social science theories can become self-fulfilling by shaping institutional designs and management practices, as well as social norms and expectations about behavior, thereby creating the behavior they predict. They also perpetuate themselves by promulgating language and assumptions that become widely used and accepted. We illustrate these ideas by considering how the language and assumptions of economics shape management practices: theories can ``win'' in the marketplace for ideas, independent of their empirical validity. to the extent their assumptions and language become taken for granted and normatively valued, therefore creating conditions that make them come ``true''.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ferraro2005,
      author = {Ferraro, F and Pfeffer, J and Sutton, RI},
      title = {Economics language and assumptions: How theories can become self-fulfilling},
      journal = {ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW},
      publisher = {ACAD MANAGEMENT},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {30},
      number = {1},
      pages = {8-24}
    }
    
    Fink, B. & Penton-Voak, I. Evolutionary psychology of facial attractiveness {2002} CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {11}({5}), pp. {154-158} 
    article  
    Abstract: The human face communicates an impressive number of visual signals. Although adults' ratings of facial attractiveness are consistent across studies, even cross-culturally, there has been considerable controversy surrounding attempts to identify the facia features that cause faces to be judged attractive or unattractiveness have attempted to identify the features that contribute to attractiveness by studying the relationships between attractiveness and (a) symmetry, (b) averageness, and (c) nonaverage sexually dimorphic features (hormone markers). Evolutionary psychology proposes that these characteristics all pertain to health, suggesting that humans have evolved to view certain features as attractive because they were displayed by healthy individuals. However, the question remains how single features that are considered attractive relate to each other, and if they forma a single ornament that signals mate quality. Moreover, some researchers have recently explained attractiveness preferences in terms of individual differences that are predictable. This article briefly describes what is currently known from attractiveness research, reviews some recent advances, and suggests areas for futures research researchers' attention.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fink2002,
      author = {Fink, B and Penton-Voak, I},
      title = {Evolutionary psychology of facial attractiveness},
      journal = {CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHERS},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {11},
      number = {5},
      pages = {154-158}
    }
    
    FISCHHOFF, B., BOSTROM, A. & QUADREL, M. RISK PERCEPTION AND COMMUNICATION {1993} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH
    Vol. {14}, pp. {183-203} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{FISCHHOFF1993,
      author = {FISCHHOFF, B and BOSTROM, A and QUADREL, MJ},
      title = {RISK PERCEPTION AND COMMUNICATION},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PUBLIC HEALTH},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS INC},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {14},
      pages = {183-203}
    }
    
    Fisher, R., Maltz, E. & Jaworski, B. Enhancing communication between marketing and engineering: The moderating role of relative functional identification {1997} JOURNAL OF MARKETING
    Vol. {61}({3}), pp. {54-70} 
    article  
    Abstract: Using research in social psychology, the authors illustrate how two key routes to improve communication between marketing and engineering are dependent on the strength of managers' psychological connection to their functional area compared to the firm as a whole (i.e., relative functional identification). In particular, they argue that relative functional identification moderates the relationship between strategies traditionally used to affect interfunctional relationships (information-sharing norms and integrated goals) and the frequency, bidirectionality, and coerciveness of interfunctional communication behaviors. In turn, these communication behaviors are linked to information use and perceived relationship effectiveness. The authors empirically test predictions of the framework in two studies. Study 1 results suggest that (1) the efficacy of the traditional strategies depends on marketing managers' relative functional identification and (2) the traditional strategies can have negative and unintended effects on communication behaviors. In Study 2, the authors replicate and extend Study 1 by illustrating that bidirectional communication is as important as frequency in increasing both information use by engineering personnel and the perceived effectiveness of interfunctional relationships. The authors conclude with implications for theory building and managerial practice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fisher1997,
      author = {Fisher, RJ and Maltz, E and Jaworski, BJ},
      title = {Enhancing communication between marketing and engineering: The moderating role of relative functional identification},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF MARKETING},
      publisher = {AMER MARKETING ASSOC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {61},
      number = {3},
      pages = {54-70}
    }
    
    FITZGERALD, L. & CRITES, J. TOWARD A CAREER PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN - WHAT DO WE KNOW - WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW {1980} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {27}({1}), pp. {44-62} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{FITZGERALD1980,
      author = {FITZGERALD, LF and CRITES, JO},
      title = {TOWARD A CAREER PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN - WHAT DO WE KNOW - WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {27},
      number = {1},
      pages = {44-62}
    }
    
    FITZGERALD, L. & OSIPOW, S. AN OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY - HOW SPECIAL IS THE SPECIALTY {1986} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {41}({5}), pp. {535-544} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{FITZGERALD1986,
      author = {FITZGERALD, LF and OSIPOW, SH},
      title = {AN OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY - HOW SPECIAL IS THE SPECIALTY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {41},
      number = {5},
      pages = {535-544}
    }
    
    Forgas, J. & George, J. Affective influences on judgments and behavior in organizations: An information processing perspective {2001} ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES
    Vol. {86}({1}), pp. {3-34} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This article reviews and integrates recent research in experimental social psychology and organizational behavior demonstrating the pervasive influence that affective states or moods have on judgments, decision making, and behavior in organizations. An information processing theory, the Affect Infusion Model (AIM) is described that can account for many of the empirical findings and also provides a promising theoretical base for future research in this area. The article reviews a range of experimental and applied studies consistent with the predictions of this model, demonstrating the role of information processing strategies in moderating affective influences on organizational behavior. Specifically, we discuss the influence of affect on such work-related behaviors as worker motivation, creativity and performance, interpersonal judgments and communication, performance appraisal judgments and selection interviews, organizational spontaneity, employee flexibility and helpfulness, absenteeism, and bargaining and negotiation behaviors. The implications of the information processing approach for understanding the influence of affect on organizational behaviors are discussed, and we argue for the greater integration of affect into contemporary theorizing and research in organizational settings. (C) 2001 Academic Press.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Forgas2001,
      author = {Forgas, JP and George, JM},
      title = {Affective influences on judgments and behavior in organizations: An information processing perspective},
      journal = {ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS INC},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {86},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-34},
      doi = {{10.1006/obhd.2001.2971}}
    }
    
    Franken, I. Drug craving and addiction: integrating psychological and neuropsychopharmacological approaches {2003} PROGRESS IN NEURO-PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY & BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {27}({4}), pp. {563-579} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In the present review, an integrated approach to craving and addiction is discussed, which is based on recent insights from psychology and neuropsychopharmacology. An integrated model explains craving and relapse in humans by the psychological mechanism of ``attentional bias'' and provides neuropsychopharmacological mechanisms for this bias. According to this model, cognitive processes mediate between drug stimulus and the subject's response to this stimulus and subsequent behavioral response (e.g., drug use, relapse). According to the model, a conditioned drug stimulus produces an increase in dopamine levels in the corticostriatal circuit, in particular the anterior cingulate gyrus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens, which in turn serves to draw the subject's attention towards a perceived drug stimulus. This process results in motor preparation and a hyperattentive state towards drug-related stimuli that, ultimately, promotes further craving and relapse. Evidence for this attentional bias hypothesis is reviewed from both the psychopharmacological and the neuroanatomical viewpoints. The attentional bias hypothesis raises several suggestions for clinical approaches and further research. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Franken2003,
      author = {Franken, IHA},
      title = {Drug craving and addiction: integrating psychological and neuropsychopharmacological approaches},
      journal = {PROGRESS IN NEURO-PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY & BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {27},
      number = {4},
      pages = {563-579},
      doi = {{10.1016/S0278-5846(03)00081-2}}
    }
    
    Fredrickson, B. & Losada, M. Positive affect and the complex dynamics of human flourishing {2005} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {60}({7}), pp. {678-686} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Extending B. L. Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and M. Losada's (1999) nonlinear dynamics model of team performance, the authors predict that a ratio of positive to negative affect at or above 2.9 will characterize individuals in flourishing mental health. Participants (N = 188) completed an initial survey to identify flourishing mental health and then provided daily reports of experienced positive and negative emotions over 28 days. Results showed that the mean ratio of positive to negative affect was above 2.9 for individuals classified as flourishing and below that threshold for those not flourishing. Together with other evidence, these findings suggest that a set of general mathematical principles may describe the relations between positive affect and human flourishing.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fredrickson2005,
      author = {Fredrickson, BL and Losada, MF},
      title = {Positive affect and the complex dynamics of human flourishing},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC/EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING FOUNDATION},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {60},
      number = {7},
      pages = {678-686},
      doi = {{10.1037/0003-066X.60.7.678}}
    }
    
    FRICK, R. ACCEPTING THE NULL HYPOTHESIS {1995} MEMORY & COGNITION
    Vol. {23}({1}), pp. {132-138} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article concerns acceptance of the null hypothesis that one variable has no effect on another. Despite frequent opinions to the contrary, this null hypothesis can be correct in some situations. Appropriate criteria for accepting the null hypothesis are (1) that the null hypothesis is possible; (2) that the results are consistent with the null hypothesis; and (3) that the experiment was a good effort to find an effect. These criteria are consistent with the meta-rules for psychology. The good-effort criterion is subjective, which is somewhat undesirable, but the alternative-never accepting the null hypothesis-is neither desirable nor practical.
    BibTeX:
    @article{FRICK1995,
      author = {FRICK, RW},
      title = {ACCEPTING THE NULL HYPOTHESIS},
      journal = {MEMORY & COGNITION},
      publisher = {PSYCHONOMIC SOC INC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {23},
      number = {1},
      pages = {132-138}
    }
    
    FRIEDMAN, R., SOBEL, D., MYERS, P., CAUDILL, M. & BENSON, H. BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE, CLINICAL HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY, AND COST OFFSET {1995} HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {14}({6}), pp. {509-518} 
    article  
    Abstract: The use of medical services is a function of several interacting psychological and social variables as well as a function of physical malfunction. The clinical significance of addressing patients' psychosocial issues has only occasionally been considered. However, the shift in health care economics toward health care maintenance is responsible for the increased interest in interventions in the domain of behavioral medicine and health psychology. Evidence is reviewed for 6 mechanistic pathways by which behavioral interventions can maximize clinical care and result in significant economic benefits. The rationale for further integration of behavioral and biomedicine interventions is also reviewed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{FRIEDMAN1995,
      author = {FRIEDMAN, R and SOBEL, D and MYERS, P and CAUDILL, M and BENSON, H},
      title = {BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE, CLINICAL HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY, AND COST OFFSET},
      journal = {HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {14},
      number = {6},
      pages = {509-518}
    }
    
    Fullilove, M. Psychiatric implications of displacement: Contributions from the psychology of place {1996} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {153}({12}), pp. {1516-1523} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe the psychological processes that are affected by geographic displacement. Method: The literature from the fields of geography, psychology, anthropology, and psychiatry was reviewed to develop a `'psychology of place'' and so determine the manner in which place-related psychological processes are affected by upheaval in the environment. Results: The psychology of place is an emerging area of research that explores the connection between individuals and their immune environments. The psychology of place posits that individuals require a `'good enough'' environment in which to live. They are linked to that environment through three key psychological processes: attachment, familiarity, and identity. Place attachment, which parallels, brit is distinct from, attachment to person, is a mutual caretaking bond between a person and a beloved place. Familiarity refers to the processes by which people develop detailed cognitive knowledge of their environs. Place identity is concerned with the extraction of a sense of self based on the places in which one passes one's life. Each of these psychological processes-attachment, familiarity, and place identity-is threatened by displacement, and the problems of nostalgia, disorientation, and alienation may ensue. Conclusions: As a result of war, decolonization, epidemics, natural disasters, and other disruptive events, millions of people are currently displaced from their homes. Protecting and restoring their mental health pose urgent problems for the mental health community.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fullilove1996,
      author = {Fullilove, MT},
      title = {Psychiatric implications of displacement: Contributions from the psychology of place},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {153},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1516-1523}
    }
    
    FUNDER, D. GLOBAL TRAITS - A NEO-ALLPORTIAN APPROACH TO PERSONALITY {1991} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {2}({1}), pp. {31-39} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{FUNDER1991,
      author = {FUNDER, DC},
      title = {GLOBAL TRAITS - A NEO-ALLPORTIAN APPROACH TO PERSONALITY},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      publisher = {CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {2},
      number = {1},
      pages = {31-39}
    }
    
    FUNDER, D. & SNEED, C. BEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF PERSONALITY - AN ECOLOGICAL APPROACH TO JUDGMENTAL ACCURACY {1993} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {64}({3}), pp. {479-490} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present study concerns connections between personality traits, the behaviors by which they are manifest, and the behaviors by which they are judged. One hundred forty undergraduate Ss were videotaped in 2 social interactions, and 62 behaviors were coded from each tape. Separately, personality descriptions were obtained from knowledgeable informants. A pair of `'strangers'' viewed each videotape then also provided personality descriptions. Other Ss rated the diagnosticity of the 62 behaviors for each of the Big Five personality traits. The diagnosticity ratings predicted how behavioral cues would be used by strangers and were closely related to their actual relevance as indexed by their correlations with informants' judgments. These findings speak to the general accuracy of personality judgments, the development of methods to improve accuracy, and the value of reintegrating traditionally separate concerns of personality and social psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{FUNDER1993,
      author = {FUNDER, DC and SNEED, CD},
      title = {BEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF PERSONALITY - AN ECOLOGICAL APPROACH TO JUDGMENTAL ACCURACY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {64},
      number = {3},
      pages = {479-490}
    }
    
    Gabriel, S. & Gardner, W. Are there ``his'' and ``hers'' types of interdependence? The implications of gender differences in collective versus relational interdependence for affect, behavior, and cognition {1999} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {77}({3}), pp. {642-655} 
    article  
    Abstract: In a recent review, S. E. Cross and L. Madson (1997) forwarded that many gender differences in social experience and behavior may be better understood through consideration of gender differences in independence and interdependence. in the current studies an expansion of the model to include both relational and collective aspects of interdependence was investigated (see R. F. Baumeister & K. L. Sommer, 1997). On the basis of the literature regarding gender differences in affect, behavior, and cognition, it was hypothesized that women would focus more on the relational aspects of interdependence, whereas men would focus more on the collective aspects of interdependence. Five studies in which gender differences in self-construtals, emotional experience, selective memory, and behavioral intentions were examined supported the expansion of the model to include both relational and collective aspects of interdependence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gabriel1999,
      author = {Gabriel, S and Gardner, WL},
      title = {Are there ``his'' and ``hers'' types of interdependence? The implications of gender differences in collective versus relational interdependence for affect, behavior, and cognition},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {77},
      number = {3},
      pages = {642-655}
    }
    
    Gagne, M. & Deci, E. Self-determination theory and work motivation {2005} JOURNAL OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {26}({4}), pp. {331-362} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Cognitive evaluation theory, which explains the effects of extrinsic motivators on intrinsic motivation, received some initial attention in the organizational literature. However, the simple dichotomy between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation made the theory difficult to apply to work settings. Differentiating extrinsic motivation into types that differ in their degree of autonomy led to self-determination theory, which has received widespread attention in the education, health care, and sport domains. This article describes self-determination theory as a theory of work motivation and shows its relevance to theories of organizational behavior. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gagne2005,
      author = {Gagne, M and Deci, EL},
      title = {Self-determination theory and work motivation},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR},
      publisher = {JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {26},
      number = {4},
      pages = {331-362},
      doi = {{10.1002/job.322}}
    }
    
    Gaines, S., Marelich, W., Bledsoe, K., Steers, W., Henderson, M., Granrose, C., Barajas, L., Hicks, D., Lyde, M., Takahashi, Y., Yum, N., Rios, D., Garcia, B., Farris, K. & Page, M. Links between race/ethnicity and cultural values as mediated by racial/ethnic identity and moderated by gender {1997} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {72}({6}), pp. {1460-1476} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two studies examined whether individualism (orientation toward one's own welfare), collectivism (orientation toward the welfare of one's larger community), and familism (orientation toward the welfare of one's immediate and extended family) are distinct cultural values predicted by race/ethnicity. The 3 constructs proved to be separate dimensions, although collectivism and familism were positively correlated. In Study 1, persons of color scored higher on collectivism and familism than did Angles. No differences emerged for individualism. Also, persons of color scored higher than Angles on racial/ethnic identity, which in turn was a positive predictor of all 3 cultural values. In Study 2, we replicated the group differences on collectivism and familism for men but not for women.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gaines1997,
      author = {Gaines, SO and Marelich, WD and Bledsoe, KL and Steers, WN and Henderson, MC and Granrose, CS and Barajas, L and Hicks, D and Lyde, M and Takahashi, Y and Yum, N and Rios, DI and Garcia, BF and Farris, KR and Page, MS},
      title = {Links between race/ethnicity and cultural values as mediated by racial/ethnic identity and moderated by gender},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {72},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1460-1476}
    }
    
    Galinsky, A., Gruenfeld, D. & Magee, J. From power to action {2003} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {85}({3}), pp. {453-466} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Three experiments investigated the hypothesis that power increases an action orientation in the power holder, even in contexts where power is not directly experienced. In Experiment 1, participants who possessed structural power in a group task were more likely to take a card in a simulated game of blackjack than those who lacked power. In Experiment 2, participants primed with high power were more likely to act against an annoying stimulus (a fan) in the environment, suggesting that the experience of power leads to the performance of goal-directed behavior. In Experiment 3, priming high power led to action in a social dilemma regardless of whether that action had prosocial or antisocial consequences. The effects of priming power are discussed in relation to the broader literature on conceptual and mind-set priming.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Galinsky2003,
      author = {Galinsky, AD and Gruenfeld, DH and Magee, JC},
      title = {From power to action},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {85},
      number = {3},
      pages = {453-466},
      note = {Annual Conference of the International-Association-of-Conflict-Management, CERGY, FRANCE, JUN, 2001},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-3514.85.3.453}}
    }
    
    GALLIMORE, R., WEISNER, T., BERNHEIMER, L., GUTHRIE, D. & NIHIRA, K. FAMILY RESPONSES TO YOUNG-CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS - ACCOMMODATION ACTIVITY IN ECOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL-CONTEXT {1993} AMERICAN JOURNAL ON MENTAL RETARDATION
    Vol. {98}({2}), pp. {185-206} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this study 680 accommodations or proactive efforts to sustain a family environment in 10 ecocultural domains were reliably scored for 102 Euro-American families of young children with developmental delays. The families reported substantial accommodation activity. Results showed that accomodations (a) in the domains of child care and service access were correlated with children's problems that impact the daily routine; (b) in the domains of subsistence changes, seeking information, and roles of fathers were related to parents' job and career circumstances, with more modest links to socioeconomic status; and (c) were not associated with child developmental test scores. Accommodation to children with delays and disabilities is a family-level variable that complements the more common research focus on individual parent stress and coping.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GALLIMORE1993,
      author = {GALLIMORE, R and WEISNER, TS and BERNHEIMER, LP and GUTHRIE, D and NIHIRA, K},
      title = {FAMILY RESPONSES TO YOUNG-CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS - ACCOMMODATION ACTIVITY IN ECOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL-CONTEXT},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL ON MENTAL RETARDATION},
      publisher = {AMER ASSOC MENTAL RETARDATION},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {98},
      number = {2},
      pages = {185-206}
    }
    
    Gangestad, S. & Thornhill, R. The evolutionary psychology of extrapair sex: The role of fluctuating asymmetry {1997} EVOLUTION AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {18}({2}), pp. {69-88} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study explored evolutionary hypotheses concerning extrapair sex (or EPCs: extrapair copulations), Based on recent notions about sexual selection, we predicted that (a) men's number of EPCs would correlate negatively with their fluctuating asymmetry, a measure of the extent to which developmental design is imprecisely expressed, and (b) men's number of times having been an EPC partner of a woman would negatively correlate with their fluctuating asymmetry, In a sample of college heterosexual couples, both hypotheses were supported, In addition, men's physical attractiveness independently predicted how often they had been an EPC partner, Women's anxious attachment style positively covaried with their number of EPC partners, whereas their avoidant attachment style negatively covaried with their number of EPC partners. (C) Elsevier Science Inc., 1997.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gangestad1997,
      author = {Gangestad, SW and Thornhill, R},
      title = {The evolutionary psychology of extrapair sex: The role of fluctuating asymmetry},
      journal = {EVOLUTION AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {18},
      number = {2},
      pages = {69-88}
    }
    
    Gangestad, S., Thornhill, R. & Garver, C. Changes in women's sexual interests and their partners' mate-retention tactics across the menstrual cycle: evidence for shifting conflicts of interest {2002} PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
    Vol. {269}({1494}), pp. {975-982} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Because ancestral women could have obtained genetic benefits through extra-pair sex only near ovulation, but paid costs of extra-pair sex throughout the cycle, one might expect selection to have shaped female interest in partners, other than primary partners, to be greater near ovulation than during the luteal phase. Because men would have paid heavier costs if their partners had extra-pair sex near ovulation, one might also expect selection to have shaped males' efforts to track their primary partners' whereabouts to be increased near ovulation, relative to the luteal phase. Women filled out questionnaires about their sexual interests and their partners' mate-retention tactics twice: once within 5 days before a lutenizing hormone surge and once during the luteal phase. Results showed that: (i) women reported greater sexual interest in, and fantasy about, non-primary partners near ovulation than during the luteal phase; (ii) women did not report significantly greater sexual interest in, and fantasy about, primary partners near ovulation; (iii) women reported that their primary partners were both more attentive and more proprietary near ovulation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gangestad2002,
      author = {Gangestad, SW and Thornhill, R and Garver, CE},
      title = {Changes in women's sexual interests and their partners' mate-retention tactics across the menstrual cycle: evidence for shifting conflicts of interest},
      journal = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES},
      publisher = {ROYAL SOC LONDON},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {269},
      number = {1494},
      pages = {975-982},
      doi = {{10.1098/rspb.2001.1952}}
    }
    
    Garfield, S. Some problems associated with `'validated'' forms of psychotherapy {1996} CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY-SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
    Vol. {3}({3}), pp. {218-229} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article is a response to the report of the Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures of the Division of clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (1995), The conclusions and recommendations of the task force concerning the `'validated'' therapies for both training and practice appear premature. In particular, they overlook possible limitations in existing research, the importance of client and therapist variability, the role of common factors in psychotherapy, and the need to adapt therapeutic procedures for the problems of the individual client or patient.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Garfield1996,
      author = {Garfield, SL},
      title = {Some problems associated with `'validated'' forms of psychotherapy},
      journal = {CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY-SCIENCE AND PRACTICE},
      publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {218-229}
    }
    
    GAVEY, N. FEMINIST POSTSTRUCTURALISM AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS - CONTRIBUTIONS TO FEMINIST PSYCHOLOGY {1989} PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN QUARTERLY
    Vol. {13}({4}), pp. {459-475} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{GAVEY1989,
      author = {GAVEY, N},
      title = {FEMINIST POSTSTRUCTURALISM AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS - CONTRIBUTIONS TO FEMINIST PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN QUARTERLY},
      publisher = {CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {13},
      number = {4},
      pages = {459-475}
    }
    
    Gendreau, P., Goggin, C. & Smith, P. Is the PCL-R really the ``unparalleled'' measure of offender risk? A lesson in knowledge cumulation {2002} CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {29}({4}), pp. {397-426} 
    article  
    Abstract: The declaration that the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is the ``unparalleled'' measure of offender risk prediction is challenged. It is argued that such an assertion reflects an ethnocentric view of research in the area and has led to unsubstantiated claims based on incomplete attempts at knowledge cumulation. In fact, another more comprehensive risk measure, the Level of Service Inventory-Revised, notably surpasses the PCL-R in predicting general (phi = .37 vs. .23) and violent recidivism, albeit only modestly so in the case of the latter (phi = .26 vs. .21). In addition, other problematic issues regarding the PCL-R are outlined. Finally, it is suggested that a more useful role for psychopathy in offender risk assessment may be in terms of the responsivity dimension in case management. Finally, the authors suggest further research directions that will aid in knowledge cumulation regarding the general utility of offender risk measures.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gendreau2002,
      author = {Gendreau, P and Goggin, C and Smith, P},
      title = {Is the PCL-R really the ``unparalleled'' measure of offender risk? A lesson in knowledge cumulation},
      journal = {CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND BEHAVIOR},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {29},
      number = {4},
      pages = {397-426}
    }
    
    GEORGE, J. THE ROLE OF PERSONALITY IN ORGANIZATIONAL LIFE - ISSUES AND EVIDENCE {1992} JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT
    Vol. {18}({2}), pp. {185-213} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article is a selective review of important issues, themes, and topics regarding the effects of personality on organizational behavior Recent literature on the impact of personality on job attitudes and affective states at work is reviewed. Two traits, positive affectivity and negative affectivity, are presented as the key dispositional determinants of affective reactions at work. Criticisms of the dispositional approach are addressed and the integrative perspective of interactional psychology is discussed. The distinction between traits and states is explained and it is shown how states mediate the effects of traits on behavior with states essentially capturing the person-situation interaction. Theorizing and research on person-environment fit, a complementary perspective on person-situation interactions, is discussed, followed by a discussion of the links between personality and three organizationally-relevant outcomes: prosocial behavior, effort and performance, and leadership. Finally, the links between two personality traits, negative affectivity and the Type A behavior pattern, and work-related distress are elucidated.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GEORGE1992,
      author = {GEORGE, JM},
      title = {THE ROLE OF PERSONALITY IN ORGANIZATIONAL LIFE - ISSUES AND EVIDENCE},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT},
      publisher = {JAI PRESS INC},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {18},
      number = {2},
      pages = {185-213}
    }
    
    GERGEN, K. EXPLORING THE POSTMODERN - PERILS OR POTENTIALS {1994} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {49}({5}), pp. {412-416} 
    article  
    Abstract: In an attempt to rescue the self from the ravages of postmodern analysis, M. Brewster Smith (1994) called into action traditional investments in science and moral vision. However, not only are the grounds for these investments found wanting, they themselves harbor threats to human well-being. Furthermore, by understanding the postmodern conception of language as relational, a certain place can be made for both empirical research and moral deliberation. At the same time, postmodern thought opens new vistas for psychology and new horizons for the self.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GERGEN1994,
      author = {GERGEN, KJ},
      title = {EXPLORING THE POSTMODERN - PERILS OR POTENTIALS},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {49},
      number = {5},
      pages = {412-416}
    }
    
    Gergen, K., Gulerce, A., Lock, A. & Misra, G. Psychological science in cultural context {1996} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {51}({5}), pp. {496-503} 
    article  
    Abstract: When one understands psychological science To be a by-product of the Western tradition, fashioned by particular cultural and historical conditions, the door is opened to a fresh consideration of the practice of psychology in the global context. By using examples from experiences in Turkey, New Zealand, and India, the reader is sensitized first to the problems inherent in the unreflective exportation of Western psychology. To presume Western concepts of the mind, along with its methods of study, not only lends itself to research of little relevance to other cultures, bur disregards and undermines alternate cultural traditions. Against these tendencies toward a univocal science, the authors argue for a multicultural psychology-one that celebrates the rich multiplicity of indigenous conceptualizations of the person along with varying means of acquiring knowledge. To realize such a psychology, new forms of dialogue must be sought and the sharing made relevant to ongoing challenges of practical cultural significance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gergen1996,
      author = {Gergen, KJ and Gulerce, A and Lock, A and Misra, G},
      title = {Psychological science in cultural context},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {51},
      number = {5},
      pages = {496-503}
    }
    
    GIGERENZER, G. FROM TOOLS TO THEORIES - A HEURISTIC OF DISCOVERY IN COGNITIVE-PSYCHOLOGY {1991} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {98}({2}), pp. {254-267} 
    article  
    Abstract: The study of scientific discovery-where do new ideas come from?-has long been denigrated by philosophers as irrelevant to analyzing the growth of scientific knowledge. In particular, little is known about how cognitive theories are discovered, and neither the classical accounts of discovery as either probabilistic induction (e.g., Reichenbach, 1938) or lucky guesses (e.g., Popper, 1959), nor the stock anecdotes about sudden ``eureka'' moments deepen the insight into discovery. A heuristics approach is taken in this review, where heuristics are understood as strategies of discovery less general than a supposed unique logic of discovery but more general than lucky guesses. This article deals with how scientists' tools shape theories of mind, in particular with how methods of statistical inference have turned into metaphors of mind. The tools-to-theories heuristic explains the emergence of a broad range of cognitive theories, from the cognitive revolution of the 1960s up to the present, and it can be used to detect both limitations and new lines of development in current cognitive theories that investigate the mind as an ``intuitive statistician.''
    BibTeX:
    @article{GIGERENZER1991,
      author = {GIGERENZER, G},
      title = {FROM TOOLS TO THEORIES - A HEURISTIC OF DISCOVERY IN COGNITIVE-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {98},
      number = {2},
      pages = {254-267},
      note = {24TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF PSYCHOLOGY, SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA, 1988}
    }
    
    Gilbert, P. The evolution of social attractiveness and its role in shame, humiliation, guilt and therapy {1997} BRITISH JOURNAL OF MEDICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {70}({Part 2}), pp. {113-147} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper suggests that humans have innate needs to be seen as attractive to others. These needs form the basis for shame and mediate evaluations of social standing (status), social acceptance and social bonds. Shame and humiliation are associated with attacks on, and losses of, social attractiveness. The internal experiences of shame are derived from submissive strategies where one seeks to signal to others awareness of loss of social standing and limit possible damage. However, it is suggested that shame and humiliation differ from each other in a number of ways. For example, in shame the focus is on the self, while in humiliation the focus is on the harm done by others. Variations in the defensive strategies of shame and humiliation (e.g. avoidance, escape versus aggression and revenge) can pose particularly difficult problems in therapy. A focus on the role of social attractiveness in shame also allows for important distinctions to be drawn between shame and guilt.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gilbert1997,
      author = {Gilbert, P},
      title = {The evolution of social attractiveness and its role in shame, humiliation, guilt and therapy},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF MEDICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {70},
      number = {Part 2},
      pages = {113-147}
    }
    
    GLASER, R. COMPONENTS OF A PSYCHOLOGY OF INSTRUCTION - TOWARD A SCIENCE OF DESIGN {1976} REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
    Vol. {46}({1}), pp. {1-24} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{GLASER1976,
      author = {GLASER, R},
      title = {COMPONENTS OF A PSYCHOLOGY OF INSTRUCTION - TOWARD A SCIENCE OF DESIGN},
      journal = {REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH},
      publisher = {AMER EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ASSOC},
      year = {1976},
      volume = {46},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-24}
    }
    
    GLASER, R. & THORPE, J. UNETHICAL INTIMACY - A SURVEY OF SEXUAL CONTACT AND ADVANCES BETWEEN PSYCHOLOGY EDUCATORS AND FEMALE GRADUATE-STUDENTS {1986} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {41}({1}), pp. {43-51} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{GLASER1986,
      author = {GLASER, RD and THORPE, JS},
      title = {UNETHICAL INTIMACY - A SURVEY OF SEXUAL CONTACT AND ADVANCES BETWEEN PSYCHOLOGY EDUCATORS AND FEMALE GRADUATE-STUDENTS},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {41},
      number = {1},
      pages = {43-51}
    }
    
    GOLDMAN, A. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF FOLK PSYCHOLOGY {1993} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {16}({1}), pp. {15-28} 
    article  
    Abstract: Folk psychology, the naive understanding of mental state concepts, requires a model of how people ascribe mental states to themselves. Competent speakers associate a distinctive memory representation (a category representation, CR) with each mentalistic word in their lexicon. A decision to ascribe such a word to oneself depends on matching to the CR an instance representation (IR) of one's current state. As in visual object recognition, evidence about a CR's content includes the IRs that are or are not available to trigger a match. This poses serious problems for functionalism, the theory-of-mind approach to the meaning of mental terms. A simple functionalist model is inadequate because (1) the relational and subjunctive (what would have happened) information it requires concerning target states is not generally available and (2) it could lead to combinatorial explosion. A modified functionalist model can appeal to qualitative (phenomenological) properties, but the earlier problems still reappear. Qualitative properties are important for sensations, propositional attitudes, and their contents, providing a model that need not refer to functional (causal-relational) properties at all. The introspectionist character of the proposed model does not imply that ascribing mental states to oneself is infallible or complete; nor is the model refuted by empirical research on introspective reports. Empirical research on `'theory of mind'' does not support any strict version of functionalism but only an understanding of mentalistic words that may depend on phenomenological or experiential qualities.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GOLDMAN1993,
      author = {GOLDMAN, AI},
      title = {THE PSYCHOLOGY OF FOLK PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      publisher = {CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {16},
      number = {1},
      pages = {15-28}
    }
    
    Goldstein, D. & Gigerenzer, G. Models of ecological rationality: The recognition heuristic {2002} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {109}({1}), pp. {75-90} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: One view of heuristics is that they are imperfect versions of optimal statistical procedures considered too complicated for ordinary minds to carry out. In contrast, the authors consider heuristics to be adaptive strategies that evolved in tandem with fundamental psychological mechanisms. The recognition heuristic, arguably the most frugal of all heuristics, makes inferences from patterns of missing knowledge. This heuristic exploits a fundamental adaptation of many organisms: the vast, sensitive, and reliable capacity for recognition. The authors specify the conditions under which the recognition heuristic is successful and when it leads to the counterintuitive less-is-more effect in which less knowledge is better than more for making accurate inferences.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Goldstein2002,
      author = {Goldstein, DG and Gigerenzer, G},
      title = {Models of ecological rationality: The recognition heuristic},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {109},
      number = {1},
      pages = {75-90},
      doi = {{10.1037//0033-295X.109.1.75}}
    }
    
    Goldstone, R. & Barsalou, L. Reuniting perception and conception {1998} COGNITION
    Vol. {65}({2-3}), pp. {231-262} 
    article  
    Abstract: Work in philosophy and psychology has argued for a dissociation between perceptually-based similarity and higher-level rules in conceptual thought. Although such a dissociation may be justified at times, our goal is to illustrate ways in which conceptual processing is grounded in perception, both for perceptual similarity and abstract rules. We discuss the advantages, power and influences of perceptually-based representations. First, many of the properties associated with amodal symbol systems can be achieved with perceptually-based systems as well (e.g. productivity). Second, relatively raw perceptual representations are powerful because they can implicitly represent properties in an analog fashion. Third, perception naturally provides impressions of overall similarity, exactly the type of similarity useful for establishing many common categories. Fourth, perceptual similar;ty is not static but becomes tuned over time to conceptual demands. Fifth, the original motivation or basis for sophisticated cognition is often less sophisticated perceptual similarity. Sixth, perceptual simulation occurs even in conceptual tasks that have no explicit perceptual demands. Parallels between perceptual and conceptual processes suggest that many mechanisms typically associated with abstract thought are also present in perception, and that perceptual processes provide useful mechanisms that may be co-opted by abstract thought. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Goldstone1998,
      author = {Goldstone, RL and Barsalou, LW},
      title = {Reuniting perception and conception},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {65},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {231-262}
    }
    
    GOTTLIEB, B. SOCIAL SUPPORT AS A FOCUS FOR INTEGRATIVE RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY {1983} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {38}({3}), pp. {278-287} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{GOTTLIEB1983,
      author = {GOTTLIEB, BH},
      title = {SOCIAL SUPPORT AS A FOCUS FOR INTEGRATIVE RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {38},
      number = {3},
      pages = {278-287}
    }
    
    Gottman, J. Psychology and the study of marital processes {1998} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {49}, pp. {169-197} 
    article  
    Abstract: The divorce rate in the United States is extremely high. It is estimated that between 50% and 67% of first marriages end in divorce. For second marriages, failure rates are even higher. There are strong negative consequences to separation and divorce on the mental and physical health of both spouses, including increased risk for psychopathology, increased rates of automobile accidents, and increased incidence of physical illness, suicide, violence, homicide, significant immunosuppression, and mortality from diseases. In children, marital distress, conflict, and disruption are associated with depression: withdrawal, poor social competence, health problems, poor academic performance, and a variety of conduct-related difficulties. Though intervention techniques might be expected to reduce these grim statistics, our best scholars have concluded that marital therapy is at a practical and theoretical impasse. This article discusses the progress of research on the study of marriage.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gottman1998,
      author = {Gottman, JM},
      title = {Psychology and the study of marital processes},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS INC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {49},
      pages = {169-197}
    }
    
    GOULD, D., FINCH, L. & JACKSON, S. COPING STRATEGIES USED BY NATIONAL CHAMPION FIGURE SKATERS {1993} RESEARCH QUARTERLY FOR EXERCISE AND SPORT
    Vol. {64}({4}), pp. {453-468} 
    article  
    Abstract: This investigation had two purposes. (a) to identify and describe the coping strategies used by national champion figure skaters and (b) to examine the relationship between coping strategies and particular stress sources. Participants were 17 of 20 (85 Senior U.S. National Champion figure skaters who won titles between 1985 and 1990. All skaters were interviewed, and the interview transcripts were content analyzed. General coping dimensions reported by at kast 40 % of the skaters included (a) rational thinking and self-talk (b) positive focus and orientation, (c) social support (e.g, receiving support from coach, talking with friends and family), (d) time management and prioritization, (e) precompetitive mental preparation and anxiety management (eg., relaxation, visualization), (f) training hard and smart, (g) isolation and deflection (e.g., not letting things get to me, avoiding/screening media), and (h) ignoring the stressor(s). It was also found that the skaters implemented different coping strategies depending on the specific stressors encountered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GOULD1993,
      author = {GOULD, D and FINCH, LM and JACKSON, SA},
      title = {COPING STRATEGIES USED BY NATIONAL CHAMPION FIGURE SKATERS},
      journal = {RESEARCH QUARTERLY FOR EXERCISE AND SPORT},
      publisher = {AMER ALLIANCE HEALTH PHYS EDUC REC & DANCE},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {64},
      number = {4},
      pages = {453-468}
    }
    
    GOULD, S. EXAPTATION - A CRUCIAL TOOL FOR AN EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY {1991} JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES
    Vol. {47}({3}), pp. {43-65} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{GOULD1991,
      author = {GOULD, SJ},
      title = {EXAPTATION - A CRUCIAL TOOL FOR AN EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES},
      publisher = {PLENUM PUBL CORP},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {47},
      number = {3},
      pages = {43-65}
    }
    
    GRAHAM, S. MOTIVATION IN AFRICAN-AMERICANS {1994} REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
    Vol. {64}({1}), pp. {55-117} 
    article  
    Abstract: Close to 140 studies comprising an African-American empirical literature on motivation were reviewed. The review was organized around five topics subsumed under three broader assumptions about the relationship between. ethnic minority status and motivation. First, research on the achievement motive was reviewed to examine the belief that African Americans lack certain personality traits deemed necessary for achievement strivings. Second, the empirical literatures on locus of control and causal attributions were summarized to investigate the assumption that African Americans are less likely to believe in internal or personal control of outcomes, the belief system that theoretically should accompany high achievement-related behavior. And third, research on expectancy of success and self-concept of ability was reviewed to examine the hypothesis that African Americans have negative self-views about their competence. None of these assumptions was supported in the review. In fact, African Americans appear to maintain a belief in personal control, have high expectancies, and enjoy positive self-regard. Some of the conceptual and methodological limitations of this research were discussed. The article concludes with six suggested principles of a motivational psychology for African Americans that might serve as guides for future research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GRAHAM1994,
      author = {GRAHAM, S},
      title = {MOTIVATION IN AFRICAN-AMERICANS},
      journal = {REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH},
      publisher = {AMER EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ASSOC},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {64},
      number = {1},
      pages = {55-117}
    }
    
    Greenfield, P. You can't take it with you - Why ability assessments don't cross cultures {1997} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {52}({10}), pp. {1115-1124} 
    article  
    Abstract: A central thesis of this article is that ability tests can be analyzed as items of symbolic culture. This theoretical perspective, based in cultural psychology, provides psychological researchers and clinicians with the tools to detect, correct, and avoid the cross-cultural misunderstandings that undermine the validity of ability tests applied outside their culture of origin. When testers use rests developed in their own culture to test members of a different culture, testees often do not share the presuppositions about values, knowledge, and communication implicitly assumed by the test. These cross-cultural issues have important relevance for ability testing in an ethnically diverse society.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Greenfield1997,
      author = {Greenfield, PM},
      title = {You can't take it with you - Why ability assessments don't cross cultures},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {52},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1115-1124}
    }
    
    Greenfield, P., Keller, H., Fuligni, A. & Maynard, A. Cultural pathways through universal development {2003} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {54}, pp. {461-490} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: We focus our review on three universal tasks of human development: relationship formation, knowledge acquisition, and the balance between autonomy and relatedness at adolescence. We present evidence that each task can be addressed through two deeply different cultural pathways through development: the pathways of independence and interdependence. Whereas core theories in developmental psychology are universalistic in their intentions, they in fact presuppose the independent pathway of development. Because the independent pathway is therefore well-known in psychology, we focus a large part of our review on empirically documenting the alternative, interdependent pathway for each developmental task. We also present three theoretical: approaches to culture and development: the ecocultural, the sociohistorical, and the cultural values approach. We argue that an understanding of cultural pathways through human development requires all three approaches. We review evidence linking values (cultural values approach), ecological conditions (ecocultural approach), and socialization practices (sociohistorical approach) to cultural pathways through universal developmental tasks.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Greenfield2003,
      author = {Greenfield, PM and Keller, H and Fuligni, A and Maynard, A},
      title = {Cultural pathways through universal development},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {54},
      pages = {461-490},
      doi = {{10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145221}}
    }
    
    Greenwald, A., Gonzalez, R., Harris, R. & Guthrie, D. Effect sizes and p values: What should be reported and what should be replicated? {1996} PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY
    Vol. {33}({2}), pp. {175-183} 
    article  
    Abstract: Despite publication of many well-argued critiques of null hypothesis testing (NHT), behavioral science researchers continue to rely heavily on this set of practices. Although we agree with most critics' catalogs of NHT's flaws, this article also takes the unusual stance of identifying virtues that may explain why NHT continues to be so extensively used. These virtues include providing results in the form of a dichotomous (yes/no) hypothesis evaluation and providing an index (p value) that has a justifiable mapping onto confidence in repeatability of a null hypothesis rejection. The most-criticized flaws of NHT can be avoided when the importance of a hypothesis, rather than the p value of its test, is used to determine that a finding is worthy of report, and when p congruent to .05 is treated as insufficient basis for confidence in the replicability of an isolated non-null finding. Together with many recent critics of NHT, we also urge reporting of important hypothesis tests in enough descriptive detail to permit secondary uses such as meta-analysis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Greenwald1996,
      author = {Greenwald, AG and Gonzalez, R and Harris, RJ and Guthrie, D},
      title = {Effect sizes and p values: What should be reported and what should be replicated?},
      journal = {PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY},
      publisher = {SOC PSYCHOPHYSIOL RES},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {33},
      number = {2},
      pages = {175-183}
    }
    
    GRIFFIN, D. & GONZALEZ, R. CORRELATIONAL ANALYSIS OF DYAD-LEVEL DATA IN THE EXCHANGEABLE CASE {1995} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {118}({3}), pp. {430-439} 
    article  
    Abstract: Many research problems in psychology require statistical methods that take into account the dependencies introduced by dyadic interaction. The authors provide correlational tools for dyadic data when the individuals within the dyads are both from the same class or category, such as 2 male adults. First, the authors provide significance tests for correlations between 2 variables when individuals are nested within dyads. Second, they provide a simplified method for decomposing the overall correlation into individual-level and dyad-level relations. Finally, the authors demonstrate these methods with dyadic data collected by L,. Stinson and W. Ickes (1992) in a study of unstructured dyadic interactions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GRIFFIN1995,
      author = {GRIFFIN, D and GONZALEZ, R},
      title = {CORRELATIONAL ANALYSIS OF DYAD-LEVEL DATA IN THE EXCHANGEABLE CASE},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {118},
      number = {3},
      pages = {430-439}
    }
    
    Grondin, S. From physical time to the first and second moments of psychological time {2001} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {127}({1}), pp. {22-44} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: After examination of the status of lime in experimental psychology and a review of related major texts, 2 opposite approaches are presented in which time is either unified or fragmented. Unified time perception views, usually guided by Weber's law, are embodied in various models. After a brief review of old models and a description of the major contemporary models of time perception, views on fragmented time perception are presented as challenges far any unified time view. Fragmentation of psychological time emerges from (a) disruptions of the Weber function, which are caused by the types of interval presentation, by extensive practice. and by counting explicitly or not; and (b) modulations of time sensitivity and perceived duration by attention and interval structures. Weber's law is a useful guide for studying psychological time, but it is also reasonable to assume that more than one so-called central timekeeper could contribute to perceiving time.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Grondin2001,
      author = {Grondin, S},
      title = {From physical time to the first and second moments of psychological time},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {127},
      number = {1},
      pages = {22-44},
      doi = {{10.1037//0033-2909.127.1.22}}
    }
    
    Grossenbacher, P. & Lovelace, C. Mechanisms of synesthesia: cognitive and physiological constraints {2001} TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES
    Vol. {5}({1}), pp. {36-41} 
    article  
    Abstract: Synesthesia is a conscious experience of systematically induced sensory attributes that are not experienced by most people under comparable conditions. Recent findings from cognitive psychology, functional brain imaging and psychophysiology have shed considerable light on the nature of synesthesia and its neurocognitive underpinnings. These cognitive and physiological findings are discussed with respect to a neuroanatomical framework consisting of hierarchically organized cortical sensory pathways. We advance a neurobiological theory of synesthesia that fits within this neuroanatomical framework.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Grossenbacher2001,
      author = {Grossenbacher, PG and Lovelace, CT},
      title = {Mechanisms of synesthesia: cognitive and physiological constraints},
      journal = {TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE LONDON},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {36-41}
    }
    
    Gurin, P., Dey, E., Hurtado, S. & Gurin, G. Diversity and higher education: Theory and impact on educational outcomes {2002} HARVARD EDUCATIONAL REVIEW
    Vol. {72}({3}), pp. {330-366} 
    article  
    Abstract: In the current context of legal challenges to affirmative action and race-based considerations in college admissions, educators have been challenged to articulate clearly the educational purposes and benefits of diversity. In this article, Patricia Gurin, Eric Dey, Sylvia Hurtado, and Gerald Gurin explore the relationship between students' experiences with diverse peers in the college or university setting and their educational outcomes. Rooted in theories of cognitive development and social psychology, the authors Present a framework for understanding how diversity introduces the relational discontinuities critical to identity construction and its subsequent role in fostering cognitive growth. Using both single- and multi-institutional data from the University of Michigan and the Cooperative Institutional Research Program, the authors go on to examine the effects of classroom diversity and informal interaction among African American, Asian American, Latino/a, and White students on learning and democracy outcomes. The results of their analyses underscore the educational and civic importance of informal interaction among different racial and ethnic groups during the college years. The authors offer their findings as evidence of the continuing importance of affirmative action and diversity efforts by colleges and universities, not only as a means of increasing access to higher education for greater numbers of students, but also as a means of fostering students' academic and social growth.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gurin2002,
      author = {Gurin, P and Dey, EL and Hurtado, S and Gurin, G},
      title = {Diversity and higher education: Theory and impact on educational outcomes},
      journal = {HARVARD EDUCATIONAL REVIEW},
      publisher = {HARVARD GRADUATE SCHOOL EDUCATION},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {72},
      number = {3},
      pages = {330-366}
    }
    
    Haddock, C., Rindskopf, D. & Shadish, W. Using odds ratios as effect sizes for meta-analysis of dichotomous data: A primer on methods and issues {1998} PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS
    Vol. {3}({3}), pp. {339-353} 
    article  
    Abstract: Many meta-analysts incorrectly use correlations or standardized mean difference statistics to compute effect sizes on dichotomous data. Odds ratios and their logarithms should almost always be preferred for such data This article reviews the issues and shows how to use odds ratios in meta-analytic data, both alone and in combination with other effect size estimators. Examples illustrate procedures for estimating the weighted average of such effect sizes and methods for computing variance estimates, confidence intervals, and homogeneity tests. Descriptions of fixed- and random-effects models help determine whether effect sizes are functions of study characteristics, and a random-effects regression model, previously unused for odds ratio data, is described. Although all but the latter of these procedures are already widely known in areas such as medicine and epidemiology, the absence of their use in psychology suggests a need for this description.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Haddock1998,
      author = {Haddock, CK and Rindskopf, D and Shadish, WR},
      title = {Using odds ratios as effect sizes for meta-analysis of dichotomous data: A primer on methods and issues},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {339-353}
    }
    
    Haidt, J. The new synthesis in moral psychology {2007} SCIENCE
    Vol. {316}({5827}), pp. {998-1002} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: People are selfish, yet morally motivated. Morality is universal, yet culturally variable. Such apparent contradictions are dissolving as research from many disciplines converges on a few shared principles, including the importance of moral intuitions, the socially functional ( rather than truth-seeking) nature of moral thinking, and the coevolution of moral minds with cultural practices and institutions that create diverse moral communities. I propose a fourth principle to guide future research: Morality is about more than harm and fairness. More research is needed on the collective and religious parts of the moral domain, such as loyalty, authority, and spiritual purity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Haidt2007,
      author = {Haidt, Jonathan},
      title = {The new synthesis in moral psychology},
      journal = {SCIENCE},
      publisher = {AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {316},
      number = {5827},
      pages = {998-1002},
      doi = {{10.1126/science.1137651}}
    }
    
    Haleblian, J. & Finkelstein, S. The influence of organizational acquisition experience on acquisition performance: A behavioral learning perspective {1999} ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE QUARTERLY
    Vol. {44}({1}), pp. {29-56} 
    article  
    Abstract: Drawing on work from behavioral learning theory in psychology, this study examines the influence of prior organizational acquisition experience on the performance of acquisitions. This theory, which examines both the conditions preceding organization events and organizational responses, predicts that experience effects may range from positive to negative. Consistent with this theory, data from 449 acquisitions show an overall U-shaped relationship between organization acquisition experience and acquisition performance. In addition, the more similar a firm's acquisition targets are to its prior targets, the better they perform. These findings suggest that relatively inexperienced acquirers, after making their first acquisition, inappropriately generalize acquisition experience to subsequent dissimilar acquisitions, while more experienced acquirers appropriately discriminate between their acquisitions. Behavioral learning theory, then, may enhance understanding of organization experience effects.*
    BibTeX:
    @article{Haleblian1999,
      author = {Haleblian, J and Finkelstein, S},
      title = {The influence of organizational acquisition experience on acquisition performance: A behavioral learning perspective},
      journal = {ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE QUARTERLY},
      publisher = {ADMINISTRATIVE, SCI QUARTERLY},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {44},
      number = {1},
      pages = {29-56}
    }
    
    Hall, C. Cultural malpractice - The growing obsolescence of psychology with the changing US population {1997} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {52}({6}), pp. {642-651} 
    article  
    Abstract: With the changing demographics occurring in the United States, psychology must make substantive revisions in its curriculum, training, research, and practice. Without these revisions, psychology will risk professional, ethical, and economic problems because psychology will no longer be a viable professional resource to the majority of the U.S. population. In particular, this article discusses the need for psychology to address issues of ethnicity/culture, gender, and sexual orientation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hall1997,
      author = {Hall, CCI},
      title = {Cultural malpractice - The growing obsolescence of psychology with the changing US population},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {52},
      number = {6},
      pages = {642-651},
      note = {103rd Annual Convention of the American-Psychological-Association, NEW YORK, NY, AUG 11-15, 1995}
    }
    
    Hall, G. Psychotherapy research with ethnic minorities: Empirical, ethical, and conceptual issues {2001} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {69}({3}), pp. {502-510} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: There is an increasing demand for psychotherapy among ethnic minority populations. Yet, there is not adequate evidence that empirically supported therapies (ESTs) are effective with ethnic minorities. Ethical guidelines suggest that psychotherapies be modified to become culturally appropriate for ethnic minority persons. Conceptual approaches have identified interdependence, spirituality. and discrimination as considerations for culturally sensitive therapy (CST). However, there is no more empirical support for the efficacy of CSTs than there is for the efficacy of ESTs with ethnic minority populations. The chasm between EST and CST research is a function of differences between methods and researchers in these 2 traditions. Specific recommendations for research collaboration between CST and EST researchers are offered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hall2001,
      author = {Hall, GCN},
      title = {Psychotherapy research with ethnic minorities: Empirical, ethical, and conceptual issues},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {69},
      number = {3},
      pages = {502-510},
      doi = {{10.1037//0022-006X.69.3.502}}
    }
    
    HALL, J. & STEVENS, P. RIGOR IN FEMINIST RESEARCH {1991} ADVANCES IN NURSING SCIENCE
    Vol. {13}({3}), pp. {16-29} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HALL1991,
      author = {HALL, JM and STEVENS, PE},
      title = {RIGOR IN FEMINIST RESEARCH},
      journal = {ADVANCES IN NURSING SCIENCE},
      publisher = {ASPEN PUBL INC},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {13},
      number = {3},
      pages = {16-29}
    }
    
    Halpern, D. Sex differences in intelligence - Implications for education {1997} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {52}({10}), pp. {1091-1102} 
    article  
    Abstract: Sex differences in intelligence is among the most politically volatile topics in contemporary psychology. Although no single finding has unanimous support, conclusions from multiple studies suggest that females, on average, score higher on tasks that require rapid access to and use of phonological and semantic information in long-term memory, production and comprehension of complex prose, fine motor skills, and perceptual speed. Males, on average, score higher on tasks that require transformations in visual-spatial working memory, motor skills involved in aiming spatiotemporal responding, and fluid reasoning, especially in abstract mathematical and scientific domains. Males, however are also overrepresented in the low-ability end of several distributions, including mental retardation, attention disorders, dyslexia, stuttering, and delayed speech. A psychobiosocial model that is based an the inextricable links between the biological bases of intelligence and environmental events is proposed as an alternative to nature-nurture dichotomies. Societal implications and applications to teaching and learning are suggested.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Halpern1997,
      author = {Halpern, DF},
      title = {Sex differences in intelligence - Implications for education},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {52},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1091-1102}
    }
    
    HAMILTON, V. WHO IS RESPONSIBLE - TOWARD A SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF RESPONSIBILITY ATTRIBUTION {1978} SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {41}({4}), pp. {316-328} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HAMILTON1978,
      author = {HAMILTON, VL},
      title = {WHO IS RESPONSIBLE - TOWARD A SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY OF RESPONSIBILITY ATTRIBUTION},
      journal = {SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER SOCIOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1978},
      volume = {41},
      number = {4},
      pages = {316-328}
    }
    
    HAMMOND, W. & YUNG, B. PSYCHOLOGY ROLE IN THE PUBLIC-HEALTH RESPONSE TO ASSAULTIVE VIOLENCE AMONG YOUNG AFRICAN-AMERICAN MEN {1993} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {48}({2}), pp. {142-154} 
    article  
    Abstract: African-American male adolescents face disproportionate risk for death or injury resulting from assaultive violence. This article presents a public health framework for examining the problem and developing interventions. A brief interdisciplinary review of research is provided on the nature and extent of the problem, its etiology, and current approaches to prevention. Attention is called to intra- and intergroup differences in patterns among White and ethnic minority youth and to specific theories and research about assaultive violence among young African-American men. Emerging imperatives in the search for solutions are identified, emphasizing the need for cultural sensitivity in the design of preventive interventions and an expanded role for psychologists in the public health response to this critical health problem.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HAMMOND1993,
      author = {HAMMOND, WR and YUNG, B},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY ROLE IN THE PUBLIC-HEALTH RESPONSE TO ASSAULTIVE VIOLENCE AMONG YOUNG AFRICAN-AMERICAN MEN},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {48},
      number = {2},
      pages = {142-154}
    }
    
    HAN, S. & SHAVITT, S. PERSUASION AND CULTURE - ADVERTISING APPEALS IN INDIVIDUALISTIC AND COLLECTIVISTIC SOCIETIES {1994} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {30}({4}), pp. {326-350} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two studies examined the extent to which a core dimension of cultural variability, individualism-collectivism (Hofstede, 1980, 1983; Triandis, 1990), is reflected in the types of persuasive appeals that tend to be used and that tend to be effective in different countries. Study 1 demonstrated that magazine advertisements in the United States, an individualistic culture, employed appeals to individual benefits and preferences, personal success, and independence to a greater extent than did advertisements in Korea, a collectivistic culture. Korean advertisements employed appeals emphasizing ingroup benefits, harmony, and family integrity to a greater extent than did U.S. ads. Study 2, a controlled experiment conducted in the two countries, demonstrated that in the U.S. advertisements emphasizing individualistic benefits were more persuasive, and ads emphasizing family or ingroup benefits were less persuasive than they were in Korea. In both studies, however, product characteristics played a role in moderating these overall differences: Cultural differences emerged strongly in Studies 1 and 2 for advertised products that tend to be purchased and used with others, but were much less evident for products that are typically purchased and used individually. (C) 1994 Academic Press, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HAN1994,
      author = {HAN, SP and SHAVITT, S},
      title = {PERSUASION AND CULTURE - ADVERTISING APPEALS IN INDIVIDUALISTIC AND COLLECTIVISTIC SOCIETIES},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS INC JNL-COMP SUBSCRIPTIONS},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {30},
      number = {4},
      pages = {326-350}
    }
    
    Hara, N., Bonk, C. & Angeli, C. Content analysis of online discussion in an applied educational psychology course {2000} INSTRUCTIONAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {28}({2}), pp. {115-152} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study analyzed discussion in an online conference that supplemented class discussion using an instructional method called the starter-wrapper technique within a traditional graduate level educational psychology course. Various quantitative measures were recorded to compare instructor and student participation rates. In addition, Henri's (1992) model for content analysis of computer-mediated communication was employed to qualitatively analyze the electronic discourse. Using this model, five key variables were examined: (1) student participation rates; (2) electronic interaction patterns; (3) social cues within student messages; (4) cognitive and metacognitive components of student messages; and (5) depth of processing - surface or deep - within message posting. Transcript content analyses showed that, while students tended to post just the one required comment per week in the conference, their messages were lengthy, cognitively deep, embedded with peer references, and indicative of a student oriented environment. Moreover, students were using high level cognitive skills such as inferencing and judgment as well as metacognitive strategies related to reflecting on experience and self-awareness. Weekly conference activity graphs revealed that student electronic comments became more interactive over time, but were highly dependent on the directions of discussion starter. To better understand the impact of electronic conferencing discourse, modifications to Henri's model as well as qualitative research suggestions were offered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hara2000,
      author = {Hara, N and Bonk, CJ and Angeli, C},
      title = {Content analysis of online discussion in an applied educational psychology course},
      journal = {INSTRUCTIONAL SCIENCE},
      publisher = {KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {28},
      number = {2},
      pages = {115-152},
      note = {9th International Conference of the Society-for-Information-Technology-and-Teacher-Education, WASHINGTON, D.C., 1998}
    }
    
    Harackiewicz, J., Barron, K., Tauer, J. & Elliot, A. Predicting success in college: A longitudinal study of achievement goals and ability measures as predictors of interest and performance from freshman year through graduation {2002} JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {94}({3}), pp. {562-575} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The authors examined the role of achievement goals, ability, and high school performance in predicting academic success over students' college careers. First, the authors examined which variables predicted students' interest and performance in an introductory psychology course taken their first semester in college. Then, the authors followed students until they graduated to examine continued interest in psychology and performance in subsequent classes. Achievement goals, ability measures, and prior high school performance each contributed unique variance in predicting initial and long-term outcomes, but these predictors were linked to different educational outcomes. Mastery goals predicted continued interest, whereas performance-approach goals predicted performance. Ability measures and prior high school performance predicted academic performance but not interest. The findings support a multiple goals perspective.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Harackiewicz2002,
      author = {Harackiewicz, JM and Barron, KE and Tauer, JM and Elliot, AJ},
      title = {Predicting success in college: A longitudinal study of achievement goals and ability measures as predictors of interest and performance from freshman year through graduation},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {94},
      number = {3},
      pages = {562-575},
      doi = {{10.1037//0022-0663.94.3.562}}
    }
    
    HARRIS, R. & MONACO, G. PSYCHOLOGY OF PRAGMATIC IMPLICATION - INFORMATION-PROCESSING BETWEEN LINES {1978} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL
    Vol. {107}({1}), pp. {1-22} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HARRIS1978,
      author = {HARRIS, RJ and MONACO, GE},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY OF PRAGMATIC IMPLICATION - INFORMATION-PROCESSING BETWEEN LINES},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1978},
      volume = {107},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-22}
    }
    
    HASLAM, S., TURNER, J., OAKES, P., MCGARTY, C. & HAYES, B. CONTEXT-DEPENDENT VARIATION IN SOCIAL STEREOTYPING .1. THE EFFECTS OF INTERGROUP RELATIONS AS MEDIATED BY SOCIAL-CHANGE AND FRAME OF REFERENCE {1992} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {22}({1}), pp. {3-20} 
    article  
    Abstract: During the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf conflict an experiment was conducted with Australian university students (N = 200) to investigate whether the social stereotyping of Americans varied with social contextual manipulations related to the hostilities. The study, conducted in two phases at the start and end of the conflict, examined how the assignment of standard stereotypical traits to Americans was affected (a) by the large-scale social change constituted by the war and (b) by variation in the frame of reference provided by relevant comparison groups. The elicited stereotypes were sensitive to both of these contextual variables, demonstrating significant variation and fluidity. Overall, stereotypes of Americans were relatively negative. They were significantly more negative (a) at the end of the war than at the beginning in the restricted frame (when Australia and Britain were comparison groups) and (b) in the first phase of the conflict when the frame was extended to include Iraq as a comparison group. The findings were in line with expectations derived from self-categorization theory (Turner, 1985) that the social categorization of self and other into ingroup and outgroup is inherently variable, comparative and context-dependent. They question the long-held view of stereotypes as fixed, rigid and resistant to change.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HASLAM1992,
      author = {HASLAM, SA and TURNER, JC and OAKES, PJ and MCGARTY, C and HAYES, BK},
      title = {CONTEXT-DEPENDENT VARIATION IN SOCIAL STEREOTYPING .1. THE EFFECTS OF INTERGROUP RELATIONS AS MEDIATED BY SOCIAL-CHANGE AND FRAME OF REFERENCE},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {22},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-20}
    }
    
    HAUGTVEDT, C. & PETTY, R. PERSONALITY AND PERSUASION - NEED FOR COGNITION MODERATES THE PERSISTENCE AND RESISTANCE OF ATTITUDE CHANGES {1992} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {63}({2}), pp. {308-319} 
    article  
    Abstract: Hypotheses about the persistence and resistance of attitudes and beliefs formed by individuals scoring high or low in Need for Cognition (NC; Cacioppo & Petty, 1982) were derived from the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986). In Study 1, both high-NC and low-NC individuals formed evaluatively similar attitudes toward an unfamiliar attitude object (a new product) after exposure to a persuasive message (an advertisement). The newly formed attitudes of high-NC individuals decayed less than the newly formed attitudes of low-NC individuals over a 2-day period. In Study 2, both high-NC and low-NC individuals were persuaded by an initial message that a food additive was unsafe. However, when immediately exposed to a second countermessage arguing that the product was safe, the initial experimentally created beliefs of high-NC individuals were shown to be more resistant to change than the experimentally created beliefs of low-NC individuals.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HAUGTVEDT1992,
      author = {HAUGTVEDT, CP and PETTY, RE},
      title = {PERSONALITY AND PERSUASION - NEED FOR COGNITION MODERATES THE PERSISTENCE AND RESISTANCE OF ATTITUDE CHANGES},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {63},
      number = {2},
      pages = {308-319}
    }
    
    HAYS, R., MARSHALL, G., WANG, E. & SHERBOURNE, C. 4-YEAR CROSS-LAGGED ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PHYSICAL AND MENTAL-HEALTH IN THE MEDICAL OUTCOMES STUDY {1994} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {62}({3}), pp. {441-449} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article provides an application of structural equation modeling to the evaluation of cross-lagged panel models. Self-reports of physical and mental health at 3 different time points spanning a 4-year interval were analyzed to illustrate the cross-lagged analysis methodology. Data were collected from a sample of 856 patients with hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, or depression (or any combination of these) participating in the Medical Outcomes Study. Cross-lagged analyses of physical and mental health constructs revealed substantial stability effects across time. A structural model with standard effects revealed positive effects of physical health on mental health but negative (suppression) effects of mental health on physical health. The effects of mental health on physical health became nonsignificant when the model was revised by adding nonstandard effects (direct effects of measured variable residuals on latent variables). Recommendations for structural equation modeling of cross-lagged panel data are provided.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HAYS1994,
      author = {HAYS, RD and MARSHALL, GN and WANG, EYI and SHERBOURNE, CD},
      title = {4-YEAR CROSS-LAGGED ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PHYSICAL AND MENTAL-HEALTH IN THE MEDICAL OUTCOMES STUDY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {62},
      number = {3},
      pages = {441-449}
    }
    
    Heath, M., Sarkar, S., Sanocki, T. & Bowyer, K. Comparison of edge detectors - A methodology and initial study {1998} COMPUTER VISION AND IMAGE UNDERSTANDING
    Vol. {69}({1}), pp. {38-54} 
    article  
    Abstract: Because of the difficulty of obtaining ground truth for real images, the traditional technique for comparing low-level vision algorithms is to present image results, side by side, and to let the reader subjectively judge the quality, This is not a scientifically satisfactory strategy, However, human rating experiments can be done in a more rigorous manner to provide useful quantitative conclusions, We present a paradigm based on experimental psychology and statistics, in which humans rate the output of low level vision algorithms, We demonstrate the proposed experimental strategy by comparing four well-known edge detectors: Canny, Nalwa-Binford, Sarkar-Boyer, and Sobel, We answer the following questions: Is there a statistically significant difference in edge detector outputs as perceived by humans when considering an object recognition task? Do the edge detection results of an operator vary significantly with the choice of its parameters? For each detector, is it possible to choose a single set of optimal parameters for all the images without significantly affecting the edge output quality? Does an edge detector produce edges of the same quality for all images, or does the edge quality vary with the image? (C) 1998 Academic Press.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Heath1998,
      author = {Heath, M and Sarkar, S and Sanocki, T and Bowyer, K},
      title = {Comparison of edge detectors - A methodology and initial study},
      journal = {COMPUTER VISION AND IMAGE UNDERSTANDING},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS INC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {69},
      number = {1},
      pages = {38-54}
    }
    
    HECKHAUSEN, J. & KRUEGER, J. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPECTATIONS FOR THE SELF AND MOST OTHER PEOPLE - AGE GRADING IN 3 FUNCTIONS OF SOCIAL-COMPARISON {1993} DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {29}({3}), pp. {539-548} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study focused on beliefs about one's own compared with other people's development in adulthood. Young, middle-aged, and old adults rated person-descriptive attributes with respect to developmental change throughout adulthood for the self and most other people, controllability for self and other, desirability, degree of self-descriptiveness, relevance as a developmental goal, and typical age-timing of attribute as developmental goal. Various aspects of subjective identification with age groups were also assessed. Findings suggested 3 modes of social comparison: self-assessment reflected in congruence between self and other-ascribed developmental trajectories, self-enhancement involved in more favorable expectations for the self regarding old age, and self-improvement expressed in developmental aspirations toward higher status age groups.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HECKHAUSEN1993,
      author = {HECKHAUSEN, J and KRUEGER, J},
      title = {DEVELOPMENTAL EXPECTATIONS FOR THE SELF AND MOST OTHER PEOPLE - AGE GRADING IN 3 FUNCTIONS OF SOCIAL-COMPARISON},
      journal = {DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {29},
      number = {3},
      pages = {539-548}
    }
    
    Heine, S. & Lehman, D. Culture, dissonance, and self-affirmation {1997} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {23}({4}), pp. {389-400} 
    article  
    Abstract: Within the framework of self-affirmation theory, the authors compared levels of dissonance reduction in the free-choice paradigm between a culture typical of an independent construal of self (Canadian) and a culture typical of an interdependent construal of self (Japanese). Whereas Canadian results virtually duplicated past self-affirmation findings with U.S. participants, Japanese results showed no dissonance reduction. This, the authors argue, is because such situations do not threaten core aspects of the interdependent self.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Heine1997,
      author = {Heine, SJ and Lehman, DR},
      title = {Culture, dissonance, and self-affirmation},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {23},
      number = {4},
      pages = {389-400}
    }
    
    HELMREICH, R., SPENCE, J., BEANE, W., LUCKER, G. & MATTHEWS, K. MAKING IT IN ACADEMIC PSYCHOLOGY - DEMOGRAPHIC AND PERSONALITY-CORRELATES OF ATTAINMENT {1980} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {39}({5}), pp. {896-908} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HELMREICH1980,
      author = {HELMREICH, RL and SPENCE, JT and BEANE, WE and LUCKER, GW and MATTHEWS, KA},
      title = {MAKING IT IN ACADEMIC PSYCHOLOGY - DEMOGRAPHIC AND PERSONALITY-CORRELATES OF ATTAINMENT},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {39},
      number = {5},
      pages = {896-908}
    }
    
    HEMSLEY, D. A SIMPLE (OR SIMPLISTIC-QUESTIONABLE) COGNITIVE MODEL FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA {1993} BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY
    Vol. {31}({7}), pp. {633-645} 
    article  
    Abstract: An approach which views schizophrenia as a disturbance of information processing appears promising as a way of linking biological and clininal aspects of the disorder. A review of research in this area led to the suggestion that the basic disturbance in schizophrenia is `'a weakening of the influences of stored memories of regularities of previous input on current perception''. This formulation leads to the prediction that in certain circumstances, schizophrenics may perform better than normal subjects. Recent studies employing tasks derived from human experimental psychology provide evidence in support of the model. It is argued that the link between information processing disturbances and biological abnormalities may be facilitated by the use of paradigms derived from animal learning theory (latent inhibition and Kamin's blocking effect). On both tasks the pattern of performance of acute schizophrenics is consistent with the cognitive model. The ways in which such an information processing disturbance may lead to schizophrenic symptomatology are outlined, with particular reference to the formation and maintenance of delusional beliefs. The core cognitive abnormality may result from a disturbance in any of the brain structures involved in the prediction of subsequent sensory input. The proposed circuit, which draws heavily on Gray's model, implicates in particular the hippocampus and related areas and is consistent with studies of brain pathology in schizophrenia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HEMSLEY1993,
      author = {HEMSLEY, DR},
      title = {A SIMPLE (OR SIMPLISTIC-QUESTIONABLE) COGNITIVE MODEL FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA},
      journal = {BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {31},
      number = {7},
      pages = {633-645}
    }
    
    Henrich, J. Cultural group selection, coevolutionary processes and large-scale cooperation {2004} JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR & ORGANIZATION
    Vol. {53}({1}), pp. {3-35} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In constructing improved models of human behavior, both experimental and behavioral economists have increasingly turned to evolutionary theory for insights into human psychology and preferences. Unfortunately, the existing genetic evolutionary approaches can explain neither the degree of prosociality (altruism and altruistic punishment) observed in humans, nor the patterns of variation in these behaviors across different behavioral domains and social groups. Ongoing misunderstandings about why certain models work, what they predict, and what the place is of ``group selection'' in evolutionary theory have hampered the use of insights from biology and anthropology. This paper clarifies some of these issues and proposes an approach to the evolution of prosociality rooted in the interaction between cultural and genetic transmission. I explain how, in contrast to non-cultural species, the details of our evolved cultural learning capacities (e.g., imitative abilities) create the conditions for the cultural evolution of prosociality. By producing multiple behavioral equilibria, including group-beneficial equilibria, cultural evolution endogenously generates a mechanism of equilibrium selection that can favor prosociality. Finally, in the novel social environments left in the wake of these cultural evolutionary processes, natural selection is likely to favor prosocial genes that would not be expected in a purely genetic approach. (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Henrich2004,
      author = {Henrich, J},
      title = {Cultural group selection, coevolutionary processes and large-scale cooperation},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR & ORGANIZATION},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {53},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-35},
      doi = {{10.1016/S0167-2681(03)00094-5}}
    }
    
    Henrich, J., McElreath, R., Barr, A., Ensminger, J., Barrett, C., Bolyanatz, A., Camilo Cardenas, J., Gurven, M., Gwako, E., Henrich, N., Lesorogol, C., Marlowe, F.W., Tracer, D. & Ziker, J. Costly punishment across human societies {2006} SCIENCE
    Vol. {312}({5781}), pp. {1767-1770} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Recent behavioral experiments aimed at understanding the evolutionary foundations of human cooperation have suggested that a willingness to engage in costly punishment, even in one-shot situations, may be part of human psychology and a key element in understanding our sociality. However, because most experiments have been confined to students in industrialized societies, generalizations of these insights to the species have necessarily been tentative. Here, experimental results from 15 diverse populations show that (i) all populations demonstrate some willingness to administer costly punishment as unequal behavior increases, (ii) the magnitude of this punishment varies substantially across populations, and (iii) costly punishment positively covaries with altruistic behavior across populations. These findings are consistent with models of the gene-culture coevolution of human altruism and further sharpen what any theory of human cooperation needs to explain.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Henrich2006,
      author = {Henrich, Joseph and McElreath, Richard and Barr, Abigail and Ensminger, Jean and Barrett, Clark and Bolyanatz, Alexander and Camilo Cardenas, Juan and Gurven, Michael and Gwako, Edwins and Henrich, Natalie and Lesorogol, Carolyn and Marlowe, Frank W. and Tracer, David and Ziker, John},
      title = {Costly punishment across human societies},
      journal = {SCIENCE},
      publisher = {AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {312},
      number = {5781},
      pages = {1767-1770},
      doi = {{10.1126/science.1127333}}
    }
    
    Herek, G. Gender gaps in public opinion about lesbians and gay men {2002} PUBLIC OPINION QUARTERLY
    Vol. {66}({1}), pp. {40-66} 
    article  
    Abstract: Using data from a 1999 national RDD survey (N=1,335), this article examines gender gaps in heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians, gay men, and a variety of topics related to homosexuality. Attitudes toward lesbians differed from attitudes toward gay men in several areas, and significant differences were observed between male and female heterosexual respondents. Survey participants generally were more likely to regard gay men as mentally ill, supported adoption rights for lesbians more than for gay men, and had more negative personal reactions to gay men than to lesbians. Overall, heterosexual women were more supportive than men of employment protection and adoption rights for gay people, more willing to extend employee benefits to same-sex couples, and less likely to hold stereotypical beliefs about gay people. Heterosexual men's negative reactions to gay men were at the root of these gender differences. Of all respondent-by-target combinations, heterosexual men were the least supportive of recognition of same-sex relationships and adoption rights for gay men, most likely to believe that gay men are mentally ill and molest children, and most negative in their affective reactions to gay men. Heterosexual men's response patterns were affected by item order, suggesting possible gender differences in the cognitive organization of attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. The findings demonstrate the importance of differentiating lesbians from gay men as attitude targets in survey research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Herek2002,
      author = {Herek, GM},
      title = {Gender gaps in public opinion about lesbians and gay men},
      journal = {PUBLIC OPINION QUARTERLY},
      publisher = {UNIV CHICAGO PRESS},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {66},
      number = {1},
      pages = {40-66}
    }
    
    Hermans, H. The dialogical self: Toward a theory of personal and cultural positioning {2001} CULTURE & PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {7}({3}), pp. {243-281} 
    article  
    Abstract: The dialogical self proposes a far-reaching decentralization of both the concept of self and the concept of culture. At the intersection between the psychology of the self in the tradition of William James and the dialogical school in the tradition of Mikhail Bakhtin, the proposed view challenges both the idea of a core, essential self and the idea of a core, essential culture. In apparent contradiction with such a view, the present viewpoint proposes to conceive self and culture as a multiplicity of positions among which dialogical relationships can be established. Particular attention is paid to collective voices, domination and asymmetry of social relations, and embodied forms of dialogue. Cultures and selves are seen as moving and mixing and as increasingly sensitive to travel and translocality. Three perspectives for future research of self and culture are briefly discussed: the shifting attention from core to contact zones; increasing complexity; and the experience of uncertainty.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hermans2001,
      author = {Hermans, HJM},
      title = {The dialogical self: Toward a theory of personal and cultural positioning},
      journal = {CULTURE & PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {243-281}
    }
    
    Hermans, H. Voicing the self: From information processing to dialogical interchange {1996} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {119}({1}), pp. {31-50} 
    article  
    Abstract: Dialogue implies an interchange between mutually influencing voices. Two metaphors playing a major role in contemporary research are analyzed from such a perspective: the computer metaphor, in which the self is studied as an information-processing device, and the narrative metaphor, in which, story and storytelling are guiding principles for the self. It is argued that, on the metaphorical level, the computer and the narrative analogy allow voice and intersubjective exchange to play important roles in self-organization. In actual research, however, these elements are neglected. Theoretical and empirical arguments emphasize the relevance of the dialogical view for the study of the self. Finally, the role of dominance in inter- and intrapersonal processes and the relevance of collective voices for contemporary psychology are sketched.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hermans1996,
      author = {Hermans, HJM},
      title = {Voicing the self: From information processing to dialogical interchange},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {119},
      number = {1},
      pages = {31-50}
    }
    
    Hertwig, R. & Ortmann, A. Experimental practices in economics: A methodological challenge for psychologists? {2001} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {24}({3}), pp. {383+} 
    article  
    Abstract: This target article is concerned vith the implications of the surprisingly different experimental practices in economics and in areas of psychology relevant to both economists and psychologists, such as behavioral decision making. We consider four features of experimentation in economics, namely, script enactment, repeated trials, performance-based monetary payments, and the proscription against deception, and compare them to experimental practices in psychology, primarily in the area of behavioral decision making. Whereas economists bring a precisely defined ``script'' to experiments for participants to enact, psychologists often do not provide such a script, leaving Participants to infer what choices the situation affords. By often using repeated experimental trials, economists allow participants to learn about the tusk and the environment; psychologists typically do not. Economists generally pay participants on the basis of clearly defined performance criteria; psychologists usually pay a flat fee or grant a fixed amount of course credit. Economists virtually never deceive participants; psychologists, especially in some areas of inquiry, often do. We argue that experimental standards in economics are regulatory in that they allow for little variation between the experimental practices of individual researchers. The experimental standards in psychology, by contrast, are comparatively laissez-faire. We believe that the wider range of experimental practices in psychology reflects a lack of procedural regularity that may contribute to the variability of empirical findings in the research fields under consideration. We conclude vith a call for more research on the consequences of methodological preferences, such as the use on monetary payments, and propose a ``do-it-both-ways'' rule regarding the enactment of scripts, repetition of trials, and performance-based monetary payments. We also argue, on pragmatic grounds, that the default practice should be not to deceive participants.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hertwig2001,
      author = {Hertwig, R and Ortmann, A},
      title = {Experimental practices in economics: A methodological challenge for psychologists?},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      publisher = {CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {24},
      number = {3},
      pages = {383+}
    }
    
    HILTON, D. THE SOCIAL-CONTEXT OF REASONING - CONVERSATIONAL INFERENCE AND RATIONAL JUDGMENT {1995} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {118}({2}), pp. {248-271} 
    article  
    Abstract: Social rules governing communication require the listener to go beyond the information given in a message, contrary to the assumption that rational people should operate only on the information explicitly given in judgment tasks. An attributional model of conversational inference is presented that shows how hearers' message interpretations are guided by their perceptions of the speaker. The model is then applied to the analysis of experiments on reasoning processes in cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, social psychology, and decision research. It is shown that the model can predict how experimental manipulations of relevant source and message attributes affect respondents' judgments. Failure to recognize the role of conversational assumptions in governing inference processes can lead rational responses to be misclassified as errors and their source misattributed to cognitive shortcomings in the decision maker.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HILTON1995,
      author = {HILTON, DJ},
      title = {THE SOCIAL-CONTEXT OF REASONING - CONVERSATIONAL INFERENCE AND RATIONAL JUDGMENT},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {118},
      number = {2},
      pages = {248-271}
    }
    
    HIRSCHMAN, E. THE CONSCIOUSNESS OF ADDICTION - TOWARD A GENERAL-THEORY OF COMPULSIVE CONSUMPTION {1992} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH
    Vol. {19}({2}), pp. {155-179} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article reviews and integrates recent theories of addiction drawn from a diverse set of disciplines-consumer behavior, medicine, sociology, psychiatry, and psychology-to provide a comprehensive framework for understanding the etiology of addiction and other compulsive consumer behaviors. Interpretive material from personal interviews with addicted and nonaddicted drug users is then used to illustrate the consciousness of addictive consumption. Two a priori themes-serial/simultaneous addictions and personal crises/role transitions-and five emergent themes-relapse, deception, dysfunctional families, suicide, and boundaries-are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HIRSCHMAN1992,
      author = {HIRSCHMAN, EC},
      title = {THE CONSCIOUSNESS OF ADDICTION - TOWARD A GENERAL-THEORY OF COMPULSIVE CONSUMPTION},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH},
      publisher = {UNIV CHICAGO PRESS},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {19},
      number = {2},
      pages = {155-179}
    }
    
    Hirshman, E. & Master, S. Modeling the conscious correlates of recognition memory: Reflections on the remember-know paradigm {1997} MEMORY & COGNITION
    Vol. {25}({3}), pp. {345-351} 
    article  
    Abstract: Understanding how memory processes contribute to the conscious experience of memory is central to contemporary cognitive psychology. Recently, many investigators (e.g., Gardiner, 1988) have examined the remember-know paradigm to understand the conscious correlates of recognition memory. A variety of studies have demonstrated that variables have different effects on remember and know responses, and these findings have been interpreted in the context of dual-process models of recognition memory. This paper presents a single-process model of the remember-know paradigm, emphasizing the dependence of remember and know judgments on a set of common underlying processes (e.g., criterion setting). We use this model to demonstrate how a single-process model can give rise to the functional dissociations presented in the remember-know literature. We close by detailing procedures for testing our model and describing how those tests may facilitate the development of dual-process models.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hirshman1997,
      author = {Hirshman, E and Master, S},
      title = {Modeling the conscious correlates of recognition memory: Reflections on the remember-know paradigm},
      journal = {MEMORY & COGNITION},
      publisher = {PSYCHONOMIC SOC INC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {25},
      number = {3},
      pages = {345-351}
    }
    
    Hofer, B. Dimensionality and disciplinary differences in personal epistemology {2000} CONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {25}({4}), pp. {378-405} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: A growing body of work addresses the nature of epistemological development and epistemological beliefs: how individuals come to know, the theories and beliefs they hold about knowing, and the manner in which such epistemological premises are a part of and an influence on the cognitive processes of thinking and reasoning. This study investigates the dimensionality of personal epistemology as hypothesized in a recent review of the literature as well as the nature of disciplinary differences. First-year college students responded to a set of questionnaires that included an adaptation of a domain-general epistemological instrument and a discipline-focused questionnaire. Results suggest that there is an underlying dimensionality to epistemological theories that cuts across disciplinary domains, but that students, at least by the ist year of college, discriminate as to how these theories differ by discipline. Disciplinary differences were strong, suggesting that Ist-yens college students see knowledge in science as more certain and unchanging than in psychology, are more likely to regard personal knowledge and firsthand experience as a basis for justification of knowing in psychology than in science, view authority and expertise as the source of knowledge more in science than in psychology, and perceive that in science, more than in psychology, truth is attainable by experts. This contradicts existing research that suggests that epistemological development is domain general and that epistemological beliefs do not differ by discipline. (C) 2000 Academic Press.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hofer2000,
      author = {Hofer, BK},
      title = {Dimensionality and disciplinary differences in personal epistemology},
      journal = {CONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS INC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {25},
      number = {4},
      pages = {378-405},
      doi = {{10.1006/ceps.1999.1026}}
    }
    
    HOFFMAN, L. THE INFLUENCE OF THE FAMILY ENVIRONMENT ON PERSONALITY - ACCOUNTING FOR SIBLING DIFFERENCES {1991} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {110}({2}), pp. {187-203} 
    article  
    Abstract: Findings from behavioral genetics indicate that environment affects personality but that siblings are not alike. This has been interpreted as challenging the idea that child rearing and family events are important. Research from behavioral genetics and developmental psychology is reviewed, suggesting the following: (a) Sibling dissimilarity may be overestimated because of limitations of methodology, measurement, and the outcome variables examined; (b) developmental psychology conceptualizes the family as involving interaction between the person and the environment and personality as multidetermined; thus, sibling dissimilarity is not surprising; (c) objective and subjective family experiences vary for siblings because of birth order, age differences, gender, genetics, and idiosyncratic experiences; (d) sibling differences and similarities may be tied to whether particular outcomes are influenced by specific, varying environments or general family styles.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HOFFMAN1991,
      author = {HOFFMAN, LW},
      title = {THE INFLUENCE OF THE FAMILY ENVIRONMENT ON PERSONALITY - ACCOUNTING FOR SIBLING DIFFERENCES},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {110},
      number = {2},
      pages = {187-203}
    }
    
    HOFFMAN, R. THE PROBLEM OF EXTRACTING THE KNOWLEDGE OF EXPERTS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF EXPERIMENTAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1987} AI MAGAZINE
    Vol. {8}({2}), pp. {53-67} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HOFFMAN1987,
      author = {HOFFMAN, RR},
      title = {THE PROBLEM OF EXTRACTING THE KNOWLEDGE OF EXPERTS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF EXPERIMENTAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AI MAGAZINE},
      publisher = {AMER ASSOC ARTIFICIAL INTELL},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {53-67}
    }
    
    HOFFMAN, R., SHADBOLT, N., BURTON, A. & KLEIN, G. ELICITING KNOWLEDGE FROM EXPERTS - A METHODOLOGICAL ANALYSIS {1995} ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES
    Vol. {62}({2}), pp. {129-158} 
    article  
    Abstract: The psychological study of expertise has a rich background and has recently gained impetus in part because of the advent of expert systems and related technologies for preserving knowledge. In the study of expertise, whether in the context of applications or the context of psychological research, knowledge elicitation is a crucial step. Research in a number of traditions-judgment and decision making, human factors, cognitive science, expert systems-has utilized a variety of knowledge elicitation methods. Given the diversity of disciplines, topics, paradigms, and goals, it is difficult to make the literature cohere around a methodological theme, For discussion purposes, we place knowledge elicitation techniques into three categories: (1) analysis of the tasks that experts usually perform, (2) various types of interviews, and (3) contrived tasks which reveal an expert's reasoning processes without necessarily asking about these processes. We illustrate types and subtypes of techniques, culminating in a discussion of research that has empirically evaluated and compared techniques. The article includes some recommendations about `'how to do'' knowledge elicitation, some cautionary tales, and a discussion of the prospects. (C) 1995 Academic Press, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HOFFMAN1995,
      author = {HOFFMAN, RR and SHADBOLT, NR and BURTON, AM and KLEIN, G},
      title = {ELICITING KNOWLEDGE FROM EXPERTS - A METHODOLOGICAL ANALYSIS},
      journal = {ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS INC JNL-COMP SUBSCRIPTIONS},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {62},
      number = {2},
      pages = {129-158}
    }
    
    Hofstede, G. & McCrae, R. Personality and culture revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture {2004} CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH
    Vol. {38}({1}), pp. {52-88} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: ``Culture and personality'' was a focus of anthropology and psychology in the first half of the 20th century. It was concerned with traditional and preliterate societies and drew many of its constructs from psychoanalysis. In this article, we note that taxonomies of personality traits and cultural values developed independently since 1980 have created new possibilities for exploring the topic. The Five-Factor Model of personality is a universally valid taxonomy of traits. The IBM study (conducted by Hofstede) dimensions of culture represent a well-validated operationalization of differences between cultures as manifested in dominant value systems. In reanalyses of recently reported data, mean personality scores from 33 countries were significantly and substantially correlated with culture dimension scores. We discuss environmental and temperamental explanations for these associations and suggest directions for future research, including replications, experimental simulations, acculturation studies, and research on the interaction of traits and culture in shaping human lives.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hofstede2004,
      author = {Hofstede, G and McCrae, RR},
      title = {Personality and culture revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture},
      journal = {CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {38},
      number = {1},
      pages = {52-88},
      doi = {{10.1177/1069397103259443}}
    }
    
    HOLLENBECK, J., ILGEN, D., SEGO, D., HEDLUND, J., MAJOR, D. & PHILLIPS, J. MULTILEVEL THEORY OF TEAM DECISION-MAKING - DECISION PERFORMANCE IN TEAMS INCORPORATING DISTRIBUTED EXPERTISE {1995} JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {80}({2}), pp. {292-316} 
    article  
    Abstract: The purpose of this research was to develop and test a theory of decision-making performance for hierarchical teams with distributed expertise. This theory identifies 3 core team-level constructs (team informity, staff validity, and hierarchical sensitivity) and 3 constructs below the team level that are central to decision-making accuracy in hierarchical teams with distributed expertise. Two studies are presented to test the proposed theory. A total of 492 college students worked on a computerized command-and-control simulator. Results from these studies are discussed in light of the theory. Similarities and differences in results across the 2 studies are discussed, as are potential modifications of the theory considering the data. Finally, implications of the theory for applied team contexts are elaborated.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HOLLENBECK1995,
      author = {HOLLENBECK, JR and ILGEN, DR and SEGO, DJ and HEDLUND, J and MAJOR, DA and PHILLIPS, J},
      title = {MULTILEVEL THEORY OF TEAM DECISION-MAKING - DECISION PERFORMANCE IN TEAMS INCORPORATING DISTRIBUTED EXPERTISE},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {80},
      number = {2},
      pages = {292-316}
    }
    
    Horner, R., Carr, E., Halle, J., McGee, G., Odom, S. & Wolery, M. The use of single-subject research to identify evidence-based practice in special education {2005} EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN
    Vol. {71}({2}), pp. {165-179} 
    article  
    Abstract: Single-subject research plays an important role in the development of evidence-based practice in special education. The defining features of single-subject research are presented, the contributions of single-subject research for special education are reviewed, and a specific proposal is offered for using single-subject research to document evidence-based practice. This article allows readers to determine if a specific study is a credible example of single-subject research and if a specific practice or procedure has been validated as ``evidence-based'' via single-subject research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Horner2005,
      author = {Horner, RH and Carr, EG and Halle, J and McGee, G and Odom, S and Wolery, M},
      title = {The use of single-subject research to identify evidence-based practice in special education},
      journal = {EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN},
      publisher = {COUNCIL EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {71},
      number = {2},
      pages = {165-179}
    }
    
    HOSHMAND, L. & POLKINGHORNE, D. REDEFINING THE SCIENCE PRACTICE RELATIONSHIP AND PROFESSIONAL-TRAINING {1992} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {47}({1}), pp. {55-66} 
    article  
    Abstract: A revised conception of the relationship between psychological science and professional practice is proposed in the light of postmodern changes in perspectives on knowledge. Positivistic science, which has dominated the traditional interpretation of scientist-practitioner training, is considered from a constructivist point of view to be only one possible foundation of psychological knowledge. It is argued that the knowledge base of the profession should be derived with diverse methods and from multiple sources, including the knowledge of practice. The mutuality of science and practice is emphasized. An evolving framework for understanding the epistemology of practice, based on cognitive psychology, is presented. Emphasis on broadened choices of research methods, the development of reflective skills, and better linkage between teaching in the domains of research and practice are urged. Suggestions for research related to scientific training and the knowledge processes of practice are offered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HOSHMAND1992,
      author = {HOSHMAND, LT and POLKINGHORNE, DE},
      title = {REDEFINING THE SCIENCE PRACTICE RELATIONSHIP AND PROFESSIONAL-TRAINING},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {47},
      number = {1},
      pages = {55-66}
    }
    
    HOUK, J., KEIFER, J. & BARTO, A. DISTRIBUTED MOTOR COMMANDS IN THE LIMB PREMOTOR NETWORK {1993} TRENDS IN NEUROSCIENCES
    Vol. {16}({1}), pp. {27-33} 
    article  
    Abstract: Neuroanatomical studies have demonstrated extensive interconnections between the motor cortex, red nucleus and cerebellum, forming a premotor network for controlling limb movement. Single-unit studies indicate that command signals for limb movements are distributed broadly throughout this network. Cellular studies have demonstrated multiple recurrent loops in this network, and the presence of excitatory and inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters. A recent model suggests that movement commands are initiated by sensory inputs to these loops, and that positive feedback, regulated by inhibition from cerebellar Purkinje cells, distributes commands throughout the limb premotor network. This model offers a new framework for exploring relationships between basic neural mechanisms and concepts of motor performance that derive from experimental psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HOUK1993,
      author = {HOUK, JC and KEIFER, J and BARTO, AG},
      title = {DISTRIBUTED MOTOR COMMANDS IN THE LIMB PREMOTOR NETWORK},
      journal = {TRENDS IN NEUROSCIENCES},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCI LTD},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {16},
      number = {1},
      pages = {27-33}
    }
    
    HOUSE, J. 3 FACES OF SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1977} SOCIOMETRY
    Vol. {40}({2}), pp. {161-177} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HOUSE1977,
      author = {HOUSE, JS},
      title = {3 FACES OF SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {SOCIOMETRY},
      publisher = {AMER SOCIOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1977},
      volume = {40},
      number = {2},
      pages = {161-177}
    }
    
    HOWARD, G. THE ROLE OF VALUES IN THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY {1985} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {40}({3}), pp. {255-265} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HOWARD1985,
      author = {HOWARD, GS},
      title = {THE ROLE OF VALUES IN THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {40},
      number = {3},
      pages = {255-265}
    }
    
    HOWARD, G., COLE, D. & MAXWELL, S. RESEARCH PRODUCTIVITY IN PSYCHOLOGY BASED ON PUBLICATION IN THE JOURNALS OF THE AMERICAN-PSYCHOLOGICAL-ASSOCIATION {1987} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {42}({11}), pp. {975-986} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HOWARD1987,
      author = {HOWARD, GS and COLE, DA and MAXWELL, SE},
      title = {RESEARCH PRODUCTIVITY IN PSYCHOLOGY BASED ON PUBLICATION IN THE JOURNALS OF THE AMERICAN-PSYCHOLOGICAL-ASSOCIATION},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {42},
      number = {11},
      pages = {975-986}
    }
    
    HUDSON, B. THE SOIL SURVEY AS PARADIGM-BASED SCIENCE {1992} SOIL SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA JOURNAL
    Vol. {56}({3}), pp. {836-841} 
    article  
    Abstract: Thomas S. Kuhn developed the paradigm theory of science. The soil survey is an example of paradigm-based science. The soil-landscape model, on which the soil survey is based, is an operative paradigm. An extreme reliance on tacit knowledge, the knowledge gained by experience, creates serious inefficiencies, both in learning the soil-landscape paradigm and in disseminating the information resulting from its application. This article introduces concepts important to understanding paradigm theory and the nature of tacit knowledge. Among these are elements of Gestalt psychology, the theory of natural families, maps as conveyors of knowledge, and the linguistic nature of human perception. Students and field soil scientists should be provided explicit instruction concerning the paradigm on which soil mapping and interpretation are based. I also recommend that more of the soil geographic relationships discovered while making detailed soil maps be described and published so that the knowledge can be communicated to others.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HUDSON1992,
      author = {HUDSON, BD},
      title = {THE SOIL SURVEY AS PARADIGM-BASED SCIENCE},
      journal = {SOIL SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA JOURNAL},
      publisher = {SOIL SCI SOC AMER},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {56},
      number = {3},
      pages = {836-841}
    }
    
    HUNT, E. & AGNOLI, F. THE WHORFIAN HYPOTHESIS - A COGNITIVE-PSYCHOLOGY PERSPECTIVE {1991} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {98}({3}), pp. {377-389} 
    article  
    Abstract: The linguistic relativity (Whorfian) hypothesis states that language influences thought. In its strongest form, the hypothesis states that language controls both thought and perception. Several experiments have shown that this is false. The weaker form of the hypothesis, which states that language influences thought, has been held to be so vague that it is unprovable. The argument presented herein is that the weaker Whorfian hypothesis can be quantified and thus evaluated. Models of cognition developed after Whorf's day indicate ways in which thought can be influenced by cultural variations in the lexical, syntactical, semantic, and pragmatic aspects of language. Although much research remains to be done, there appears to be a great deal of truth to the linguistic relativity hypothesis. In many ways the language people speak is a guide to the language in which they think.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HUNT1991,
      author = {HUNT, E and AGNOLI, F},
      title = {THE WHORFIAN HYPOTHESIS - A COGNITIVE-PSYCHOLOGY PERSPECTIVE},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {98},
      number = {3},
      pages = {377-389}
    }
    
    Hunter, J. Needed: A ban on the significance test {1997} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {8}({1}), pp. {3-7} 
    article  
    Abstract: The significance rest as currently used is a disaster. Whereas most researchers falsely believe that the significance test has an error rate of 5 empirical studies show the average error rate across psychology is 6012 times higher than researchers think it to be. The error rate for inference using the significance test is greater than the error rate using a coin toss to replace the empirical study. The significance test has devastated the research review process. Comprehensive reviews cite conflicting results on almost every issue. Yet quantitatively accurate review of the same,results shows that the apparent conflicts stem almost entirely from the high error rate for the significance test. If 60% of studies falsely interpret their primary results, then reviewers who base their reviews on the interpreted study `'findings'' will have a 100% error rate in concluding that there is conflict between study results.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hunter1997,
      author = {Hunter, JE},
      title = {Needed: A ban on the significance test},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      publisher = {CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {8},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-7}
    }
    
    Ilgen, D. Teams embedded in organizations - Some implications {1999} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {54}({2}), pp. {129-139} 
    article  
    Abstract: From the early 1980s to the present, organizations have increased their reliance on teams. Over the same time period the amount of traditional small group-team research has decreased. The void has been filled by research that is focused on issues facing task-performing teams embedded in organizations. It is argued here that the organizational perspective has produced research that complements and extends past research on groups and teams, A case is made for differences in orientation between traditional ream research and work aimed specifically at teams in organizations. Implications of these differences are explored.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ilgen1999,
      author = {Ilgen, DR},
      title = {Teams embedded in organizations - Some implications},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {54},
      number = {2},
      pages = {129-139}
    }
    
    INAGAKI, K. & HATANO, G. YOUNG CHILDRENS UNDERSTANDING OF THE MIND-BODY DISTINCTION {1993} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {64}({5}), pp. {1534-1549} 
    article  
    Abstract: 4 experiments investigated children's understanding of the mind-body distinction. Children of ages 4 and 5 recognized not only the differential modifiability of changeable versus unchangeable human properties and bodily versus mental properties, but also the independence of activities of bodily organs from a person's intention (Experiment 1). When presented 3 types of causal explanations (i.e., intentional, vitalistic, mechanical), 6-year-olds chose most often as most plausible for bodily functions vitalistic explanations (i.e., those ascribing the phenomena to a relevant bodily organ's initiative and effortful engagement in activity); 8-year-olds chose the vitalistic explanations second most often, following mechanical ones (Experiment 2). However, 6-year-olds, as well as 8-year-olds and adults, did not always choose vitalistic explanations over intentional explanations (Experiment 3); whereas they tended to prefer vitalistic explanations for biological phenomena, they predominantly accepted intentional ones for psychological phenomena (Experiment 3A). These results suggest that children as young as 6 years of age have acquired a form of biology as an autonomous domain which is separate from that of psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{INAGAKI1993,
      author = {INAGAKI, K and HATANO, G},
      title = {YOUNG CHILDRENS UNDERSTANDING OF THE MIND-BODY DISTINCTION},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      publisher = {UNIV CHICAGO PRESS},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {64},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1534-1549}
    }
    
    ISCOE, I. COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY AND COMPETENT COMMUNITY {1974} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {29}({8}), pp. {607-613} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ISCOE1974,
      author = {ISCOE, I},
      title = {COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY AND COMPETENT COMMUNITY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1974},
      volume = {29},
      number = {8},
      pages = {607-613}
    }
    
    Ito, T., Cacioppo, J. & Lang, P. Eliciting affect using the international affective picture system: Trajectories through evaluative space {1998} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {24}({8}), pp. {855-879} 
    article  
    Abstract: Most bipolar models of affective Processing in social psychology assume that positive and negative valent processes are represented along a single continuum that ranges from very positive to very negative. Recent research has raised the possibility, however; that the motivational systems for positive/approach and negative/defensive valent Processing (positivity and negativity, respectively) are separable. In this article, the authors use unipolar positivity, negativity, and ambivalence ratings and bipolar valence, dominance, and arousal ratings of 472 slides from the International Affective Picture System to examine several aspects of the bivariate model of evaluative space. Analysis confirmed a positivity offset and negativity bias in the activation functions of the valent systems as well as multiple modes of evaluative activation (e.g., reciprocal uncoupled positivity, uncoupled negativity). Together these data suggest that the bipolar structure of affective processes should be tested rather than assumed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ito1998,
      author = {Ito, T and Cacioppo, JT and Lang, PJ},
      title = {Eliciting affect using the international affective picture system: Trajectories through evaluative space},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {24},
      number = {8},
      pages = {855-879}
    }
    
    JACOBI, M. MENTORING AND UNDERGRADUATE ACADEMIC-SUCCESS - A LITERATURE-REVIEW {1991} REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
    Vol. {61}({4}), pp. {505-532} 
    article  
    Abstract: Despite a growing body of research about mentoring, definitional, theoretical, and methodological deficiencies reduce the usefulness of existing research. This article provides a critical review of the literature on mentoring, with an emphasis on the links between mentoring and undergraduate academic success. The first section describes a variety of ways in which mentoring has been defined within higher education, management, and psychology. Issues related to developing a standard operational definition of mentoring within higher education are discussed. The second section provides a critical review of empirical research about mentoring and undergraduate education. The third section describes four different theoretical perspectives that could be used in future research about mentoring. Finally, future directions for research, including methodological issues and substantive concerns, are addressed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JACOBI1991,
      author = {JACOBI, M},
      title = {MENTORING AND UNDERGRADUATE ACADEMIC-SUCCESS - A LITERATURE-REVIEW},
      journal = {REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH},
      publisher = {AMER EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ASSOC},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {61},
      number = {4},
      pages = {505-532}
    }
    
    JACOBS, M. & GOODMAN, G. PSYCHOLOGY AND SELF-HELP GROUPS - PREDICTIONS ON A PARTNERSHIP {1989} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {44}({3}), pp. {536-545} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{JACOBS1989,
      author = {JACOBS, MK and GOODMAN, G},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY AND SELF-HELP GROUPS - PREDICTIONS ON A PARTNERSHIP},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {44},
      number = {3},
      pages = {536-545}
    }
    
    JACOBSON, J., MULICK, J. & SCHWARTZ, A. HISTORY OF FACILITATED COMMUNICATION - SCIENCE, PSEUDOSCIENCE, AND ANTISCIENCE - SCIENCE WORKING GROUP ON FACILITATED COMMUNICATION {1995} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {50}({9}), pp. {750-765} 
    article  
    Abstract: Facilitated communication (FC) is a method of assisting people with severe developmental disabilities to communicate. Before its adoption as a teaching-treatment technique, the only, research evidence in support of its validity consisted of a small number of descriptive reports in the professional literature and anecdotal reports in the popular press and disability media. In rise this technique, which involves providing physical support to people with disabilities as they type out messages on a keyboard or letterboard, appears to result in unexpected literacy and to disclose normative or superior intellectual skills among people with lifelong histories of severe developmental delay Controlled research using single and double blind procedures in laboratory and natural settings with a range of clinical populations with which FC is used have determined that, not only are the people with disabilities unable to respond accurately to label or describe stimuli unseen by their assistants, but that the responses are controlled by the assistants.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JACOBSON1995,
      author = {JACOBSON, JW and MULICK, JA and SCHWARTZ, AA},
      title = {HISTORY OF FACILITATED COMMUNICATION - SCIENCE, PSEUDOSCIENCE, AND ANTISCIENCE - SCIENCE WORKING GROUP ON FACILITATED COMMUNICATION},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {50},
      number = {9},
      pages = {750-765}
    }
    
    Jaffee, S. & Hyde, J. Gender differences in moral orientation: A meta-analysis {2000} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {126}({5}), pp. {703-726} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: C. Gilligan's (1982) critique of L. Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning and her assertion that two modes of moral reasoning (justice and care) exist have been the subject of debate within the field of psychology for more than 15 years. This meta-analysis was conducted to review quantitatively the work on gender differences in moral orientation. The meta-analysis revealed small differences in the care orientation favoring females (d = -.28) and small differences in the justice orientation favoring males (d = .19). Together, the moderator variables accounted for 16% of the variance in the effect sizes for care reasoning and 17% of the variance in the effect sizes for justice reasoning. These findings do not offer strong support for the claim that the care orientation is used predominantly by women and that the justice orientation is used predominantly by men.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jaffee2000,
      author = {Jaffee, S and Hyde, JS},
      title = {Gender differences in moral orientation: A meta-analysis},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {126},
      number = {5},
      pages = {703-726},
      doi = {{10.1037//0033-2909.126.5.703}}
    }
    
    Jarvis, W. & Petty, R. The need to evaluate {1996} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {70}({1}), pp. {172-194} 
    article  
    Abstract: Five studies tested the hypothesis that stable individual differences exist in the chronic tendency to engage in evaluative responding. In 2 studies, the 16-item Need to Evaluate Scale(NES) was developed and demonstrated to possess high internal consistency, a single factor structure. high testretest reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity. Three additional studies supported the predictive validity of the NES. In one, high-NES participants were more likely to report having attitudes toward a variety of important social and political issues than low-NES participants. In another study, high-NES participants wrote more evaluative thoughts in a free thought listing about unfamiliar paintings than low-NES participants. In a final study, high-NES participants wrote more evaluative thoughts in a free thought listing about a typical day in their lives than low-NES participants. Implications for research in social and personality psychology are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jarvis1996,
      author = {Jarvis, WBG and Petty, RE},
      title = {The need to evaluate},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {70},
      number = {1},
      pages = {172-194}
    }
    
    Jeannerod, M. Neural simulation of action: A unifying mechanism for motor cognition {2001} NEUROIMAGE
    Vol. {14}({1, Part 2 Suppl. S}), pp. {S103-S109} 
    article  
    Abstract: Paradigms drawn from cognitive psychology have provided new insight into covert stages of action. These states include not only intending actions that will eventually be executed, but also imagining actions, recognizing tools, learning by observation, or even understanding the behavior of other people. Studies using techniques for mapping brain activity, probing cortical excitability, or measuring the activity of peripheral effecters in normal human subjects and in patients all provide evidence of a subliminal activation of the motor system during these cognitive states. The hypothesis that the motor system is part of a simulation network that is activated under a variety of conditions in relation to action, either self-intended or observed from other individuals, will be developed. The function of this process of simulation would be not only to shape the motor system in anticipation to execution, but also to provide the self with information on the feasibility and the meaning of potential actions. (C) 2001 Academic Press.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jeannerod2001,
      author = {Jeannerod, M},
      title = {Neural simulation of action: A unifying mechanism for motor cognition},
      journal = {NEUROIMAGE},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS INC},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {14},
      number = {1, Part 2 Suppl. S},
      pages = {S103-S109},
      note = {Conference on Action and Visuo-Spatial Attention - Neurobiological Bases and Disorders, KONIGSWINTER, GERMANY, NOV, 2000}
    }
    
    Jeannerod, M. & Decety, J. Mental motor imagery: A window into the representational stages of action {1995} CURRENT OPINION IN NEUROBIOLOGY
    Vol. {5}({6}), pp. {727-732} 
    article  
    Abstract: The physiological basis of mental states can be effectively studied by combining cognitive psychology with human neuroscience. Recent research has employed mental motor imagery in normal and brain-damaged subjects to decipher the content and the structure of covert processes preceding the execution of action. The mapping of brain activity during motor imagery discloses a pattern of activation similar to that of an executed action.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jeannerod1995,
      author = {Jeannerod, M and Decety, J},
      title = {Mental motor imagery: A window into the representational stages of action},
      journal = {CURRENT OPINION IN NEUROBIOLOGY},
      publisher = {CURRENT BIOLOGY LTD},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {5},
      number = {6},
      pages = {727-732}
    }
    
    Jelalian, E. & Saelens, B. Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: Pediatric obesity {1999} JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {24}({3}), pp. {223-248} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To review the efficacy of existing interventions for pediatric obesity with reference to the Chambless criteria. Methods: Chambless criteria for determining treatment efficacy were applied to 42 randomized studies involving nonschool-based programs targeting childhood and adolescent weight loss. Results: We summarize the following dimensions of the pediatric obesity treatment literature: description of participants, diagnostic criteria for study participation, experimental design, treatment protocol, treatment outcome, and follow-up. Conclusions: There is strong evidence for the short- and long-term efficacy of multicomponential behavioral treatment for decreasing weight among children relative to both placebo and education-only treatments. Conclusions about adolescent obesity treatment programs are more tentative as they have been less frequently examined, less rigorously controlled, and usually have not conducted long-term follow-up. Current research appears to be working to identify more efficacious treatments for pediatric obesity by exploring the specific behavioral strategies that will be most effective in modifying children's eating and physical activity habits.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jelalian1999,
      author = {Jelalian, E and Saelens, BE},
      title = {Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: Pediatric obesity},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {24},
      number = {3},
      pages = {223-248}
    }
    
    Ji, L., Peng, K. & Nisbett, R. Culture, control, and perception of relationships in the environment {2000} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {78}({5}), pp. {943-955} 
    article  
    Abstract: East Asian cognition has been held to be relatively holistic; that is, attention is paid to the field as a whole. Western cognition, in contrast, has been held to be object focused and control oriented. In this study East Asians (mostly Chinese) and Americans were compared on detection of covariation and field dependence. The results showed the following: (a) Chinese participants reported stronger association between events, were more responsive to differences in covariation, and were more confident about their covariation judgments; (b) these cultural differences disappeared when participants believed they had some control over the covariation judgment task; (c) American participants made fewer mistakes on the Rod-and-Frame Test, indicating that they were less field dependent; (d) American performance and confidence, but not that of Asians, increased when participants were given manual control of the test. Possible origins of the perceptual differences are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ji2000,
      author = {Ji, LJ and Peng, KP and Nisbett, RE},
      title = {Culture, control, and perception of relationships in the environment},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {78},
      number = {5},
      pages = {943-955}
    }
    
    JOHNSONLAIRD, P. & OATLEY, K. BASIC EMOTIONS, RATIONALITY, AND FOLK THEORY {1992} COGNITION & EMOTION
    Vol. {6}({3-4}), pp. {201-223} 
    article  
    Abstract: Answering the question of whether there are basic emotions requires considering the functions of emotions. We propose that just a few emotions are basic and that they have functions in managing action. When no fully rational solution is available for a problem of action, a basic emotion functions to prompt us in a direction that is better than a random choice. We contrast this kind of theory with a componential approach which we argue is either a version of the theory of basic emotions or else leads to the doctrine that emotions are mistaken tenets of folk psychology. We defend the psychological reality of the folk theory of emotions, and we argue that universal basic emotions make it possible to understand people from distant cultures, and to translate emotional terminology from one language to another. Finally, we show how theories of basic emotions can be tested, and indicate the kinds of empirical result that can bear on the issue.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JOHNSONLAIRD1992,
      author = {JOHNSONLAIRD, PN and OATLEY, K},
      title = {BASIC EMOTIONS, RATIONALITY, AND FOLK THEORY},
      journal = {COGNITION & EMOTION},
      publisher = {PSYCHOLOGY PRESS},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {201-223}
    }
    
    JOHNSONLAIRD, P. & STEEDMAN, M. PSYCHOLOGY OF SYLLOGISMS {1978} COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {10}({1}), pp. {64-99} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{JOHNSONLAIRD1978,
      author = {JOHNSONLAIRD, PN and STEEDMAN, M},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY OF SYLLOGISMS},
      journal = {COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS INC JNL-COMP SUBSCRIPTIONS},
      year = {1978},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {64-99}
    }
    
    Joinson, A. Self-disclosure in computer-mediated communication: The role of self-awareness and visual anonymity {2001} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {31}({2}), pp. {177-192} 
    article  
    Abstract: Three studies examined the notion that computer-mediated communication (CMC) cart be characterised by high levels of self-disclosure. In Study One, significantly higher levels of spontaneous self-disclosure were found in computer-mediated compared to face-to-face discussions. Study Two examined the role of visual anonymity in encouraging self-disclosure during CMC. Visually anonymous participants disclosed significantly more information about themselves than non-visually anonymous participants. In Study Three, private and public self-awareness were independently manipulated, using video-conferencing cameras and accountability cues, to create a 2 x 2 design (public self-awareness (high and low) x private self-awareness (high and low). It was found that heightened private self-awareness, when combined with reduced public self-awareness, was associated with significantly higher levels of spontaneous self-disclosure during computer-mediated communication Copyright (C) 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Joinson2001,
      author = {Joinson, AN},
      title = {Self-disclosure in computer-mediated communication: The role of self-awareness and visual anonymity},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {31},
      number = {2},
      pages = {177-192}
    }
    
    Jost, J.T. The end of the end of ideology {2006} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {61}({7}), pp. {651-670} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The ``end of ideology'' was declared by social scientists in the aftermath of World War H. They argued that (a) ordinary citizens' political attitudes lack the kind of stability, consistency, and constraint that ideology requires; (b) ideological constructs such as liberalism and conservatism lack motivational potency and behavioral significance; (c) there are no major differences in content (or substance) between liberal and conservative points of view; and (d) there are few important differences in psychological processes (or styles) that underlie liberal versus conservative orientations. The end-of-ideologists were so influential that researchers ignored the topic of ideology for many years. However, current political realities, recent data from the American National Election Studies, and results from an emerging psychological paradigm provide strong grounds for returning to the stud), of ideology. Studies reveal that there are indeed meaningful political and psychological differences that covary with ideological self-placement. Situational variables-including system threat and mortality salience-and dispositional variables-including openness and conscientiousness-affect the degree to which an individual is drawn to liberal versus conservative leaders, parties, and opinions. A psychological analysis is also useful for understanding the political divide between ``red states'' and ``blue states.''
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jost2006,
      author = {Jost, John T.},
      title = {The end of the end of ideology},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC/EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING FOUNDATION},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {61},
      number = {7},
      pages = {651-670},
      note = {7th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Personality-and-Social-Psychology, Palm Springs, CA, JAN, 2006},
      doi = {{10.1037/0003-066X.61.7.651}}
    }
    
    JUDD, C., PARK, B., BRAUER, M., RYAN, C. & KRAUS, S. STEREOTYPES AND ETHNOCENTRISM - DIVERGING INTERETHNIC PERCEPTIONS OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN AND WHITE AMERICAN YOUTH {1995} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {69}({3}), pp. {460-481} 
    article  
    Abstract: Much recent work on stereotyping has dealt with groups that are either artificially created or that do not have an extensive history of conflict. The authors attempted to overcome this limitation by examining issues of perceived variability and ethnocentrism among samples of White American and African American youth. The goals were both to examine theoretical issues in stereotyping and to describe the current state of ethnic interrelations among young people. Four studies are reported, Throughout, the samples of African Americans demonstrate interethnic judgments that are consistent with existing work on stereotyping and ethnocentrism. White American students, however, reported judgments that replicate neither the out-group homogeneity effect nor ethnocentrism. Alternative explanations for this difference are considered, and the discussion focuses on differing views concerning the role of ethnic identity and diversity in our society.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JUDD1995,
      author = {JUDD, CM and PARK, B and BRAUER, M and RYAN, CS and KRAUS, S},
      title = {STEREOTYPES AND ETHNOCENTRISM - DIVERGING INTERETHNIC PERCEPTIONS OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN AND WHITE AMERICAN YOUTH},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {69},
      number = {3},
      pages = {460-481}
    }
    
    Judge, T., Erez, A., Bono, J. & Thoresen, C. The core self-evaluations scale: Development of a measure {2003} PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {56}({2}), pp. {303-331} 
    article  
    Abstract: Despite an emerging body of research on a personality trait termed core self-evaluations, the trait continues to be measured indirectly. The present study reported the results of a series of studies that developed and tested the validity of the Core Self-Evaluations Scale (CSES), a direct and relatively brief measure of the trait. Results indicated that the 12-item CSES was reliable, displayed a unitary factor structure, correlated significantly with job satisfaction, job performance, and life satisfaction, and had validity equal to that of an optimal weighting of the 4 specific core traits (self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, neuroticism, and locus of control), and incremental validity over the 5-factor model. Overall, results suggest that the CSES is a valid measure that should prove useful in applied psychology research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Judge2003,
      author = {Judge, TA and Erez, A and Bono, JE and Thoresen, CJ},
      title = {The core self-evaluations scale: Development of a measure},
      journal = {PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY INC},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {56},
      number = {2},
      pages = {303-331}
    }
    
    KAGITCIBASI, C. & BERRY, J. CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY - CURRENT RESEARCH AND TRENDS {1989} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {40}, pp. {493-531} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KAGITCIBASI1989,
      author = {KAGITCIBASI, C and BERRY, JW},
      title = {CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY - CURRENT RESEARCH AND TRENDS},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS INC},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {40},
      pages = {493-531}
    }
    
    Kahneman, D., Ritov, I. & Schkade, D. Economic preferences or attitude expressions? An analysis of dollar responses to public issues {1999} JOURNAL OF RISK AND UNCERTAINTY
    Vol. {19}({1-3}), pp. {203-235} 
    article  
    Abstract: Participants in contingent valuation surveys and jurors setting punitive damages in civil trials provide answers denominated in dollars. These answers are better understood as expressions of attitudes than as indications of economic preferences. Well-established characteristics of attitudes and of the core process of affective valuation explain several robust features of dollar responses: high correlations with other measures of attractiveness or aversiveness, insensitivity to scope, preference reversals, and the high variability of dollar responses relative to other measures of the same attitude.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kahneman1999,
      author = {Kahneman, D and Ritov, I and Schkade, D},
      title = {Economic preferences or attitude expressions? An analysis of dollar responses to public issues},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF RISK AND UNCERTAINTY},
      publisher = {KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {19},
      number = {1-3},
      pages = {203-235},
      note = {Symposium on Elicitation of Preferences, BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA, 1997}
    }
    
    Kaiser, F., Wolfing, S. & Fuhrer, U. Environmental attitude and ecological behaviour {1999} JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {19}({1}), pp. {1-19} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper establishes environmental attitude as a powerful predictor of ecological behaviour. Past studies have failed in this enterprise because they did not consider three shortcomings that limit the predictive power of environmental attitude concepts: (1) the lack of a unified concept of attitude, (2) the lack of measurement correspondence between attitude and behaviour on a general level, and (3) the lack of consideration of behaviour constraints beyond people's control. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour, the present study uses a unified concept of attitude and a probabilistic measurement approach to overcome these shortcomings. Questionnaire data from members of two ideologically different Swiss transportation associations are used. This study confirmed three measures as orthogonal dimensions by means of factor analysis: (1) environmental knowledge, (2) environmental values, and (3) ecological behaviour intention. One other measure, general ecological behaviour, is established as a Rasch-scale that assesses behaviour by considering the tendency to behave ecologically and the difficulties in carrying out the behaviours, which depend on influences beyond people's actual behaviour control. A structural equation model was used to confirm the proposed model: environmental knowledge and environmental values explained 40 per cent of the variance of ecological behaviour intension which, in turn, predicted 75 per cent of the variance of general ecological behaviour. (C) 1999 Academic Press.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kaiser1999,
      author = {Kaiser, FG and Wolfing, S and Fuhrer, U},
      title = {Environmental attitude and ecological behaviour},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS LTD},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {19},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-19}
    }
    
    Kanagawa, C., Cross, S. & Markus, H. ``Who am I?'' - The cultural psychology of the conceptual self {2001} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {27}({1}), pp. {90-103} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study investigated whether self-concepts that arise from participation in interdependent cultural contexts, in this case the self-concepts of Japanese students, will be relatively more sensitive to situational variation than will self-concepts that arise in independent cultural contexts, in this case the self-concepts of U.S. college students. The self-concepts of 128 Japanese and 133 U.S. women were assessed in one of four distinct social situations: in a group, with a faculty member with a peer and alone in a research booth. Furthermore, the authors examined the hypothesis that Japanese self-concepts would differ from American self-concepts in valence, reflecting normative and desirable tendencies toward self-criticism. American and Japanese participants differed in the content, number, and range of self-descriptions . As predicted, the situation had a greater influence on the self-descriptions of the Japanese participants than on the Americans' self-descriptions, and the self-descriptions of the Japanese were more negative.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kanagawa2001,
      author = {Kanagawa, C and Cross, SE and Markus, HR},
      title = {``Who am I?'' - The cultural psychology of the conceptual self},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {27},
      number = {1},
      pages = {90-103}
    }
    
    Kanfer, R. & Heggestad, E. Motivational traits and skills: A person-centered approach to work motivation {1997} RESEARCH IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR, VOL 19, 1997
    Vol. {19}, pp. {1-56} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this chapter we build on theory and research in organizational behavior and several subdisciplines of psychology to describe a person-centered framework for the study of work motivation and performance. Based on the assumption that the `'motivational fit'' of an individual and a job reflects the continuous and reciprocal influence of person characteristics and situational factors, we adopt a multistep procedure to permit coordination of disparate differential and experimental perspectives. We begin by organizing the relevant person domain in terms of traits and skills, and outline the framework relating these classes of person characteristics. We then focus on motivationally relevant traits and identify two superordinate trait constructs - achievement and anxiety. Our examination of each trait complex suggests that broad gaps exist in both the theory and measurement of seemingly related constructs. To illustrate the potential influence of these traits in organizational settings, we discuss the implications of a trait typology for personnel selection with respect to `'work motivation suitability.'' Turning to the motivational skills portion of the framework, we examine recent experimentally-oriented theory and research in self-regulation to provide the basis for examining two motivational skills constructs: namely emotion control and motivation control. In the final step, we coordinate motivational trait and skill constructs and discuss the effects of organizational practices on work motivation and performance. We outline the influences of trait tendencies on motivational skills levels and distinguish between personal and organizational practices that seek to optimize `'motivational fit'' at different phases of the individual's task/job tenure. Finally, we provide an agenda for further research into work motivation-considered as a combination of traits and skills.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kanfer1997,
      author = {Kanfer, R and Heggestad, ED},
      title = {Motivational traits and skills: A person-centered approach to work motivation},
      journal = {RESEARCH IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR, VOL 19, 1997},
      publisher = {JAI PRESS INC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {19},
      pages = {1-56}
    }
    
    Kaplan, H. A theory of fertility and parental investment in traditional and modern human societies {1996} YEARBOOK OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, YEARBOOK SERIES VOL 39
    Vol. {39}, pp. {91-135} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper has two interrelated goals. The first is to offer a general theory of fertility and parental investment across a broad spectrum of human societies. The second is to provide a perspective that unifies traditionally separate domains of anthropology. The basic foundation for the analysis is Life history theory and evolutionary biological models of optimal fertility regulation. This tradition is combined with human capital theory in economics to produce a more general theory of investments in embodied capital within and between generations. This synthesis results in a series of optimality models to examine the decision processes underlying fertility and parental investment upon which natural selection is expected to act. Those models are then applied to the hunting and gathering lifeway. This analysis focuses both on problems that all hunting and gathering peoples face and on the production of variable responses in relation to variable ecologies. Next, this consideration of optimal parental investment and fertility behavior in hunter-gatherers is united with existing models of the proximate determinants of human fertility. The analysis of proximate mechanisms is based on the idea that natural selection acts on the final phenotypic outcome of a coordinated system of physiological, psychological and cultural processes. The important conditions affecting parental investment and fertility in modern socioeconomic contexts are then discussed. An explanation of modern fertility and parental investment behavior in terms of the interaction of those conditions with the physiological and psychological mechanisms that evolved during our hunting and gathering history is proposed. The proposal is that skills-based competitive labor markets increase the value of parental investment in children and motivate better-educated, higher income parents to invest more per child than their less-educated, lower-earning counterparts. It is also suggested that the deviation from fitness maximization associated with low modern fertility is due to excess expenditures on both parental and offspring consumption, indicating that our evolved psychology is responding to cues in the modern environment that are not directly related to the fitness impacts of consumption. (C) 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kaplan1996,
      author = {Kaplan, H},
      title = {A theory of fertility and parental investment in traditional and modern human societies},
      journal = {YEARBOOK OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, YEARBOOK SERIES VOL 39},
      publisher = {WILEY-LISS, INC},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {39},
      pages = {91-135}
    }
    
    Kassin, S. The psychology of confession evidence {1997} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {52}({3}), pp. {221-233} 
    article  
    Abstract: Basic questions are raised concerning police interrogations, the risk of false confessions, and the impact that such evidence has on a jury. On the basis of available research, it was concluded that the criminal justice system currently does not afford adequate protection to innocent people branded as suspects and that there are serious dangers associated with confession evidence. The specific problems are threefold (a) The police routinely use deception, trickery, and psychologically coercive methods of interrogation; (b) these methods may, at times, cause innocent people to confess to crimes they did not commit; and (c) when coerced self-incriminating statements are presented in the courtroom, juries do not sufficiently discount the evidence in reaching a verdiet. It is argued that the topic of confession evidence has largely been overlooked by the scientific community and that further research is needed to build a useful empirical foundation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kassin1997,
      author = {Kassin, SM},
      title = {The psychology of confession evidence},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {52},
      number = {3},
      pages = {221-233},
      note = {103rd Annual Convention of the American-Psychological-Association, NEW YORK, NY, AUG 11-15, 1995}
    }
    
    Kassin, S. & Kiechel, K. The social psychology of false confessions: Compliance, internalization, and confabulation {1996} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {7}({3}), pp. {125-128} 
    article  
    Abstract: An experiment demonstrated that false incriminating evidence can lead people to accept guilt for a clime they did riot commit. Subjects in a fast- or slow-paced reaction time task were accused of damaging a computer by pressing the wrong key. All were truly innocent and initially denied the charge. A confederate then said she saw the subject hit the key or did not see the subject hit the key. Compared with subjects in the slow-pace/no-witness group, those in the fast-pace/witness group were more likely to sign a confession, internalize guilt for the event, and confabulate details in memory consistent with that belief. Both legal and conceptual implications are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kassin1996,
      author = {Kassin, SM and Kiechel, KL},
      title = {The social psychology of false confessions: Compliance, internalization, and confabulation},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      publisher = {CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {125-128}
    }
    
    KEEFE, R. THE CONTRIBUTION OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY TO PSYCHIATRY {1995} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {152}({1}), pp. {6-15} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: Neuropsychological test data are applied with increasing frequency in research studies and clinical practice in psychiatry. This article addresses three popular assumptions about neuropsychological test data and describes the limitations and contributions of neuropsychological assessment of patients with psychiatric disorders. Method: All research articles from major journals in psychiatry and clinical psychology since 1991 that focused on neuropsychological assessment of psychiatric patients were reviewed. Other journals and earlier studies were reviewed selectively. Results: Neuropsychological test data have made significant contributions to the development of hypotheses about abnormal brain structure and function in patients with psychiatric disorders, yet many findings from neuropsychological assessments of psychiatric patients are misinterpreted. The extent to which neuropsychological test data in psychiatric populations can be interpreted to reflect abnormalities in brain structure and function is frequently exaggerated, as is the ability of neuropsychological measures to serve as specific cognitive Probes in imaging studies of physiological activation. On the other hand, the utility of neuropsychological test batteries as measures of the patterns of cognitive strength and deficit in individuals with specific psychiatric disorders is frequently underestimated. Conclusions: In addition to testing models of regional brain dysfunction in psychiatric disorders, neuropsychological tests can provide researchers in psychiatry with an improved understanding of the relation between central cognitive impairments and symptoms and serve to identify cognitive Predictors of course of illness, and they may provide a method for discriminating among heterogeneous forms of some psychiatric disorders: Clinically, neuropsychological test data can be used to develop treatment strategies tailored for an individual's specific cognitive strengths and deficits.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KEEFE1995,
      author = {KEEFE, RSE},
      title = {THE CONTRIBUTION OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY TO PSYCHIATRY},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {152},
      number = {1},
      pages = {6-15}
    }
    
    Kendall, P. Empirically supported psychological therapies {1998} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {66}({1}), pp. {3-6} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article introduces the special section of the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology on empirically supported psychological therapies. After a discussion of the rationale for the selection of the specific terms in the label, several justifications are considered for conducting and learning from empirical evaluations of psychological therapies. Finally the process that guided the special section is described.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kendall1998,
      author = {Kendall, PC},
      title = {Empirically supported psychological therapies},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {66},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-6}
    }
    
    KENDALL, P., WILLIAMS, L., PECHACEK, T., SHISSLAK, C., HERZOFF, N. & GRAHAM, L. COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL AND PATIENT EDUCATION INTERVENTIONS IN CARDIAC-CATHETERIZATION PROCEDURES - PALO-ALTO MEDICAL PSYCHOLOGY PROJECT {1979} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {47}({1}), pp. {49-58} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KENDALL1979,
      author = {KENDALL, PC and WILLIAMS, L and PECHACEK, TF and SHISSLAK, C and HERZOFF, N and GRAHAM, LE},
      title = {COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL AND PATIENT EDUCATION INTERVENTIONS IN CARDIAC-CATHETERIZATION PROCEDURES - PALO-ALTO MEDICAL PSYCHOLOGY PROJECT},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1979},
      volume = {47},
      number = {1},
      pages = {49-58}
    }
    
    KENNY, D., ALBRIGHT, L., MALLOY, T. & KASHY, D. CONSENSUS IN INTERPERSONAL PERCEPTION - ACQUAINTANCE AND THE BIG-5 {1994} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {116}({2}), pp. {245-258} 
    article  
    Abstract: Consensus refers to the extent to which judges agree in their ratings of a common target. Consensus has been an important area of research in social and personality psychology. In this article, generalizability theory is used to develop a percentage of total variance measure of consensus. This measure is used to review the level of consensus across 32 studies by considering the role of acquaintance level and trait dimension. The review indicates that consensus correlations ranged from zero to about .3, with higher levels of consensus for ratings of Extraversion. The studies do not provide evidence that consensus increases with increasing acquaintance, a counterintuitive result that can be accounted for by a theoretical model (D. A, Kenny, 1991, in press). Problems in the interpretation of longitudinal research are reviewed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KENNY1994,
      author = {KENNY, DA and ALBRIGHT, L and MALLOY, TE and KASHY, DA},
      title = {CONSENSUS IN INTERPERSONAL PERCEPTION - ACQUAINTANCE AND THE BIG-5},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {116},
      number = {2},
      pages = {245-258}
    }
    
    Kirkman, B.L., Lowe, K.B. & Gibson, C.B. A quarter century of Culture's Consequences: a review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede's cultural values framework {2006} JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS STUDIES
    Vol. {37}({3}), pp. {285-320} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Since Geert Hofstede's Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values ( Sage, 1980) was published, researchers have utilized Hofstede's cultural values framework in a wide variety of empirical studies. We review 180 studies published in 40 business and psychology journals and two international annual volumes between 1980 and June 2002 to consolidate what is empirically verifiable about Hofstede's cultural values framework. We discuss limitations in the Hofstede-inspired research and make recommendations for researchers who use Hofstede's framework in the future.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kirkman2006,
      author = {Kirkman, Bradley L. and Lowe, Kevin B. and Gibson, Cristina B.},
      title = {A quarter century of Culture's Consequences: a review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede's cultural values framework},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS STUDIES},
      publisher = {PALGRAVE MACMILLAN LTD},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {37},
      number = {3},
      pages = {285-320},
      doi = {{10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400202}}
    }
    
    KIRKPATRICK, L. & HOOD, R. INTRINSIC-EXTRINSIC RELIGIOUS ORIENTATION - THE BOON OR BANE OF CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY OF RELIGION {1990} JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF RELIGION
    Vol. {29}({4}), pp. {442-462} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KIRKPATRICK1990,
      author = {KIRKPATRICK, LA and HOOD, RW},
      title = {INTRINSIC-EXTRINSIC RELIGIOUS ORIENTATION - THE BOON OR BANE OF CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY OF RELIGION},
      journal = {JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF RELIGION},
      publisher = {SOC SCIENTIFIC STUDY RELIGION},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {29},
      number = {4},
      pages = {442-462}
    }
    
    KITCHER, P. THE NATURALISTS RETURN {1992} PHILOSOPHICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {101}({1}), pp. {53-114} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KITCHER1992,
      author = {KITCHER, P},
      title = {THE NATURALISTS RETURN},
      journal = {PHILOSOPHICAL REVIEW},
      publisher = {CORNELL UNIV SAGE SCHOOL PHILOSOPHY},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {101},
      number = {1},
      pages = {53-114}
    }
    
    Kop, W. Chronic and acute psychological risk factors for clinical manifestations of coronary artery disease {1999} PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE
    Vol. {61}({4}), pp. {476-487} 
    article  
    Abstract: Psychological factors are known to affect biological processes involved in the progression of coronary artery disease. This article focuses on psychological risk factors for progression of coronary artery disease and its clinical manifestations. Recent research on the adverse cardiovascular consequences of feelings of exhaustion and acute psychological arousal is reviewed, and a classification of psychological risk factors is presented distinguishing (1) chronic psychological risk factors, such as hostility; (2) episodic risk factors, such as exhaustion, with a duration ranging from several months to 2 years; and (3) acute psychological triggers, including mental activity and anger. The distinctive pathophysiological mechanisms by which these psychological risk factors promote coronary disease progression and cardiac ischemia are described, including hemodynamic reactivity, blood clotting, and inflammatory processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kop1999,
      author = {Kop, WJ},
      title = {Chronic and acute psychological risk factors for clinical manifestations of coronary artery disease},
      journal = {PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE},
      publisher = {LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {61},
      number = {4},
      pages = {476-487}
    }
    
    KORIAT, A. & GOLDSMITH, M. MEMORY IN NATURALISTIC AND LABORATORY CONTEXTS - DISTINGUISHING THE ACCURACY-ORIENTED AND QUANTITY-ORIENTED APPROACHES TO MEMORY ASSESSMENT {1994} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL
    Vol. {123}({3}), pp. {297-315} 
    article  
    Abstract: A distinction is drawn between the quantity-oriented approach to memory that has dominated traditional laboratory research, and the accuracy-oriented approach that is emerging in the study of everyday memory. This distinction is shown to underlie some troubling confusions in the interpretation of empirical findings. In particular, the recall-recognition paradox, which involves the claimed superiority of recall over recognition memory in naturalistic settings, is shown to stem from the common confounding between memory property (quantity vs. accuracy) and 2 other variables that have not generally been distinguished-test format (production vs. selection) and report option (free vs. forced reporting). Three laboratory experiments reveal the fundamentally different roles played by report option and test format in accuracy-based and quantity-based memory research. Implications for memory assessment, metamemory, and the everyday-laboratory controversy are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KORIAT1994,
      author = {KORIAT, A and GOLDSMITH, M},
      title = {MEMORY IN NATURALISTIC AND LABORATORY CONTEXTS - DISTINGUISHING THE ACCURACY-ORIENTED AND QUANTITY-ORIENTED APPROACHES TO MEMORY ASSESSMENT},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-GENERAL},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {123},
      number = {3},
      pages = {297-315}
    }
    
    Koriat, A., Goldsmith, M. & Pansky, A. Toward a psychology of memory accuracy {2000} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {51}, pp. {481-537} 
    article  
    Abstract: There has been unprecedented interest in recent years in questions pertaining to accuracy and distortion in memory. This interest, catalyzed in part by real-life problems, marks a significant departure from the quantity-oriented approach that has characterized much of traditional memory research. We outline a correspondence metaphor of memory underlying accuracy-oriented research, and show how the features of this metaphor are manifested across the disparate bodies of research reviewed here. These include work in the Gestalt tradition, spatial memory, memory for gist, schema theory, source monitoring, fluency misattributions, false recall and recognition, postevent misinformation, false memories, eyewitness research, and autobiographical memory. In examining the dynamics of memory accuracy, we highlight the importance of metacognitive monitoring and control processes. We end by discussing some of the methodological, theoretical, and metatheoretical issues inherent in accuracy-oriented research, attempting to prepare the groundwork for a more coherent psychology of memory accuracy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Koriat2000,
      author = {Koriat, A and Goldsmith, M and Pansky, A},
      title = {Toward a psychology of memory accuracy},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS INC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {51},
      pages = {481-537}
    }
    
    KORMAN, M. NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LEVELS AND PATTERNS OF PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN PSYCHOLOGY - MAJOR THEMES {1974} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {29}({6}), pp. {441-449} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KORMAN1974,
      author = {KORMAN, M},
      title = {NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LEVELS AND PATTERNS OF PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN PSYCHOLOGY - MAJOR THEMES},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1974},
      volume = {29},
      number = {6},
      pages = {441-449}
    }
    
    Krantz, D. & McCeney, M. Effects of psychological and social factors on organic disease: A critical assessment of research on coronary heart disease {2002} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {53}, pp. {341-369} 
    article  
    Abstract: An extensive research literature in the behavioral sciences and medicine suggests that psychological and social factors may play a direct role in organic coronary artery disease (CAD) pathology. However, many in the medical and scientific community regard this evidence with skepticism. This chapter critically examines research on the impact of psychological and psychosocial factors on the development and outcome of coronary heart disease, with particular emphasis on studies employing verifiable outcomes of CAD morbidity or mortality. Five key variables identified as possible psychosocial risk factors for CAD are addressed: acute and chronic stress, hostility, depression, social support, and socioeconomic status. Evidence regarding the efficacy of psychosocial interventions is also presented. It is suggested that, taken as a whole, evidence for a psychological and social impact on CAD morbidity and mortality is convincing. However, continued progress in this area requires multidisciplinary research integrating expertise in cardiology and the behavioral sciences, and more effective efforts to communicate research findings to a biomedical audience.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Krantz2002,
      author = {Krantz, DS and McCeney, MK},
      title = {Effects of psychological and social factors on organic disease: A critical assessment of research on coronary heart disease},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {53},
      pages = {341-369}
    }
    
    Kreuter, M., Lukwago, S., Bucholtz, D., Clark, E. & Sanders-Thompson, V. Achieving cultural appropriateness in health promotion programs: Targeted and tailored approaches {2003} HEALTH EDUCATION & BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {30}({2}), pp. {133-146} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: It is a truism of health education that programs and interventions will be more effective when they are culturally appropriate for the populations they serve. In practice, however, the strategies used to achieve cultural appropriateness vary widely. This article briefly describes five strategies commonly used to target programs to culturally defined groups. It then explains how a sixth approach, cultural tailoring, might extend these strategies and enhance our ability to develop effective programs for cultural groups. The authors illustrate this new approach with an example of cultural tailoring for cancer prevention in a population of lower income urban African American women.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kreuter2003,
      author = {Kreuter, MW and Lukwago, SN and Bucholtz, DC and Clark, EM and Sanders-Thompson, V},
      title = {Achieving cultural appropriateness in health promotion programs: Targeted and tailored approaches},
      journal = {HEALTH EDUCATION & BEHAVIOR},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {30},
      number = {2},
      pages = {133-146},
      doi = {{10.1177/1090198102251021}}
    }
    
    Krueger, N., Reilly, M. & Carsrud, A. Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions {2000} JOURNAL OF BUSINESS VENTURING
    Vol. {15}({5-6}), pp. {411-432} 
    article  
    Abstract: Why are intentions interesting to those who care about new venture formation? Entrepreneurship is a way of thinking, away of thinking that emphasizes opportunities over threats. The opportunity identification process is clearly an intentional process, and, therefore, entrepreneurial intentions clearly merit our attention. Equally important, they offer a means to better explain-and predict-entrepreneurship. We don't start a business as a reflex, do we? We may respond to the conditions around us, such as an intriguing market niche, by starting a new venture. Yet, we think about it first; we process the cues from the environment around us and set about constructing the perceived opportunity into a viable business proposition. In the psychological literature, intentions have proven the best predictor of planned behavior particularly when that behavior is rare, hard to observe, or involves unpredictable rime lags New businesses emerge over time and involve considerable planning. Thus, entrepreneurship is exactly the type of planned behavior (Bird 1988; Katz and Gartner 1988) for which intention models are ideally suited. If intention models prove useful in understanding business venture formation intentions, they offer a coherent, parsimonious, highly-generalizable, and robust theoretical framework for understanding and prediction. Empirically, we have learned that situational (Sor example, employment status or informational cues) or individual (for example, demographic characteristics or personality traits) variables are poor predictors. That is, predicting entrepreneurial activities by modeling only situational or personal factors usually resulted in disappointingly small explanatory power and even smaller predictive validity. Intentions models offer us a significant opportunity to increase our ability to understand and predict entrepreneurial activity. The current study compares two intention-based models in terms of their ability to predict entrepreneurial intentions: Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB) and Shapero's model of the entrepreneurial event (SEE). Ajzen argues that intentions in general depend on perceptions of personal attractiveness, social norms. and feasibility. Shapero argues that entrepreneurial intentions depend on perceptions of personal desirability feasibility, and propensity to act. We employed a competing models approach, comparing regression analyses results for the two models. We tested for overall statistical fit and how well the results supported each component of the models. The sample consisted of strident subjects facing imminent career decisions. Results offered strong statistical support for both models. (1) Intentions are the single best predictor of any planned behavior, including entrepreneurship. Understanding the antecedents of intentions increases our understanding of the intended behavior. Attitudes influence behavior by their impact on intentions. Intentions and attitudes depend on the situation and person. Accordingly, intentions models will predict behavior better than either individual (for example, personality) or situational (for example, employment status) variables. Predictive power is critical to better post hoc explanations of entrepreneurial behavior; intentions models provide superior predictive validity. (2) Personal and situational variables typically have an indirect influence on entrepreneurship through influencing key attitudes and general motivation to act For instance role models will affect entrepreneurial intentions only if they change attitudes and beliefs such as perceived self-efficacy Intention-based models describe how exogenous influences (for example, perceptions of resource availability) change intentions and, ultimately, venture creation. (3) The versatility and robustness of intention models support the broader rise of comprehensive, theory-driven, testable process models in entrepreneurship ;research (MacMillan and Katz 1992). intentional behavior helps explain and model why many entrepreneurs decide to start a business long before they scan for opportunities. Understanding intentions helps researchers and theoreticians to understand related phenomena. These include: what triggers opportunity scanning the sources of ideas for a business venture, and how the venture ultimately becomes a reality. Intention models can describe how entrepreneurial training molds intentions in subsequent venture creation (for example, how does training in business plan writing change attitudes and intentions?). Past research has extensively explored aspects of new venture plans once writ ten. Intentionality argues instead that we study the planning process itself for determinants of venturing behavior We can apply intentions models to other strategic decisions such as the decision to grow or exit a business. Researchers can model the intentions of critical stakeholders in the venture, such as venture capitalists' intentions toward investing inn given company. Finally management researchers can explore the overlaps between venture formation intentions and venture opportunity identification. Entrepreneurs themselves (and those who reach and train them) should benefit from a better understanding of their own motives. The lens provided by intentions affords them the opportunity to understand why they made certain choices in their vision of the new venture. Intentions-based models pro vide practical insight to any planned behavior. This allows Its to better encourage the identification of personally-viable, personally-credible opportunities. Teachers, consultants, advisors, and entrepreneurs should benefit from a better general understanding of how intentions are formed, as well as a specific understanding of how founders' beliefs, perceptions, and motives coalesce into the intent to start a business. This understanding offers sizable diagnostic power, thus entrepreneurship educators can use this model to better understand the motivations and intentions of students and trainees and to help students and trainees understand their own motivations and intentions. Carefully targeted training becomes possible. For example, ethnic and gender differences in career choice are largely explained by self-efficacy differences. Applied work in psychology and sociology tells us that we already know how to remediate self-efficacy differences. Raising entrepreneurial efficacies will raise perceptions of venture feasibility, thus increasing the perception of opportunity. Economic and community development hinges not on chasing smokestacks, but on growing new businesses. To encourage economic development in the form of new enterprises we must first increase perceptions of feasibility and desirability. Policy initiatives Ir ill increase business formations if those initiatives positively influence attitudes and thus influence intentions. The growing trends of downsizing and outsourcing make this more than a sterile academic exercise. Even if we successfully increase the quantity and quality of potential entrepreneurs, we must also promote such perceptions among critical stakeholders including suppliers, financiers, neighbors, government officials, and the larger community. The findings of this study argue that promoting entrepreneurial intentions by promoting public perceptions of feasibility and desirability is nor just desirable; promoting entrepreneurial intentions is also thoroughly feasible. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Krueger2000,
      author = {Krueger, NF and Reilly, MD and Carsrud, AL},
      title = {Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF BUSINESS VENTURING},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {15},
      number = {5-6},
      pages = {411-432}
    }
    
    Kuncel, N., Hezlett, S. & Ones, D. A comprehensive meta-analysis of the predictive validity of the graduate record examinations: Implications for graduate student selection and performance {2001} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {127}({1}), pp. {162-181} 
    article  
    Abstract: This meta-analysis examined the validity of the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) and undergraduate grade point average (UGPA) as predictors of graduate school performance. The study included samples from multiple disciplines, considered different criterion measures, and corrected for statistical artifacts. Data from 1,753 independent samples were included in the meta-analysis, yielding 6,589 correlations for 8 different criteria and 82,659 graduate students. The results indicated that the GRE and UGPA are generalizably valid predictors of graduate grade point average, ist-year graduate grade point average. comprehensive examination scores, publication citation counts, and faculty ratings. GRE correlations with degree attainment and research productivity were consistently positive; however, some lower 90% credibility intervals included 0. Subject Tests tended to be better predictors than the Verbal, Quantitative, and Analytical tests.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kuncel2001,
      author = {Kuncel, NR and Hezlett, SA and Ones, DS},
      title = {A comprehensive meta-analysis of the predictive validity of the graduate record examinations: Implications for graduate student selection and performance},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {127},
      number = {1},
      pages = {162-181},
      note = {106th Annual Convention of the American-Psychological-Association, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, AUG 14-18, 1998}
    }
    
    Kunda, Z. & Spencer, S. When do stereotypes come to mind and when do they color judgment? A goal-based theoretical framework for stereotype activation and application {2003} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {129}({4}), pp. {522-544} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The authors describe a theoretical framework for understanding when people interacting with a member of a stereotyped group activate that group's stereotype and apply it to that person. It is proposed that both stereotype activation and stereotype application during interaction depend on the strength of comprehension and self-enhancement goals that can be satisfied by stereotyping one's interaction partner and on the strength of one's motivation to avoid prejudice. The authors explain how these goals can promote and inhibit stereotype activation and application, and describe diverse chronic and situational factors that can influence the intensity of these goals during interaction and, thereby, influence stereotype activation and application. This approach permits integration of a broad range of findings on stereotype activation and application.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kunda2003,
      author = {Kunda, Z and Spencer, SJ},
      title = {When do stereotypes come to mind and when do they color judgment? A goal-based theoretical framework for stereotype activation and application},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {129},
      number = {4},
      pages = {522-544},
      doi = {{10.1037/0033-2909.129.4.522}}
    }
    
    LARSEN, R. & KASIMATIS, M. DAY-TO-DAY PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS - INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES IN THE OCCURRENCE, DURATION, AND EMOTIONAL CONCOMITANTS OF MINOR DAILY ILLNESSES {1991} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {59}({3}), pp. {387-423} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{LARSEN1991,
      author = {LARSEN, RJ and KASIMATIS, M},
      title = {DAY-TO-DAY PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS - INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES IN THE OCCURRENCE, DURATION, AND EMOTIONAL CONCOMITANTS OF MINOR DAILY ILLNESSES},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      publisher = {DUKE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {59},
      number = {3},
      pages = {387-423}
    }
    
    LARSON, J., FOSTERFISHMAN, P. & KEYS, C. DISCUSSION OF SHARED AND UNSHARED INFORMATION IN DECISION-MAKING GROUPS {1994} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {67}({3}), pp. {446-461} 
    article  
    Abstract: The effects of task importance and group decision training on the discussion behavior of decision-making groups were investigated. Three-person groups decided which of 3 hypothetical faculty candidates would be the best person to teach an introductory psychology course. Prior to discussion, some of the information about each candidate was given to all group members (shared information), whereas the remainder was randomly divided among them (unshared information). In general, groups discussed much more of their shared information than their unshared information. Increasing the importance of the task slowed the rate at which information was brought forth during discussion. By contrast, group decision training increased the amount of both shared and unshared information discussed and altered the sequential flow of shared and unshared information into the discussion: Discussion in untrained groups focused first on shared information and then on unshared information; discussion in trained groups did not shift focus over time. Results are discussed in terms of an information-sampling model of group discussion and the role of discussion in group decision-making effectiveness.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LARSON1994,
      author = {LARSON, JR and FOSTERFISHMAN, PG and KEYS, CB},
      title = {DISCUSSION OF SHARED AND UNSHARED INFORMATION IN DECISION-MAKING GROUPS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {67},
      number = {3},
      pages = {446-461}
    }
    
    LARSON, R. PERSPECTIVES ON QUEUES - SOCIAL-JUSTICE AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF QUEUING {1987} OPERATIONS RESEARCH
    Vol. {35}({6}), pp. {895-905} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{LARSON1987,
      author = {LARSON, RC},
      title = {PERSPECTIVES ON QUEUES - SOCIAL-JUSTICE AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF QUEUING},
      journal = {OPERATIONS RESEARCH},
      publisher = {OPERATIONS RESEARCH SOC AMER},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {35},
      number = {6},
      pages = {895-905}
    }
    
    Lau, R. & Redlawsk, D. Advantages and disadvantages of cognitive heuristics in political decision making {2001} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {45}({4}), pp. {951-971} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article challenges the often untested assumption that cognitive ``heuristics'' improve the decisionmaking abilities of everyday voters. The potential benefits and costs of five common political heuristics are discussed. A new dynamic process-tracing methodology is employed to directly observe the use of these five heuristics by voters in a mock presidential election campaign, We find that cognitive heuristics are at times employed by almost all voters and that they are particularly likely to be used when the choice situation facing voters is complex. A hypothesized interaction between political sophistication and heuristic use on the quality of decision making is obtained across several different experiments, however. As predicted, heuristic use generally increases the probability of a correct vote by political experts but decreases the probability of a correct vote by novices, A situation in which experts can be led astray by heuristic use is also illustrated. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for strategies to increase input from un der-re presented groups into the political process.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lau2001,
      author = {Lau, RR and Redlawsk, DP},
      title = {Advantages and disadvantages of cognitive heuristics in political decision making},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE},
      publisher = {UNIV WISCONSIN PRESS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {45},
      number = {4},
      pages = {951-971}
    }
    
    LAVY, E., VANDENHOUT, M. & ARNTZ, A. ATTENTIONAL BIAS AND SPIDER PHOBIA - CONCEPTUAL AND CLINICAL ISSUES {1993} BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY
    Vol. {31}({1}), pp. {17-24} 
    article  
    Abstract: Experimental evidence indicates that anxious subjects show an attentional bias for threat-relevant information. Foa and McNally (1986) (Cognitive Therapy and Research, 10, 477-485) and Watts et al. (1986) (British Journal of Psychology, 77, 97-108) reported that behaviour therapy can eliminate this attentional bias. A replication study was carried out in order to increase the evidence for exposure being the crucial component in reducing attentional bias. Moreover, in this study some conceptual and clinical issues are explored. The theoretical and clinical implications of the results are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LAVY1993,
      author = {LAVY, E and VANDENHOUT, M and ARNTZ, A},
      title = {ATTENTIONAL BIAS AND SPIDER PHOBIA - CONCEPTUAL AND CLINICAL ISSUES},
      journal = {BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {31},
      number = {1},
      pages = {17-24}
    }
    
    LEARY, M., TCHIVIDJIAN, L. & KRAXBERGER, B. SELF-PRESENTATION CAN BE HAZARDOUS TO YOUR HEALTH - IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT AND HEALTH RISK {1994} HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {13}({6}), pp. {461-470} 
    article  
    Abstract: People's concerns with how others perceive and evaluate them can lead to behaviors that increase the risk of illness and injury. This article reviews evidence that self-presentational motives play a role in several health problems, including HIV infection; skin cancer; malnutrition and eating disorders; alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; injuries and accidental death; failure to exercise; and acne. The implications of a self-presentational perspective for research in health psychology, the promotion of healthful behaviors, and health care delivery are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LEARY1994,
      author = {LEARY, MR and TCHIVIDJIAN, LR and KRAXBERGER, BE},
      title = {SELF-PRESENTATION CAN BE HAZARDOUS TO YOUR HEALTH - IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT AND HEALTH RISK},
      journal = {HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {13},
      number = {6},
      pages = {461-470}
    }
    
    LePine, J. & Van Dyne, L. Predicting voice behavior in work groups {1998} JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {83}({6}), pp. {853-868} 
    article  
    Abstract: This field study of 441 full-time employees in 95 work groups examined voice behavior (constructive challenge to the status quo with the intent of improving the situation rather than merely criticizing) as a function of person-centered (satisfaction with the work group, global self-esteem) and situational factors (group size, self-managed vs. traditional style of management). Using a measure of voice with demonstrated construct validity, the study showed that these person and situation factors explained 10% of the variance in peer-rated voice assessed 6 months later. Significant Person x Situation interactions suggested that individuals with low global self-esteem or high satisfaction with their group were more responsive to the situational factors than individuals with high global self-esteem or low satisfaction. The authors discuss the importance of including person-centered characteristics, situational factors, and their interactions as predictors of voice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LePine1998,
      author = {LePine, JA and Van Dyne, L},
      title = {Predicting voice behavior in work groups},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {83},
      number = {6},
      pages = {853-868}
    }
    
    Leventhal, H., Leventhal, E. & Contrada, R. Self-regulation, health, and behavior: A perceptual-cognitive approach {1998} PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH
    Vol. {13}({4}), pp. {717-733} 
    article  
    Abstract: Self-regulation systems are designed to adapt to threats via coping procedures that make efficient use of resources based upon valid representations of the environment. We discuss two components of the common-sense model of health threats: illness representations (e.g., content and organization) and coping procedures (e.g., classes of procedure and their attributes - outcome expectancies, time-lines, dose-efficacy beliefs, etc.). Characteristics of each of these domains, and the connection between the two, are critical to understanding human adaptation to problems of physical health. Rather than posing a barrier to factors outside the person that control behavior, an emphasis on subjective construal involves a view of the person as an active problem-solver embedded in a bi-directional system of sensitivity and responsiveness vis ci vis the social, physical, and institutional environments in which health threats occur and through which intervention efforts may be directed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Leventhal1998,
      author = {Leventhal, H and Leventhal, EA and Contrada, RJ},
      title = {Self-regulation, health, and behavior: A perceptual-cognitive approach},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH},
      publisher = {HARWOOD ACAD PUBL GMBH},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {13},
      number = {4},
      pages = {717-733}
    }
    
    Lindenberger, U. & Potter, U. The complex nature of unique and shared effects in hierarchical linear regression: Implications for developmental psychology {1998} PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS
    Vol. {3}({2}), pp. {218-230} 
    article  
    Abstract: Hierarchical linear regression and related techniques, such as commonality analysis, path analysis, and linear structural equation models with mediator variables, are often used to determine the extent to which the influence of an exogenous variable on a dependent variable, A, is ``unique'' to this exogenous variable, or ``shared with'' another predictor variable, B. The authors formally show that shared and unique effects are related to the partial correlation between A and B controlling for the exogenous variable. We discuss the implications of this property of hierarchical linear regression with a special consideration of the role of chronological age in developmental psychology and warn against the uncritical use of hierarchical linear regression procedures.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lindenberger1998,
      author = {Lindenberger, U and Potter, U},
      title = {The complex nature of unique and shared effects in hierarchical linear regression: Implications for developmental psychology},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {218-230}
    }
    
    LINVILLE, P. & FISCHER, G. PREFERENCES FOR SEPARATING OR COMBINING EVENTS {1991} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {60}({1}), pp. {5-23} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{LINVILLE1991,
      author = {LINVILLE, PW and FISCHER, GW},
      title = {PREFERENCES FOR SEPARATING OR COMBINING EVENTS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {60},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5-23}
    }
    
    Littell, J. & Girvin, H. Stages of change - A critique {2002} BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
    Vol. {26}({2}), pp. {223-273} 
    article  
    Abstract: The stages of change proposed by Prochaska and DiClemente have been applied to change efforts within and outside of formal treatment and in relation to virtually any problem behavior. This model has gained widespread popularity in health psychology and addictions and is being used to guide interventions and allocate treatment resources in several fields. In this article, the authors review 87 studies on the stages of change across problem behaviors. Research findings suggest that the proposed stages are not mutually exclusive and that there is scant evidence of sequential movement through discrete stages in studies of specific problem behaviors, such as smoking and substance abuse. Although the stage model may have considerable heuristic value, its practical utility is limited by concerns about the validity of stage assessments. The model's underlying concepts and alternative views of readiness for change are considered, along with directions for future research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Littell2002,
      author = {Littell, JH and Girvin, H},
      title = {Stages of change - A critique},
      journal = {BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {26},
      number = {2},
      pages = {223-273}
    }
    
    LOCKARD, R. REFLECTIONS ON FALL OF COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY - IS THERE A MESSAGE FOR US ALL {1971} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {26}({2}), pp. {168-\&} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{LOCKARD1971,
      author = {LOCKARD, RB},
      title = {REFLECTIONS ON FALL OF COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY - IS THERE A MESSAGE FOR US ALL},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1971},
      volume = {26},
      number = {2},
      pages = {168-&}
    }
    
    LOEWENSTEIN, G. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CURIOSITY - A REVIEW AND REINTERPRETATION {1994} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {116}({1}), pp. {75-98} 
    article  
    Abstract: Research on curiosity has undergone 2 waves of intense activity. The 1st, in the 1960s, focused mainly on curiosity's psychological underpinnings. The 2nd, in the 1970s and 1980s, was characterized by attempts to measure curiosity and assess its dimensionality. This article reviews these contributions with a concentration on the Ist wave. It is argued that theoretical accounts of curiosity proposed during the Ist period fell short in 2 areas: They did not offer an adequate explanation for why people voluntarily seek out curiosity, and they failed to delineate situational determinants of curiosity. Furthermore, these accounts did not draw attention to, and thus did not explain, certain salient characteristics of curiosity: its intensity, transience, association with impulsivity, and tendency to disappoint when satisfied. A new account of curiosity is offered that attempts to address these shortcomings. The new account interprets curiosity as a form of cognitively induced deprivation that arises from the perception of a gap in knowledge or understanding.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LOEWENSTEIN1994,
      author = {LOEWENSTEIN, G},
      title = {THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CURIOSITY - A REVIEW AND REINTERPRETATION},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {116},
      number = {1},
      pages = {75-98}
    }
    
    Loftus, G. Psychology will be a much better science when we change the way we analyze data {1996} CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {5}({6}), pp. {161-171} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Loftus1996,
      author = {Loftus, GR},
      title = {Psychology will be a much better science when we change the way we analyze data},
      journal = {CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      publisher = {CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {5},
      number = {6},
      pages = {161-171}
    }
    
    Lomas, J. Social capital and health: Implications for public health and epidemiology {1998} SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE
    Vol. {47}({9}), pp. {1181-1188} 
    article  
    Abstract: Public health and its ``basic science'', epidemiology, have become colonised by the individualistic ethic of medicine and economics. Despite a history in public health dating back to John Snow that underlined the importance of social systems for health, an imbalance has developed in the attention given to generating ``social capital'' compared to such things as modification of individual's risk factors. In an illustrative analysis comparing the potential of six progressively less individualised and Inure community-focused interventions to prevent deaths from heart disease, social support and measures to increase social cohesion fared well against more individual medical care approaches. In the face of such evidence public health professionals and epidemiologists have an ethical and strategic decision concerning the relative effort they give to increasing social cohesion in communities vs expanding access for individuals to traditional public health programs. Practitioners' relative efforts will be influenced by the kind of research that is being produced by epidemiologists and by the political climate of acceptability for voluntary individual ``treatment'' approaches vs universal policies to build ``social capital''. For epidemiologists to further our emerging understanding of the link between social capital and health they must confront issues in measurement, study design and analysis. For public health advocates to sensitise the political environment to the potential dividend from building social capital, they must confront the values that focus on individual-level causal models rather than models of social structure (dis)integration. The evolution of explanations for inequalities in health is used to illustrate the nature of the change in values. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lomas1998,
      author = {Lomas, J},
      title = {Social capital and health: Implications for public health and epidemiology},
      journal = {SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {47},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1181-1188},
      note = {3rd New South Wales Public Health Network Conference on One Hundred Years of Public Health, SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA, DEC 11-12, 1996}
    }
    
    Loomis, J., Blascovich, J. & Beall, A. Immersive virtual environment technology as a basic research tool in psychology {1999} BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS INSTRUMENTS & COMPUTERS
    Vol. {31}({4}), pp. {557-564} 
    article  
    Abstract: Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology has great promise as a tool for basic experimental research in psychology. IVE technology gives participants the experience of being surrounded by the computer-synthesized environment. We begin with a discussion of the various devices needed to implement immersive virtual environments, including object manipulation and social interaction. We review the benefits and drawbacks associated with virtual environment technology, in comparison with more conventional ways of doing basic experimental research. We then consider a variety of examples of research using IVE technology in the areas of perception, spatial cognition, and social interaction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Loomis1999,
      author = {Loomis, JM and Blascovich, JJ and Beall, AC},
      title = {Immersive virtual environment technology as a basic research tool in psychology},
      journal = {BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS INSTRUMENTS & COMPUTERS},
      publisher = {PSYCHONOMIC SOC INC},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {31},
      number = {4},
      pages = {557-564}
    }
    
    Lubinski, D. Scientific and social significance of assessing individual differences: ``Sinking shafts at a few critical points'' {2000} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {51}, pp. {405-444} 
    article  
    Abstract: This chapter reviews empirical findings on the importance of assessing individual differences in human behavior. Traditional dimensions of human abilities, personality, and vocational interests play critical roles in structuring a variety of important behaviors and outcomes (e.g. achieved socioeconomic status, educational choices, work performance, delinquency, health risk behaviors, and income). In the review of their importance, the construct of general intelligence is featured, but attributes that routinely add incremental validity to cognitive assessments are also discussed. Recent experimental and methodological advances for better understanding how these dimensions may contribute to other psychological frameworks are reviewed, as are ways for determining their scientific significance within domains where they are not routinely assessed. Finally, some noteworthy models are outlined that highlight the importance of assessing relatively distinct classes of individual-differences attributes simultaneously. For understanding fully complex human phenomena such as crime, eminence, and educational-vocational development, such a multifaceted approach is likely to be the most productive.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lubinski2000,
      author = {Lubinski, D},
      title = {Scientific and social significance of assessing individual differences: ``Sinking shafts at a few critical points''},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS INC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {51},
      pages = {405-444}
    }
    
    Luborsky, L., Rosenthal, R., Diguer, L., Andrusyna, T., Berman, J., Levitt, J., Seligman, D. & Krause, E. The Dodo bird verdict is alive and well - Mostly {2002} CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY-SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
    Vol. {9}({1}), pp. {2-12} 
    article  
    Abstract: We examined 17 meta-analyses of comparisons of active treatments with each other, in contrast to the more usual comparisons of active treatments with controls. These meta-analyses yielded a mean uncorrected absolute effect size for Cohen's d of .20, which is small and nonsignificant (an equivalent Pearson's r would be.10). The smallness of this effect size confirms Rosenzweig's supposition in 1936 about the likely results of such comparisons. In the present sample, when such differences were corrected for the therapeutic allegiance of the researchers involved in comparing the different psychotherapies, these differences tend to become even further reduced in size and significance, as shown previously by Luborsky, Diguer, Seligman, et al. (1999).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Luborsky2002,
      author = {Luborsky, L and Rosenthal, R and Diguer, L and Andrusyna, TP and Berman, JS and Levitt, JT and Seligman, DA and Krause, ED},
      title = {The Dodo bird verdict is alive and well - Mostly},
      journal = {CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY-SCIENCE AND PRACTICE},
      publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {2-12}
    }
    
    Luthans, F. The need for and meaning of positive organizational behavior {2002} JOURNAL OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {23}({6}), pp. {695-706} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This essay draws from the emerging positive psychology movement and the author's recent articles on the need for and meaning of a positive approach to organizational behavior. Specifically, the argument is made that at this time, the OB field needs a proactive, positive approach emphasizing strengths, rather than continuing in the downward spiral of negativity trying to fix weaknesses. However, to avoid the surface positivity represented by the non-sustainable best-sellers, the case is made for positive organizational behavior (POB) to take advantage of the OB field's strength of being theory and research driven. Additional criteria for this version of POB are to identify unique, state-like psychological capacities that can not only be validly measured, but also be open to development and performance management. Confidence, hope, and resiliency are offered as meeting such POB inclusion criteria. The overall intent of the essay is to generate some positive thinking and excitement for the OB field and `hopefully' stimulate some new theory building, research, and effective application. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Luthans2002,
      author = {Luthans, F},
      title = {The need for and meaning of positive organizational behavior},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR},
      publisher = {JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {23},
      number = {6},
      pages = {695-706},
      doi = {{10.1002/job.165}}
    }
    
    Luthans, F. Positive organizational behavior: Developing and managing psychological strengths {2002} ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT EXECUTIVE
    Vol. {16}({1}), pp. {57-72} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article proposes a positive approach to organizational behavior (OB). Although the importance of positive feelings has been recognized through the years in the academic OB and popular literature, both management scholars and practitioners have arguably too often taken a negative perspective-trying to fix what is wrong with managers and employees and concentrating on weaknesses. Positive organizational behavior (POB) follows the lead of recently emerging positive psychology, which is driven by theory and research focusing on people's strengths and psychological capabilities. Instead of just retreading and putting a positive spin on traditional OB concepts, this unveiling of POB sets forth specific criteria for inclusion. Not only does positivity have to be associated with the concept, but it must also be relatively unique to the OB field, have valid measures, be adaptable to leader/management and human resource training and development, and, most important, capable of contributing to performance improvement in today's workplace. The criteria-meeting concepts of confidence/self-efficacy, hope, optimism, subjective well-being/happiness, and emotional intelligence (or the acronym CHOSE) are identified and analyzed as most representative of the proposed POB approach. The implications of these POB concepts for the workplace are given particular attention.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Luthans2002a,
      author = {Luthans, F},
      title = {Positive organizational behavior: Developing and managing psychological strengths},
      journal = {ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT EXECUTIVE},
      publisher = {ACAD MANAGEMENT},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {16},
      number = {1},
      pages = {57-72}
    }
    
    MACKEBEN, M. & NAKAYAMA, K. EXPRESS ATTENTIONAL SHIFTS {1993} VISION RESEARCH
    Vol. {33}({1}), pp. {85-90} 
    article  
    Abstract: `'Express'' saccades, named for their extremely short latencies, occur more frequently in a paradigm with a `'gap'' in time between the disappearance of the fixation mark and the appearance of the target to be fixated. To explain this result, it has been hypothesized that movements of the eves are preceded by movements of attention [Posner (1980) Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 32, 3-25], and that removing the fixation mark allows attention to disengage from the fovea and to be deployed more rapidly to the peripheral target, thus diminishing saccadic latency [Fisher (1987) Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, 105, 1-35]. We measured attention using extra-foveal vernier acuity performance. Our results provide direct evidence supporting the above hypothesis. First, we found that the rise of performance for increasing cue lead times was much faster in the `'gap'' paradigm. Second, the time function relating gap duration to discrimination performance was remarkably similar to the one relating gap duration and rate of express saccades reported by Mayfrank, Mobashery, Kimmig & Fischer [(1987) European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Science, 235, 269-275]. Third, control experiments showed that it was the disappearance of the fixation mark rather than a non-specific warning that led to more rapid shifts of attention and, thus, to better performance. We therefore conclude that the short latencies of `'express'' saccades may be based on a mechanism involving unusually rapid shifts of attention.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MACKEBEN1993,
      author = {MACKEBEN, M and NAKAYAMA, K},
      title = {EXPRESS ATTENTIONAL SHIFTS},
      journal = {VISION RESEARCH},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {33},
      number = {1},
      pages = {85-90}
    }
    
    Mackie, D. & Smith, E. Intergroup relations: Insights from a theoretically integrative approach {1998} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {105}({3}), pp. {499-529} 
    article  
    Abstract: In social psychology, specific research traditions, which often spring up in response to external events or social problems, tend to perpetuate the theoretical assumptions and methodological approaches with which they began. As a result, theories and methods that have proven powerful in 1 topic area are often not applied in other areas, even to conceptually similar issues. The authors adopt a theoretically integrative approach to the topic of intergroup relations. Theories and empirical approaches from the domains of attitudes, impression formation, the self, personal relationships, and norms offer many new insights into problematic issues, such as repeated findings of dissociations among stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. This integrative approach not only promises new theoretical advances, but also suggests numerous potential practical approaches to limiting or reducing destructive patterns of intergroup relations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mackie1998,
      author = {Mackie, DM and Smith, ER},
      title = {Intergroup relations: Insights from a theoretically integrative approach},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {105},
      number = {3},
      pages = {499-529}
    }
    
    MALLINCKRODT, B., COBLE, H. & GANTT, D. ATTACHMENT PATTERNS IN THE PSYCHOTHERAPY RELATIONSHIP - DEVELOPMENT OF THE CLIENT ATTACHMENT TO THERAPIST SCALE {1995} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {42}({3}), pp. {307-317} 
    article  
    Abstract: A panel of 9 therapists generated items for an instrument designed to measure the psycholtherapy relationship from the perspective of attachment theory. The initial version of the Client Attachment to Therapist Scale (CATS) contained 100 items that were administered at 4 counseling agencies in survey packets to 138 clients who had completed at least 5 sessions with their therapists. Factor analysis suggested that 36 items loaded on 3 subscales, which we labeled Secure, Avoidant-Fearful, and Preoccupied-Merger. CATS factors correlated in expected directions with survey measures of object relations, client-rated working alliance, social self-efficacy, and adult attachment. Cluster analysis identified 4 types of client attachment. Significant differences in social competencies (object relations, etc.) were evident across types of attachment. Implications of attachment patterns for the understanding of client transference are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MALLINCKRODT1995,
      author = {MALLINCKRODT, B and COBLE, HM and GANTT, DL},
      title = {ATTACHMENT PATTERNS IN THE PSYCHOTHERAPY RELATIONSHIP - DEVELOPMENT OF THE CLIENT ATTACHMENT TO THERAPIST SCALE},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {42},
      number = {3},
      pages = {307-317}
    }
    
    MALONEY, M., WARD, M. & BRAUCHT, G. PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION - REVISED SCALE FOR MEASUREMENT OF ECOLOGICAL ATTITUDES AND KNOWLEDGE {1975} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {30}({7}), pp. {787-790} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MALONEY1975,
      author = {MALONEY, MP and WARD, MP and BRAUCHT, GN},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION - REVISED SCALE FOR MEASUREMENT OF ECOLOGICAL ATTITUDES AND KNOWLEDGE},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1975},
      volume = {30},
      number = {7},
      pages = {787-790}
    }
    
    Markus, H. & Kitayama, S. The cultural psychology of personality {1998} JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {29}({1}), pp. {63-87} 
    article  
    Abstract: Research in cultural psychology suggests that person is a social and collective construction made possible through an individual's participation in the practices and meanings of a given cultural context. This perspective can make a contribution to some contemporary controversies in personality. In the current article, it is argued that although most conceptions of personality in academic psychology are rooted in a model of the person as independent, in many Asian cultures, personality is constructed on the basis of an alternative model of the person as interdependent. In these cultures, then, personality is experienced and understood as behavior that is characteristic of the person in relationship with others in particular social contexts. Some initial evidence is reviewed and questions for future research are suggested.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Markus1998,
      author = {Markus, HR and Kitayama, S},
      title = {The cultural psychology of personality},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {29},
      number = {1},
      pages = {63-87}
    }
    
    MARSHALL, G., WORTMAN, C., VICKERS, R., KUSULAS, J. & HERVIG, L. THE 5-FACTOR MODEL OF PERSONALITY AS A FRAMEWORK FOR PERSONALITY-HEALTH RESEARCH {1994} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {67}({2}), pp. {278-286} 
    article  
    Abstract: The NEO Five Factor Personality Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1989) and representative personality scales drawn from health psychology were administered to 2 samples of male military recruits (Ns = 296 and 502). Factor analysis of health-related personality scales revealed 3 conceptually meaningful domains. Examination of these domains and their constituent scales, with reference to the 5-factor model of personality, permits 3 general conclusions. First, most health-relevant dimensions and scales appear to be complex mixtures of broad personality domains. Second, variation in many health-related personality instruments is explained to a significant degree by the 5-factor model. Third, 2 of the 5 personality domains (i.e., conscientiousness and openness) appear to be substantially neglected in health psychology research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MARSHALL1994,
      author = {MARSHALL, GN and WORTMAN, CB and VICKERS, RR and KUSULAS, JW and HERVIG, LK},
      title = {THE 5-FACTOR MODEL OF PERSONALITY AS A FRAMEWORK FOR PERSONALITY-HEALTH RESEARCH},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {67},
      number = {2},
      pages = {278-286}
    }
    
    Marshall, L. Head injury: Recent past, present, and future {2000} NEUROSURGERY
    Vol. {47}({3}), pp. {546-561} 
    article  
    Abstract: THERE IS NO question that substantial progress has been made over the last 30 years, since the pioneering multinational studies of Jennett and colleagues, in our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the production, progression, and amelioration of brain damage. The introduction of computed tomography and simple but elegant classifications of the severity of injury (e.g., the Glasgow Coma Scale and the Glasgow Outcome Scale) were seminal milestones in neurotraumatology. When neurosurgeons such as Langfitt, Pecker, and Miller took advantage of the pioneering investigations of intracranial hypertension by Janny and Lundberg and combined them with imaging, classification of brain damage, and improvements in emergency medical services, substantial gains were soon made. However, given the perspective of the beginning of the 21st century, one can see those gains as relatively straightforward, as they have required the consolidation of concepts and ideas that lit together relatively easily. Better attention to easily delineated abnormalities, such as shock, hypoxia, and hypercarbia, and the early evacuation of mass lesions coupled with the concurrent development of modern principles of critical care account for substantial reductions in mortality and a reduction in the number of vegetative, contracted, spastic survivors. Future improvement in the care of patients with head injuries will increasingly be dependent on advances in molecular neurobiology and psychology, our ability to successfully modulate genetic expression, and progress in the treatment of related illnesses, such as stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, depression, and Alzheimer's disease.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Marshall2000,
      author = {Marshall, LF},
      title = {Head injury: Recent past, present, and future},
      journal = {NEUROSURGERY},
      publisher = {LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {47},
      number = {3},
      pages = {546-561}
    }
    
    Masuda, T. & Nisbett, R. Attending holistically versus analytically: Comparing the context sensitivity of Japanese and Americans {2001} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {81}({5}), pp. {922-934} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Much research indicates that East Asians, more than Americans, explain events with reference to the context. The authors examined whether East Asians also attend to the context more than Americans do. In Study 1, Japanese and Americans watched animated vignettes of underwater scenes and reported the contents. In a subsequent recognition test, they were shown previously seen objects as well as new objects, either in their original setting or in novel settings, and then were asked to judge whether they had seen the objects. Study 2 replicated the recognition task using photographs of wildlife. The results showed that the Japanese (a) made more statements about contextual information and relationships than Americans did and (b) recognized previously seen objects more accurately when they saw them in their original settings rather than in the novel settings, whereas this manipulation had relatively little effect on Americans.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Masuda2001,
      author = {Masuda, T and Nisbett, RE},
      title = {Attending holistically versus analytically: Comparing the context sensitivity of Japanese and Americans},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {81},
      number = {5},
      pages = {922-934},
      doi = {{10.1037//0022-3514.81.5.922}}
    }
    
    MATARAZZO, J. BEHAVIORAL HEALTHS CHALLENGE TO ACADEMIC, SCIENTIFIC, AND PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY {1982} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {37}({1}), pp. {1-14} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MATARAZZO1982,
      author = {MATARAZZO, JD},
      title = {BEHAVIORAL HEALTHS CHALLENGE TO ACADEMIC, SCIENTIFIC, AND PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {37},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-14}
    }
    
    Mathews, A., Ridgeway, V. & Williamson, D. Evidence for attention to threatening stimuli in depression {1996} BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY
    Vol. {34}({9}), pp. {695-705} 
    article  
    Abstract: A modified version of the attentional deployment task developed by MacLeod, Mathews and Tata (1986) [Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 15-20] was used to examine two issues: first, whether there was any evidence of attentional bias in depressed subjects, rather than in anxious subjects alone; and second, whether attentional effects would occur in the location of stimuli that could not be identified. Subjects were presented with pairs of words, one above the other, and the extent to which attention favored threatening rather than neutral words was assessed from the latency to detect a dot in the same location of one them. These detection latencies showed that depressed, but not anxious subjects, were selectively attentive to socially threatening words. There was also evidence for attentional effects in the anxious subjects favoring physically threatening words. Furthermore, panic disorder patients were preferentially attentive to the location of physically-threatening stimuli that could not be accurately identified. Overall, the results provide further evidence that emotionally disturbed subjects tend to orient attention towards personally-relevant emotional stimuli. However, the previous hypothesis that this attentional bias occurs only in anxiety, and not in depression, was not supported. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mathews1996,
      author = {Mathews, A and Ridgeway, V and Williamson, DA},
      title = {Evidence for attention to threatening stimuli in depression},
      journal = {BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {34},
      number = {9},
      pages = {695-705}
    }
    
    Maton, K. & Salem, D. Organizational characteristics of empowering community settings: A multiple case study approach {1995} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {23}({5}), pp. {631-656} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although empowerment is often cited as a major guiding construct for community psychology, relatively little is known about the characteristics of empowering community settings. The current paper uses a multiple case study methodology to generate a number of key organizational characteristics of empowering community settings to guide future work in the area. In-depth, multilevel, longitudinal research was conducted on three empowering community settings: a religious fellowship, a mutual help organization for persons with severe mental illness, and an educational program for African American students. The organizational features found to characterize all three settings were (a) a belief system that inspires growth, is strengths-based, and is focused beyond the self; (b) an opportunity role structure that is pervasive, highly accessible, and multifunctional; (c) a support system that is encompassing, peel-based, and provides a sense of community; and (d) leadership that is inspiring, talented, shared, and committed to both setting and members. Limitations of the research are discussed, and directions for future research suggested.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Maton1995,
      author = {Maton, KI and Salem, DA},
      title = {Organizational characteristics of empowering community settings: A multiple case study approach},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {PLENUM PUBL CORP},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {23},
      number = {5},
      pages = {631-656}
    }
    
    Maughan, B. & Rutter, M. Retrospective reporting of childhood adversity: Issues in assessing long-term recall {1997} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS
    Vol. {11}({1}), pp. {19-33} 
    article  
    Abstract: Much evidence for associations between adverse experiences in childhood and personality disorder in adult life comes from retrospective accounts, This raises important questions over the reliability and validity of long-term recall, The strengths and limitations of different methods for assessing the accuracy and stability of retrospective reports are discussed, Evidence from cognitive psychology on memory and memory processes, and on the phenomenon of infantile amnesia, provides important background for assessing issues more specific to recall in studies of risk for psychopathology. Here, topics of particular concern include: memory for traumatic early experience; the effects of mood state and symptomatology on recall; recovered or false memories; and the implications of mental representations of early experience for understanding psychopathology, Current evidence suggests that while adequately reliable accounts of many early experiences can be gained using appropriate techniques, further methodological studies are needed, and investigations using retrospective methods would be wise to include corroborative evidence whenever feasible.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Maughan1997,
      author = {Maughan, B and Rutter, M},
      title = {Retrospective reporting of childhood adversity: Issues in assessing long-term recall},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS},
      publisher = {GUILFORD PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1},
      pages = {19-33}
    }
    
    MAYER, R. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF HOW NOVICES LEARN COMPUTER-PROGRAMMING {1981} COMPUTING SURVEYS
    Vol. {13}({1}), pp. {121-141} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MAYER1981,
      author = {MAYER, RE},
      title = {THE PSYCHOLOGY OF HOW NOVICES LEARN COMPUTER-PROGRAMMING},
      journal = {COMPUTING SURVEYS},
      publisher = {ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {121-141}
    }
    
    McAdams, D., Diamond, A., Aubin, E. & Mansfield, E. Stories of commitment: The psychosocial construction of generative lives {1997} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {72}({3}), pp. {678-694} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this study, the authors analyzed the internalized life stories of 40 highly generative and 30 less generative adults with similar demographic profiles to discern the extent to which the 2 groups constructed different identities. The highly generative adults were more likely to reconstruct the past and anticipate the future as variations on a prototypical commitment story in which the protagonist (a) enjoys an early family blessing or advantage, (b) is sensitized to others' suffering at an early age, (c) is guided by a clear and compelling personal ideology that remains stable over time, (d) transforms or redeems bad scenes into good outcomes, and (e) sets goals for the future to benefit society. Commitment stories sustain and reinforce the modern adult's efforts to contribute in positive ways to the next generation. The findings connect to a growing interdisciplinary literature on narrative and human lives and suggest a new research agenda that draws on nomothetic conventions to interpret storied psychosocial constructions that people fashion to make sense of their lives in time and in culture.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McAdams1997,
      author = {McAdams, DP and Diamond, A and Aubin, ED and Mansfield, E},
      title = {Stories of commitment: The psychosocial construction of generative lives},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {72},
      number = {3},
      pages = {678-694}
    }
    
    McAdams, D. & Pals, J. A new big five - Fundamental principles for an integrative science of personality {2006} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {61}({3}), pp. {204-217} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Despite impressive advances in recent years with respect to theory and research, personality psychology has yet to articulate clearly a comprehensive framework for understanding the whole person. In an effort to achieve that aim, the current article draws on the most promising empirical and theoretical trends in personality, psychology today to articulate 5 big principles for an integrative science of the whole person. Personality is conceived as (a) an individual's unique variation on the general evolutionary design for human nature, expressed as a developing pattern of (b) dispositional traits, (c) characteristic adaptations, and (d) self-defining life narratives, complexly and differentially situated (e) in culture and social context. The 5 principles suggest a framework for integrating the Big Five model of personality, traits with those self-defining features of psychological individuality constructed in response to situated social tasks and the human need to make meaning in culture.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McAdams2006,
      author = {McAdams, DP and Pals, JL},
      title = {A new big five - Fundamental principles for an integrative science of personality},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC/EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING FOUNDATION},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {61},
      number = {3},
      pages = {204-217},
      doi = {{10.1037/0003-066X.61.3.204}}
    }
    
    MCARDLE, J. & HAMAGAMI, F. MODELING INCOMPLETE LONGITUDINAL AND CROSS-SECTIONAL DATA USING LATENT GROWTH STRUCTURAL MODELS {1992} EXPERIMENTAL AGING RESEARCH
    Vol. {18}({3-4}), pp. {145-166} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this paper we describe some mathematical and statistical models for identifying and dealing with changes over age. We concentrate specifically on the use of a latent growth structural equation model approach to deal with issues of: (1) latent growth models of change, (2) differences in longitudinal and cross-sectional results, and (3) differences due to longitudinal attrition. This is a methodological paper using simulated data, but we base our models on practical and conceptual principles of modeling change in developmental psychology. Our results illustrate both benefits and limitations using structural models to analyze incomplete longitudinal data.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MCARDLE1992,
      author = {MCARDLE, JJ and HAMAGAMI, F},
      title = {MODELING INCOMPLETE LONGITUDINAL AND CROSS-SECTIONAL DATA USING LATENT GROWTH STRUCTURAL MODELS},
      journal = {EXPERIMENTAL AGING RESEARCH},
      publisher = {TAYLOR & FRANCIS},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {18},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {145-166}
    }
    
    MCCRAE, R. & COSTA, P. TRAIT EXPLANATIONS IN PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY {1995} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {9}({4}), pp. {231-252} 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent debates on the status of contemporary trait psychology (Pervin, 1994) have revived old questions about the role of traits in the explanation of behavior: are traits mere descriptions of behavior, or do they offer one legitimate and useful form of explanation? We review the logic of trait explanation and present a general model of the person in which personality traits are hypothetical constructs regarded as basic dispositions. In interaction with external influences-notably shared meaning systems-traits contribute causally to the development of habits, attitudes; skills, and other characteristic adaptations. In this model, action and experience can be explained directly or proximally in terms of the interaction of the immediate situation with the individual's characteristic adaptations, and indirectly or distally in terms of underlying personality traits.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MCCRAE1995,
      author = {MCCRAE, RR and COSTA, PT},
      title = {TRAIT EXPLANATIONS IN PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      publisher = {JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {231-252},
      note = {Symposium on Structure and Causality in Personality and Behavior, at the 7th European Conference on Personality, MADRID, SPAIN, JUL 12-16, 1994}
    }
    
    McCrae, R., Terracciano, A. & Personal Profiles Cultures Project Universal features of personality traits from the observer's perspective: Data from 50 cultures {2005} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {88}({3}), pp. {547-561} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: To test hypotheses about the universality of personality traits, college students in 50 cultures identified an adult or college-aged man or woman whom they knew well and rated the 11,985 targets using the 3rd-person version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Factor analyses within cultures showed that the normative American self-report structure was clearly replicated in most cultures and was recognizable in all. Sex differences replicated earlier self-report results, with the most pronounced differences in Western cultures. Cross-sectional age differences for 3 factors followed the pattern identified in self-reports, with moderate rates of change during college age and slower changes after age 40. With a few exceptions, these data support the hypothesis that features of personality traits are common to all human groups.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McCrae2005,
      author = {McCrae, RR and Terracciano, A and Personal Profiles Cultures Project},
      title = {Universal features of personality traits from the observer's perspective: Data from 50 cultures},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC/EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING FOUNDATION},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {88},
      number = {3},
      pages = {547-561},
      note = {2nd World Congress on Womens Mental Health, Washington, DC, MAR 17-20, 2004},
      doi = {{10.1037/0022-3514.88.3.547}}
    }
    
    McFadden, D. Rationality for economists? {1999} JOURNAL OF RISK AND UNCERTAINTY
    Vol. {19}({1-3}), pp. {73-105} 
    article  
    Abstract: Rationality is a complex behavioral theory that can be parsed into statements about preferences, perceptions, and process. This paper looks at the evidence on rationality that is provided by behavioral experiments, and argues that most cognitive anomalies operate through errors in perception that arise from the way information is stored, retrieved, and processed, or through errors in process that lead to formulation of choice problems as cognitive tasks that are inconsistent at least with rationality narrowly defined. The paper discusses how these cognitive anomalies influence economic behavior and measurement, and their implications for economic analysis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McFadden1999,
      author = {McFadden, D},
      title = {Rationality for economists?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF RISK AND UNCERTAINTY},
      publisher = {KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {19},
      number = {1-3},
      pages = {73-105},
      note = {Symposium on Elicitation of Preferences, BERKELEY, CA, 1997}
    }
    
    McKnight, D. & Chervany, N. What trust means in e-commerce customer relationships: An interdisciplinary conceptual typology {2001} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC COMMERCE
    Vol. {6}({2}), pp. {35-59} 
    article  
    Abstract: Trust is a vital relationship concept that needs clarification because researchers across disciplines have defined it in so many different ways. A typology of trust types would make it easier to compare and communicate results, and would be especially valuable if the types of trust related to one other. The typology should be interdisciplinary because many disciplines research e-commerce. This paper justifies a parsimonious interdisciplinary typology and relates trust constructs to e-commerce consumer actions, defining both conceptual-level and operational-level trust constructs. Conceptual-level constructs consist of disposition to trust (primarily from psychology), institution-based trust (from sociology), and trusting beliefs and trusting intentions (primarily from social psychology). Each construct is decomposed into measurable subconstructs, and the typology shows how trust constructs relate to already existing Internet relationship constructs. The effects of Web vendor interventions on consumer behaviors are posited to be partially mediated by consumer trusting beliefs and trusting intentions in the e-vendor.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McKnight2001,
      author = {McKnight, DH and Chervany, NL},
      title = {What trust means in e-commerce customer relationships: An interdisciplinary conceptual typology},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC COMMERCE},
      publisher = {M E SHARPE INC},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {35-59}
    }
    
    MCNALLY, R. AUTOMATICITY AND THE ANXIETY DISORDERS {1995} BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY
    Vol. {33}({7}), pp. {747-754} 
    article  
    Abstract: Experimental psychopathologists have increasingly relied upon the concepts and methods of cognitive psychology in their attempts to elucidate information-processing biases associated with anxiety disorders. Many of these biases presumably constitute instances of automatic, not strategic, processing. But research has shown that attributes of automaticity (i.e. capacity-free, unconsious, involuntary) do not all apply to selective processing of threat associated with anxiety. Experimental and clinical findings suggest that biases are automatic in the sense of being involuntary (and sometimes unconscious), but not in the sense of being capacity-free. Implications of involuntary automatic processing of threat for behavior therapy are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MCNALLY1995,
      author = {MCNALLY, RJ},
      title = {AUTOMATICITY AND THE ANXIETY DISORDERS},
      journal = {BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {33},
      number = {7},
      pages = {747-754}
    }
    
    McPherson, C. & Addington-Hall, J. Judging the quality of care at the end of life: can proxies provide reliable information? {2003} SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE
    Vol. {56}({1}), pp. {95-109} 
    article  
    Abstract: A major challenge in research into care at the end of life is the difficulty of obtaining the views and experiences of representative samples of patients. Studies relying on patients' accounts prior to death are potentially biased, as they only represent that proportion of patients with an identifiable terminal illness, who are relatively well and therefore able to participate, and who are willing to take part. An alternative approach that overcomes many of these problems is the retrospective or `after death' approach. Here, observations are gathered from proxies, usually the patient's next of kin, following the patient's death. However, questions have been raised about the validity of proxies' responses. This paper provides a comprehensive review of studies that have compared patient and proxy views. The evidence suggests that proxies can reliably report on the quality of services, and on observable symptoms. Agreement is poorest for subjective aspects of the patient's experience, such as pain, anxiety and depression. The findings are discussed in relation to literature drawn from survey methodology, psychology, health and palliative care. In addition to this, factors likely to affect levels of agreement ate identified. Amongst these are factors associated with the patient and proxy, the measures used to assess Palliative care and the quality of the research evaluating the validity of proxies' reports. As proxies are a vital source of information, and for some patients the only source, the paper highlights the need for further research to improve the validity of proxies' reports. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McPherson2003,
      author = {McPherson, CJ and Addington-Hall, JM},
      title = {Judging the quality of care at the end of life: can proxies provide reliable information?},
      journal = {SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {56},
      number = {1},
      pages = {95-109}
    }
    
    Medley, A., Garcia-Moreno, C., McGill, S. & Maman, S. Rates, barriers and outcomes of HIV serostatus disclosure among women in developing countries: implications for prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes {2004} BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
    Vol. {82}({4}), pp. {299-307} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper synthesizes the rates, barriers, and outcomes of HIV serostatus disclosure among women in developing countries. We identified 17 studies from peer-reviewed journals and international conference abstracts - 15 from sub-Saharan Africa and 2 from south-east Asia - that included information on either the rates, barriers or outcomes of HIV serostatus disclosure among women in developing countries. The rates of disclosure reported in these studies ranged from 16.7% to 86 with women attending free-standing voluntary HIV testing and counselling clinics more likely to disclose their HIV status to their sexual partners than women who were tested in the context of their antenatal care. Barriers to disclosure identified by the women included fear of accusations of infidelity, abandonment, discrimination and violence. Between 3.5% and 14.6% of women reported experiencing a violent reaction from a partner following disclosure. The low rates of HIV serostatus disclosure reported among women in antenatal settings have several implications for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (pMTCT) programmes as the optimal uptake and adherence to such programmes is difficult for women whose partners are either unaware or not supportive of their participation, This article discusses these implications and offers some strategies for safely increasing the rates of HIV status disclosure among women.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Medley2004,
      author = {Medley, A and Garcia-Moreno, C and McGill, S and Maman, S},
      title = {Rates, barriers and outcomes of HIV serostatus disclosure among women in developing countries: implications for prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes},
      journal = {BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION},
      publisher = {WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {82},
      number = {4},
      pages = {299-307}
    }
    
    Mellers, B., Schwartz, A. & Cooke, A. Judgment and decision making {1998} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {49}, pp. {447-477} 
    article  
    Abstract: For many decades, research in judgment and decision making has examined behavioral violations of rational choice theory. In that framework, rationality is expressed as a single correct decision shared by experimenters and subjects that satisfies internal coherence within a set of preferences and beliefs. Outside of psychology, social scientists are now debating the need to modify rational choice theory with behavioral assumptions. Within psychology, researchers are debating assumptions about errors for many different definitions of rationality. Alternative frameworks are being proposed. These frameworks view decisions as more reasonable and adaptive than previously thought. For example, ``rule following.'' Rule following, which occurs when a rule or norm is applied to a situation, often minimizes effort and provides satisfying solutions that are ``good enough,'' though not necessarily the best. When rules are ambiguous, people look for reasons to guide their decisions. They may also let their emotions take charge. This chapter presents recent research on judgment and decision making from traditional and alternative frameworks.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mellers1998,
      author = {Mellers, BA and Schwartz, A and Cooke, ADJ},
      title = {Judgment and decision making},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS INC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {49},
      pages = {447-477}
    }
    
    Meltzoff, A. & Decety, J. What imitation tells us about social cognition: a rapprochement between developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience {2003} PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
    Vol. {358}({1431}), pp. {491-500} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Both developmental and neurophysiological research suggest a common coding between perceived and generated actions. This shared representational network is innately wired in humans. We review psychological evidence concerning the imitative behaviour of newborn human infants. We suggest that the mechanisms involved in infant imitation provide the foundation for understanding that others are `like me' and underlie the development of theory of mind and empathy for others. We also analyse functional neuroimaging studies that explore the neurophysiological substrate of imitation in adults. We marshal evidence that imitation recruits not only shared neural representations between the self and the other but also cortical regions in the parietal cortex that are crucial for distinguishing between the perspective of self and other. Imitation is doubly revealing: it is used by infants to learn about adults, and by scientists to understand the organization and functioning of the brain.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Meltzoff2003,
      author = {Meltzoff, AN and Decety, J},
      title = {What imitation tells us about social cognition: a rapprochement between developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience},
      journal = {PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES},
      publisher = {ROYAL SOC LONDON},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {358},
      number = {1431},
      pages = {491-500},
      doi = {{10.1098/rstb.2002.1261}}
    }
    
    Miller, D. Disrespect and the experience of injustice {2001} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {52}, pp. {527-553} 
    article  
    Abstract: This review analyzes research and theory pertaining to the psychology of injustice, using as its organizing theme the role that the perception of disrespect plays in the experience of injustice. The analysis focuses primarily on the Links between disrespect and anger, disrespect and injustice, and anger and injustice. Determinants of the intensity of people's reactions to injustices are also reviewed. In addition, the review examines the goals of retaliation as well as the forms that retaliation can take. Parallels between justice reactions to those acts of disrespect directed toward the self and those directed toward others are noted. Finally, the review discusses the implications of justice research for understanding the specific and general entitlements that people believe are their due.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Miller2001,
      author = {Miller, DT},
      title = {Disrespect and the experience of injustice},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {52},
      pages = {527-553}
    }
    
    Miller, D. The norm of self-interest {1999} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {54}({12}), pp. {1053-1060} 
    article  
    Abstract: The self-interest motive is singularly powerful according to many of the most influential theories of human behavior and the layperson alike. In the present article the author examines the role the assumption of self-interest plays in its own confirmation. It is proposed that a norm exists in Western cultures that specifies self-interest both is and ought to be a powerful determinant of behavior. This norm influences people's actions and opinions as well as the accounts they give for their actions and opinions. In particular; it leads people to act and speak as though they care more about their material self-interest than they do. Consequences of misinterpreting the ``fact'' of self-interest are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Miller1999,
      author = {Miller, DT},
      title = {The norm of self-interest},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {54},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1053-1060}
    }
    
    MILLON, T. CLASSIFICATION IN PSYCHOPATHOLOGY - RATIONALE, ALTERNATIVES, AND STANDARDS {1991} JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {100}({3}), pp. {245-261} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MILLON1991,
      author = {MILLON, T},
      title = {CLASSIFICATION IN PSYCHOPATHOLOGY - RATIONALE, ALTERNATIVES, AND STANDARDS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {100},
      number = {3},
      pages = {245-261}
    }
    
    Mishler, E. Models of narrative analysis: A typology {1995} JOURNAL OF NARRATIVE AND LIFE HISTORY
    Vol. {5}({2}), pp. {87-123} 
    article  
    Abstract: The recent increase in the number of narrative studies in the human sciences is marked by great diversity in methods and theoretical perspectives. Researchers offer different answers to many questions, from what constitutes a narrative and how different genres may be specified to the aims and functions of storytelling. To clarify differences among approaches, a typology of models is proposed that focuses on which of three alternative problems are defined as the central task for narrative research: reference and the relation between temporal orderings of events and their narrative representation; textual coherence and structure, and how these are achieved through narrative strategies; and psychological, cultural, and social contexts and functions of narratives. Within each of these general categories, subclasses are distinguished in terms of the specific ways in which the central problem is addressed. Exemplars of each model are presented and related studies are cited. This comparative analysis demonstrates the depth, strength, and diversity of current research on narrative. It is suggested that further development of the held would benefit from more inclusive research strategies that combine what have been separate lines of inquiry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mishler1995,
      author = {Mishler, EG},
      title = {Models of narrative analysis: A typology},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NARRATIVE AND LIFE HISTORY},
      publisher = {LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC INC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {5},
      number = {2},
      pages = {87-123}
    }
    
    Mitchell, A. & Dacin, P. The assessment of alternative measures of consumer expertise {1996} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH
    Vol. {23}({3}), pp. {219-239} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study assesses a number of different measures of consumer expertise by examining their ability to predict correct choices in three stimulus-based choice tasks and to support a number of hypotheses derived from the cognitive psychology and consumer behavior literature. The hypotheses concern how consumer expertise should affect the content and organization of knowledge for a product class and reasons for choice across different usage contexts. After a factor analysis of the different measures of consumer expertise that yielded three orthogonal factors, we used regression and TOBIT analyses to examine the effect of each factor on the number of correct choices and the hypothesized differences in the content and organization of knowledge and reasons for choice in the choice tasks. Two of the factors, `'subjective/objective knowledge'' and `'friends owning motorcycles,'' predict the number of correct choices in the stimulus-based choice tasks, while the subjective/objective-knowledge factor supports almost all of the hypothesized relationships for the content and organization of knowledge and reasons for choice. The third factor, `'magazines read/motorcycles owned,'' also supports many of the relationships concerning general knowledge.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mitchell1996,
      author = {Mitchell, AA and Dacin, PA},
      title = {The assessment of alternative measures of consumer expertise},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH},
      publisher = {UNIV CHICAGO PRESS},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {23},
      number = {3},
      pages = {219-239}
    }
    
    MITCHELL, T. & BIGLAN, A. INSTRUMENTALITY THEORIES - CURRENT USES IN PSYCHOLOGY {1971} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {76}({6}), pp. {432-454} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MITCHELL1971,
      author = {MITCHELL, TR and BIGLAN, A},
      title = {INSTRUMENTALITY THEORIES - CURRENT USES IN PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1971},
      volume = {76},
      number = {6},
      pages = {432-454}
    }
    
    Mondloch, M., Cole, D. & Frank, J. Does how you do depend on how you think you'll do? A systematic review of the evidence for a relation between patients' recovery expectations and health outcomes {2001} CANADIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL
    Vol. {165}({2}), pp. {174-179} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Most clinicians would probably agree that what patients think will happen can influence what does happen over the clinical course. Yet despite useful narrative reviews on expectancy of therapeutic gain and the mechanisms by which expectancy can affect health outcomes, we were unable to locate a systematic review of the predictive relation between patients' recovery expectations and their health outcomes. Methods: We searched MEDLINE for English-language articles published from. 1966 to June 1998 with a title or abstract containing at least 1 of the medical subject headings (MeSH) ``self-assessment,'' ``self-concept'' or ``attitude to health,'' or the MeSH subheading ``psychology,'' and at least I word from each of 3 sets: `patient'' and similar words; a form of ``expectation,'' `belief'' or `prediction'',- and a form of ``recover,'' `outcome,' ``survival'' or ``improve.'' Relevant articles contained original research data, measured patients' recovery expectations, independently measured a subsequent health outcome and analyzed the relation between expectations and outcomes. We assessed internal validity using quality criteria for prognostic studies based on 6 categories (case definition; patient selection; extent of follow-up; objective outcome criteria; measurement and reporting of recovery expectations; and analysis). Results: A total of 1243 titles or abstracts were identified through the computer search, and 93 full-text articles were retrieved. Forty-one of these articles met the relevance criteria, along with 4 additional articles identified through other means. Agreement beyond chance on quality assessments of 18 randomly selected articles was high (kappa = 0.87, p = 0.001). Sixteen of the 45 articles provided moderate-quality evidence and included a range of clinical conditions and study designs; 15 of the 16 showed that positive expectations were associated with better health outcomes. The strength of the relation depended on the clinical conditions and the measures used. Interpretation: Consistency across the studies reviewed and the evidence they provided support the need for clinicians to clarify patients' expectations and to assist them in having appropriate expectations of recovery. The understanding of the nature, extent and clinical implications of the relation between expectations and outcomes could be enhanced by more conceptually driven and, methodologically sound research, including evaluations of intervention effectiveness.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mondloch2001,
      author = {Mondloch, MV and Cole, DC and Frank, JW},
      title = {Does how you do depend on how you think you'll do? A systematic review of the evidence for a relation between patients' recovery expectations and health outcomes},
      journal = {CANADIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL},
      publisher = {CANADIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {165},
      number = {2},
      pages = {174-179}
    }
    
    Montero, I. & Leon, O.G. A guide for naming research studies in Psychology {2007} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {7}({3}), pp. {847-862} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this work, the classification system for research methods in Psychology previously published by the authors is amplified and reviewed. We establish some cues for guiding its use and make some considerations on its utility. Based on classification of the research plan, in a first level the system is composed by three main groups: a) theoretical studies, b) empirical quantitative studies, and c) empirical qualitative studies. Within the first group two types are included, classical reviews and meta-analysis. Within the second, there are seven different types: observational descriptive studies, survey descriptive studies, experiments, quasi-experiments, ex post facto studies, single case experimental studies, and instrumental studies. The third group includes ethnography, case studies and action research. We present the main characteristics for each type and describe some keys which permit to identify their subtypes. All of them are illustrated with actual publications. The classification system we propose here will be used as model for research reports in order to be published in this journal.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Montero2007,
      author = {Montero, Ignacio and Leon, Orfelio G.},
      title = {A guide for naming research studies in Psychology},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ASOCIACION ESPANOLA PSICOLOGIA CONDUCTUAL},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {847-862}
    }
    
    Moran, J.M., Macrae, C.N., Heatherton, T.F., Wyland, C.L. & Kelley, W.M. Neuroanatomical evidence for distinct cognitive and affective components of self {2006} JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {18}({9}), pp. {1586-1594} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study examines whether the cognitive and affective components of self-reflection can he dissociated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a simple paradigm in which subjects judged the personal relevance of personality characteristics that were either favorable (e.g., ``honest'') or unfavorable (e.g., ``lazy''), we found that distinct neural circuits in adjacent regions of the prefrontal cortex subserve cognitive and emotional aspects of self-reflection. The medial prefrontal cortex responded only to material that was self-descriptive, and this did not differ as a function of the valence of the trait. When material was judged to be self-relevant, the valence of the material was resolved in an adjacent region of ventral anterior cingulate. The nature of self is one of the most enduring questions in science, and researchers arc now beginning to be able to decompose the neural operations that give rise to a unitary sense of self.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Moran2006,
      author = {Moran, J. M. and Macrae, C. N. and Heatherton, T. F. and Wyland, C. L. and Kelley, W. M.},
      title = {Neuroanatomical evidence for distinct cognitive and affective components of self},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE},
      publisher = {M I T PRESS},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {18},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1586-1594}
    }
    
    MORSE, C. DOES VARIABILITY INCREASE WITH AGE - AN ARCHIVAL STUDY OF COGNITIVE MEASURES {1993} PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING
    Vol. {8}({2}), pp. {156-164} 
    article  
    Abstract: It is often asserted that older people are more variable than younger people; however, the published data do not always support this statement. To examine directly the applicability of the assertion, measures of reaction time (RT), memory, and intelligence from studies published in Psychology and Aging and the Journal of Gerontology from 1986 to 1990 were examined. The coefficients of variability calculated from data published in studies in which a group of younger people was compared with a group of older people indicated that variability was greater among older participants on measures of RT, memory, and fluid intelligence but not crystallized intelligence. Further examination of data bearing on relative variability is indicated.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MORSE1993,
      author = {MORSE, CK},
      title = {DOES VARIABILITY INCREASE WITH AGE - AN ARCHIVAL STUDY OF COGNITIVE MEASURES},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {156-164}
    }
    
    MOWDAY, R., KOBERG, C. & MCARTHUR, A. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE WITHDRAWAL PROCESS - A CROSS-VALIDATIONAL TEST OF MOBLEY INTERMEDIATE LINKAGES MODEL OF TURNOVER IN 2 SAMPLES {1984} ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL
    Vol. {27}({1}), pp. {79-94} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MOWDAY1984,
      author = {MOWDAY, RT and KOBERG, CS and MCARTHUR, AW},
      title = {THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE WITHDRAWAL PROCESS - A CROSS-VALIDATIONAL TEST OF MOBLEY INTERMEDIATE LINKAGES MODEL OF TURNOVER IN 2 SAMPLES},
      journal = {ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL},
      publisher = {ACAD MANAGEMENT},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {27},
      number = {1},
      pages = {79-94}
    }
    
    Murray, L., Hipwell, A. & Hooper, R. The cognitive development of 5-year-old children of postnatally depressed mothers {1996} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {37}({8}), pp. {927-935} 
    article  
    Abstract: As part of a longitudinal study of the influence of postnatal depression on child development, the cognitive functioning of index and control children was assessed at age 5 years. There was no evidence of an adverse effect of postnatal depression, even amongst sub-groups of children suggested to be vulnerable (boys and children from low SES families). However, early experience of insensitive maternal interactions predicted the persistence of poorer cognitive functioning. A number of factors in the child's current environment, including stimulation at home, social class and, for boys, the experience of schooling, contributed to cognitive performance. The findings are considered in relation to the ongoing debate on sensitive periods. Copyright (C) 1996 Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Murray1996,
      author = {Murray, L and Hipwell, A and Hooper, R},
      title = {The cognitive development of 5-year-old children of postnatally depressed mothers},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {37},
      number = {8},
      pages = {927-935}
    }
    
    MYERS, C. JOURNAL CITATIONS AND SCIENTIFIC EMINENCE IN CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY {1970} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {25}({11}), pp. {1041-\&} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MYERS1970,
      author = {MYERS, CR},
      title = {JOURNAL CITATIONS AND SCIENTIFIC EMINENCE IN CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1970},
      volume = {25},
      number = {11},
      pages = {1041-&}
    }
    
    Myung, I. The importance of complexity in model selection {2000} JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {44}({1}), pp. {190-204} 
    article  
    Abstract: Model selection should be based not solely on goodness-of-fit, but must also consider model complexity. While the goal of mathematical modeling in cognitive psychology is to select one model from a set of competing models that best captures the underlying mental process. choosing the model that best fits a particular set of data will not achieve this goal. This is because a highly complex model can provide a good lit without necessarily bearing any interpretable relationship with he underlying process. it is shown that model selection based solely on the fit to observed data will result in the choice of all unnecessarily complex model that overfits the data, and thus generalizes poorly. The effect of over-fitting must be properly of first by model selection methods. An application example of selection methods using artificial data is also presented. (C) 2000 Academic Press.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Myung2000,
      author = {Myung, IJ},
      title = {The importance of complexity in model selection},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS INC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {44},
      number = {1},
      pages = {190-204}
    }
    
    Nakagawa, S. & Cuthill, I.C. Effect size, confidence interval and statistical significance: a practical guide for biologists {2007} BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS
    Vol. {82}({4}), pp. {591-605} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is the dominant statistical approach in biology, although it has many, frequently unappreciated, problems. Most importantly, NHST does not provide us with two crucial pieces of information: (1) the magnitude of an effect of interest, and (2) the precision of the estimate of the magnitude of that effect. All biologists should be ultimately interested in biological importance, which may be assessed using the magnitude of an effect, but not its statistical significance. Therefore, we advocate presentation of measures of the magnitude of effects (i.e. effect size statistics) and their confidence intervals (CIs) in all biological journals. Combined use of an effect size and its CIs enables one to assess the relationships within data more effectively than the use of p values, regardless of statistical significance. In addition, routine presentation of effect sizes will encourage researchers to view their results in the context of previous research and facilitate the incorporation of results into future meta-analysis, which has been increasingly used as the standard method of quantitative review in biology. In this article, we extensively discuss two dimensionless (and thus standardised) classes of effect size statistics: d statistics (standardised mean difference) and r statistics (correlation coefficient), because these can be calculated from almost all study designs and also because their calculations are essential for meta-analysis. However, our focus on these standardised effect size statistics does not mean unstandardised effect size statistics (e.g. mean difference and regression coefficient) are less important. We provide potential solutions for four main technical problems researchers may encounter when calculating effect size and CIs: (1) when covariates exist, (2) when bias in estimating effect size is possible, (3) when data have non-normal error structure and/or variances, and (4) when data are non-independent. Although interpretations of effect sizes are often difficult, we provide some pointers to help researchers. This paper serves both as a beginner's instruction manual and a stimulus for changing statistical practice for the better in the biological sciences.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nakagawa2007,
      author = {Nakagawa, Shinichi and Cuthill, Innes C.},
      title = {Effect size, confidence interval and statistical significance: a practical guide for biologists},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS},
      publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHING},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {82},
      number = {4},
      pages = {591-605},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1469-185X.2007.00027.x}}
    }
    
    Nelson, C. The development and neural bases of face recognition {2001} INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {10}({1-2}), pp. {3-18} 
    article  
    Abstract: Evidence from fields as diverse as cognitive, evolutionary, and developmental psychology, as well as cognitive neuroscience, has increasingly pointed to the `special' nature of face recognition. A critical examination of the literature supports the view that faces begin to be seen as a separate class of objects within the first 6 months of life. Not surprisingly, the neural systems that underlie face recognition also come on line during this period of time. Less clear, however, are the mechanisms whereby these events occur. It seems likely that face recognition reflects an experience-expectant process, whereby exposure to faces during a sensitive period of development likely leads to perceptual and cortical specialization. However, it is unknown what the role of experience is in maintaining this ability, and how long this sensitive period lasts. After reviewing three related models that attempt to account for the way the ability to recognize faces develops, a number of suggestions are offered for testing the hypothesis that face recognition depends on experience for acquisition, and for evaluating the role of experience in maintaining this ability. Copyright (C) 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nelson2001,
      author = {Nelson, CA},
      title = {The development and neural bases of face recognition},
      journal = {INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      publisher = {JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {3-18}
    }
    
    Nelson, C. & Bloom, F. Child development and neuroscience {1997} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {68}({5}), pp. {970-987} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although developmental psychology and developmental neuroscience share interests in common problems (e.g., the nature of thought, emotion, consciousness), there has been little cross-fertilization between these disciplines. To facilitate such communication, we discuss 2 major advances in the developmental brain sciences that have potentially profound implications for understanding behavioral development. The first concerns neuroimaging, and the second concerns the molecular and cellular events that give rise to the developing brain and the myriad ways in which the brain is modified by both positive and negative life experiences. Recurring themes are that (1) critical, new knowledge of behavioral development can be achieved by considering the neurobiological mechanisms that guide and influence child development, and (2) these neurobiological mechanisms are in turn influenced by behavior.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nelson1997,
      author = {Nelson, CA and Bloom, FE},
      title = {Child development and neuroscience},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      publisher = {UNIV CHICAGO PRESS},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {68},
      number = {5},
      pages = {970-987}
    }
    
    Nelson, T., Oxley, Z. & Clawson, R. Toward a psychology of framing effects {1997} POLITICAL BEHAVIOR
    Vol. {19}({3}), pp. {221-246} 
    article  
    Abstract: Framing is the process by which a communication source constructs and defines a social or political issue for its audience. While many observers of political communication and the mass media have discussed framing, few have explicitly described how framing affects public opinion. In this paper we offer a theory of framing effects, with a specific focus on the psychological mechanisms by which framing influences political attitudes. We discuss important conceptual differences between framing and traditional theories of persuasion that focus on belief change. We outline a set of hypotheses about the interaction between framing and audience sophistication, and test these in an experiment. The results support our argument that framing is not merely persuasion, as it is traditionally conceived. We close by reflecting on the various routes by which political communications can influence attitudes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nelson1997a,
      author = {Nelson, TE and Oxley, ZM and Clawson, RA},
      title = {Toward a psychology of framing effects},
      journal = {POLITICAL BEHAVIOR},
      publisher = {PLENUM PUBL CORP},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {19},
      number = {3},
      pages = {221-246},
      note = {1994 Annual Meeting of the International-Society-for-Political-Psychology, SANTIAGO COMPOSTE, SPAIN, 1994}
    }
    
    Okazaki, S. & Sue, S. Methodological issues in assessment research with ethnic minorities {1995} PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
    Vol. {7}({3}), pp. {367-375} 
    article  
    Abstract: Assessment research on ethnic minorities presents multiple methodological and conceptual challenges. This article addresses the difficulties in defining and examining ethnicity as a variable in psychological research. The authors assert that many of the problems stem from not making explicit the assumptions underlying the use of ethnicity as an explanatory variable and from inadequately describing cultural and contextual characteristics of ethnic minority samples. Also raised are common methodological problems encountered in examining race, ethnicity and culture in assessment research, such as decisions regarding which populations to study. sampling methodologies, measure selection, method of assessment, and interpretation of results. Finally, some guidelines are offered for tackling some of the methodological dilemmas in assessment research with ethnic minorities.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Okazaki1995,
      author = {Okazaki, S and Sue, S},
      title = {Methodological issues in assessment research with ethnic minorities},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {367-375}
    }
    
    Olejnik, S. & Algina, J. Measures of effect size for comparative studies: Applications, interpretations, and limitations {2000} CONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {25}({3}), pp. {241-286} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although dissatisfaction with the limitations associated with tests for statistical significance has been growing for several decades, applied researchers have continued to rely almost exclusively on these indicators of effect when reporting their findings. To encourage an increased use of alternative measures of effect, the present paper discusses several measures of effect size that might be used in group comparison studies involving univariate and/or multivariate models. For the methods discussed, formulas are presented and data from an experimental study are used to demonstrate the application and interpretation of these indices. The paper concludes with some cautionary notes on the limitations associated with these measures of effect size. (C) 2000 Academic Press.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Olejnik2000,
      author = {Olejnik, S and Algina, J},
      title = {Measures of effect size for comparative studies: Applications, interpretations, and limitations},
      journal = {CONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS INC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {25},
      number = {3},
      pages = {241-286}
    }
    
    Oliveira, R., McGregor, P. & Latruffe, C. Know thine enemy: fighting fish gather information from observing conspecific interactions {1998} PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
    Vol. {265}({1401}), pp. {1045-1049} 
    article  
    Abstract: Many of the signals that animals use to communicate transmit relatively large distances and therefore encompass several potential signallers and receivers. This observation challenges the common characterization of animal communication systems as consisting of one signaller and one receiver. Furthermore, it suggests that the evolution of communication behaviour must be considered as occurring in the context of communication networks rather than dyads. Although considerations of selection pressures acting upon signallers in the context of communication networks have rarely been expressed in such terms it has been noted that many signals exchanged during aggressive interactions will transmit far further than required for information transfer between the individuals directly involved, suggesting that these signals have been designed to be received by other, more distant, individuals. Here we consider the potential for receivers in communication networks to gather information, one aspect of which has been termed eavesdropping. We show that male Betta splendens monitor aggressive interactions between neighbouring conspecifics and use the information on relative fighting ability in subsequent aggressive interactions with the males they have observed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Oliveira1998,
      author = {Oliveira, RF and McGregor, PK and Latruffe, C},
      title = {Know thine enemy: fighting fish gather information from observing conspecific interactions},
      journal = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES},
      publisher = {ROYAL SOC LONDON},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {265},
      number = {1401},
      pages = {1045-1049}
    }
    
    OLOUGHLIN, M. RETHINKING SCIENCE-EDUCATION - BEYOND PIAGETIAN CONSTRUCTIVISM TOWARD A SOCIOCULTURAL MODEL OF TEACHING AND LEARNING {1992} JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN SCIENCE TEACHING
    Vol. {29}({8}), pp. {791-820} 
    article  
    Abstract: In the first part of the article I present an epistemological critique of forms of pedagogy founded on Piagetian constructivism. Despite the appeal of the notion that learners construct their understanding, I argue that constructivism is problematic because it ignores the subjectivity of the learner and the socially and historically situated nature of knowing; it denies the essentially collaborative and social nature of meaning making; and it privileges only one form of knowledge, namely, the technical rational. I then present a critique of active learning and student-centered forms of pedagogy. I argue that in our models of teaching we rely on too many unexamined assumptions from developmental psychology and we take for granted the problematic notion that children learn by doing. My central thesis is hat constructivism is flawed because of its inability to come to grips with the essential issues of culture, power, and discourse in the classroom. In the concluding section of the article I present a preliminary account of a sociocultural approach to teaching and learning that takes seriously the notion that learning is situated in contexts, that students bring their own subjectivities and cultural perspectives to bear in constructing understanding, that issues of power exist in the classroom that need to be addressed, and that education into scientific ways of knowing requires understanding modes of classroom discourse and enabling students to negotiate these modes effectively so that they may master and critique scientific ways of knowing without, in the process, sacrificing their own personally and culturally constructed ways of knowing.
    BibTeX:
    @article{OLOUGHLIN1992,
      author = {OLOUGHLIN, M},
      title = {RETHINKING SCIENCE-EDUCATION - BEYOND PIAGETIAN CONSTRUCTIVISM TOWARD A SOCIOCULTURAL MODEL OF TEACHING AND LEARNING},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN SCIENCE TEACHING},
      publisher = {JOHN WILEY & SONS INC},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {29},
      number = {8},
      pages = {791-820}
    }
    
    OXMAN, A. & GUYATT, G. THE SCIENCE OF REVIEWING RESEARCH {1993}
    Vol. {703}DOING MORE GOOD THAN HARM: THE EVALUATION OF HEALTH CARE INTERVENTIONS, pp. {125-134} 
    inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{OXMAN1993,
      author = {OXMAN, AD and GUYATT, GH},
      title = {THE SCIENCE OF REVIEWING RESEARCH},
      booktitle = {DOING MORE GOOD THAN HARM: THE EVALUATION OF HEALTH CARE INTERVENTIONS},
      publisher = {NEW YORK ACAD SCIENCES},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {703},
      pages = {125-134},
      note = {Conference on Doing More Good Than Harm: The Evaluation of Health Care Interventions, NEW YORK, NY, MAR 22-25, 1993}
    }
    
    OXMAN, A., GUYATT, G., SINGER, J., GOLDSMITH, C., HUTCHISON, B., MILNER, R. & STREINER, D. AGREEMENT AMONG REVIEWERS OF REVIEW ARTICLES {1991} JOURNAL OF CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Vol. {44}({1}), pp. {91-98} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective. To assess the consistency of an index of the scientific quality of research overviews. Design. Agreement was measured among the nine judges, each of whom assessed the scientific quality of 36 published review articles. Item selection. An iterative process was used to select ten criteria relative to five key tasks entailed in conducting a research overview. Sample. The review articles were drawn from three sampling frames: articles highly rated by criteria external to the study; meta-analyses; and a broad spectrum of medical journals. Judges. Three categories of judges were used: research assistants; clinicians with research training; and experts in research methodology; with three judges in each category. Results. The level of agreement within the three groups of judges was similar for their overall assessment of scientific quality and for six of the nine other items. With four exceptions, agreement among judges within each group and across groups, as measured by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), was > 0.5, and 60% (24/40) of the ICCs were > 0.7. Conclusions. It was possible to achieve reasonable to excellent agreement for all of the items in the index, including the overall assessment of scientific quality. The implications of these results for practicing clinicians and the peer review systems are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{OXMAN1991,
      author = {OXMAN, AD and GUYATT, GH and SINGER, J and GOLDSMITH, CH and HUTCHISON, BG and MILNER, RA and STREINER, DL},
      title = {AGREEMENT AMONG REVIEWERS OF REVIEW ARTICLES},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {44},
      number = {1},
      pages = {91-98}
    }
    
    Parle, M., Maguire, P. & Heaven, C. The development of a training model to improve health professionals' skills, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies when communicating with cancer patients {1997} SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE
    Vol. {44}({2}), pp. {231-240} 
    article  
    Abstract: Health professionals such as doctors and nurses are in a key position to help reduce the high prevalence of affective disorders and psychological problems experienced by cancer patients. This role, however, is inhibited by ineffective communication practices which include the use of distancing strategies and avoidance by the health professional. A number of contributory factors such as skill deficits and anxiety about negative consequences for the patient and the health professional have been identified in previous research and brief problem-focused training workshops-developed to address these factors with only limited success. Researchers in applied psychology have recommended that the development of training programmes and their evaluation are based upon approaches which take into account cognitive and affective factors as well as change in skills. The aim of this paper is to develop a conceptual model of communication behaviour in the cancer setting. The model aims to take account of the role that knowledge and skill deficits, self-efficacy and outcome expectancy beliefs and perceived support plays in the ability and willingness of health professionals to assess their patients' concerns. It has been applied to guide the development of a revised approach to brief, problem-focused workshops. for health professionals. It also allows a systematic and multi-dimensional evaluation of training outcomes. Preliminary results indicate this is a promising area of communications research. Copyright (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd
    BibTeX:
    @article{Parle1997,
      author = {Parle, M and Maguire, P and Heaven, C},
      title = {The development of a training model to improve health professionals' skills, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies when communicating with cancer patients},
      journal = {SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {44},
      number = {2},
      pages = {231-240}
    }
    
    Payne, J., Bettman, J. & Schkade, D. Measuring constructed preferences: Towards a building code {1999} JOURNAL OF RISK AND UNCERTAINTY
    Vol. {19}({1-3}), pp. {243-270} 
    article  
    Abstract: A ``building code'' for preference measurement is needed in a world in which many expressions of preference are constructed when people are asked a valuation question. Construction of preferences means that preference measurement is best viewed as architecture (building a set of values) rather than as archaeology (uncovering existing values). We describe potential faults in the process of preference construction, offer guidelines for measuring constructed preferences (a ``building code'') to mitigate these faults, and discuss how the code must be sensitive to the purpose of the valuation (design vs. prediction).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Payne1999,
      author = {Payne, JW and Bettman, JR and Schkade, DA},
      title = {Measuring constructed preferences: Towards a building code},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF RISK AND UNCERTAINTY},
      publisher = {KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {19},
      number = {1-3},
      pages = {243-270},
      note = {Symposium on Elicitation of Preferences, BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA, 1997}
    }
    
    Perry, C., Ziegler, J.C. & Zorzi, M. Nested incremental modeling in the development of computational theories: The CDP+ model of reading aloud {2007} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {114}({2}), pp. {273-315} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: At least 3 different types of computational model have been shown to account for various facets of both normal and impaired single word reading: (a) the connectionist triangle model, (b) the dual-route cascaded model, and (c) the connectionist dual process model. Major strengths and weaknesses of these models are identified. In the spirit of nested incremental modeling, a new connectionist dual process model (the CDP+ model) is presented. This model builds on the strengths of 2 of the previous models while eliminating their weaknesses. Contrary to the dual-route cascaded model, CDP+ is able to learn and produce graded consistency effects. Contrary to the triangle and the connectionist dual process models, CDP+ accounts for serial effects and has more accurate nonword reading performance. CDP+ also beats all previous models by an order of magnitude when predicting individual item-level variance on large databases. Thus, the authors show that building on existing theories by combining the best features of previous models-a nested modeling strategy that is commonly used in other areas of science but often neglected in psychology-results in better and more powerful computational models.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Perry2007,
      author = {Perry, Conrad and Ziegler, Johannes C. and Zorzi, Marco},
      title = {Nested incremental modeling in the development of computational theories: The CDP+ model of reading aloud},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC/EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING FOUNDATION},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {114},
      number = {2},
      pages = {273-315},
      doi = {{10.1037/0033-295X.114.2.273}}
    }
    
    Persons, J. & Silberschatz, G. Are results of randomized controlled trials useful to psychotherapists? {1998} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {66}({1}), pp. {126-135} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two clinicians provided opposite answers to the title question: Persons argued that information from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is vital to clinicians, and Silberschatz argued that information from RCTs is irrelevant to clinicians. Persons argued that clinicians cannot provide top quality care to their patients without attending to findings of RCTs and that clinicians have an ethical responsibility to inform patients about, recommend, and provide treatments supported by RCTs before informing patients about, recommending, and providing treatments shown to be inferior in RCTs or not evaluated in RCTs. Silberschatz argued that RCTs do not and cannot answer questions that concern practicing clinicians. He advocates alternative research approaches (effectiveness studies, quasi-experimental methods, case-specific research) for studying psychotherapy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Persons1998,
      author = {Persons, JB and Silberschatz, G},
      title = {Are results of randomized controlled trials useful to psychotherapists?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {66},
      number = {1},
      pages = {126-135}
    }
    
    PETERSON, R., KIMMEL, P., SACKS, C., MESQUITA, M., SIMMENS, S. & REISS, D. DEPRESSION, PERCEPTION OF ILLNESS AND MORTALITY IN PATIENTS WITH END-STAGE RENAL-DISEASE {1991} INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY IN MEDICINE
    Vol. {21}({4}), pp. {343-354} 
    article  
    Abstract: A role of depression in affecting outcome in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) has been suggested but few have assessed psychological parameters and medical factors thought to influence survival simultaneously and prospectively. To assess whether depression or perception of illness influences survival in patients treated for ESRD, we prospectively evaluated fifty-seven patients with ESRD treated with hemodialysis (HD, n = 43) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD, n = 14). Patients were interviewed and completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Illness Effects Questionnaire (IEQ). An ESRD severity coefficient was used to measure chronic illness severity. A cognitive item subset of the BDI (CDI) was used as an additional measure of depression. One and two years later, records were examined to determine survival. When initial results of the assessment of survivors and non-survivors were compared, at one year follow-up, there were no differences in mean age, duration of dialysis, severity scores, BDI or IEQ scores. The initial mean CDI scores in the group of non-survivors, however, were significantly greater than the scores in the survivor group. At two year follow-up, CDI scores were significantly different between groups, and were significant in a hazards regression. Disease severity, age and duration of dialysis were also significantly related to mortality at two year follow-up. We conclude cognitive depression is an important, early, indicator of grave prognosis in patients treated for ESRD. Early recognition of and therapeutic efforts directed toward the treatment of depression might modify outcome in ESRD patients.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PETERSON1991,
      author = {PETERSON, RA and KIMMEL, PL and SACKS, CR and MESQUITA, ML and SIMMENS, SJ and REISS, D},
      title = {DEPRESSION, PERCEPTION OF ILLNESS AND MORTALITY IN PATIENTS WITH END-STAGE RENAL-DISEASE},
      journal = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY IN MEDICINE},
      publisher = {BAYWOOD PUBL CO INC},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {21},
      number = {4},
      pages = {343-354}
    }
    
    PEUQUET, D. ITS ABOUT TIME - A CONCEPTUAL-FRAMEWORK FOR THE REPRESENTATION OF TEMPORAL DYNAMICS IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION-SYSTEMS {1994} ANNALS OF THE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN GEOGRAPHERS
    Vol. {84}({3}), pp. {441-461} 
    article  
    Abstract: The study of spatiotemporal dynamics is certainly not new, nor is it unique to the field of geography. Nevertheless, addressing complex human and environmental issues such as global warming and human impacts on the environment requires empirical examination from a much broader and integrated perspective than can be accomplished with current techniques. Although Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are intended to provide an integrated and flexible tool for analyzing large volumes of data, they are historically geared toward the representation and analysis of situations frozen in time. Efforts to enhance the temporal capabilities of GIS have served to reveal many problems at a fundamental conceptual level. In order to address this problem, this paper presents a new Triad representational approach that unifies temporal- as well as locational- and object-related aspects and that incorporates concepts from perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and other fields. The goal of this research is a drawing-together of a range of concepts and ideas not only to improve our representational and analytical capabilities, but also to provide more common ground among the various fields noted above. The discrete yet interrelated time-, location-, and object-based views incorporated within the Triad framework allow for questions to be asked and answered relative to each of those aspects. Fundamental types of temporal relationships are also defined as part of the temporal view.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PEUQUET1994,
      author = {PEUQUET, DJ},
      title = {ITS ABOUT TIME - A CONCEPTUAL-FRAMEWORK FOR THE REPRESENTATION OF TEMPORAL DYNAMICS IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION-SYSTEMS},
      journal = {ANNALS OF THE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN GEOGRAPHERS},
      publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHERS},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {84},
      number = {3},
      pages = {441-461}
    }
    
    Piedmont, R. Does spirituality represent the sixth factor of personality? Spiritual transcendence and the five-factor model {1999} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY
    Vol. {67}({6}), pp. {985-1013} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study reports on the development of the Spiritual Transcendence Scale, a measure designed to capture aspects of the individual that are independent of the qualities contained in the Five-Factor Model of Personality (FFM). Using two separate samples of undergraduate students including both self-report (Ns = 379 and 356) and observer data (N = 279), it was shown that Spiritual Transcendence: (a) was independent of measures of the FFM; (b) evidenced good cross-observer convergence; and (c) predicted a wide range of psychologically salient outcomes, even after controlling for the predictive effects of personality. Given the long theoretical pedigree of Transcendence in the psychological literature, it was argued that Spiritual Transcendence represents a broad-based motivational domain of comparable breadth to those constructs contained in the FFM and ought to be considered a potential sixth major dimension of personality.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Piedmont1999,
      author = {Piedmont, RL},
      title = {Does spirituality represent the sixth factor of personality? Spiritual transcendence and the five-factor model},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY},
      publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHERS},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {67},
      number = {6},
      pages = {985-1013}
    }
    
    Pierce, C., Block, R. & Aguinis, H. Cautionary note on reporting eta-squared values from multifactor ANOVA designs {2004} EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT
    Vol. {64}({6}), pp. {916-924} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The authors provide a cautionary note on reporting accurate eta-squared values from multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) designs. They reinforce the distinction between classical and partial eta-squared as measures of strength of association. They provide examples from articles published in premier psychology journals in which the authors erroneously reported partial eta-squared values as representing classical eta-squared values. Finally, they discuss broader impacts of inaccurately reported eta-squared values for theory development, meta-analytic reviews, and intervention programs.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pierce2004,
      author = {Pierce, CA and Block, RA and Aguinis, H},
      title = {Cautionary note on reporting eta-squared values from multifactor ANOVA designs},
      journal = {EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {64},
      number = {6},
      pages = {916-924},
      note = {64th Annual Meeting of the Academy-of-Management, New Orleans, LA, AUG 06-11, 2004},
      doi = {{10.1177/0013164404264848}}
    }
    
    Plomin, R. & Crabbe, J. DNA {2000} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {126}({6, Sp. Iss. SI}), pp. {806-828} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The authors predict that in a few years, many areas of psychology will be awash in specific genes responsible for the widespread influence of genetics on behavior. As the focus shifts from finding genes (genomics) to understanding how genes affect behavior (behavioral genomics), it is important for the future of psychology as a science that pathways between genes and behavior be examined not only at the molecular biological level of cells or the neuroscience level of the brain but also at the psychological level of analysis. After a brief overview of quantitative genetic research, the authors describe how genes that influence complex traits like behavioral dimensions and disorders in human and nonhuman animals are being found. Finally, the authors discuss behavioral genomics and predict that DNA will revolutionize psychological research and treatment early in the 21st century.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Plomin2000,
      author = {Plomin, R and Crabbe, J},
      title = {DNA},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {126},
      number = {6, Sp. Iss. SI},
      pages = {806-828},
      doi = {{10.1037//0033-2909.126.6.806}}
    }
    
    Plomin, R. & Kovas, Y. Generalist genes and learning disabilities {2005} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {131}({4}), pp. {592-617} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The authors reviewed recent quantitative genetic research on learning disabilities that led to the conclusion that genetic diagnoses differ from traditional diagnoses in that the effects of relevant genes are largely general rather than specific. This research suggests that most genes associated with common learning disabilities-language impairment, reading disability, and mathematics disability-are generalists in 3 ways. First, genes that affect common learning disabilities are largely the same genes responsible for normal variation in learning abilities. Second, genes that affect any aspect of a learning disability affect other aspects of the disability. Third, genes that affect one learning disability are also likely to affect other learning disabilities. These quantitative genetic findings have far-reaching implications for molecular genetics and neuroscience as well as psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Plomin2005,
      author = {Plomin, R and Kovas, Y},
      title = {Generalist genes and learning disabilities},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC/EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING FOUNDATION},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {131},
      number = {4},
      pages = {592-617},
      doi = {{10.1037/0033-2909.131.4.592}}
    }
    
    Poeppel, D. A critical review of PET studies of phonological processing {1996} BRAIN AND LANGUAGE
    Vol. {55}({3}), pp. {317-351} 
    article  
    Abstract: The use of positron emission tomography to identify sensory and motor systems in humans in vivo has been very successful. In contrast, studies of cognitive processes have not always generated results that can be reliably interpreted. A meta-analysis of five positron emission tomography studies designed to engage phonological processing (Petersen, Fox, Posner, Mintun, & Raichle, 1989; Zatorre, Evans, Meyer, & Gjedde 1992; Sergent, Zuck, Levesque, & MacDonald, 1992; Demonet, Chollet, Ramsay, Cardebat, Nespoulous, Wise, & Frackowiak, 1992: and Paulesu, Frith, & Frakowiak, 1993) reveals that the results do not converge as expected: Very similar experiments designed to isolate the same language processes show activation in nonoverlapping cortical areas. Although these PET confirm the importance of left perisylvian cortex, the experiments implicate distinct, nonoverlapping perisylvian areas. Because of the divergence of results, it is premature to attribute certain language processes or the elementary computations underlying the construction of the relevant linguistic representations to specific cerebral regions on the basis of positron emission tomographic results. It is argued that this sparse-overlap result is due (1) to insufficiently detailed task decomposition and task-control matching, (2) to insufficient contact with cognitive psychology, psycholinguistics, and linguistic theory, and (3) to some inherent problems in using subtractive PET methodology to study the neural representation and processing of language. (C) 1996 Academic Press. Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Poeppel1996,
      author = {Poeppel, D},
      title = {A critical review of PET studies of phonological processing},
      journal = {BRAIN AND LANGUAGE},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS INC JNL-COMP SUBSCRIPTIONS},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {55},
      number = {3},
      pages = {317-351}
    }
    
    POOLE, D., LINDSAY, D., MEMON, A. & BULL, R. PSYCHOTHERAPY AND THE RECOVERY OF MEMORIES OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE - US AND BRITISH PRACTITIONERS OPINIONS, PRACTICES, AND EXPERIENCES {1995} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {63}({3}), pp. {426-437} 
    article  
    Abstract: Licensed U.S. doctoral-level psychotherapists randomly sampled from the National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology (Surveys 1 and 2, n = 145: Council for the National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology, 1992) and British psychologists sampled from the Register of Chartered Clinical Psychologists (Survey 2, n = 57; British Psychological Society, 1993) were surveyed regarding clients' memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The 3 samples were highly similar on the vast majority of measures. Respondents listed a wide variety of behavioral symptoms as potential indicators of CSA, and 71% indicated that they had used various techniques (e.g., hypnosis, interpretation of dreams) to help clients recover suspected memories of CSA. Across samples, 25% of the respondents reported a constellation of beliefs and practices suggestive of a focus on memory recovery, and these psychologists reported relatively high rates of memory recovery in their clients.
    BibTeX:
    @article{POOLE1995,
      author = {POOLE, DA and LINDSAY, DS and MEMON, A and BULL, R},
      title = {PSYCHOTHERAPY AND THE RECOVERY OF MEMORIES OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE - US AND BRITISH PRACTITIONERS OPINIONS, PRACTICES, AND EXPERIENCES},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {63},
      number = {3},
      pages = {426-437}
    }
    
    POPE, K. & VETTER, V. ETHICAL DILEMMAS ENCOUNTERED BY MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN-PSYCHOLOGICAL-ASSOCIATION - A NATIONAL SURVEY {1992} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {47}({3}), pp. {397-411} 
    article  
    Abstract: A random sample of 1,319 members of the American Psychological Association (APA) were asked to describe incidents that they found ethically challenging or troubling. Responses from 679 psychologists described 703 incidents in 23 categories. This process of gathering critical incidents from the general membership, pioneered by those who developed APA's original code of ethics, may be useful in considering possible revisions of the code and preserving APA's unique approach to identifying ethical principles that address realistically the emerging dilemmas that the diverse membership confronts in the day-to-day work of psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{POPE1992,
      author = {POPE, KS and VETTER, VA},
      title = {ETHICAL DILEMMAS ENCOUNTERED BY MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN-PSYCHOLOGICAL-ASSOCIATION - A NATIONAL SURVEY},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {47},
      number = {3},
      pages = {397-411}
    }
    
    Posner, M.I. & Rothbart, M.K. Research on attention networks as a model for the integration of psychological science {2007} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {58}, pp. {1-23} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: As Titchener pointed out more than one hundred years ago, attention is at the center of the psychological enterprise. Attention research investigates how voluntary control and subjective experience arise from and regulate our behavior. In recent years, attention has been one of the fastest growing of all fields within cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience. This review examines attention as characterized by linking common neural networks with individual differences in their efficient utilization. The development of attentional networks is partly specified by genes, but is also open to specific experiences through the actions of caregivers and the culture. We believe that the connection between neural networks, genes, and socialization provides a common approach to all aspects of human cognition and emotion. Pursuit of this approach can provide a basis for psychology that unifies social, cultural, differential, experimental, and physiological areas, and allows normal development to serve as a baseline for understanding various forms of pathology. D.O. Hebb proposed this approach 50 years ago in his volume Organization of Rebavzor and continued with introductory textbooks that dealt with all of the topics of psychology in a common framework. Use of a common network approach to psychological science may allow a foundation for predicting and understanding human behavior in its varied forms.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Posner2007,
      author = {Posner, Michael I. and Rothbart, Mary K.},
      title = {Research on attention networks as a model for the integration of psychological science},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {58},
      pages = {1-23},
      doi = {{10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085516}}
    }
    
    POVINELLI, D. RECONSTRUCTING THE EVOLUTION OF MIND {1993} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {48}({5}), pp. {493-509} 
    article  
    Abstract: Since Darwin, the idea of intellectual continuity has gripped comparative psychology. Psychological evolution has been viewed as the accumulation of gradual changes over time, resulting in an unbroken chain of mental capacities throughout the diversity of life. Some researchers have even maintained that no fundamental psychological differences exist among species. An alternative model argues that a rather profound new psychology related to mental state attribution may have evolved recently in the primate order. The author explores recent experimental research from chimpanzees, rhesus monkeys, and children that is consistent with this second model of psychological evolution. Drawing on the fields of developmental, comparative, and social psychology, as well as evolutionary and developmental biology, the author outlines a research agenda aimed at reconstructing the evolution of metacognition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{POVINELLI1993,
      author = {POVINELLI, DJ},
      title = {RECONSTRUCTING THE EVOLUTION OF MIND},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {48},
      number = {5},
      pages = {493-509}
    }
    
    Powell, M. & Ansic, D. Gender differences in risk behaviour in financial decision-making: An experimental analysis {1997} JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {18}({6}), pp. {605-628} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper examines whether gender differences in risk propensity and strategy in financial decision-making can be viewed as general traits, or whether they arise because of context factors. It presents the results of two computerised laboratory experiments designed to examine whether differences in risk preference and decision strategies are explained by the framing of tasks and level of task familiarity to subjects. The results show that females are less risk seeking than males irrespective of familiarity and framing, costs or ambiguity. The results also indicate that males and females adopt different strategies in financial decision environments but that these strategies have no significant impact on ability to perform. Because strategies are more easily observed than either risk preference or outcomes in day to day decisions, strategy differences may reinforce stereotypical beliefs that females are less able financial managers. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Powell1997,
      author = {Powell, M and Ansic, D},
      title = {Gender differences in risk behaviour in financial decision-making: An experimental analysis},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {18},
      number = {6},
      pages = {605-628}
    }
    
    Prendergast, C. & Stole, L. Impetuous youngsters and jaded old-timers: Acquiring a reputation for learning {1996} JOURNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY
    Vol. {104}({6}), pp. {1105-1134} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper examines individual decision making when decisions reflect on people's ability to learn. We address this problem in the context of a manager making investment decisions on a project over time. We show that in an effort to appear as a fast learner, the manager will exaggerate his own information; but ultimately, he becomes too conservative, being unwilling to change his investments on the basis of new information. Our results arise purely from learning about competence rather than concavity or convexity of the rewards functions. We relate our results to the existing psychology literature concerning cognitive dissonance reduction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Prendergast1996,
      author = {Prendergast, C and Stole, L},
      title = {Impetuous youngsters and jaded old-timers: Acquiring a reputation for learning},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY},
      publisher = {UNIV CHICAGO PRESS},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {104},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1105-1134}
    }
    
    Prilleltensky, I. Values, assumptions, and practices - Assessing the moral implications of psychological discourse and action {1997} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {52}({5}), pp. {517-535} 
    article  
    Abstract: Despite art increased awareness concerning the role of values in psychology, psychologists lack clear guidelines to appraise the moral implications of their work. To address this discrepancy, the moral proposes a framework for examining the moral dimensions of psychological discourse and practice. The framework contains 3 central elements: values, assumptions, and practices. These components may be used to articulate and to challenge the ethical, social, and political implications of theories and practices. To illustrate its applicability, the framework is used to evaluate the moral propositions of traditional, empowering, postmodern, and emancipatory communitarian approaches. The author concludes with a vision for addressing the shortcomings of predominant models by proposing for psychology an emancipatory, communitarian approach that promotes the emancipation of vulnerable individuals and that fosters a balance among the values of self-determination, caring and compassion, collaboration and democratic participation, human diversity, and distributive justice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Prilleltensky1997,
      author = {Prilleltensky, I},
      title = {Values, assumptions, and practices - Assessing the moral implications of psychological discourse and action},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {52},
      number = {5},
      pages = {517-535}
    }
    
    PRILLELTENSKY, I. PSYCHOLOGY AND THE STATUS QUO {1989} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {44}({5}), pp. {795-802} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{PRILLELTENSKY1989,
      author = {PRILLELTENSKY, I},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY AND THE STATUS QUO},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {44},
      number = {5},
      pages = {795-802}
    }
    
    PRINZ, W. WHY DONT WE PERCEIVE OUR BRAIN STATES {1992} EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {4}({1}), pp. {1-20} 
    article  
    Abstract: The major part of this paper is devoted to the issue of how to bridge the gap between perception and action. First, the traditional view of the perception-action relationship is addressed. This view assumes that there are two different and incommensurate coding systems for afferent and efferent patterns (sensory and motor coding). Next, a different view is proposed that invokes the common coding of afferent and efferent patterns. One of the implications of this view is that actions can be controlled and guided by representations of distal events. There is some support for this view from two different sources: the first is nineteenth-century psychology of the will, the other comes from more recent experimental evidence. Some findings from experiments on sensorimotor synchronisation and on the Simon effect are discussed with reference to the notion of distal focusing in action control. In conclusion, the issue raised in the title is addressed. As a tentative answer it is suggested that the reason why our percepts refer to distal events (rather than proximal stimulus patterns or central excitation patterns) is related to the needs of action control. This consideration is discussed within the framework of the common coding approach.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PRINZ1992,
      author = {PRINZ, W},
      title = {WHY DONT WE PERCEIVE OUR BRAIN STATES},
      journal = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {PSYCHOLOGY PRESS},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-20}
    }
    
    PrysePhillips, W., Dodick, D., Edmeads, J., Gawel, M., Nelson, R., Purdy, R., Robinson, G., Stirling, D. & Worthington, I. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of migraine in clinical practice {1997} CANADIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL
    Vol. {156}({9}), pp. {1273-1287} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective: To provide physicians and allied health care professionals with guidelines for the diagnosis and management of migraine in clinical practice. Options: The full range and quality of diagnostic and therapeutic methods available for the management of migraine. Outcomes: Improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of migraine, which will lead to a reduction in suffering, increased productivity and decreased economic burden. Evidence and values: The creation of the guidelines followed a needs assessment by members of the Canadian Headache Society and included a statement of objectives; development of guidelines by multidisciplinary working groups using information from literature reviews and other resources; comparison of alternative clinical pathways and description of how published data were analysed; definition of the level of evidence for data in each case; evaluation and revision of the guidelines at a consensus conference held in Ottawa on Oct. 27-29, 1995; redrafting and insertion of tables showing key variables and data from various studies and tables of data with recommendations; and reassessment by all conference participants. Benefits, harms and costs: Accuracy in diagnosis is a major factor in improving therapeutic effectiveness; Improvement in the precise diagnosis of migraine, coupled with a rational plan for the treatment of acute attacks and for prophylactic therapy, is likely to lead to substantial benefits in both human and economic terms. Recommendations: The diagnosis of migraine can be improved by using modified criteria of the International Headache Society as well as a semistructured patient interview technique. Appropriate treatment of symptoms should take into account the severity of the migraine attack, since most patients will have attacks of differing severity and can learn to use medication appropriate for each attack. When headaches are frequent or particularly severe, prophylactic therapy should be considered. Both the avoidance of migraine trigger factors and the application of nonpharmacological therapies play important roles in overall migraine management and will be addressed at a later date. Validation: The guidelines are based on consensus of Canadian experts in neurology, emergency medicine, psychiatry, psychology, family medicine and pharmacology, and consumers. Previous guidelines did not exist. Field testing of the guidelines is in progress. Sponsors: Support for the consensus conference was provided by an unrestricted educational grant from Glare Wellcome Inc. Editorial coordination was provided by Medical Education Programs Canada Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PrysePhillips1997,
      author = {PrysePhillips, WEM and Dodick, DW and Edmeads, JG and Gawel, MJ and Nelson, RF and Purdy, RA and Robinson, G and Stirling, D and Worthington, I},
      title = {Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of migraine in clinical practice},
      journal = {CANADIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL},
      publisher = {CANADIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {156},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1273-1287}
    }
    
    Pylyshyn, Z. Visual indexes, preconceptual objects, and situated vision {2001} COGNITION
    Vol. {80}({1-2}), pp. {127-158} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper argues that a theory of situated vision, suited for the dual purposes of object recognition and the control of action, will have to provide something more than a system that constructs a conceptual representation from visual stimuli: it will also need to provide a special kind of direct (preconceptual, unmediated) connection between elements of a visual representation and certain elements in the world. Like natural language demonstratives (such as `this' or `that') this direct connection allows entities to be referred to without being categorized or conceptualized. Several reasons are given for why we need such a preconceptual mechanism which individuates and keeps track of several individual objects in the world. One is that early vision must pick out and compute the relation among several individual objects while ignoring their properties. Another is that incrementally computing and updating representations of a dynamic scene requires keeping track of token individuals despite changes in their properties or locations. It is then noted that a mechanism meeting theses requirements has already been proposed in order to account for a number of disparate empirical phenomena, including subitizing. search-subset selection and multiple object tracking (Pylyshyn et al., Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 48(2) (1994) 260). This mechanism, called a visual index or FINST, is briefly discussed and it is argued that viewing it as performing a demonstrative or preconceptual reference function has far-reaching implications not only for a theory of situated vision, but also for suggesting a new way to look at why the primitive individuation of visual objects, or proto-objects, is so central in computing visual representations. Indexing visual objects is also, according to this view, the primary means for grounding visual concepts and is a potentially fruitful way to look at the problem of visual integration across time and across saccades, as well as to explain how infants' numerical capacity might arise. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pylyshyn2001,
      author = {Pylyshyn, ZW},
      title = {Visual indexes, preconceptual objects, and situated vision},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {80},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {127-158}
    }
    
    Pylyshyn, Z. Is vision continuous with cognition? The case for cognitive impenetrability of visual perception {1999} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {22}({3}), pp. {341+} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although the study of visual perception has made more progress in the past 40 years than any other area of cognitive science, there remain major disagreements as to how closely vision is tied to cognition. This target article sets out some of the arguments for both sides (arguments from computer vision, neuroscience, psychophysics, perceptual learning, and other areas of vision science) and defends the position that an important part of visual perception, corresponding to what some people have called early vision, is prohibited from accessing relevant expectations, knowledge, and utilities in determining the function it computes - in other words, it is cognitively impenetrable. That part of vision is complex and involves top-down interactions that are internal to the early vision system. Its function is to provide a structured representation of the 3-D surfaces of objects sufficient to serve as an index into memory, with somewhat different outputs being made available to other systems such as those dealing with motor control. The paper also addresses certain conceptual and methodological issues raised by this claim, such as whether signal detection theory and event-related potentials can be used to assess cognitive penetration of vision. A distinction is made among several stages in visual processing, including, in addition to the inflexible early-vision stage, a pre-perceptual attention-allocation stage and a post-perceptual evaluation, selection, and inference stage, which accesses long-term memory. These two stages provide the primary ways in which cognition can affect the outcome of visual perception. The paper discusses arguments from computer vision and psychology showing that vision is ``intelligent'' and involves elements of ``problem solving. The cases of apparently intelligent interpretation sometimes cited in support or this claim do not show cognitive penetration; rather, they show that certain natural constraints on interpretation, concerned primarily with optical and geometrical properties of the world, have been compiled into the visual system. The paper also examines a number of examples where instructions and ``hints'' are alleged to affect what is seen. In each case it is concluded that the evidence is more readily assimilated to the view that when cognitive effects are found, they have a locus outside early vision, in such processes as the allocation of focal attention and the identification of the stimulus.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pylyshyn1999,
      author = {Pylyshyn, Z},
      title = {Is vision continuous with cognition? The case for cognitive impenetrability of visual perception},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      publisher = {CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {22},
      number = {3},
      pages = {341+}
    }
    
    RANNEY, T. MODELS OF DRIVING BEHAVIOR - A REVIEW OF THEIR EVOLUTION {1994} ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION
    Vol. {26}({6}), pp. {733-750} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper reviews models that emphasize the cognitive components of driving behavior. Studies of individual differences have sought predictors of accident histories. Typically low correlations and reliance on post hoc explanations reflect theoretical deficiencies and problems with the use of accident measures. Motivational models emphasize transient, situation-specific factors rather than stable, individual predictors. However, neither testable hypotheses nor suitable methods have been developed to study situational factors and motives that influence driving. More recent models have incorporated a hierarchical control structure, which assumes concurrent activity at strategic, maneuvering, and operational levels of control. At the same time, automaticity has emerged as a central construct in cognitive psychology. All activities are assumed to combine fast, automatic components with slower, more deliberate, controlled processing. It is argued that identifying the situational factors that increase drivers' uncertainty and thus trigger a shift in attention from automatic to controlled processing will help integrate concepts of automaticity and motivational models. Finally, recent theorizing has suggested that errors associated with the inherent variability of human behavior may be more important to roadway crash causation than systematic errors, which are attributable to the known limits of the human information-processing system. Drivers' abilities to recover from errors may also be important to crash causation. It is concluded that the hierarchical control structure and theories of automaticity and errors provide the potential tools for defining alternative criterion measures, such as safety margins, and developing testable theories of driving behavior and crash causation. Two examples of models that integrate information-processing mechanisms within a motivational framework are described.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RANNEY1994,
      author = {RANNEY, TA},
      title = {MODELS OF DRIVING BEHAVIOR - A REVIEW OF THEIR EVOLUTION},
      journal = {ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {26},
      number = {6},
      pages = {733-750}
    }
    
    RAPKIN, B. & LUKE, D. CLUSTER-ANALYSIS IN COMMUNITY RESEARCH - EPISTEMOLOGY AND PRACTICE {1993} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {21}({2}), pp. {247-277} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cluster analysis refers to a family of methods for identifying cases with distinctive characteristics in heterogeneous samples and combining them into homogeneous groups. This approach provides a great deal of information about the types of cases and the distributions of variables in a sample. This paper considers cluster analysis as a quantitative complement to the traditional linear statistics that often characterize community psychology research. Cluster analysis emphasizes diversity rather than central tendency. This makes it a valuable tool for a wide range of familiar problems in community research. A number of these applications are considered here, including the assessment of change over time, network composition, network density, person-setting relationships, and community diversity. A User's Guide section is included, which outlines the major decisions involved in a basic cluster analyses. Despite difficulties associated with the identification of optimal cluster solutions, carefully planned, theoretically informed application of cluster analysis has much to offer community researchers.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RAPKIN1993,
      author = {RAPKIN, BD and LUKE, DA},
      title = {CLUSTER-ANALYSIS IN COMMUNITY RESEARCH - EPISTEMOLOGY AND PRACTICE},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {PLENUM PUBL CORP},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {21},
      number = {2},
      pages = {247-277}
    }
    
    Ratcliff, R., Cherian, A. & Segraves, M. A comparison of macaque behavior and superior colliculus neuronal activity to predictions from models of two-choice decisions {2003} JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY
    Vol. {90}({3}), pp. {1392-1407} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Recently, models in psychology have been shown capable of accounting for the full range of behavioral data from simple two-choice decision tasks: mean reaction times for correct and error responses, accuracy, and the reaction time distributions for correct and error responses. At the same time, recent data from neural recordings have allowed investigation of the neural systems that implement such decisions. In the experiment presented here, neural recordings were obtained from superior colliculus prelude/buildup cells in two monkeys while they performed a two-choice task that has been used in humans for testing psychological models of the decision process. The best-developed psychological model, the diffusion model, and a competing model, the Poisson counter model, were explicitly fit to the behavioral data. The pattern of activity shown in the prelude/buildup cells, including the point at which response choices were discriminated, was matched by the evidence accumulation process predicted from the diffusion model using the parameters from the fits to the behavioral data but not by the Poisson counter model. These results suggest that prelude/buildup cells in the superior colliculus, or cells in circuits in which the superior colliculus cells participate, implement a diffusion decision process or a variant of the diffusion process.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ratcliff2003,
      author = {Ratcliff, R and Cherian, A and Segraves, M},
      title = {A comparison of macaque behavior and superior colliculus neuronal activity to predictions from models of two-choice decisions},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PHYSIOLOGICAL SOC},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {90},
      number = {3},
      pages = {1392-1407},
      doi = {{10.1152/jn.01049.2002}}
    }
    
    RAVEN, B. A POWER INTERACTION-MODEL OF INTERPERSONAL INFLUENCE - FRENCH AND RAVEN 30 YEARS LATER {1992} JOURNAL OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND PERSONALITY
    Vol. {7}({2}), pp. {217-244} 
    article  
    Abstract: The original French and Raven (1959; Raven, 1965) bases of power model posited six bases of power: reward, coercion, legitimate, expert, referent, and informational (or persuasion). Since then, the model has gone through very significant developments: Coercion and reward can have personal as well as impersonal forms. Expert and referent power can be negative or positive. Legitimate power, in addition to position power, may be based on other normative obligations: reciprocity. equity, and responsibility, Information may be utilized in direct or indirect fashion. The more comprehensive model examines several variables. These include various motivations of the influencing agent (including need for power, concern with personal image, etc.) and an assessment of available power bases in terms of potential effectiveness, personal preferences, values and norms, time perspective. Other variables include consideration of other strategies such as manipulation; utilization of various preparatory and stage-setting devices to strengthen one's power resources; assessment of effectiveness of an influence attempt and its positive and/or negative after-effects; and use of various ameliorative devices. The overall model is examined in terms of its applicability to various settings including: hospital infection control; patient compliance with physicians' recommendations; confrontations between political figures; children's influence on their peers; and supervisor/subordinate relationships.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RAVEN1992,
      author = {RAVEN, BH},
      title = {A POWER INTERACTION-MODEL OF INTERPERSONAL INFLUENCE - FRENCH AND RAVEN 30 YEARS LATER},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND PERSONALITY},
      publisher = {SELECT PRESS},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {217-244}
    }
    
    RAYKOV, T., TOMER, A. & NESSELROADE, J. REPORTING STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING RESULTS IN PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING - SOME PROPOSED GUIDELINES {1991} PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING
    Vol. {6}({4}), pp. {499-503} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{RAYKOV1991,
      author = {RAYKOV, T and TOMER, A and NESSELROADE, JR},
      title = {REPORTING STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING RESULTS IN PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING - SOME PROPOSED GUIDELINES},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY AND AGING},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {6},
      number = {4},
      pages = {499-503}
    }
    
    Reale, D., Reader, S.M., Sol, D., McDougall, P.T. & Dingemanse, N.J. Integrating animal temperament within ecology and evolution {2007} BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS
    Vol. {82}({2}), pp. {291-318} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Temperament describes the idea that individual behavioural differences are repeatable over time and across situations. This common phenomenon covers numerous traits, such as aggressiveness, avoidance of novelty, willingness to take risks, exploration, and sociality. The study of temperament is central to animal psychology, behavioural genetics, pharmacology, and animal husbandry, but relatively few studies have examined the ecology and evolution of temperament traits. This situation is surprising, given that temperament is likely to exert an important influence on many aspects of animal ecology and evolution, and that individual variation in temperament appears to be pervasive amongst animal species. Possible explanations for this neglect of temperament include a perceived irrelevance, an insufficient understanding of the link between temperament traits and fitness, and a lack of coherence in terminology with similar traits often given different names, or different traits given the same name. We propose that temperament can and should be studied within an evolutionary ecology framework and provide a terminology that could be used as a working tool for ecological studies of temperament. Our terminology includes five major temperament trait categories: shyness-boldness, exploration-avoidance, activity, sociability and aggressiveness. This terminology does not make inferences regarding underlying dispositions or psychological processes, which may have restrained ecologists and evolutionary biologists from working on these traits. We present extensive literature reviews that demonstrate that temperament traits are heritable, and linked to fitness and to several other traits of importance to ecology and evolution. Furthermore, we describe ecologically relevant measurement methods and point to several ecological and evolutionary topics that would benefit from considering temperament, such as phenotypic plasticity, conservation biology, population sampling, and invasion biology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Reale2007,
      author = {Reale, Denis and Reader, Simon M. and Sol, Daniel and McDougall, Peter T. and Dingemanse, Niels J.},
      title = {Integrating animal temperament within ecology and evolution},
      journal = {BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS},
      publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHING},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {82},
      number = {2},
      pages = {291-318},
      doi = {{10.1111/j.1469-185X.2007.00010.x}}
    }
    
    Reilly, T., Williams, A., Nevill, A. & Franks, A. A multidisciplinary approach to talent identification in soccer {2000} JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES
    Vol. {18}({9}), pp. {695-702} 
    article  
    Abstract: The requirements for soccer play are multifactorial and distinguishing characteristics of elite players can be investigated using multivariate analysis. The aim of the present study was to apply a comprehensive test battery to young players with a view to distinguishing between elite and sub-elite groups on the basis of performance on test items. Thirty-one (16 elite, 15 sub-elite) young players matched for chronological age (15-16 years) and body size were studied. Test items included anthropometric (n = 15), physiological (n = 8), psychological (n = 3) and soccer-specific skills (n = 2) tests. Variables were split into separate groups according to somatotype, body composition, body size, speed, endurance, performance measures, technical skill, anticipation, anxiety and task and ego orientation for purposes of univariate and multivariate analysis of variance and stepwise discriminant function analysis. The most discriminating of the measures were agility, sprint time, ego orientation and anticipation skill. The elite players were also significantly leaner, possessed more aerobic power (9.0 +/- 1.7 vs 55.5 +/- 3. 8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) and were more tolerant of fatigue (P < 0.05). They were also better at dribbling the ball, but not shooting. We conclude that the test battery used may be useful in establishing baseline reference data for young players being selected onto specialized development programmes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Reilly2000,
      author = {Reilly, T and Williams, AM and Nevill, A and Franks, A},
      title = {A multidisciplinary approach to talent identification in soccer},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SPORTS SCIENCES},
      publisher = {E & FN SPON},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {18},
      number = {9},
      pages = {695-702}
    }
    
    Repovs, G. & Baddeley, A. The multi-component model of working memory: Explorations in experimental cognitive psychology {2006} NEUROSCIENCE
    Vol. {139}({1}), pp. {5-21} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: There are a number of ways one can hope to describe and explain cognitive abilities, each of them contributing a unique and valuable perspective. Cognitive psychology tries to develop and test functional accounts of cognitive systems that explain the capacities and properties of cognitive abilities as revealed by empirical data gathered by a range of behavioral experimental paradigms. Much of the research in the cognitive psychology of working memory has been strongly influenced by the multi-component model of working memory [Baddeley AD, Hitch GJ (1974) Working memory. In: Recent advances in learning and motivation, Vol. 8 (Bower GA, ed), pp 47-90. New York: Academic Press; Baddeley AD (1986) Working memory. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press; Baddeley A. Working memory: Thought and action. Oxford: Oxford University Press, in press]. By expanding the notion of a passive short-term memory to an active system that provides the basis for complex cognitive abilities, the model has opened up numerous questions and new lines of research. In this paper we present the current revision of the multi-component model that encompasses a central executive, two unimodal storage systems: a phonological loop and a visuospatial sketchpad, and a further component, a multi-modal store capable of integrating information into unitary episodic representations, termed episodic buffer. We review recent empirical data within experimental cognitive psychology that has shaped the development of the multicomponent model and the understanding of the capacities and properties of working memory. Research based largely on dual-task experimental designs and on neuropsychological evidence has yielded valuable information about the fractionation of working memory into independent stores and processes, the nature of representations in individual stores, the mechanisms of their maintenance and manipulation, the way the components of working memory relate to each other, and the role they play in other cognitive abilities. With many questions still open and new issues emerging, we believe that the multicomponent model will continue to stimulate research while providing a comprehensive functional description of working memory. (C)2006 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Repovs2006,
      author = {Repovs, G and Baddeley, A},
      title = {The multi-component model of working memory: Explorations in experimental cognitive psychology},
      journal = {NEUROSCIENCE},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {139},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5-21},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.12.061}}
    }
    
    RESCHLY, D. SPECIAL-EDUCATION REFORM - SCHOOL-PSYCHOLOGY REVOLUTION {1988} SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {17}({3}), pp. {459-475} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{RESCHLY1988,
      author = {RESCHLY, DJ},
      title = {SPECIAL-EDUCATION REFORM - SCHOOL-PSYCHOLOGY REVOLUTION},
      journal = {SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      publisher = {NATL ASSN SCHOOL PSYCHOL},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {17},
      number = {3},
      pages = {459-475}
    }
    
    Rice, K., Ashby, J. & Slaney, R. Self-esteem as a mediator between perfectionism and depression: A structural equations analysis {1998} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {45}({3}), pp. {304-314} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study of college students (N = 464) examined the association between adaptive and maladaptive dimensions of perfectionism and 2 mental health outcomes (self-esteem and depression). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to develop and assess the measurement model used in this study. Structural equations modeling was used to test a mediational model derived from prior theory and research. Analyses supported the existence of 2 perfectionism factors. Path models revealed that adaptive perfectionism was not directly or indirectly (through self-esteem) associated with depression. Maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with depression. Self-esteem also buffered the effects of maladaptive perfectionism on depression. Distinguishing adaptive from maladaptive perfectionism is discussed in the context of recommendations for practice and future research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rice1998,
      author = {Rice, KG and Ashby, JS and Slaney, RB},
      title = {Self-esteem as a mediator between perfectionism and depression: A structural equations analysis},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {45},
      number = {3},
      pages = {304-314},
      note = {102nd Annual Convention of the American-Counseling-Association, MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA, APR, 1994}
    }
    
    RICHARDSON, M. WORK IN PEOPLES LIVES - A LOCATION FOR COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGISTS {1993} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {40}({4}), pp. {425-433} 
    article  
    Abstract: The career development-vocational psychology literature has been marked by 2 persistent problems: a slow response to new developments in basic areas of psychology, such as developmental psychology, and a lack of representation of populations other than White and middle-class groups as research participants or as foci of theoretical explanation. After a brief discussion of 2 factors that may have contributed to these problems, a rationale for a new location for this field is developed. The new location focuses on the study of work in people's lives from the perspective of social constructionism and from the perspective of counseling psychologists as applied psychologists.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RICHARDSON1993,
      author = {RICHARDSON, MS},
      title = {WORK IN PEOPLES LIVES - A LOCATION FOR COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGISTS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {40},
      number = {4},
      pages = {425-433}
    }
    
    RIDLEY, C., MENDOZA, D. & KANITZ, B. MULTICULTURAL TRAINING - REEXAMINATION, OPERATIONALIZATION, AND INTEGRATION {1994} COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {22}({2}), pp. {227-289} 
    article  
    Abstract: The Multicultural Program Development Pyramid is a five-tiered framework outlining stages of multicultural counseling training (MCT) program development. The pyramid is intended to serve as a guide to help program developers formulate their own unique MCT programs. The pyramid lays out a path of critical choice points in MCT development, beginning with the generation of an explicit philosophy of training and proceeding through the stages of identifying training objectives, selecting instructional strategies, choosing from among several proposed program designs, and evaluating the program. Use of the pyramid encourages the critical examination of a full range of choices at each stage. Implications of the pyramid for current MCT, the scientist-practitioner model, and the future of MCT research and development are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RIDLEY1994a,
      author = {RIDLEY, CR and MENDOZA, DW and KANITZ, BE},
      title = {MULTICULTURAL TRAINING - REEXAMINATION, OPERATIONALIZATION, AND INTEGRATION},
      journal = {COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {22},
      number = {2},
      pages = {227-289},
      note = {101st Annual Convention of the American-Psychological-Association, TORONTO, CANADA, AUG 20-24, 1993}
    }
    
    RIDLEY, R. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSEVERATIVE AND STEREOTYPED BEHAVIOR {1994} PROGRESS IN NEUROBIOLOGY
    Vol. {44}({2}), pp. {221-231} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{RIDLEY1994,
      author = {RIDLEY, RM},
      title = {THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSEVERATIVE AND STEREOTYPED BEHAVIOR},
      journal = {PROGRESS IN NEUROBIOLOGY},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {44},
      number = {2},
      pages = {221-231}
    }
    
    RIGER, S. WHATS WRONG WITH EMPOWERMENT {1993} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {21}({3}), pp. {279-292} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although it has stimulated useful and important research and theory in community psychology, the concept of empowerment is problematic. This article criticizes two assumptions and values underlying the concept of empowerment: (a) individualism, leading potentially to unmitigated competition and conflict among those who are empowered; and (b) a preference for traditionally masculine concepts of mastery, power, and control over traditionally feminine concerns of communion and cooperation. The challenge to community psychology is to develop a vision that incorporates both empowerment and community, despite the paradoxical nature of these two phenomena.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RIGER1993,
      author = {RIGER, S},
      title = {WHATS WRONG WITH EMPOWERMENT},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {PLENUM PUBL CORP},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {21},
      number = {3},
      pages = {279-292},
      note = {101st Annual Meeting of the American-Psychological-Association, TORONTO, CANADA, AUG 21-24, 1993}
    }
    
    RIGER, S. EPISTEMOLOGICAL DEBATES, FEMINIST VOICES - SCIENCE, SOCIAL VALUES, AND THE STUDY OF WOMEN {1992} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {47}({6}), pp. {730-740} 
    article  
    Abstract: Feminist criticisms of the neglect, distortion, and exclusion of women in psychological research reflect three epistemological positions:feminist empiricism, feminist standpoint epistemologies, and postmodern feminism. On the basis of these criticisms, some argue that there is a need for a uniquely feminist method. This article critically examines these claims and calls for a new vision of the psychological study of women that construes gender as a product of social interaction and links women's agency with the shaping power of the sociocultural, historical, and political context.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RIGER1992,
      author = {RIGER, S},
      title = {EPISTEMOLOGICAL DEBATES, FEMINIST VOICES - SCIENCE, SOCIAL VALUES, AND THE STUDY OF WOMEN},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {47},
      number = {6},
      pages = {730-740}
    }
    
    Rioux, S. & Penner, L. The causes of organizational citizenship behavior: A motivational analysis {2001} JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {86}({6}), pp. {1306-1314} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study addressed the role of motives in organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Three motives were identified through factor analyses: prosocial values, organizational concern, and impression management. Scales that measured these motives and other variables known to covary with OCB were administered to 141 municipal employees and were correlated with self-, peer, and supervisor ratings of 5 aspects of OCB. Relative to the other motives, prosocial values motives were most strongly associated with OCB directed at individuals, and organizational concern motives were most strongly associated with OCB directed toward the organization. Each of the motives accounted for unique amounts of variance in OCB. The results suggest that motives may play an important role in OCB.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rioux2001,
      author = {Rioux, SM and Penner, LA},
      title = {The causes of organizational citizenship behavior: A motivational analysis},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {86},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1306-1314}
    }
    
    RODIN, J. & SALOVEY, P. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY {1989} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {40}, pp. {533-579} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{RODIN1989,
      author = {RODIN, J and SALOVEY, P},
      title = {HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS INC},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {40},
      pages = {533-579}
    }
    
    ROEDIGER, H. MEMORY METAPHORS IN COGNITIVE-PSYCHOLOGY {1980} MEMORY & COGNITION
    Vol. {8}({3}), pp. {231-246} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ROEDIGER1980,
      author = {ROEDIGER, HL},
      title = {MEMORY METAPHORS IN COGNITIVE-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {MEMORY & COGNITION},
      publisher = {PSYCHONOMIC SOC INC},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {231-246}
    }
    
    Rogler, L. Methodological sources of cultural insensitivity in mental health research {1999} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {54}({6}), pp. {424-433} 
    article  
    Abstract: The concept of procedural norms, which is taken from the analysis of science as an institutionally structured social process, is used to explain the persistence of cultural insensitivity in research. The concept refers to the canons of research that tell scientists what should be studied and how, and they are taught to successive generations of researchers. An examination of cross-cultural studies in mental health reveals that cultural insensitivity stems from procedural norms in the development of content validity based on experts' rational analysis of concepts, in linguistic translations that try to conform to the exact terms of standardized instruments, and in the uncritical transferring of concepts across cultures. We need a wide-ranging examination of our procedural norms, with the objective of keeping such norms from suppressing, biasing, or deflecting cultural understandings. This article proposes a dialogue on the intricate connections between culture and our customary methodologies.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rogler1999,
      author = {Rogler, LH},
      title = {Methodological sources of cultural insensitivity in mental health research},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {54},
      number = {6},
      pages = {424-433}
    }
    
    ROHNER, R. TOWARD A CONCEPTION OF CULTURE FOR CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY {1984} JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {15}({2}), pp. {111-138} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ROHNER1984,
      author = {ROHNER, RP},
      title = {TOWARD A CONCEPTION OF CULTURE FOR CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {15},
      number = {2},
      pages = {111-138}
    }
    
    Rothbaum, F., Weisz, J., Pott, M., Miyake, K. & Morelli, G. Attachment and culture - Security in the United States and Japan {2000} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {55}({10}), pp. {1093-1104} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Attachment theorists maintain that cultural differences are relatively minor, and they focus on universals. Here the authors highlight evidence of cultural variations and note ways in which attachment theory is laden with Western values and meaning. Comparisons of the United States and Japan highlight the cultural relativity of 3 core hypotheses of attachment theory: that caregiver sensitivity leads to secure attachment, that secure attachment leads to later social competence, and that children who are securely attached use the primary caregiver as a secure base for exploring the external world. Attachment theorists use measures of sensitivity, competence, and secure base that are biased reward Western ways of thinking: The measures emphasize the child's autonomy, individuation, and exploration. In Japan, sensitivity, competence, and secure base are viewed very differently, calling into question the universality of fundamental tenets of attachment theory. The authors call for an indigenous approach to the psychology of attachment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rothbaum2000,
      author = {Rothbaum, F and Weisz, J and Pott, M and Miyake, K and Morelli, G},
      title = {Attachment and culture - Security in the United States and Japan},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {55},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1093-1104},
      doi = {{10.1037//0003-066X.55.10.1093}}
    }
    
    Rottenstreich, Y. & Hsee, C. Money, kisses, and electric shocks: On the affective psychology of risk {2001} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {12}({3}), pp. {185-190} 
    article  
    Abstract: Prospect's theory's S-shaped weighting function is often said to reflect the psychophysics of chance. we propose an effective rather than psychophysical deconstruction of the weighting function resting on two assumptions. First, preferences depend on the affective reactions associated with potential outcomes of a risky choice. Second, even with monetary values controlled some outcomes are relatively affect-poor. Although the psychophysical and affective approaches are complementary, the affective approach has one novel implication. Weighting functions will be more S-shaped for lotteries involving affect-rich than affect-poor outcomes. That is, people will be more sensitive to departures from impossibility and certainty but less sensitive to intermediate probability variations for affect-rich outcomes. We corroborated this prediction by observing outcome probability interactions: An affect poor prize was preferred over an affect-rich prize under certainty, but the direction of preference reversed under low-probability. We suggest that the assumption of probability outcome independence, adopted both by both expected-utility and prospect theory, ay hold across outcomes of different monetary values, but not different affective values.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rottenstreich2001,
      author = {Rottenstreich, Y and Hsee, CK},
      title = {Money, kisses, and electric shocks: On the affective psychology of risk},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHERS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {12},
      number = {3},
      pages = {185-190}
    }
    
    Rousseau, D. Schema, promise and mutuality: The building blocks of the psychological contract {2001} JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {74}({Part 4}), pp. {511-541} 
    article  
    Abstract: Understanding the dynamics of the psychological contract in employment is difficult without research into its formation. Unfortunately, far less research exists on the antecedents and formation of the psychological contract than on the consequences associated with it. Three concepts frequently studied in psychology are particularly important to advancing research on psychological contract formation: schemas, promises, and mutuality (i.e. objective and perceptual agreement). This article develops the implications these three concepts have for future research on psychological contract formation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rousseau2001,
      author = {Rousseau, DM},
      title = {Schema, promise and mutuality: The building blocks of the psychological contract},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOC},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {74},
      number = {Part 4},
      pages = {511-541}
    }
    
    RUGGIERO, K. & TAYLOR, D. COPING WITH DISCRIMINATION - HOW DISADVANTAGED GROUP MEMBERS PERCEIVE THE DISCRIMINATION THAT CONFRONTS THEM {1995} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {68}({5}), pp. {826-838} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two experiments examined how disadvantaged group members perceive the discrimination that confronts them. Women reacted to negative feedback after receiving information about the probability that they had been discriminated against. In both experiments, attribution to discrimination was a function of situational ambiguity. When discrimination was certain, participants attributed their failure to discrimination. When discrimination was ambiguous, however, participants minimized discrimination and attributed their failure to themselves. The second experiment investigated the role of perceived control in the minimization of personal discrimination. Results indicated that disadvantaged group members were reluctant to blame their performance on discrimination because they were placing control for their outcomes in the hands of others rather than their own.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RUGGIERO1995,
      author = {RUGGIERO, KM and TAYLOR, DM},
      title = {COPING WITH DISCRIMINATION - HOW DISADVANTAGED GROUP MEMBERS PERCEIVE THE DISCRIMINATION THAT CONFRONTS THEM},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {68},
      number = {5},
      pages = {826-838}
    }
    
    Russell, D. In search of underlying dimensions: The use (and abuse) of factor analysis in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin {2002} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {28}({12}), pp. {1629-1646} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: An examination of the use of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis by researchers publishing in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin over the previous 5 years is presented, along with a review of recommended methods based on the recent statistical literature. In the case of exploratory factor analysis, an examination and recommendations concerning factor extraction procedures, sample size, number of measured variables, determining the number of factors to extract, factor rotation, and the creation of factor scores are presented. These issues are illustrated via an exploratory factor analysis of data from the University of California, Los Angeles, Loneliness Scale. In the case of confirmatory factor analysis, an examination and recommendations concerning model estimation, evaluating model fit, sample size, the effects of non-normality of the data, and missing data are presented. These issues are illustrated via a confirmatory factor analysis of data from the Revised Causal Dimension Scale.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Russell2002,
      author = {Russell, DW},
      title = {In search of underlying dimensions: The use (and abuse) of factor analysis in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {28},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1629-1646},
      doi = {{10.1177/014616702237645}}
    }
    
    Russell, D., Kahn, J., Spoth, R. & Altmaier, E. Analyzing data from experimental studies: A latent variable structural equation modeling approach {1998} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {45}({1}), pp. {18-29} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article illustrates the use of structural equation modeling (SEM) procedures with latent variables to analyze data from experimental studies. These procedures allow the researcher to remove the biasing effects of random and correlated measurement error on the outcomes of the experiment and to examine processes that may account for changes in the outcome variables that are observed. Analyses of data from a Project Family study, an experimental intervention project with rural families that strives to improve parenting skills, are presented to illustrate the use of these modeling procedures. Issues that arise in applying SEM procedures, such as sample size and distributional characteristics of the measures, are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Russell1998,
      author = {Russell, DW and Kahn, JH and Spoth, R and Altmaier, EM},
      title = {Analyzing data from experimental studies: A latent variable structural equation modeling approach},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {45},
      number = {1},
      pages = {18-29},
      note = {Rural Mental Health Preventive Services Workshop, ROCKVILLE, MARYLAND, SEP, 1995}
    }
    
    RUTTER, M. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS OF ATTACHMENT CONCEPTS - RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT {1995} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {36}({4}), pp. {549-571} 
    article  
    Abstract: The key features of attachment theory are summarized and the unresolved questions considered in terms of a behavioural control system, measurement of attachment security, qualities of attachment, the role of temperament, transformation of a dyadic quality into an individual characteristic, internal working models, manifestations of attachment post infancy, how one relationship affects another relationship, boundaries of attachment, associations with later functioning, the role of parenting qualities and patterns of caregiving, adaptive value of secure attachment, and disorders of attachment. The clinical implications are discussed in terms of: the need to reject the traditional psychoanalytic theories of development, the patterns of residential care for children, the provision of child care, the assessment of parenting, the effects of parental divorce and family break-up, `'maternal bonding'' to infants, psychotherapy and disorders of attachment.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RUTTER1995,
      author = {RUTTER, M},
      title = {CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS OF ATTACHMENT CONCEPTS - RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {36},
      number = {4},
      pages = {549-571},
      note = {13th International Congress of the International-Association-for-Child-and-Adolescent-Psychiatry-and-Allied -Professions, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, JUL 24-28, 1994}
    }
    
    RYAN, R., RIGBY, S. & KING, K. 2 TYPES OF RELIGIOUS INTERNALIZATION AND THEIR RELATIONS TO RELIGIOUS ORIENTATIONS AND MENTAL-HEALTH {1993} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {65}({3}), pp. {586-596} 
    article  
    Abstract: Two types of religious internalization are conceptualized that are presumed to vary in their relative autonomy. Introjection represents a partial internalization of beliefs and is characterized by self- and other-approval-based pressures. Identification represents adoption of beliefs as personal values and is characterized by greater volition. These 2 types of internalization are compared conceptually and empirically with existing measures of religious orientation and are used to predict varied functional outcomes. Results in 4 independent Christian samples show systematic construct validities and relations with mental health and self-related outcomes. Also, evangelical teenagers are shown to be higher on both introjection and identification than controls. Results are discussed both in terms of prior approaches to the psychology of religion and the significance of internalization for personality functioning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RYAN1993,
      author = {RYAN, RM and RIGBY, S and KING, K},
      title = {2 TYPES OF RELIGIOUS INTERNALIZATION AND THEIR RELATIONS TO RELIGIOUS ORIENTATIONS AND MENTAL-HEALTH},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {65},
      number = {3},
      pages = {586-596}
    }
    
    Rynes, S., Bartunek, J. & Daft, R. Across the great divide: Knowledge creation and transfer between practitioners and academics {2001} ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL
    Vol. {44}({2}), pp. {340-355} 
    article  
    Abstract: Observers have long noted a considerable gap between organizational research findings and management practices. Although volumes have been written about the probable causes and consequences of this gap, surprisingly little empirical evidence exists concerning the various viewpoints. The articles in this forum provide data on the role of academic-practitioner relationships in both generating and disseminating knowledge across boundaries. The contributions of each article are summarized in light of recent theories of knowledge creation, and suggestions are made for increasing the value and relevance of future research to both academics and practitioners.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Rynes2001,
      author = {Rynes, SL and Bartunek, JM and Daft, RL},
      title = {Across the great divide: Knowledge creation and transfer between practitioners and academics},
      journal = {ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT JOURNAL},
      publisher = {ACAD MANAGEMENT},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {44},
      number = {2},
      pages = {340-355}
    }
    
    SAMPSON, E. IDENTITY POLITICS - CHALLENGES TO PSYCHOLOGY UNDERSTANDING {1993} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {48}({12}), pp. {1219-1230} 
    article  
    Abstract: A variety of collective movements-including women, gay males and lesbians, African Americans, and members of the third world-in arguing that members have been denied their own voice in establishing the conditions of their lives and in determining their own identity and subjectivity, pose a serious challenge to psychology's suitability as a discipline capable of responding to the full diversity of human nature. This article explores these claims on behalf of voice, develops a discursive framework as an alternative to current psychological analysis, and suggests how that framework would require a transformation in current psychological theory, research, and practice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SAMPSON1993,
      author = {SAMPSON, EE},
      title = {IDENTITY POLITICS - CHALLENGES TO PSYCHOLOGY UNDERSTANDING},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {48},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1219-1230}
    }
    
    SAMPSON, E. THE CHALLENGE OF SOCIAL-CHANGE FOR PSYCHOLOGY - GLOBALIZATION AND PSYCHOLOGYS THEORY OF THE PERSON {1989} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {44}({6}), pp. {914-921} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SAMPSON1989,
      author = {SAMPSON, EE},
      title = {THE CHALLENGE OF SOCIAL-CHANGE FOR PSYCHOLOGY - GLOBALIZATION AND PSYCHOLOGYS THEORY OF THE PERSON},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {44},
      number = {6},
      pages = {914-921}
    }
    
    Sander, D., Grafman, J. & Zalla, T. The human amygdala: an evolved system for relevance detection {2003} REVIEWS IN THE NEUROSCIENCES
    Vol. {14}({4}), pp. {303-316} 
    article  
    Abstract: Evidence from pioneering animal research has suggested that the amygdala is involved in the processing of aversive stimuli, particularly fear-related information. Fear is central in the evolution of the mammalian brain: it is automatically and rapidly elicited by potentially dangerous and deadly events. The view that the amygdala shares the main characteristics of modular systems, e.g. domain specificity, automaticity, and cognitive impenetrability, has become popular in neuroscience. Because of its computational properties, it has been proposed to implement a rapid-response `fear module'. In this article, we review recent patient and neuroimaging data of the human brain and argue that the fundamental criteria for the amygdala to be a modular system are not met. We propose a different computational view and suggest the notion of a specific involvement of the human amygdala in the appraisal of relevant events that include, but are not restricted to, fear-related stimuli. Considering the amygdala as a `relevance detector' would integrate the `fear module' hypothesis with the concept of an evolved neural system devoted to the processing of a broader category of biologically relevant stimuli. In primates, socially relevant events appear to have become, through evolution, the dominant elements of the amygdala's domain of specificity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sander2003,
      author = {Sander, D and Grafman, J and Zalla, T},
      title = {The human amygdala: an evolved system for relevance detection},
      journal = {REVIEWS IN THE NEUROSCIENCES},
      publisher = {FREUND & PETTMAN PUBLISHERS},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {14},
      number = {4},
      pages = {303-316}
    }
    
    Sanfey, A., Loewenstein, G., McClure, S. & Cohen, J. Neuroeconomics: cross-currents in research on decision-making {2006} TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES
    Vol. {10}({3}), pp. {108-116} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Despite substantial advances, the question of how we make decisions and judgments continues to pose important challenges for scientific research. Historically, different disciplines have approached this problem using different techniques and assumptions, with few unifying efforts made. However, the field of neuroeconomics has recently emerged as an inter-disciplinary effort to bridge this gap. Research in neuroscience and psychology has begun to investigate neural bases of decision predictability and value, central parameters in the economic theory of expected utility. Economics, in turn, is being increasingly influenced by a multiple-systems approach to decision-making, a perspective strongly rooted in psychology and neuroscience. The integration of these disparate theoretical approaches and methodologies offers exciting potential for the construction of more accurate models of decision-making.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sanfey2006,
      author = {Sanfey, AG and Loewenstein, G and McClure, SM and Cohen, JD},
      title = {Neuroeconomics: cross-currents in research on decision-making},
      journal = {TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE LONDON},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {108-116},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.tics.2006.01.009}}
    }
    
    Sarter, M., Berntson, G. & Cacioppo, J. Brain imaging and cognitive neuroscience - Toward strong inference in attributing function to structure {1996} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {51}({1}), pp. {13-21} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cognitive neuroscience has emerged from the neurosciences and cognitive psychology as a scientific discipline that aims at the determination of `'how brain function gives rise to mental activity'' (S. M. Kosslyn & L. M. Shin, 1992, p. 146). While research in cognitive neuroscience combines many levels of neuroscientific and psychological analyses, modern imaging techniques that monitor brain activity during behavioral or cognitive operations have significantly contributed to the emergence of this discipline. The conclusions deduced from these studies ave inherently localizationistic in nature, in other words, they describe cognitive functions as being localized in focal brain regions (brain activity in a defined brain region, Phi, is involved in specific cognitive function, Psi). A broad discussion about the virtues and limitations of such conclusions may help avoid the emergence of a mentalistic localizationism (i.e., the attribution of mentalistic concepts such as happiness, morality, or consciousness to brain structure) and illustrates the importance of a convergence with information generated by different research strategies (such as, for example, evidence generated by studies in which the effects of experimental manipulations of local neuronal processes on cognitive functions are assessed). Progress in capitalizing on brain-imaging studies to investigate questions of the form `'brain structure or event Phi is associated with cognitive function Psi'' may be impeded because of the way in which inferences are typically formulated in the brain imaging literature. A conceptual framework to advance the interpretation of data describing the relationships between cognitive phenomena and brain structure activity is provided.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sarter1996,
      author = {Sarter, M and Berntson, GG and Cacioppo, JT},
      title = {Brain imaging and cognitive neuroscience - Toward strong inference in attributing function to structure},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {51},
      number = {1},
      pages = {13-21}
    }
    
    Sarwer, D., Wadden, T., Pertschuk, M. & Whitaker, L. The psychology of cosmetic surgery: A review and reconceptualization {1998} CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {18}({1}), pp. {1-22} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article discusses the psychology of cosmetic surgery. ii review of the research on the psychological characteristics of individuals who seek cosmetic surgery yielded contradictory findings. Interview-based investigations revealed high levels of psychopathology in cosmetic surgery patients, whereas studies that used standardized measurements reported far less disturbance. It is difficult to fully resolve the discrepancy between these two sets of findings. We believe that investigating the construct of body image in cosmetic surgery patients will yield more useful findings. Thus, we propose a model of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and cosmetic surgery and outline a research agenda based upon the model. Such research will generate information that is useful to the medical and mental health communities and ultimately, the patients themselves. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sarwer1998,
      author = {Sarwer, DB and Wadden, TA and Pertschuk, MJ and Whitaker, LA},
      title = {The psychology of cosmetic surgery: A review and reconceptualization},
      journal = {CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {18},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-22}
    }
    
    SAWILOWSKY, S. & BLAIR, R. A MORE REALISTIC LOOK AT THE ROBUSTNESS AND TYPE-II ERROR PROPERTIES OF THE T-TEST TO DEPARTURES FROM POPULATION NORMALITY {1992} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {111}({2}), pp. {352-360} 
    article  
    Abstract: The Type I and II error properties of the t test were evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo study that sampled 8 real distribution shapes identified by Micceri (1986, 1989) as being representative of types encountered in psychology and education research. Results showed the independent-samples t tests to be reasonably robust to Type I error when (a) sample sizes are equal, (b) sample sizes are fairly large, and (c) tests are two-tailed rather than one-tailed. Nonrobust results were obtained primarily under distributions with extreme skew. The t test was robust to Type II error under these nonnormal distributions, but researchers should not overlook robust nonparametric competitors that are often more powerful than the t test when its underlying assumptions are violated.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SAWILOWSKY1992,
      author = {SAWILOWSKY, SS and BLAIR, RC},
      title = {A MORE REALISTIC LOOK AT THE ROBUSTNESS AND TYPE-II ERROR PROPERTIES OF THE T-TEST TO DEPARTURES FROM POPULATION NORMALITY},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {111},
      number = {2},
      pages = {352-360}
    }
    
    Saxe, R. & Powell, L.J. It's the thought that counts: Specific brain regions for one component of theory of mind {2006} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {17}({8}), pp. {692-699} 
    article  
    Abstract: Evidence from developmental psychology suggests that representing the contents of other people's thoughts and beliefs depends on a component of reasoning about other minds (theory of mind) that is distinct from the earlier-developing mental-state concepts for goals, perceptions, and feelings. To provide converging evidence, the current study investigated the substrate of the late-developing process in adult brains. Three regions-the right and left temporo-parietal junction and the posterior cingulate-responded selectively when subjects read about a protagonist's thoughts, but not when they read about other subjective, internal states or other socially relevant information about a person. By contrast, the medial prefrontal cortex responded equivalently in all of these story conditions, a result consistent with a broader role for medial prefrontal cortex in general social cognition. These data support the hypothesis that the early- and late-developing components of theory of mind rely on separate psychological and neural mechanisms, and that these mechanisms remain distinct into adulthood.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Saxe2006,
      author = {Saxe, Rebecca and Powell, Lindsey J.},
      title = {It's the thought that counts: Specific brain regions for one component of theory of mind},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHING},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {17},
      number = {8},
      pages = {692-699}
    }
    
    Scheinkman, J. & Xiong, W. Overconfidence and speculative bubbles {2003} JOURNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY
    Vol. {111}({6}), pp. {1183-1219} 
    article  
    Abstract: Motivated by the behavior of asset prices, trading volume, and price volatility during episodes of asset price bubbles, we present a continuous-time equilibrium model in which overconfidence generates disagreements among agents regarding asset fundamentals. With short-sale constraints, an asset buyer acquires an option to sell the asset to other agents when those agents have more optimistic beliefs. As in a paper by Harrison and Kreps, agents pay prices that exceed their own valuation of future dividends because they believe that in the future they will find a buyer willing to pay even more. This causes a significant bubble component in asset prices even when small differences of beliefs are sufficient to generate a trade. In equilibrium, bubbles are accompanied by large trading volume and high price volatility. Our analysis shows that while Tobin's tax can substantially reduce speculative trading when transaction costs are small, it has only a limited impact on the size of the bubble or on price volatility.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Scheinkman2003,
      author = {Scheinkman, JA and Xiong, W},
      title = {Overconfidence and speculative bubbles},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY},
      publisher = {UNIV CHICAGO PRESS},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {111},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1183-1219}
    }
    
    SCHERER, K. NEUROSCIENCE PROJECTIONS TO CURRENT DEBATES IN EMOTION PSYCHOLOGY {1993} COGNITION & EMOTION
    Vol. {7}({1}), pp. {1-41} 
    article  
    Abstract: Possible contributions from different branches of the neurosciences to current debates in emotion psychology are discussed. The controversial issues covered in the paper include the nature of emotion, cognition-emotion interaction, the evaluative criteria used in emotion-antecedent appraisal processes, sequential vs. parallel processing in appraisal, differential patterning of discrete emotions, and possible entry points into the emotion system. Examples for neuroscience work that may be pertinent to these issues are drawn from neural network modelling, comparative studies of brain architecture and functional pathways in animals, experimental work in cognitive psychology, and case studies of brain-damaged patients in clinical neuropsychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SCHERER1993,
      author = {SCHERER, KR},
      title = {NEUROSCIENCE PROJECTIONS TO CURRENT DEBATES IN EMOTION PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {COGNITION & EMOTION},
      publisher = {PSYCHOLOGY PRESS},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {7},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-41}
    }
    
    SCHLENKE.BR SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY AND SCIENCE {1974} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {29}({1}), pp. {1-15} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SCHLENKE.BR1974,
      author = {SCHLENKE.BR},
      title = {SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY AND SCIENCE},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1974},
      volume = {29},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-15}
    }
    
    SCHMIDT, F. RELATIVE EFFICIENCY OF REGRESSION AND SIMPLE UNIT PREDICTOR WEIGHTS IN APPLIED DIFFERENTIAL PSYCHOLOGY {1971} EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT
    Vol. {31}({3}), pp. {699-\&} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SCHMIDT1971,
      author = {SCHMIDT, FL},
      title = {RELATIVE EFFICIENCY OF REGRESSION AND SIMPLE UNIT PREDICTOR WEIGHTS IN APPLIED DIFFERENTIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {1971},
      volume = {31},
      number = {3},
      pages = {699-&}
    }
    
    Schore, A. The effects of early relational trauma on right brain development, affect regulation, and infant mental health {2001} INFANT MENTAL HEALTH JOURNAL
    Vol. {22}({1-2}), pp. {201-269} 
    article  
    Abstract: A primary interest of the field of infant mental health is in the early conditions that place infants at risk for less than optimal development. The fundamental problem of what constitutes normal and abnormal development is now a focus of developmental psychology, infant psychiatry, and developmental neuroscience. In the second part of this sequential work, I present interdisciplinary data to more deeply forge the theoretical links between severe attachment failures, impairments of the early development of the right brain's stress coping systems, and maladaptive infant mental health. In the following, I offer thoughts on the negative impact of traumatic attachments on brain development and infant mental health, the neurobiology of infant trauma, the neuropsychology of a disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern associated with abuse and neglect, trauma-induced impairments of a regulatory system in the orbitofrontal cortex, the links between orbitofrontal dysfunction and a predisposition to posttraumatic stress disorders, the neurobiology of the dissociative defense, the etiology of dissociation and body-mind psychopathology, the effects of early relational trauma on enduring right hemispheric function, and some implications for models of early intervention. These findings suggest direct connections between traumatic attachment, inefficient right brain regulatory functions, and both maladaptive infant and adult mental health.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schore2001,
      author = {Schore, AN},
      title = {The effects of early relational trauma on right brain development, affect regulation, and infant mental health},
      journal = {INFANT MENTAL HEALTH JOURNAL},
      publisher = {MICHIGAN ASSN INFANT MENTAL HEALTH},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {22},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {201-269}
    }
    
    Schwartz, B. Self-determination - The tyranny of freedom {2000} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {55}({1}), pp. {79-88} 
    article  
    Abstract: Americans now live in a time and a place in which freedom and autonomy are valued above all else and in which expanded opportunities for self-determination are regarded as a sign of the psychological well-being of individuals and the moral well-being of the culture. This article argues that freedom, autonomy, and self-determination can become excessive, and that when that happens, freedom can be experienced as a kind of tyranny. The article further argues that unduly influenced by the ideology of economics and rational-choice theory, modem American society has created an excess of freedom, with resulting increases in people's dissatisfaction with their lives and in clinical depression. One significant task for a future psychology of optimal functioning is to deemphasize individual freedom and to determine which cultural constraints are necessary for people to live meaningful and satisfying lives.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schwartz2000,
      author = {Schwartz, B},
      title = {Self-determination - The tyranny of freedom},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {55},
      number = {1},
      pages = {79-88}
    }
    
    Schwartz, D. & Bransford, J. A time for telling {1998} COGNITION AND INSTRUCTION
    Vol. {16}({4}), pp. {475-522} 
    article  
    Abstract: Suggestions for improving text understanding often prescribe activating prior knowledge, a prescription that may be problematic if students do not have the relevant prior knowledge to begin with. In this article, we describe research about a method for developing prior knowledge that prepares students to learn from a text or lecture. We propose prior knowledge that prepares students to learn from a text or lecture. We propose that analyzing contrasting cases can help learners generate the differentiated knowledge structures that enable them to understand a text deeply. Noticing the distinctions between contrasting cases creates a ``time for telling''; learners are prepared to be told the significance of the distinctions they have discovered. In 3 classroom studies, college students analyzed contrasting cases that consisted of simplified experimental designs and data from classic psychology experiments. They then received a lecture or text on the psychological phenomena highlighted in the experiments. Approximately 1 week later, the students predicted outcomes for a hypothetical experiment that could be interpreted in light of the concepts they studied. Generating the distinctions between contrasting cases and then reading a text or hearing a lecture led to more accurate predictions than the control treatments of (a) reading about the distinctions between the cases and hearing a lecture, (b) summarizing a relevant text and hearing a lecture, and (c) analyzing the contrasting cases twice without receiving a lecture. We argue that analyzing the contrasting cases increased students' abilities to discern specific features that differentiated classes of psychological phenomena, much as a botanist can distinguish subspecies of a given flower. This differentiated knowledge prepared the students to understand deeply an explanation of the relevant psychological principles when it was presented to them. These results can inform constructivist models of instruction as they apply to classroom activities and learning from verbal materials. In particular, the results indicate that there is a place for lectures and readings in the classroom if students have sufficiently differentiated domain knowledge to use the expository materials in a generative manner.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Schwartz1998,
      author = {Schwartz, DL and Bransford, JD},
      title = {A time for telling},
      journal = {COGNITION AND INSTRUCTION},
      publisher = {LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC INC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {16},
      number = {4},
      pages = {475-522}
    }
    
    SCHWARZ, N. JUDGMENT IN A SOCIAL-CONTEXT - BIASES, SHORTCOMINGS, AND THE LOGIC OF CONVERSATION {1994}
    Vol. {26}ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, VOL 26, pp. {123-162} 
    incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{SCHWARZ1994,
      author = {SCHWARZ, N},
      title = {JUDGMENT IN A SOCIAL-CONTEXT - BIASES, SHORTCOMINGS, AND THE LOGIC OF CONVERSATION},
      booktitle = {ADVANCES IN EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, VOL 26},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS INC},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {26},
      pages = {123-162}
    }
    
    Segall, M., Lonner, W. & Berry, J. Cross-cultural psychology as a scholarly discipline - On the flowering of culture in behavioral research {1998} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {53}({10}), pp. {1101-1110} 
    article  
    Abstract: A history of cross-cultural psychology shows it to be an increasingly important part of modern psychology. Despite widespread agreement that culture is an indispensable component in the understanding of human behavior; there are noteworthy conceptual differences regarding the ways in which culture and behavior interrelate. Perspectives include absolutism and relativism, each with methodological consequences for such contemporary research concerns as values (including individualism-collectivism), gender differences, cognition, aggression, intergroup relations, and psychological acculturation. Societal concerns relating to these topics are briefly described. When all of psychology finally takes into account the effects of culture on human behavior (and vice versa), terms like cross-cultural and cultural psychology will become unnecessary.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Segall1998,
      author = {Segall, MH and Lonner, WJ and Berry, JW},
      title = {Cross-cultural psychology as a scholarly discipline - On the flowering of culture in behavioral research},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {53},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1101-1110}
    }
    
    Segars, A. Assessing the unidimensionality of measurement: A paradigm and illustration within the context of information systems research {1997} OMEGA-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE
    Vol. {25}({1}), pp. {107-121} 
    article  
    Abstract: The development and psychometric evaluation of scales which measure unobservable (latent) phenomena continues to be an issue of high interest among researchers within the information systems community. Accurate measurement of structurally complex constructs provides a potentially powerful means for empirically exploring relationships between information technology and individual, organizational, and industrial phenomena. In exploratory contexts, measurement properties of psychometric scales are evaluated using traditional techniques such as item-to-total correlations, reliability analysis, and exploratory factor analysis. In instances of strong theoretical rationale, contemporary techniques, such as confirmatory factor analysis, are utilized as a means of assessing model efficacy. An essential, but often overlooked, property of measurement which is assumed in both exploratory and confirmatory statistical techniques is unidimensionality. Scales which are unidimensional measure a single trait. This property is a basic assumption of measurement theory and is absolutely essential for unconfounded assessment of variable interrelationships in path modeling. In this paper, a paradigm for developing unidimensional scales is presented and illustrated. Built on similar frameworks within the disciplines of psychology, education and marketing research, this paradigm is offered as a means of formally defining unidimensionality, distinguishing the concept from traditional reliability-based metrics, and describing a structured technique for empirically testing its existence. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Segars1997,
      author = {Segars, AH},
      title = {Assessing the unidimensionality of measurement: A paradigm and illustration within the context of information systems research},
      journal = {OMEGA-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {25},
      number = {1},
      pages = {107-121}
    }
    
    Semmer, N., Zapf, D. & Greif, S. `Shared job strain': A new approach for assessing the validity of job stress measurements {1996} JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {69}({Part 3}), pp. {293-310} 
    article  
    Abstract: While problems of self-report measures of work stress have long been recognized, those of more `objective' measures are often underestimated. Combining both in structural equation models yields more valid estimates, yet correlations with indicators of well-being or strain rarely exceed .30. To decide whether this is due to insufficient validity of instruments or to the multi-causal aetiology of well-being, the concept of `shared job strain' is introduced. This is a latent variable, with individual symptoms of strain of two workers holding the same job as indicators. Thus, it represents the strain that these two workers have in common, while truly individual variance is removed. It should, therefore, show much higher correlations with job stressors than do individual symptoms of strain. To estimate stressors, self-reports of the two workers and of two independent observers are used as indicators. Four stressors explained two-thirds of the variance in `shared job strain'. It is concluded (a) that estimating latent job stressors on the basis of self-report and observer indicators yields highly valid measurement and (b) that the substantive argument is supported. There probably is an upper limit of 15 to 20 per cent variance in total strain symptoms that can be explained by job stressors.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Semmer1996,
      author = {Semmer, N and Zapf, D and Greif, S},
      title = {`Shared job strain': A new approach for assessing the validity of job stress measurements},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOC},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {69},
      number = {Part 3},
      pages = {293-310}
    }
    
    Shapira, N., Goldsmith, T., Keck, P., Khosla, U. & McElroy, S. Psychiatric features of individuals with problematic internet use {2000} JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS
    Vol. {57}({1-3}), pp. {267-272} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Problematic internet use has been described in the psychological literature as `internet addiction' and `pathological internet use'. However, there are no studies using face-to-face standardized psychiatric evaluations to identify behavioral characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity or family psychiatric history of individuals with this behavior. Methods. Twenty individuals with problematic internet use were evaluated. Problematic internet use was defined as (1)uncontrollable, (2) markedly distressing, time-consuming or resulting in social, occupational or financial difficulties and (3) not solely present during hypomanic or manic symptoms. Evaluations included a semistructured interview about subjects' internet use, the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (SCID-TV), family psychiatric history and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) modified for internet use. Results: All (100 subjects' problematic internet use met DSM-TV criteria for an impulse control disorder (ICD) not otherwise specified (NOS). All 20 subjects had at least one lifetime DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis in addition to their problematic internet use (mean+/-SD = 5.11-3.5 diagnoses); 14 (70.0 had a lifetime diagnosis of bipolar disorder (with 12 having bipolar I disorder). Limitations: Methodological limitations of this study included its small sample size, evaluation of psychiatric diagnoses by unblinded investigators, and lack of a control group. Conclusions: Problematic internet use may be associated with subjective distress, functional impairment and Axis I psychiatric disorders. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Shapira2000,
      author = {Shapira, NA and Goldsmith, TD and Keck, PE and Khosla, UM and McElroy, SL},
      title = {Psychiatric features of individuals with problematic internet use},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {57},
      number = {1-3},
      pages = {267-272}
    }
    
    Shaw, D., Winslow, E., Owens, E., Vondra, J., Cohn, J. & Bell, R. The development of early externalizing problems among children from low-income families: A transformational perspective {1998} JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {26}({2}), pp. {95-107} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present study examined pathways leading to early externalizing problems from age 1 to 3 1/2 in a design that took advantage of our knowledge of normative progression and normative socialization as well as findings from research on risk. A sample of 130 low-income participants was followed longitudinally from 12 to 42 months using observational measures of developmentally salient parenting and child disruptive behavior to predict early externalizing problems. Results are best accommodated by concepts such as transformation and transaction from developmental psychology. For boys, both child and parent variables predicted later externalizing. For girls and boys, the interaction between child noncompliance and maternal rejection was significant.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Shaw1998,
      author = {Shaw, DS and Winslow, EB and Owens, EB and Vondra, JI and Cohn, JF and Bell, RQ},
      title = {The development of early externalizing problems among children from low-income families: A transformational perspective},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {PLENUM PUBL CORP},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {26},
      number = {2},
      pages = {95-107},
      note = {Biennial Meeting of the Society-for-Research-in-Child-Development, INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA, MAR 29-APR 02, 1995}
    }
    
    Sheldon, K. & King, L. Why positive psychology is necessary {2001} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {56}({3}), pp. {216-217} 
    article  
    Abstract: The authors provide a definition of positive psychology and suggest that psychologists should try to cultivate a more appreciative perspective on human nature. Examples are given of a negative bias that seems to pervade much of theoretical psychology, which may limit psychologists' understanding of typical and successful human functioning. Finally, a preview of the articles in the special section is given.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sheldon2001,
      author = {Sheldon, KM and King, L},
      title = {Why positive psychology is necessary},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {56},
      number = {3},
      pages = {216-217}
    }
    
    SHEPPERD, J. PRODUCTIVITY LOSS IN PERFORMANCE GROUPS - A MOTIVATION ANALYSIS {1993} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {113}({1}), pp. {67-81} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article presents a framework derived from expectancy theory for organizing the research on productivity loss among individuals combining their efforts into a common pool (i.e., the research on social loafing, free riding, and the sucker effect). Lost productivity is characterized as a problem of low motivation arising when individuals perceive no value to contributing. perceive no contingency between their contributions and achieving a desirable outcome, or perceive the costs of contributing to be excessive. Three broad categories of solutions, corresponding to each of the 3 sources of low productivity, are discussed: (a) providing incentives for contributing, (b) making contributions indispensable, and (c) decreasing the cost of contributing. Each of these solutions is examined, and directions for future research and the application of this framework to social dilemmas are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SHEPPERD1993,
      author = {SHEPPERD, JA},
      title = {PRODUCTIVITY LOSS IN PERFORMANCE GROUPS - A MOTIVATION ANALYSIS},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {113},
      number = {1},
      pages = {67-81}
    }
    
    Sheridan, S. & Gutkin, T. The ecology of school psychology: Examining and changing our paradigm for the 21st century {2000} SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
    Vol. {29}({4}), pp. {485-502} 
    article  
    Abstract: A conceptual model (paradigm) for school psychology is presented based upon ecological and contextual considerations that frame the practice, training, and research agendas of the field. We argue that despite previous calls by noteworthy scholars, school psychology has failed to heed efforts to move toward effective prevention and intervention models of service. We provide a synthesis of issues that have prevailed to limit the quality of school psychological services during the past decades (i.e., the anomaly), integrate contemporary theoretical and research advances that address the core problems (i.e., the paradigm), and suggest methods for changing the predominant focus of school psychological services (i.e., changing our own ecology). We suggest that school psychology be guided by an ecological framework of service delivery that addresses needs at multiple ecosystemic levels.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sheridan2000,
      author = {Sheridan, SM and Gutkin, TB},
      title = {The ecology of school psychology: Examining and changing our paradigm for the 21st century},
      journal = {SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW},
      publisher = {NATL ASSN SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGISTS},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {29},
      number = {4},
      pages = {485-502}
    }
    
    SHIELDS, S. FUNCTIONALISM, DARWINISM, AND PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN - STUDY IN SOCIAL MYTH {1975} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {30}({7}), pp. {739-754} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SHIELDS1975,
      author = {SHIELDS, SA},
      title = {FUNCTIONALISM, DARWINISM, AND PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN - STUDY IN SOCIAL MYTH},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1975},
      volume = {30},
      number = {7},
      pages = {739-754}
    }
    
    SHWEDER, R. & SULLIVAN, M. CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY - WHO NEEDS IT {1993} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {44}, pp. {497-523} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SHWEDER1993,
      author = {SHWEDER, RA and SULLIVAN, MA},
      title = {CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY - WHO NEEDS IT},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS INC},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {44},
      pages = {497-523}
    }
    
    SIDANIUS, J., PRATTO, F. & BOBO, L. SOCIAL-DOMINANCE ORIENTATION AND THE POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY OF GENDER - A CASE OF INVARIANCE {1994} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {67}({6}), pp. {998-1011} 
    article  
    Abstract: Social dominance theory assumes transsituational and transcultural differences between men and women in social dominance orientation (SDO), with men showing higher levels of SDO than women. SDO is a general individual-difference variable expressing preference for superordinate in-group status, hierarchical relationships between social groups, and a view of group relations as inherently 0-sum. Data from a random sample of 1,897 respondents from Los Angeles County confirmed the notion that men have significantly higher social dominance scores than women and that these differences were consistent across cultural, demographic, and situational factors such as age, social class, religion, educational level, political ideology, ethnicity, racism, region of national origin, and gender-role relevant opinion. The theoretical implications are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SIDANIUS1994,
      author = {SIDANIUS, J and PRATTO, F and BOBO, L},
      title = {SOCIAL-DOMINANCE ORIENTATION AND THE POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY OF GENDER - A CASE OF INVARIANCE},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {67},
      number = {6},
      pages = {998-1011}
    }
    
    SIEVER, M. SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND GENDER AS FACTORS IN SOCIOCULTURALLY ACQUIRED VULNERABILITY TO BODY DISSATISFACTION AND EATING DISORDERS {1994} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {62}({2}), pp. {252-260} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study investigated the hypothesis that gay men and heterosexual women are dissatisfied with their bodies and vulnerable to eating disorders because of a shared emphasis on physical attractiveness and thinness that is based on a desire to attract and please men. Although men place priority on physical attractiveness in evaluating potential partners, women place greater emphasis on other factors, such as personality, status, power, and income. Therefore, lesbians and heterosexual men are less concemed with their own physical attractiveness and, consequently, less dissatisfied with their bodies and less vulnerable to eating disorders. Several instruments measuring body satisfaction, the importance of physical attractiveness, and symptoms of eating disorders were administered to 250 college students. The sample included 53 lesbians, 59 gay men, 62 heterosexual women, and 63 heterosexual men. Multivariate and univariate analyses of variance were used to examine the differences among the scores of lesbians, gay men, heterosexual women, and heterosexual men on these various constructs. The results generally confirmed the research hypothesis. The implications and ramifications these findings have for the understanding of both the psychology of lesbians and gay men and the prevention and treatment of eating disorders are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SIEVER1994,
      author = {SIEVER, MD},
      title = {SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND GENDER AS FACTORS IN SOCIOCULTURALLY ACQUIRED VULNERABILITY TO BODY DISSATISFACTION AND EATING DISORDERS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {62},
      number = {2},
      pages = {252-260}
    }
    
    SKINNER, B. WHATEVER HAPPENED TO PSYCHOLOGY AS THE SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOR {1987} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {42}({8}), pp. {780-786} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SKINNER1987,
      author = {SKINNER, BF},
      title = {WHATEVER HAPPENED TO PSYCHOLOGY AS THE SCIENCE OF BEHAVIOR},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {42},
      number = {8},
      pages = {780-786}
    }
    
    Skinner, R. & Piek, J. Psychosocial implications of poor motor coordination in children and adolescents {2001} HUMAN MOVEMENT SCIENCE
    Vol. {20}({1-2}), pp. {73-94} 
    article  
    Abstract: Utilising Harter's theory of competence motivation (Harter, S. The determinants and mediational role of global self-worth in children. In: N. Eisenberg, Contemporary topics in developmental psychology, Wiley, New York, 1987, pp. 219-242.), the current study examined perceived competence and social support, and their influence on self-worth and anxiety in children and adolescents with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A group of children aged 8-10 years, and a group of adolescents aged 12-14 years, with significant movement problems were compared with matched control groups on measures of perceived competence, perceived social support, self-worth and anxiety. Those with DCD were found to perceive themselves as less competent in several domains, and having less social support than control participants. Overall, DCD groups had lower self-worth and higher levels of anxiety than the control groups. Adolescents also perceived themselves as less competent with poorer social support and lower self-worth than younger children. In addition, anxiety was significantly higher for the adolescent group compared to their younger counterparts (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Skinner2001,
      author = {Skinner, RA and Piek, JP},
      title = {Psychosocial implications of poor motor coordination in children and adolescents},
      journal = {HUMAN MOVEMENT SCIENCE},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {20},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {73-94},
      note = {Meeting on Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), GRONINGEN, NETHERLANDS, 1999}
    }
    
    Slaney, R., Rice, K., Mobley, M., Trippi, J. & Ashby, J. The revised almost perfect scale {2001} MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN COUNSELING AND DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {34}({3}), pp. {130-145} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article describes the development of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and data exploring the reliability, and construct validity of the subscales are provided. The results support the existence of 3 subscales with adequate internal consistencies and promising relationships with other relevant measures.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Slaney2001,
      author = {Slaney, RB and Rice, KG and Mobley, M and Trippi, J and Ashby, JS},
      title = {The revised almost perfect scale},
      journal = {MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN COUNSELING AND DEVELOPMENT},
      publisher = {AMER COUNSELING ASSOC},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {34},
      number = {3},
      pages = {130-145}
    }
    
    Smith, E. What do connectionism and social psychology offer each other? {1996} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {70}({5}), pp. {893-912} 
    article  
    Abstract: Social psychologists can benefit from exploring connectionist or parallel distributed processing models of mental representation and process and also can contribute much to connectionist theory in return. Connectionist models involve many simple processing units that send activation signals over connections. At an abstract level, the models can be described as representing concepts (as distributed patterns of activation), operating like schemas to fill in typical values for input information, reconstructing memories based on accessible knowledge rather than retrieving static representations, using flexible and context-sensitive concepts, and computing by satisfying numerous constraints in parallel. This article reviews open questions regarding connectionist models and concludes that social psychological contributions to such topics as cognition-motivation interactions may be important for the development of integrative connectionist models.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Smith1996,
      author = {Smith, ER},
      title = {What do connectionism and social psychology offer each other?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {70},
      number = {5},
      pages = {893-912}
    }
    
    Smith, M. & Leigh, B. Virtual subjects: Using the Internet as an alternative source of subjects and research environment {1997} BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS INSTRUMENTS & COMPUTERS
    Vol. {29}({4}), pp. {496-505} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper presents a rationale for why some researchers might consider using the Internet for research by addressing four issues. First, a few unique research opportunities afforded by the Internet are discussed. Second, the utility of using newsgroups and the Telnet protocol is described. Third, Internet research ethical guidelines in five areas are developed. Fourth, the data validity issue is addressed, and previous research using Internet and introductory psychology subject samples is replicated. The samples were similar on 5 of 7 demographic variables but differed in age and sex compositions, and response patterns for the two samples were similar to those reported previously. Finally, some Limitations of the Internet are considered, as are its potentials to fulfill traditional research requirements and its use as an educational aid.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Smith1997,
      author = {Smith, MA and Leigh, B},
      title = {Virtual subjects: Using the Internet as an alternative source of subjects and research environment},
      journal = {BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS INSTRUMENTS & COMPUTERS},
      publisher = {PSYCHONOMIC SOC INC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {29},
      number = {4},
      pages = {496-505}
    }
    
    Sniehotta, F., Scholz, U. & Schwarzer, R. Bridging the intention-behaviour gap: Planning, self-efficacy, and action control in the adoption and maintenance of physical exercise {2005} PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH
    Vol. {20}({2}), pp. {143-160} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Although some people may develop an intention to change their health behaviour, they might not take any action. This discrepancy has been labelled the ``intention-behaviour gap.'' Detailed action planning, perceived self-efficacy, and self-regulatory strategies (action control) may mediate between intentions and behaviour. This was examined in a longitudinal sample of 307 cardiac rehabilitation patients who were encouraged to adopt or maintain regular exercise. At the first time point, the predictors of intention and intention itself were assessed. Two months and four months later, the mediators and outcomes were measured. Results confirmed that all the three factors (planning, maintenance self-efficacy, and action control) served to mediate between earlier exercise intentions and later physical activity, each of them making a unique contribution. The results have implications for research on the ``intention-behaviour gap,'' and indicate that planning, maintenance self-efficacy and action control may be important volitional variables.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sniehotta2005,
      author = {Sniehotta, FF and Scholz, U and Schwarzer, R},
      title = {Bridging the intention-behaviour gap: Planning, self-efficacy, and action control in the adoption and maintenance of physical exercise},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGY & HEALTH},
      publisher = {TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {20},
      number = {2},
      pages = {143-160},
      doi = {{10.1080/08870440512331317670}}
    }
    
    SODOWSKY, G., TAFFE, R., GUTKIN, T. & WISE, S. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING INVENTORY - A SELF-REPORT MEASURE OF MULTICULTURAL COMPETENCES {1994} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {41}({2}), pp. {137-148} 
    article  
    Abstract: This article presents the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI), a self-report instrument that measures multicultural counseling competencies. Study 1 comprised 604 psychology students, psychologists, and counselors in a midwestern state. In Study 2, respondents were a national random sample of 320 university counselors. Instrument analysis included exploratory principal-axis factor analysis with oblique rotation, assessment of factor congruence between the factor structures of the 2 samples, LISREL confirmatory factor analysis to test the relative goodness of fit of 6 competing factor models of the MCI, and tests of internal consistency reliabilities. Results indicated that the MCI has 4 factors: Multicultural Counseling Skills, Multicultural Awareness, Multicultural Counseling Relationship, and Multicultural Counseling Knowledge. A higher order, more general multicultural counseling factor is also discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SODOWSKY1994,
      author = {SODOWSKY, GR and TAFFE, RC and GUTKIN, TB and WISE, SL},
      title = {DEVELOPMENT OF THE MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING INVENTORY - A SELF-REPORT MEASURE OF MULTICULTURAL COMPETENCES},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {41},
      number = {2},
      pages = {137-148}
    }
    
    Somerfield, M. & McCrae, R. Stress and coping research - Methodological challenges, theoretical advances, and clinical applications {2000} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {55}({6}), pp. {620-625} 
    article  
    Abstract: Coping is among the most widely studied topics in contemporary psychology. However, the explosion of interest in coping has yielded little and the field is in crisis. This section offers a survey of the state of the art in theory and research on stress and adaptational processes. The four core articles in the section take up, respectively, problems in research design, the neglect of unconscious reactions to stress, the selection of adaptational outcomes, and the link between research on adaptational processes and clinical practice. The final article by Richard S. Lazarus offers a commentary. The present introduction provides the historical backdrop for the section. Then, after a brief overview of research on adaptational processes, the authors summarize the scope and yield of coping research and preview the four core articles in the section. The strengths and limits of individual coping efforts and the need for realistic expectations and redoubled efforts are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Somerfield2000,
      author = {Somerfield, MR and McCrae, RR},
      title = {Stress and coping research - Methodological challenges, theoretical advances, and clinical applications},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {55},
      number = {6},
      pages = {620-625}
    }
    
    SOMERS, M. NARRATIVITY, NARRATIVE IDENTITY, AND SOCIAL-ACTION - RETHINKING ENGLISH WORKING-CLASS FORMATION {1992} SOCIAL SCIENCE HISTORY
    Vol. {16}({4}), pp. {591-630} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SOMERS1992,
      author = {SOMERS, MR},
      title = {NARRATIVITY, NARRATIVE IDENTITY, AND SOCIAL-ACTION - RETHINKING ENGLISH WORKING-CLASS FORMATION},
      journal = {SOCIAL SCIENCE HISTORY},
      publisher = {DUKE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {16},
      number = {4},
      pages = {591-630}
    }
    
    Spangenberg, E., Crowley, A. & Henderson, P. Improving the store environment: Do olfactory cues affect evaluations and behaviors? {1996} JOURNAL OF MARKETING
    Vol. {60}({2}), pp. {67-80} 
    article  
    Abstract: The popular press has recently reported that managers of retail and service outlets are diffusing scents into their stores to create more positive environments and develop a competitive advantage. These efforts are occurring despite there being no scholarly research supporting the use of scent in store environments. The authors present a review of theoretically relevant work from environmental psychology and olfaction research and a study examining the effects of ambient scent in a simulated retail environment. In the reported study, the authors find a difference between evaluations of and behaviors in a scented store environment and those in an unscented store environment. Their findings provide guidelines for managers of retail and service outlets concerning the benefits of scenting store environments.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Spangenberg1996,
      author = {Spangenberg, ER and Crowley, AE and Henderson, PW},
      title = {Improving the store environment: Do olfactory cues affect evaluations and behaviors?},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF MARKETING},
      publisher = {AMER MARKETING ASSN},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {60},
      number = {2},
      pages = {67-80}
    }
    
    Sparkes, A. Validity in qualitative inquiry and the problem of criteria: Implications for sport psychology {1998} SPORT PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {12}({4}), pp. {363-386} 
    article  
    Abstract: Evaluating the quality of qualitative inquiry has begun to intrigue researchers in sport psychology. Consequently, this has raised important questions regarding the criteria for judging this emerging form of inquiry. With the intent to stimulate methodological debate, this paper explores prevailing notions of validity in qualitative sport psychology by focusing on how various scholars have framed this term. The prevailing parallel perspective of validity is discussed, as are specific problems associated with this view In contrast recent attempts to reconceptualize validity in relation to particular forms of qualitative inquiry are considered. The socially constructed nature of validity and the multiplicity of meanings associated with this term are presented according to a diversification perspective. More radical calls to renounce validity and seek alternative criteria for judging qualitative inquiry are also discussed. In closing, the ongoing problem of criteria and its implications for research in sport psychology are considered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sparkes1998,
      author = {Sparkes, AC},
      title = {Validity in qualitative inquiry and the problem of criteria: Implications for sport psychology},
      journal = {SPORT PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {HUMAN KINETICS PUBL INC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {12},
      number = {4},
      pages = {363-386}
    }
    
    Speiser, P., Rudolf, M., Anhalt, H., Camacho-Hubner, C., Chiarelli, F., Eliakim, A., Freemark, M., Gruters, A., Hershkovitz, E., Iughetti, L., Krude, H., Latzer, Y., Lustig, R., Pescovitz, O., Hamiel, O., Rogol, A., Shalitin, S., Sultan, C., Stein, D., Vardi, P., Werther, G., Zadik, Z., Zuckerman-Levin, N., Hochberg, Z. & Obesity Consensus Working Grp Consensus statement: Childhood obesity {2005} JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM
    Vol. {90}({3}), pp. {1871-1887} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In March 2004 a group of 65 physicians and other health professionals representing nine countries on four continents convened in Israel to discuss the widespread public health crisis in childhood obesity. Their aim was to explore the available evidence and develop a consensus on the way forward. The process was rigorous, although time and resources did not permit the development of formal evidence-based guidelines. In the months before meeting, participants were allocated to seven groups covering prevalence, causes, risks, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and psychology. Through electronic communication each group selected the key issues for their area, searched the literature, and developed a draft document. Over the 3-d meeting, these papers were debated and finalized by each group before presenting to the full group for further discussion and agreement. In developing a consensus statement, this international group has presented the evidence, developed recommendations, and provided a platform aimed toward future corrective action and ongoing debate in the international community.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Speiser2005,
      author = {Speiser, PW and Rudolf, MCJ and Anhalt, H and Camacho-Hubner, C and Chiarelli, F and Eliakim, A and Freemark, M and Gruters, A and Hershkovitz, E and Iughetti, L and Krude, H and Latzer, Y and Lustig, RH and Pescovitz, OH and Hamiel, OP and Rogol, AD and Shalitin, S and Sultan, C and Stein, D and Vardi, P and Werther, GA and Zadik, Z and Zuckerman-Levin, N and Hochberg, Z and Obesity Consensus Working Grp},
      title = {Consensus statement: Childhood obesity},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM},
      publisher = {ENDOCRINE SOC},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {90},
      number = {3},
      pages = {1871-1887},
      doi = {{10.1210/jc.2004-1389}}
    }
    
    SPENCE, J. & ROBBINS, A. WORKAHOLISM - DEFINITION, MEASUREMENT, AND PRELIMINARY-RESULTS {1992} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT
    Vol. {58}({1}), pp. {160-178} 
    article  
    Abstract: Questionnaires were developed to assess the concept of workaholism, defined in terms of high scores on measures of work involvement and driveness and low scores on a measure of enjoyment of work, and to contrast this profile with work enthusiasm, defined as high work involvement and enjoyment and low driveness. Additional scales were devised to test several predictions about the correlates of workaholism. A test battery including these scales was given in a mail survey to a national sample of male (n = 134) and female (n = 157) social workers with academic positions. The psychometric properties of the scales are described. Cluster analyses for each sex revealed groups who corresponded to the workaholic and work enthusiast profiles as well as several other profiles. As predicted, workaholics were higher than work enthusiasts (among other groups) on measures of perfectionism, nondelegation of responsibility, and job stress. They were also higher on a measure of health complaints. Investigations are being initiated to determine the association of workaholism and other score profiles with objectively diagnosed cardiac disorders and with measures of occupational performance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SPENCE1992,
      author = {SPENCE, JT and ROBBINS, AS},
      title = {WORKAHOLISM - DEFINITION, MEASUREMENT, AND PRELIMINARY-RESULTS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT},
      publisher = {LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC INC},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {58},
      number = {1},
      pages = {160-178}
    }
    
    SPILKA, B., SHAVER, P. & KIRKPATRICK, L. A GENERAL ATTRIBUTION THEORY FOR THE PSYCHOLOGY OF RELIGION {1985} JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF RELIGION
    Vol. {24}({1}), pp. {1-20} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SPILKA1985,
      author = {SPILKA, B and SHAVER, P and KIRKPATRICK, LA},
      title = {A GENERAL ATTRIBUTION THEORY FOR THE PSYCHOLOGY OF RELIGION},
      journal = {JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF RELIGION},
      publisher = {SOC SCIENTIFIC STUDY RELIGION},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {24},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1-20}
    }
    
    SPORER, S. EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION ACCURACY, CONFIDENCE, AND DECISION TIMES IN SIMULTANEOUS AND SEQUENTIAL LINEUPS {1993} JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {78}({1}), pp. {22-33} 
    article  
    Abstract: Eyewitness identification accuracy was investigated in simultaneous and sequential lineups. Seventy-two subjects watched a film of a robbery in a public park under incidental learning conditions and returned to the laboratory the following day to answer questions about the film. Sequential lineup procedures led to significantly fewer false identifications than the simultaneous lineup mode, with comparable performance in detecting the perpetrator in target-present conditions. Alternative methods for analyzing confidence and decision times in sequential lineups are presented which allow for more fine-grained analyses of the relationships between accuracy, confidence, and decision times both between and within subjects. Distinguishing between choosers and nonchoosers, these analyses show the predictive utility of decision times and confidence as assessment variables.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SPORER1993,
      author = {SPORER, SL},
      title = {EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATION ACCURACY, CONFIDENCE, AND DECISION TIMES IN SIMULTANEOUS AND SEQUENTIAL LINEUPS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {78},
      number = {1},
      pages = {22-33}
    }
    
    STEEN, B. & DJURFELDT, H. THE GERONTOLOGICAL AND GERIATRIC POPULATION STUDIES IN GOTHENBURG, SWEDEN {1993} ZEITSCHRIFT FUR GERONTOLOGIE
    Vol. {26}({3}), pp. {163-169} 
    article  
    Abstract: A representative sample of about 1000 70-year-olds in 1971/72 was included in the longitudinal and cross-sectional population study of elderly people in Gothenburg, Sweden (H70). The objectives were to make a survey of the social and medical conditions of this population, to obtain basic data for planning the care of the elderly, to contribute to the knowledge of normal aging processes and of normal criteria within the age group, and to offer a thorough medical examination. The survivors have been examined longitudinally at ages 70, 75, 79, 81, 82, 83, 85, 88, and 90 years of age. As possible cohort effects during 5-year-periods are also an object of interest, a further two cohorts have been examined at age 70, 75, and 79, and 70, 72, and 76, respectively. Another 75-year-old cohort has also been included (the Nordic comparative study of 75-year-olds-NK75). Using mainly identical methods, but different additional examinations, three Nordic countries cooperated in a comparative study of functional aging within the framework of the gerontological and geriatric population studies during the period October 1990 -May 1991. The other centers were the universities of Copenhagen and Jyvaskyla. The study aimed at comparing functional ability and biological aging between elderly in the Nordic countries. On an average, 3000 to 4000 variables about aging and diseases in old age are being collected per subject. Scientific results have been published in 21 doctoral dissertations and about 400 original articles, reviews, and reports, which form a basis for i.a. the planning of preventive social and medical activities and health care for the elderly in the future. In this review article the general concept, populations, proceedings, and methods are described, as well as some general results, and results from some subareas, namely, psychology, psychiatry, movement analyses, the cardiovascular system, osteoporosis, oral health, dietary habits, and body composition examinations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{STEEN1993,
      author = {STEEN, B and DJURFELDT, H},
      title = {THE GERONTOLOGICAL AND GERIATRIC POPULATION STUDIES IN GOTHENBURG, SWEDEN},
      journal = {ZEITSCHRIFT FUR GERONTOLOGIE},
      publisher = {DR DIETRICH STEINKOPFF VERLAG},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {26},
      number = {3},
      pages = {163-169}
    }
    
    STEINER, I. WHATEVER HAPPENED TO GROUP IN SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY {1974} JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {10}({1}), pp. {94-108} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{STEINER1974,
      author = {STEINER, ID},
      title = {WHATEVER HAPPENED TO GROUP IN SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ACADEMIC PRESS INC JNL-COMP SUBSCRIPTIONS},
      year = {1974},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {94-108}
    }
    
    Sterr, A., Elbert, T., Berthold, I., Kolbel, S., Rockstroh, B. & Taub, E. Longer versus shorter daily constraint-induced movement therapy of chronic hemiparesis: An exploratory study {2002} ARCHIVES OF PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION
    Vol. {83}({10}), pp. {1374-1377} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Objective: To evaluate and compare the effects of 3-hour versus 6-hour daily training sessions in constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT). Design: Intervention study, 2-group randomized trial; baseline, pretreatment, and posttreatment measures; 1-month follow-up (weekly measures). Setting: University department of psychology in Germany. Participants: A convenience sample of 15 adults with chronic hemiparesis (13 stroke, 2 traumatic brain injury). Intervention: CIMT (14 consecutive days; constraint of unaffected hand for a target of 90% of waking hours) with either 6 hours (6h/d group, n=7) or 3 hours (3h/d group, n=8) of shaping training with the affected hand per day. Main Outcome Measures: The Motor Activity Log and Wolf Motor Function Test. Results: Significant improvements in motor function in the laboratory and increased use of the affected hand in the real-world environment were found in both groups. The beneficial effects were significantly greater in the 6h/d group than in the 3h/d group. Conclusion: The 3-hour CIMT training schedule significantly improved motor function in chronic hemiparesis, but it was less effective than the 6-hour training schedule.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sterr2002,
      author = {Sterr, A and Elbert, T and Berthold, I and Kolbel, S and Rockstroh, B and Taub, E},
      title = {Longer versus shorter daily constraint-induced movement therapy of chronic hemiparesis: An exploratory study},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION},
      publisher = {W B SAUNDERS CO},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {83},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1374-1377},
      doi = {{10.1053/apmr.2002.35108}}
    }
    
    Stets, J. & Burke, P. Identity theory and social identity theory {2000} SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY
    Vol. {63}({3}), pp. {224-237} 
    article  
    Abstract: In social psychology, we need to establish a general theory of the self which can attend to both macro and micro processes, and which avoids the redundancies of separate theories on different aspects of the self For this purpose, we present core components of identity theory and social identity theory and argue that although differences exist between the two theories, they are more differences in emphasis than in kind and that linking the two theories can establish a more fully integrated view of the self: The core components we examine include the different bases of identity (category/group or role) in each of the theories, identity salience and the activation of identities as discussed in the theories, and the cognitive and motivational processes that emerge from identities based on category/group and on role. By examining the self through the lens of both identity theory and social identity theory, we see how in combination, they can move us toward a general theory of the self.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Stets2000,
      author = {Stets, JE and Burke, PJ},
      title = {Identity theory and social identity theory},
      journal = {SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY QUARTERLY},
      publisher = {AMER SOCIOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {63},
      number = {3},
      pages = {224-237},
      note = {Annual Meeting of the American-Sociological-Association, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, AUG 20-27, 1998}
    }
    
    STOKOLS, D. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY {1978} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {29}, pp. {253-295} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{STOKOLS1978,
      author = {STOKOLS, D},
      title = {ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS INC},
      year = {1978},
      volume = {29},
      pages = {253-295}
    }
    
    Suddendorf, T. & Corballis, M.C. The evolution of foresight: What is mental time travel, and is it unique to humans? {2007} BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES
    Vol. {30}({3}), pp. {299+} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: In a dynamic world, mechanisms allowing prediction of future situations call provide a selective advantage. We suggest that memory systems differ in the degree of flexibility they offer for anticipatory behavior and put forward a corresponding taxonomy of prospection. The adaptive advantage of any memory system can only lie in what it contributes for future survival. The most flexible is episodic memory, which we suggest is part of a more general faculty of mental time travel that allows us not only to go back in time, but also to foresee, plan, and shape virtually any specific future event. We review comparative studies and find that, in spite of increased research in the area, there is as yet no convincing evidence for mental time travel in nonhuman animals. We submit that mental time travel is not an encapsulated cognitive system, but instead comprises several subsidiary mechanisms. A theater metaphor serves as an analogy for the kind of mechanisms required for effective mental time travel. We propose that future research should consider these mechanisms in addition to direct evidence of future-directed action. We maintain that the emergence of mental time travel in evolution was a crucial step towards our current success.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Suddendorf2007,
      author = {Suddendorf, Thomas and Corballis, Michael C.},
      title = {The evolution of foresight: What is mental time travel, and is it unique to humans?},
      journal = {BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES},
      publisher = {CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {30},
      number = {3},
      pages = {299+},
      doi = {{10.1017/S0140525X07001975}}
    }
    
    Sue, D., Bingham, R., Porche-Burke, L. & Vasquez, M. The diversification of psychology - A multicultural revolution {1999} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {54}({12}), pp. {1061-1069} 
    article  
    Abstract: The National Multicultural Conference and Summit was held ill January 1999 in Newport Beach, California, Hosted by Divisions 17 (Counseling Psychology), 35 (Society for the Psychology of Women), and 45 (Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues), the event drew support from many American Psychological Association (APA) divisions and other major organizations and sponsors, Approximately 550 psychologists and graduate students attended the conference, which was intended to (a) examine state-of-the-art issues in ethnic minority psychology, (b) identify barriers to becoming a multicultural profession, and (c) forge alliances for political action and advocacy. The summit participants unanimously endorsed resolutions aimed at implementing cultural competence in all psychological endeavors. Multicultural themes arising from the summit included the diversification of the United States; the facilitation of difficult dialogues on race, gender, and sexual orientation; spirituality as a basic dimension of the human condition; the invisibility of monoculturalism and Whiteness; and the teaching of multiculturalism and diversity, APA was strongly encouraged to take the lend in seeing that multicultural competence becomes a defining feature of psychological practice, education and training, and research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sue1999,
      author = {Sue, DW and Bingham, RP and Porche-Burke, L and Vasquez, M},
      title = {The diversification of psychology - A multicultural revolution},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {54},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1061-1069}
    }
    
    Swingley, D. & Aslin, R. Lexical neighborhoods and the word-form representations of 14-month-olds {2002} PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {13}({5}), pp. {480-484} 
    article  
    Abstract: The degree to which infants represent phonetic detail in words has been a source of controversy in phonology and developmental psychology. One prominent hypothesis holds that infants store words in a vague or inaccurate form until the learning of similar-sounding neighbors forces attention to subtle phonetic distinctions. In the experiment reported here, we used a visual fixation task to assess word recognition. We present the first evidence indicating that, in fact, the lexical representations of 14- and 15-month-olds are encoded in fine detail, even when this detail is not functionally necessary for distinguishing similar words in the infant's vocabulary. Exposure to words is sufficient for well-specified lexical representations, even well before the vocabulary spurt. These results suggest developmental continuity in infants' representations of speech: As infants begin to build a vocabulary and learn word meanings, they use the perceptual abilities previously demonstrated in tasks testing the discrimination and categorization of meaningless syllables.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Swingley2002,
      author = {Swingley, D and Aslin, RN},
      title = {Lexical neighborhoods and the word-form representations of 14-month-olds},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHERS},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {13},
      number = {5},
      pages = {480-484}
    }
    
    SYMON, D. Beauty is in the adaptations of the beholder: The evolutionary psychology of human female sexual attractiveness {1995} SEXUAL NATURE, SEXUAL CULTURE, pp. {80-118}  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{SYMON1995,
      author = {SYMON, D},
      title = {Beauty is in the adaptations of the beholder: The evolutionary psychology of human female sexual attractiveness},
      booktitle = {SEXUAL NATURE, SEXUAL CULTURE},
      publisher = {UNIV CHICAGO PRESS},
      year = {1995},
      pages = {80-118},
      note = {Wenner-Gren Conference on Theorizing Sexuality - Evolution, Culture, and Development, CASCAIS, PORTUGAL, MAR 19-27, 1993}
    }
    
    Tahai, A. & Meyer, M. A revealed preference study of management journals' direct influences {1999} STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT JOURNAL
    Vol. {20}({3}), pp. {279-296} 
    article  
    Abstract: Our study develops and uses a new methodology for analyzing journal citations to recent publications to determine which management journals now have the greatest influence on the field of management. It analyzes the 23637 academic journal references cited in the 1275 articles published in 17 key management journals during 1993 and 1994 focusing on citations to references published up to the modal vintage of 4 years earlier. Most cited as a percentage of all these references was Strategic Management Journal (11, followed by Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Academy of Management Review, Administrative Sciences Quarterly, and Journal of Management-accounting in total for 51 percent of all citations. Strategic Management Journal, whose subfield of strategic management has become a major concern of management in general, has developed as the predominant academic journal influencing the field Of management Our measures of journal influence provide information which can aid management scholars, practitioners, department heads, and university libraries to decide on efficient choices of journals for research and for manuscript submissions, for evaluation, and for subscriptions. Just seven management and social science journals, led by Strategic Management Journal, contain more than half of the cited articles published recently. Copyright (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tahai1999,
      author = {Tahai, A and Meyer, MJ},
      title = {A revealed preference study of management journals' direct influences},
      journal = {STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT JOURNAL},
      publisher = {JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {20},
      number = {3},
      pages = {279-296}
    }
    
    TATA, S. & LEONG, F. INDIVIDUALISM-COLLECTIVISM, SOCIAL-NETWORK ORIENTATION, AND ACCULTURATION AS PREDICTORS OF ATTITUDES TOWARD SEEKING PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGICAL HELP AMONG CHINESE-AMERICANS {1994} JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {41}({3}), pp. {280-287} 
    article  
    Abstract: Several culturally based variables were used to predict the patterns of help-seeking attitudes among a sample of Chinese-American students (N = 219) in a large midwestern university. Cultural values operationalized by H. C. Triandis, R. Bontempo, M. J. Villareal, M. Asai, and N. Lucca's (1988) Individualism-Collectivism Scale, social support attitudes operationalized by A. Vaux's (1985) Network Orientation Scale, and the continuous variable of acculturation operationalized by the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (R. M. Suinn, K. Rickard-Figueroa, S. Lew, & P. Vigil, 1987) were selected as predictors of attitudes as measured by E. H. Fischer and J. L. Turner's (1970) Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale. Each of the 4 independent variables were found to be significant predictors of attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help. The counseling and research implications of the results are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{TATA1994,
      author = {TATA, SP and LEONG, FTL},
      title = {INDIVIDUALISM-COLLECTIVISM, SOCIAL-NETWORK ORIENTATION, AND ACCULTURATION AS PREDICTORS OF ATTITUDES TOWARD SEEKING PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGICAL HELP AMONG CHINESE-AMERICANS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {41},
      number = {3},
      pages = {280-287}
    }
    
    Taub, E., Crago, J. & Uswatte, G. Constraint-induced movement therapy: A new approach to treatment in physical rehabilitation {1998} REHABILITATION PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {43}({2}), pp. {152-170} 
    article  
    Abstract: Constraint-induced (CI) Movement Therapy is a new approach to the rehabilitation of movement, based on research in neuroscience and behavioral psychology, that has been shown in controlled experiments to greatly increase the amount of use of an impaired upper extremity in chronic stroke patients in both the laboratory and the real world. CI Therapy consists of a family of techniques that induce stroke patients to greatly increase their use of an affected upper extremity for many hours a day over 10 to 14 consecutive days. The signature technique involves restricting the contralateral arm in a sling and training the affected arm. This commentary reviews the animal and human research and the theoretical formulation on which CI Therapy is based.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Taub1998,
      author = {Taub, E and Crago, JE and Uswatte, G},
      title = {Constraint-induced movement therapy: A new approach to treatment in physical rehabilitation},
      journal = {REHABILITATION PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {SPRINGER PUBL CO},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {43},
      number = {2},
      pages = {152-170}
    }
    
    TAYLOR, S. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY - THE SCIENCE AND THE FIELD {1990} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {45}({1}), pp. {40-50} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{TAYLOR1990,
      author = {TAYLOR, SE},
      title = {HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY - THE SCIENCE AND THE FIELD},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {45},
      number = {1},
      pages = {40-50}
    }
    
    TENNEN, H., HALL, J. & AFFLECK, G. DEPRESSION RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES IN THE JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY - A REVIEW AND CRITIQUE {1995} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {68}({5}), pp. {870-884} 
    article  
    Abstract: Personality and social psychological studies of depression and depressive phenomena have become more methodologically sophisticated in recent years. In response to earlier problems in this literature, investigators have formulated sound suggestions for research designs. Studies of depression published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP) between 1988 and 1993 were reviewed to evaluate how well these recommendations have been followed. Forty-one articles were examined for adherence to 3 suggestions appearing consistently in the literature: (a) multiple assessment periods, (b) multiple assessment methods, and (c) appropriate comparison groups. The studies published in JPSP have not adhered well to these standards. The authors recommend resetting minimum methodological criteria for studies of depression published in the premier journal in personality and social psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{TENNEN1995,
      author = {TENNEN, H and HALL, JA and AFFLECK, G},
      title = {DEPRESSION RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES IN THE JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGY - A REVIEW AND CRITIQUE},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {68},
      number = {5},
      pages = {870-884}
    }
    
    Thompson, B. & Vacha-Haase, T. Psychometrics is datametrics: The test is not reliable {2000} EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT
    Vol. {60}({2}), pp. {174-195} 
    article  
    Abstract: The present article responds to selected criticisms of some EPM editorial policies and Vacha-Haase's ``reliability generalization'' mete-analytic methods. However, the treatment is more broadly a manifesto regarding the nature of score reliability and what are reasonable expectations for psychometric reporting practices in substantive inquiries. The consequences of misunderstandings of score reliability are explored. It is suggested that paradigmatic misconceptions regarding psychometric issues feed into a spiral of presumptions that measurement training is unnecessary for doctoral students, which then in turn further reinforces misunderstandings of score integrity issues.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Thompson2000,
      author = {Thompson, B and Vacha-Haase, T},
      title = {Psychometrics is datametrics: The test is not reliable},
      journal = {EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {60},
      number = {2},
      pages = {174-195}
    }
    
    THOMPSON, C., LOCANDER, W. & POLLIO, H. THE LIVED MEANING OF FREE CHOICE - AN EXISTENTIAL-PHENOMENOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF EVERYDAY CONSUMER EXPERIENCES OF CONTEMPORARY MARRIED-WOMEN {1990} JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH
    Vol. {17}({3}), pp. {346-361} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{THOMPSON1990,
      author = {THOMPSON, CJ and LOCANDER, WB and POLLIO, HR},
      title = {THE LIVED MEANING OF FREE CHOICE - AN EXISTENTIAL-PHENOMENOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF EVERYDAY CONSUMER EXPERIENCES OF CONTEMPORARY MARRIED-WOMEN},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH},
      publisher = {UNIV CHICAGO PRESS},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {17},
      number = {3},
      pages = {346-361}
    }
    
    Thompson, R. The legacy of early attachments {2000} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {71}({1}), pp. {145-152} 
    article  
    Abstract: The impact of early close relationships on psychological development is one of the enduring questions of developmental psychology that is addressed by attachment theory and research. This essay evaluates what has been learned, and offers ideas for future research, by examining the origins of continuity and change in the security of attachment early in life, and its prediction of later behavior. The discussion evaluates research on the impact of changing family circumstances and quality of care on changes in attachment security, and offers new hypotheses for future study. Considering the representations (or internal working models) associated with attachment security as developing representations, the discussion proposes that (1) attachment security may be developmentally most influential when the working models with which it is associated have sufficiently matured to influence other emerging features of psychosocial functioning; (2) changes in attachment security are more likely during periods of representational advance; and (3) parent-child discourse and other relational influences share these developing representations alter infancy. Finally, other features of early parent-child relationships that develop concurrently with attachment security, including negotiating conflict and establishing cooperation also must be considered in understanding the legacy of early attachments.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Thompson2000a,
      author = {Thompson, RA},
      title = {The legacy of early attachments},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHERS},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {71},
      number = {1},
      pages = {145-152}
    }
    
    Tierney, P., Farmer, S. & Graen, G. An examination of leadership and employee creativity: The relevance of traits and relationships {1999} PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {52}({3}), pp. {591-620} 
    article  
    Abstract: Creativity is becoming a topic of ever-increasing interest to organizational managers. Thus, there is a need for a greater understanding of the dynamics between the personal and contextual factors responsible for creative performance in work settings. In particular, there is a need to identify the role of leadership for creativity. Until now, creativity studies have examined leadership and employee characteristics from a single-domain perspective. Data from 191 R&D employees of a large chemical company were used to test a multidomain, interactionist creativity model of employee characteristics, leader characteristics, and Leader-Member Exchange (LMX). Results suggest that employee intrinsic motivation and cognitive style, LMX, the interactions between employee intrinsic motivation and leader intrinsic motivation, and between LMX and employee cognitive style relate to employee creative performance as measured by supervisor ratings, invention disclosure forms, or research reports. Implications for practicing managers and research on leadership and creativity are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tierney1999,
      author = {Tierney, P and Farmer, SM and Graen, GB},
      title = {An examination of leadership and employee creativity: The relevance of traits and relationships},
      journal = {PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY INC},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {52},
      number = {3},
      pages = {591-620}
    }
    
    Tovee, M., Maisey, D., Emery, J. & Cornelissen, P. Visual cues to female physical attractiveness {1999} PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
    Vol. {266}({1415}), pp. {211-218} 
    article  
    Abstract: Evolutionary psychology suggests that a woman's sexual attractiveness is based on cues of health and reproductive potential. In recent years, research has focused on the ratio of the width of the waist to the width of the hips (the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)). A low WHR (i.e. a curvaceous body) is believed to correspond to the optimal fat distribution for high fertility, and so this shape should be highly attractive. In this paper we present evidence that weight scaled for height (the body mass index (BMI)) is the primary determinant of sexual attractiveness rather than WHR. BMI is also strongly linked to health and reproductive potential. Furthermore, we show how covariation of apparent BMI and WHR in previous studies led to the overestimation of the importance of WHR in the perception of female attractiveness. Finally, we show how visual cues, such as the perimeter-area ratio (PAR), can provide an accurate and reliable index of an individual's BMI and could be used by an observer to differentiate between potential partners.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tovee1999,
      author = {Tovee, MJ and Maisey, DS and Emery, JL and Cornelissen, PL},
      title = {Visual cues to female physical attractiveness},
      journal = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES},
      publisher = {ROYAL SOC LONDON},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {266},
      number = {1415},
      pages = {211-218}
    }
    
    Turk, D. & Okifuji, A. Psychological factors in chronic pain: Evolution and revolution {2002} JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {70}({3}), pp. {678-690} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Research has demonstrated the importance of psychological factors in coping, quality of life, and disability in chronic pain. Furthermore, the contributions of psychology in the effectiveness of treatment of chronic pain patients have received empirical support. The authors describe a biopsychosocial model of chronic pain and provide an update on research implicating the importance of people's appraisals of their symptoms, their ability to self-manage pain and related problems, and their fears about pain and injury that motivate efforts to avoid exacerbation of symptoms and further injury or reinjury. They provide a selected review to illustrate treatment outcome research, methodological issues, practical, and clinical issues to identify promising directions. Although there remain obstacles, there are also opportunities for psychologists to contribute to improved understanding of pain and treatment of people who suffer from chronic pain, The authors conclude by noting that pain has received a tremendous amount of attention culminating in the passage of a law by the U.S. Congress designating the period 2001-2011 as the ``The Decade of Pain Control and Research.''
    BibTeX:
    @article{Turk2002,
      author = {Turk, DC and Okifuji, A},
      title = {Psychological factors in chronic pain: Evolution and revolution},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {70},
      number = {3},
      pages = {678-690},
      doi = {{10.1037//0022-006X.70.3.678}}
    }
    
    Turri, M., Datta, S., DeFries, J., Henderson, N. & Flint, J. QTL analysis identifies multiple behavioral dimensions in ethological tests of anxiety in laboratory mice {2001} CURRENT BIOLOGY
    Vol. {11}({10}), pp. {725-734} 
    article  
    Abstract: Background: Ethological tests of anxiety-related behaviors, such as the open field arena and elevated plus maze, are often carried out on transgenic animals in the attempt to correlate gene function with a behavioral phenotype. However, the interpretation of such tests is problematic, as it is probable that different tests measure different aspects of behavior; indeed, anxiety may not be a unitary phenomenon. Here, we address these questions by asking whether behaviors in five ethological tests of anxiety are under the influence of a common set of genes. Results: Using over 1600 F2 intercross animals, we demonstrate that separate, but overlapping, genetic effects can be detected that influence different behavioral dimensions in the open field, elevated plus maze, square maze, light-dark box, and mirror chamber. We find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosomes 1, 4, and 15 that operate in four tests of anxiety but can be differentiated by their action on behavior in threatening and nonthreatening environments and by whether habituation of the animals to an aversive environment alters their influence. QTLs on chromosomes 7, 12, 14, 18, and X influenced a subset of behavioral measures. Conclusions: The chromosome 15 QTL acts primarily on avoidance behavior, the chromosome 1 QTL influences exploration, and the QTL on chromosome 4 influences activity. However, the effects of loci on other chromosomes are not so readily reconciled with our current understanding of the psychology of anxiety. Genetic effects on behaviors in these tests are more complex than expected and may not reflect an influence on anxiety.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Turri2001,
      author = {Turri, MG and Datta, SR and DeFries, J and Henderson, ND and Flint, J},
      title = {QTL analysis identifies multiple behavioral dimensions in ethological tests of anxiety in laboratory mice},
      journal = {CURRENT BIOLOGY},
      publisher = {CELL PRESS},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {11},
      number = {10},
      pages = {725-734}
    }
    
    Tyler, T. Psychological perspectives on legitimacy and legitimation {2006} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {57}, pp. {375-400} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Legitimacy is a psychological property of an authority, institution, or social arrangement that leads those connected to it to believe that it is appropriate, proper, and just. Because of legitimacy, people feel that they ought to defer to decisions and rules, following them voluntarily out of obligation rather than out of fear of punishment or anticipation of reward. Being legitimate is important to the success of authorities, institutions, and institutional arrangements since it is difficult to exert influence over others based solely upon the possession and use of power. Being able to gain voluntary acquiescence from most people, most of the time, due to their sense of obligation increases effectiveness during periods of scarcity, crisis, and conflict. The concept of legitimacy has a long history within social thought and social psychology, and it has emerged as increasingly important within recent research on the dynamics of political, legal, and social systems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tyler2006,
      author = {Tyler, TR},
      title = {Psychological perspectives on legitimacy and legitimation},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {57},
      pages = {375-400},
      doi = {{10.1146/annurev.psych.57.102904.190038}}
    }
    
    Tyler, T. Why people cooperate with organizations: An identity-based perspective {1999}
    Vol. {21}RESEARCH IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR, VOL. 21, 1999, pp. {201-246} 
    incollection  
    Abstract: A core question in the study of organizations is why people cooperate with the organizations to which they belong. In this analysis I argue that cooperative behavior is linked to the role organizations play in defining and maintaining people's social identities. People define themselves and evaluate their self-worth, at least in part, through status judgments linked to the organizations to which they belong. When people receive favorable identity-relevant information from membership in an organization they respond behaviorally by cooperating with the organization-that is, following organizational rules, acting in ways which help the organization and showing loyalty to the organization. Further, people respond to favorable identity-relevant information by developing internal values that lead them to voluntarily engage in such cooperative behaviors. Two identity relevant judgments are distinguished: pride and respect. Pride reflects evaluations of the status of one's organization. Respect reflects assessments of how one is evaluated by others in that organization. Both identity-relevant judgments influence the extent to which:people engage in cooperative behavior.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{Tyler1999,
      author = {Tyler, TR},
      title = {Why people cooperate with organizations: An identity-based perspective},
      booktitle = {RESEARCH IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR, VOL. 21, 1999},
      publisher = {JAI PRESS INC},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {21},
      pages = {201-246}
    }
    
    Tyler, T. & Boeckmann, R. Three strikes and you are out, but why? The psychology of public support for punishing rule breakers {1997} LAW & SOCIETY REVIEW
    Vol. {31}({2}), pp. {237-265} 
    article  
    Abstract: This study examines why the public supports the punishment of rule breakers. It does so within the context of a recently enacted California initiative mandating life in prison for repeat felons (the `'three strikes'' law). Antecedents of three aspects of people's reactions to rule breakers are explored: (1) support for the three strikes initiative, (2) support for punitiveness in dealing with rule breakers, and (3) willingness to abandon procedural protections when dealing with potential rule breakers. The results of interviews with members of the public suggest that the widely held view that public punitiveness develops primarily from concerns about crime and the courts and is primarily linked to public views about risk and dangerousness is incorrect. While these factors do influence public feelings, they are not the central reasons underlying public punitiveness. Instead, the source of people's concerns lies primarily in their evaluations of social conditions, including the decline in morality and discipline within the family and increases in the diversity of society. These concerns are about issues of moral cohesion-with people feeling that the quality and extent of social bonds and social consensus has deteriorated in American society.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Tyler1997,
      author = {Tyler, TR and Boeckmann, RJ},
      title = {Three strikes and you are out, but why? The psychology of public support for punishing rule breakers},
      journal = {LAW & SOCIETY REVIEW},
      publisher = {LAW SOC ASSOC},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {31},
      number = {2},
      pages = {237-265}
    }
    
    VANGEERT, P. A DYNAMIC-SYSTEMS MODEL OF COGNITIVE AND LANGUAGE GROWTH {1991} PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW
    Vol. {98}({1}), pp. {3-53} 
    article  
    Abstract: In the first part of the article, a conceptual framework is sketched to define cognitive growth, including language growth, as a process of growth under limited resources. Important concepts are the process, level, and rate of growth; minimal structural growth level; carrying capacity and unutilized capacity for growth; and feedback delay. Second, a mathematical model of cognitive growth under limited resources is presented, with the conclusion that the most plausible model is a model of logistic growth with delayed feedback. Third, the model is transformed into a dynamic systems model based on the logistic growth equation. This model describes cognitive growth as a system of supportive and competitive interactions between growers. Models of normal logistic growth, U-shaped growth, bootstrap growth, and competitive growth are also presented. An overview is presented of forms of adaptation of resources (e.g., parental and tutorial assistance and support) to the growth characteristics of a cognitive or linguistic competence. Finally, the question of how the model can account for stages of growth is discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{VANGEERT1991,
      author = {VANGEERT, P},
      title = {A DYNAMIC-SYSTEMS MODEL OF COGNITIVE AND LANGUAGE GROWTH},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REVIEW},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {98},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-53}
    }
    
    Verlegh, P. & Steenkamp, J. A review and meta-analysis of country-of-origin research {1999} JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {20}({5}), pp. {521-546} 
    article  
    Abstract: Despite a large body of research, country-of-origin effects are still poorly understood. Combining the strengths of a narrative review with those of a quantitative meta-analysis, our study seeks to establish a firm grounding for country-of-origin research. We review previous country-of-origin research, focusing on cognitive, affective, and normative aspects of country of origin. In a quantitative meta-analysis, we assess the magnitude of country-of-origin effects on three types of product evaluations, viz., perceived quality, attitude, and purchase intention. In addition, we develop and test hypotheses concerning the role of economic development, the impact of multi-national production, differences between consumers and industrial purchasers, and a number of methodological aspects. We find that country of origin has a larger effect on perceived quality than on attitude toward the product or purchase intention. We also find that differences in economic development are an important factor underlying the country-of-origin effect. The country-of-origin effect does not differ between industrial and consumer purchasing, nor is it affected by multi-national production. We conclude with suggestions for future research on the country-of-origin effect. Specifically, more research is needed on the symbolic and emotional aspects of country of origin, and on the role of competitive context. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PsycINFO classification. 3900.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Verlegh1999,
      author = {Verlegh, PWJ and Steenkamp, JBEM},
      title = {A review and meta-analysis of country-of-origin research},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {20},
      number = {5},
      pages = {521-546}
    }
    
    Vermunt, J. & Verloop, N. Congruence and friction between learning and teaching {1999} LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION
    Vol. {9}({3}), pp. {257-280} 
    article  
    Abstract: Theories of learning and theories of teaching often originate and operate independently from one another. This article attempts to contribute to the integration of the two types of theories. First, the cognitive, affective and regulative activities students use to learn are analyzed. Next, different ways in which teachers can regulate the learning and thinking activities of students are discussed, as well as the teaching strategies they can use for that aim. The third part focuses on different ways in which student-regulation and teacher-regulation of learning act upon one another. Congruence and friction between these modes of control are discussed. From this interplay implications are derived for process-oriented reaching, aimed at promoting congruence and constructive friction, avoiding destructive friction and reducing the gap between learning and teaching. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Vermunt1999,
      author = {Vermunt, JD and Verloop, N},
      title = {Congruence and friction between learning and teaching},
      journal = {LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {257-280}
    }
    
    Verplanken, B. & Holland, R. Motivated decision making: Effects of activation and self-centrality of values on choices and behavior {2002} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {82}({3}), pp. {434-447} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Six studies examined the value-behavior relation and focused on motivational propertied of values, the pelf, and value activation. Priming environmental values enhanced attention to and the weight of information related to those values, which resulted in environmentally friendly consumer choices. This only occurred if these values were central to the self-concept. Value-congruent choices were also found in response to counter-value behavior in an unrelated context. Donating behavior congruent with central altruistic values was found as a result of enhanced self-focus, thus demonstrating the importance of the self in the value-behavior relation. The external validity of the value-centrality measure and its distinction from attitudes were demonstrated in the prediction of voting. Values were thus found to give meaning to, energize, and regulate value-congruent behavior, but only if values were cognitively activated and central to the self.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Verplanken2002,
      author = {Verplanken, B and Holland, RW},
      title = {Motivated decision making: Effects of activation and self-centrality of values on choices and behavior},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {82},
      number = {3},
      pages = {434-447},
      doi = {{10.1037//0022-3514.82.3.434}}
    }
    
    Wagner, F. & Anthony, J. Into the world of illegal drug use: Exposure opportunity and other mechanisms linking the use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and cocaine {2002} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
    Vol. {155}({10}), pp. {918-925} 
    article  
    Abstract: Drawing upon an ``exposure opportunity'' concept described by Wade Hampton Frost, the authors studied two mechanisms to help account for prior observations about the ``stepping-stone'' or ``gateway'' sequences that link the use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and cocaine. Data were obtained from four nationally representative and independent cross-sectional samples of US household residents (n = 44,624 persons aged 12-25 years). Data were gathered using standardized self-report methods and were analyzed via survival methods. Results indicated that users of tobacco and alcohol were more likely than nonusers to have an opportunity to try marijuana and were more likely to actually use marijuana once a marijuana opportunity had occurred. Opportunity to use cocaine was associated with prior marijuana smoking. Among young people with a cocaine opportunity those who had used marijuana were more likely to use cocaine than were those with no history of marijuana use. The observed associations did not seem to arise solely as a result of young drug users' seeking out opportunities to use drugs. Applying Frost's epidemiologic concept of exposure opportunity, the authors offer new epidemiologic evidence on the sequences that link earlier use of alcohol and tobacco to later illegal drug involvement.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wagner2002,
      author = {Wagner, FA and Anthony, JC},
      title = {Into the world of illegal drug use: Exposure opportunity and other mechanisms linking the use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and cocaine},
      journal = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY},
      publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {155},
      number = {10},
      pages = {918-925}
    }
    
    WALKER, L. PSYCHOLOGY AND VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN {1989} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {44}({4}), pp. {695-702} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{WALKER1989,
      author = {WALKER, LEA},
      title = {PSYCHOLOGY AND VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {44},
      number = {4},
      pages = {695-702}
    }
    
    Wallis, B., Lord, S. & Bogduk, N. Resolution of psychological distress of whiplash patients following treatment by radiofrequency neurotomy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial {1997} PAIN
    Vol. {73}({1}), pp. {15-22} 
    article  
    Abstract: II is well recognised that patients with chronic pain, in particular, chronic whiplash-associated neck pain, exhibit psychological distress. However, debate continues as to whether the psychological distress precedes and causes the chronic pain or, conversely, the psychological distress is a consequence of chronic pain. Using cervical zygapophysial joint pain as a model for chronic pain, the effect of a definitive neurosurgical treatment on the associated psychological distress was studied. Seventeen patients with a single painful cervical zygapophysial joint participated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy. Their pain and psychological status were evaluated pre-operatively and 3 months post-operatively by medical interview and examination, a visual analogue pain scale, the McGill Pain Questionnaire, and the SCL-90-R psychological questionnaire. All patients who obtained complete pain relief exhibited resolution of their pre-operative psychological distress. In contrast, all but one of the patients whose pain remained unrelieved continued to suffer psychological distress. Because psychological distress resolved following a neurosurgical treatment which completely relieved pain, without psychological co-therapy, it is concluded that the psychological distress exhibited by these patients was a consequence of the chronic somatic pain. (C) 1997 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wallis1997,
      author = {Wallis, BJ and Lord, SM and Bogduk, N},
      title = {Resolution of psychological distress of whiplash patients following treatment by radiofrequency neurotomy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial},
      journal = {PAIN},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {73},
      number = {1},
      pages = {15-22}
    }
    
    Wandersman, A. & Nation, M. Urban neighborhoods and mental health - Psychological contributions to understanding toxicity, resilience, and interventions {1998} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {53}({6}), pp. {647-656} 
    article  
    Abstract: The psychological consequences of living in urban neighborhoods are described by using examples related to 3 models of neighborhood characteristics. These models highlight the impact of physical, structural, and social characteristics on various types of mental health outcomes. In addition, the characteristics of individuals and neighborhoods that encourage resilience to negative outcomes are discussed. Finally, examples of how psychology cart contribute to neighborhood interventions that ameliorate or prevent residents' distress and improve neighborhood conditions are described.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wandersman1998,
      author = {Wandersman, A and Nation, M},
      title = {Urban neighborhoods and mental health - Psychological contributions to understanding toxicity, resilience, and interventions},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {53},
      number = {6},
      pages = {647-656}
    }
    
    Waters, E. & Cummings, E. A secure base from which to explore close relationships {2000} CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    Vol. {71}({1}), pp. {164-172} 
    article  
    Abstract: The theory of attachment as a secure-base relationship integrates insights about affect, cognition, and behavior in close relationships across age and culture. Empirical successes based on this theory include important discoveries about the nature of infant-caregiver and adult-adult close relationships, the importance of early experience, and about stability and change in individual differences. The task now is to preserve these insights and successes and build on them. To accomplish this, we need to continually examine the logic and coherence of attachment theory and redress errors of emphasis and analysis. Views on attachment development, attachment representation, and attachment in family and cross-cultural perspective need to be updated in light of empirical research and advances in developmental theory, behavioral biology, and cognitive psychology We also need to challenge the theory by formulating and testing hypotheses which, if not confirmed, would require significant changes to the theory. If we can accomplish these tasks, prospects for important developments in attachment theory and research are greater than ever, as are the prospects for integration with other disciplines.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Waters2000,
      author = {Waters, E and Cummings, EM},
      title = {A secure base from which to explore close relationships},
      journal = {CHILD DEVELOPMENT},
      publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHERS},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {71},
      number = {1},
      pages = {164-172}
    }
    
    Way, L., Stewart, L., Gantert, W., Liu, K., Lee, C., Whang, K. & Hunter, J. Causes and prevention of laparoscopic bile duct injuries - Analysis of 252 cases from a human factors and cognitive psychology perspective {2003} ANNALS OF SURGERY
    Vol. {237}({4}), pp. {460-469} 
    article  
    Abstract: Objective To apply human performance concepts in an attempt to understand the causes of and prevent laparoscopic bile duct injury. Summary Background Data Powerful conceptual advances have been made in understanding the nature and limits of human performance. Applying these findings in high-risk activities, such as commercial aviation, has allowed the work environment to be restructured to substantially reduce human error. Methods The authors analyzed 252 laparoscopic bile duct injuries according to the principles of the cognitive science of visual perception, judgment, and human error. The injury distribution was class I, 7 class II, 22 class III, 61 and class IV, 10 The data included operative radiographs, clinical records, and 22 videotapes of original operations. Results The primary cause of error in 97% of cases was a visual perceptual illusion. Faults in technical skill were present in only 3% of injuries. Knowledge and judgment errors were contributory but not primary. Sixty-four injuries (25 were recognized at the index operation; the surgeon identified the problem early enough to limit the injury in only 15 (6. In class III injuries the common duct, erroneously believed to be the cystic duct, was deliberately cut. This stemmed from an illusion of object form due to a specific uncommon configuration of the structures and the heuristic nature (unconscious assumptions) of human visual perception. The videotapes showed the persuasiveness of the illusion, and many operative reports described the operation as routine. Class 11 injuries resulted from a dissection too close to the common hepatic duct. Fundamentally an illusion, it was contributed to in some instances by working too deep in the triangle of Calot. Conclusions These data show that errors leading to laparoscopic bile duct injuries stem principally from misperception, not errors of skill, knowledge, or judgment. The misperception was so compelling that in most cases the surgeon did not recognize a problem. Even when irregularities were identified, corrective feedback did not occur, which is characteristic of human thinking under firmly held assumptions. These findings illustrate the complexity of human error in surgery while simultaneously providing insights. They demonstrate that automatically attributing technical complications to behavioral factors that rely on the assumption of control is likely to be wrong. Finally, this study shows that there are only a few points within laparoscopic cholecystectomy where the complication-causing errors occur, which suggests that focused training to heighten vigilance might be able to decrease the incidence of bile duct injury.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Way2003,
      author = {Way, LW and Stewart, L and Gantert, W and Liu, K and Lee, CM and Whang, K and Hunter, JG},
      title = {Causes and prevention of laparoscopic bile duct injuries - Analysis of 252 cases from a human factors and cognitive psychology perspective},
      journal = {ANNALS OF SURGERY},
      publisher = {LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {237},
      number = {4},
      pages = {460-469}
    }
    
    Wehmeyer, M. & Schwartz, M. The relationship between self-determination and quality of life for adults with mental retardation {1998} EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES
    Vol. {33}({1}), pp. {3-12} 
    article  
    Abstract: There is growing mindfulness in the fields gf disability services, rehabilitation, education and psychology of the need to promote self-determination for individuals with mental retardation and developmental disabilities, based at least partially on the importance of this outcome for people to experience an enhanced quality of life. In the present study data were collected on the quality of life and self-determination of 50 individuals with mental retardation, and data were analyzed using discriminant function analysis and correlational analyses, to determine the contribution of self-determination to quality of life and examine the relationship between these constructs. People who reported a higher quality of life were also identified as more self-determined. The results support the continued effort to promote self-determination for people with mental retardation and developmental disabilities.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wehmeyer1998,
      author = {Wehmeyer, M and Schwartz, M},
      title = {The relationship between self-determination and quality of life for adults with mental retardation},
      journal = {EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN MENTAL RETARDATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES},
      publisher = {COUNCIL EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {33},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3-12}
    }
    
    Wells, A. & Matthews, G. Modelling cognition in emotional disorder: The S-REF model {1996} BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY
    Vol. {34}({11-12}), pp. {881-888} 
    article  
    Abstract: Cognitive therapy techniques are applied to an ever-increasing range of psychological disorders. However, both basic methods and general theory of therapy have evolved more slowly. Although cognitive therapy is based on experimentally testable concepts derived from cognitive psychology, an integration of these areas capable of explaining cognitive-attentional phenomena and offering treatment Implications remains to be achieved. In this paper, we outline the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model of emotional disorder, which integrates information processing research with Beck's schema theory. The model advances understanding of the roles of stimulus-driven and voluntary control of cognition, procedural knowledge (beliefs), and of the interactions between different levels of information-processing. It also accounts for cognitive bias effects demonstrated in the experimental psychopathology literature. The model presents implications concerning not only what should be done in cognitive therapy, but how cognitive change may be most effectively accomplished. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wells1996,
      author = {Wells, A and Matthews, G},
      title = {Modelling cognition in emotional disorder: The S-REF model},
      journal = {BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {34},
      number = {11-12},
      pages = {881-888}
    }
    
    WELLS, G. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LINEUP IDENTIFICATIONS {1984} JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {14}({2}), pp. {89-103} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{WELLS1984,
      author = {WELLS, GL},
      title = {THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LINEUP IDENTIFICATIONS},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {V H WINSTON & SON INC},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {14},
      number = {2},
      pages = {89-103}
    }
    
    Wells, G. & Bradfield, A. ``Good, you identified the suspect'': Feedback to eyewitnesses distorts their reports of the witnessing experience {1998} JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {83}({3}), pp. {360-376} 
    article  
    Abstract: People viewed a security video and tried to identify the gunman from a photospread. The actual gunman was not in the photospread and all eyewitnesses made false identifications (n = 352). Following the identification, witnesses were given confirming feedback (''Good, you identified the actual suspect''), disconfirming feedback (''Actually, the suspect is number ''), or no feedback. The manipulations produced strong effects on the witnesses' retrospective reports of (a) their certainty, (b) the quality of view they had. (c) the clarity of their memory, (d) the speed with which they identified the person, and (e) several other measures. Eyewitnesses who were asked about their certainty prior to the feedback manipulation (Experiment 2) were less influenced, but large effects still emerged on some measures. The magnitude of the effect was as strong for those who denied that the feedback influenced them as it was for those who admitted to the influence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wells1998,
      author = {Wells, GL and Bradfield, AL},
      title = {``Good, you identified the suspect'': Feedback to eyewitnesses distorts their reports of the witnessing experience},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {83},
      number = {3},
      pages = {360-376}
    }
    
    Wells, G., Malpass, R., Lindsay, R., Fisher, R., Turtle, J. & Fulero, S. From the lab to the police station - A successful application of eyewitness research {2000} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {55}({6}), pp. {581-598} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The U.S. Department of Justice released the first national guide for collecting and preserving eyewitness evidence in October 1999. Scientific psychology played a large role in making a case for these procedural guidelines as well as in setting a scientific foundation for the guidelines, and eyewitness researchers directly participated in writing them. The authors describe how eyewitness researchers shaped understanding of eyewitness evidence issues over ii long period of time through research and theory on system variables. Additional pressure for guidelines was applied by psychologists through expert testimony that focused on deficiencies in the procedures used to collect the eyewitness evidence. DNA exoneration cases were particularly important in leading U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno to notice the eyewitness literature in psychology and to order the National Institute of Justice to coordinate the development of national guidelines. The authors describe their experience as members of the working group, which included prosecutors, defense lawyers, and law enforcement officers from across the country.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wells2000,
      author = {Wells, GL and Malpass, RS and Lindsay, RCL and Fisher, RP and Turtle, JW and Fulero, SM},
      title = {From the lab to the police station - A successful application of eyewitness research},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {55},
      number = {6},
      pages = {581-598},
      doi = {{10.1037//0003-066X.55.6.581}}
    }
    
    Wells, G. & Windschitl, P. Stimulus sampling and social psychological experimentation {1999} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {25}({9}), pp. {1115-1125} 
    article  
    Abstract: The authors discuss the problem with failing to sample stimuli in social psychological experimentation. Although commonly construed as an issue for external validity, the authors emphasize how failure to sample stimuli also can threaten construct validity. They note some circumstances where the need for stimulus sampling is less obvious and more obvious, and they discuss some well-known cognitive biases that can contribute to the failure of researchers to see the need for stimulus sampling. Data are presented from undergraduate students (N = 106), graduate students (N = 72), and psychology faculty (N = 48) showing insensitivity to the need for stimulus sampling except when the problem is made rather obvious. Finally, some of the statistical implications of stimulus sampling with particular concern for power, effect size estimates, and data analysis strategies are noted.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wells1999,
      author = {Wells, GL and Windschitl, PD},
      title = {Stimulus sampling and social psychological experimentation},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {25},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1115-1125}
    }
    
    Westen, D. The scientific legacy of Sigmund Freud: Toward a psychodynamically informed psychological science {1998} PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
    Vol. {124}({3}), pp. {333-371} 
    article  
    Abstract: Although commentators periodically declare that Freud is dead, his repeated burials lie on shaky grounds. Critics typically attack an archaic version of psychodynamic theory that most clinicians similarly consider obsolete. Central to contemporary psychodynamic theory is a series of propositions about (a) unconscious cognitive, affective, and motivational processes; (b) ambivalence and the tendency for affective and motivational dynamics to operate in parallel and produce compromise solutions; (c) the origins of many personality and social dispositions in childhood; (d) mental representations of the self, others, and relationships; and (e) developmental dynamics. An enormous body of research in cognitive, social, developmental, and personality psychology now supports many of these propositions. Freud's scientific legacy has implications for a wide range of domains in psychology, such as integration of affective;and motivational constraints into connectionist models in cognitive science.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Westen1998,
      author = {Westen, D},
      title = {The scientific legacy of Sigmund Freud: Toward a psychodynamically informed psychological science},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {124},
      number = {3},
      pages = {333-371}
    }
    
    Wetherell, M. & Edley, N. Negotiating hegemonic masculinity: Imaginary positions and psycho-discursive practices {1999} FEMINISM & PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {9}({3}), pp. {335-356} 
    article  
    Abstract: In this article we provide a critical analysis of the concept of hegemonic masculinity. We argue that although this concept embodies important theoretical insights, it is insufficiently developed as it stands to enable us to understand how men position themselves as gendered beings. In particular it offers a vague and imprecise account of the social psychological reproduction of male identities. We outline an alternative critical discursive psychology of masculinity. Drawing on data from interviews with a sample of men from a range of ages and from diverse occupational backgrounds, we delineate three distinctive, yet related, procedures or psyche-discursive practices, through which men construct themselves as masculine. The political implications of these discursive practices, as well as the broader implications of treating the psychological process of identification as a form of discursive accomplishment, are also discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wetherell1999,
      author = {Wetherell, M and Edley, N},
      title = {Negotiating hegemonic masculinity: Imaginary positions and psycho-discursive practices},
      journal = {FEMINISM & PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {335-356}
    }
    
    Whittlesea, B. & Williams, L. Why do strangers feel familiar, but friends don't? A discrepancy-attribution account of feelings of familiarity {1998} ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA
    Vol. {98}({2-3}), pp. {141-165} 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent articles on familiarity (e.g. Whittlesea, B.W.A., 1993. Journal of Experimental Psychology 19, 1235) have argued that the feeling of familiarity is produced by unconscious attribution of fluent processing to a source in the past. In this article, we refine that notion: We argue that it is not fluency per se, but rather fluent processing occurring under unexpected circumstances that produces the feeling. We demonstrate cases in which moderately fluent processing produces more familiarity than does highly fluent processing, at least when the former is surprising. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Whittlesea1998,
      author = {Whittlesea, BWA and Williams, LD},
      title = {Why do strangers feel familiar, but friends don't? A discrepancy-attribution account of feelings of familiarity},
      journal = {ACTA PSYCHOLOGICA},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {98},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {141-165}
    }
    
    WIDIGER, T. CATEGORICAL VERSUS DIMENSIONAL CLASSIFICATION - IMPLICATIONS FROM AND FOR RESEARCH {1992} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS
    Vol. {6}({4}), pp. {287-300} 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper discusses the implications from research and for research of a dimensional model of classification. Literature is discussed with respect to face validity, utility and descriptive validity, the empirical support for the DSM-III-R categorical distinctions, reliability and concurrent validity, and taxometric analyses. The conclusion of the review is that researchers should use more quantitative (dimensional) assessments, at least in addition to the DSM-III-R categorical diagnoses. Research concerned with the etiology, pathology, prognosis, and treatment of the personality disorders will be more powerful and informative if personality disorders are assessed as continuous rather than as discrete variables,
    BibTeX:
    @article{WIDIGER1992,
      author = {WIDIGER, TA},
      title = {CATEGORICAL VERSUS DIMENSIONAL CLASSIFICATION - IMPLICATIONS FROM AND FOR RESEARCH},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS},
      publisher = {GUILFORD PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {6},
      number = {4},
      pages = {287-300},
      note = {WORKSHOP ON REASSESSING PERSONALITY DISORDERS CONSTRUCTS, NEW YORK, NY, MAR, 1991}
    }
    
    Widiger, T.A. & Trull, T.J. Plate tectonics in the classification of personality disorder - Shifting to a dimensional model {2007} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {62}({2}), pp. {71-83} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders were developed in the spirit of a traditional medical model that considers mental disorders to be qualitatively distinct conditions (see, e.g., American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Work is now beginning on the fifth edition of this influential diagnostic manual. It is perhaps time to consider a fundamental shift in how psychopathology is conceptualized and diagnosed. More specifically, it may be time to consider a shift to a dimensional classification of personality disorder that would help address the failures of the existing diagnostic categories as well as contribute to an integration of the psychiatric diagnostic manual with psychology's research on general personality structure.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Widiger2007,
      author = {Widiger, Thomas A. and Trull, Timothy J.},
      title = {Plate tectonics in the classification of personality disorder - Shifting to a dimensional model},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC/EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING FOUNDATION},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {62},
      number = {2},
      pages = {71-83},
      doi = {{10.1037/0003-066X.62.2.71}}
    }
    
    WIGGINS, J. & PINCUS, A. PERSONALITY - STRUCTURE AND ASSESSMENT {1992} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {43}, pp. {473-504} 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{WIGGINS1992,
      author = {WIGGINS, JS and PINCUS, AL},
      title = {PERSONALITY - STRUCTURE AND ASSESSMENT},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS INC},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {43},
      pages = {473-504}
    }
    
    Wilcox, R. How many discoveries have been lost by ignoring modern statistical methods? {1998} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {53}({3}), pp. {300-314} 
    article  
    Abstract: Hundreds of articles in statistical journals have pointed out that standard analysis of variance, Pearson product-moment correlations, and least squares regression can be highly misleading and can have relatively low power even under very small departures from normality In practical terms, psychology journals are littered with nonsignificant results that would have been significant if a more modern method had been used. Modern robust techniques, developed during the past 30 years, provide very effective methods for dealing with nonnormality, and they compete very well with conventional procedures when standard assumptions are met. In addition, modem methods provide accurate confidence intervals for a much broader range of situations, they provide more effective methods for detecting and studying outliers, and they can be used to get a deeper understanding of how variables are related. This article outlines and illustrates these results.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wilcox1998,
      author = {Wilcox, RR},
      title = {How many discoveries have been lost by ignoring modern statistical methods?},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {53},
      number = {3},
      pages = {300-314}
    }
    
    Wilcox, T. Object individuation: infants' use of shape, size, pattern, and color {1999} COGNITION
    Vol. {72}({2}), pp. {125-166} 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent research indicates that when an event-monitoring paradigm is used, infants as young as 4.5 months of age demonstrate the ability to use featural information to individuate objects involved in occlusion events (Wilcox & Baillargeon, 1998a, Object individuation in infancy: The use of featural information in reasoning about occlusion events. Cognitive psychology 37, 97-155; Wilcox & Baillargeon, 1998b, Object individuation in young infants: Further evidence with an event monitoring task. Developmental Science 1, 127-142). For example, in one experiment (Wilcox & Baillargeon, 1998b, Object individuation in young infants: Further evidence with an event monitoring task. Developmental Science I, 127-142) 4.5-month-old infants saw st test event in which a green ball with colored dots disappeared behind one edge of a narrow or wide screen, and a red box with silver thumbtacks appeared at the other edge; the narrow screen was too narrow to hide both objects simultaneously, whereas the wide screen was sufficiently wide to hide both objects at the same time. The infants looked reliably longer at the narrow- than at the wide-screen test event. These and control results suggested that the infants had: (a) used the featural differences between the ball and box to conclude that two objects were involved in the event; (b) judged that both objects could fit simultaneously behind the wide but not the narrow screen; and hence (c) were surprised by the narrow-screen event. The present experiments build on these initial finding by investigating the features to which infants are most sensitive. Four experiments were conducted with infants 4.5-11.5 months of age using the same procedure, except that only one feature was manipulated at a time: shape, size, pattern, or color. The results indicated that 4.5-month-olds use both shape and size features to individuate objects involved in occlusion events. However, it is not until 7.5 months that infants use pattern, and 11.5 months that infants use color, to reason about object identity. It is suggested that these results reflect biases in the kind of information that infants attend to when reasoning about occlusion events. Possible sources of bias are discussed. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wilcox1999,
      author = {Wilcox, T},
      title = {Object individuation: infants' use of shape, size, pattern, and color},
      journal = {COGNITION},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {72},
      number = {2},
      pages = {125-166}
    }
    
    Wild, B., Erb, M. & Bartels, M. Are emotions contagious? Evoked emotions while viewing emotionally expressive faces: quality, quantity, time course and gender differences {2001} PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH
    Vol. {102}({2}), pp. {109-124} 
    article  
    Abstract: In human interactions, frequently one individual becomes `infected' with emotions displayed by his or her partner. We tested the predictions by Hatfield ct al. (1992) (Primitive emotional contagion. Review of Personal and Social Psychology 14, 151- 177) that the automatic, mostly unconscious component of this process, called `primitive emotional contagion', is repeatable and fast, that stronger facial expressions of the sender evoke stronger emotions in the viewer and that women art: more susceptible to emotional contagion than men. We presented photos from the Pictures of Facial affect (Ekman and Friesen, 1976). (Pictures of Facial Affect. Consulting Psychologists Press, Pale Alto) on a PC varying the affective content (happy and sad), the expressive strength and the duration of presentation. After each photo, subjects rated the strength of experienced happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, surprise, fear and pleasure. Feelings of happiness or sadness were significantly, specifically acid repeatedly evoked in the viewer - even with presentations lasting only 500 ms. Stronger expressions evoked more emotion. The gender of the viewer had weak effects. We hypothesize that this fast and repeatable reaction is likely to have a `prewired' neural basis. We propose that the induction of emotional processes within a subject by the perception of emotionally expressive faces is a powerful instrument in the detection of emotional states in others and as the basis for one's own reactions. Detailed knowledge of emotional reactions to faces is also valuable as a basis for psychiatric studies of disorders in affect and/or communication and in studies using functional imaging (fMRI or PET) when faces are increasingly used as stimuli. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. Ail rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wild2001,
      author = {Wild, B and Erb, M and Bartels, M},
      title = {Are emotions contagious? Evoked emotions while viewing emotionally expressive faces: quality, quantity, time course and gender differences},
      journal = {PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCI IRELAND LTD},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {102},
      number = {2},
      pages = {109-124}
    }
    
    Wilson, D. Adaptive individual differences within single populations {1998} PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
    Vol. {353}({1366}), pp. {199-205} 
    article  
    Abstract: Phenotypic differences can exist between species, between local populations of the same species and between individuals within single local populations. At all scales, phenotypic differences can be either adaptive or non-adaptive. Using natural selection to explain differences between closely related species was controversial during the 1940s but had become common by the 1960s. Similarly, the adaptive nature of differences between local populations was initially controversial but had become widely accepted by the 1980s. The interpretation of differences at the finest scale-between individuals within single populations-is still unresolved. This paper reviews studies of adaptive individual differences in resource use and response to risk. A general conceptual framework for thinking about adaptive individual differences within populations can unite subjects as seemingly different as speciation and personality psychology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wilson1998,
      author = {Wilson, DS},
      title = {Adaptive individual differences within single populations},
      journal = {PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON SERIES B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES},
      publisher = {ROYAL SOC LONDON},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {353},
      number = {1366},
      pages = {199-205}
    }
    
    Winkielman, P. & Cacioppo, J. Mind at ease puts a smile on the face: Psychophysiological evidence that processing facilitation elicits positive affect {2001} JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {81}({6}), pp. {989-1000} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The affect system, in its position to monitor organismic-environmental transactions, may be sensitive to the internal dynamics of information processing. Hence, the authors predicted that facilitation of stimulus processing should elicit a brief, mild, positive affective response. In 2 studies, participants watched a series of neutral pictures while the processing ease was unobtrusively manipulated. Affective reactions were assessed with facial electromyography (EMG). In both studies, easy-to-process pictures elicited higher activity over the region of zygomaticus major, indicating positive affect. The EMG data were paralleled by self-reports of positive responses to the facilitated stimuli. The findings suggest a close link between processing dynamics and affect and may help understand several preference phenomena, including the mere-exposure effect. The findings also highlight a potential source of affective biases in social judgments.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Winkielman2001,
      author = {Winkielman, P and Cacioppo, JT},
      title = {Mind at ease puts a smile on the face: Psychophysiological evidence that processing facilitation elicits positive affect},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {81},
      number = {6},
      pages = {989-1000},
      doi = {{10.1037//0022-3514.81.6.989}}
    }
    
    WINNE, P. INHERENT DETAILS IN SELF-REGULATED LEARNING {1995} EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {30}({4}), pp. {173-187} 
    article  
    Abstract: Self-regulated learning (SRL) has become a pivotal construct in contemporary accounts of effective academic learning. I examine several areas of theory and empirical research, which are not prominently cited in educational psychology's research into SRL, that reveal new details of what SRL is and how students develop productive SRL. I interpret findings from these investigations to suggest that nondeliberative, knowledge-based elements are inherent in the processes of SRL, and in learning more generally. Several topics for future research are sketched based on an assumption that learning effectively by oneself will remain a goal of education and can be an especially revealing context in which to research SRL.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WINNE1995,
      author = {WINNE, PH},
      title = {INHERENT DETAILS IN SELF-REGULATED LEARNING},
      journal = {EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOC INC},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {30},
      number = {4},
      pages = {173-187},
      note = {Annual Meeting of the Canadian-Psychological-Association, MONTREAL, CANADA, MAY, 1993}
    }
    
    Wixted, J. The psychology and neuroscience of forgetting {2004} ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {55}, pp. {235-269} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Traditional theories of forgetting are wedded to the notion that cue-overload interference procedures (often involving the A-B, A-C list-learning paradigm) capture the most important elements of forgetting in everyday life. However, findings from a century of work in psychology, psychopharmacology, and neuroscience converge on the notion that such procedures may pertain mainly to forgetting in the laboratory and that everyday forgetting is attributable to an altogether different form of interference. According to this idea, recently formed memories that have not yet had a chance to consolidate are vulnerable to the interfering force of mental activity and memory formation (even if the interfering activity is not similar to the previously learned material). This account helps to explain why sleep, alcohol, and benzodiazepines all improve memory for a recently learned list, and it is consistent with recent work on the variables that affect the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation in the hippocampus.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wixted2004,
      author = {Wixted, JT},
      title = {The psychology and neuroscience of forgetting},
      journal = {ANNUAL REVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {55},
      pages = {235-269},
      doi = {{10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141555}}
    }
    
    WOLFE, R. & JOHNSON, S. PERSONALITY AS A PREDICTOR OF COLLEGE PERFORMANCE {1995} EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT
    Vol. {55}({2}), pp. {177-185} 
    article  
    Abstract: Total SAT score, average grade earned in high school, and 32 personality variables are examined via forward multiple regression analyses to identify the best combination for predicting GPA in a sample of 201 psychology students. Avenge grade earned in high school enters first, accounting for 19% of the variance in GPA. Self-control enters second, and SAT third; these account for 9% and 5% of the variance, respectively. No other predictors accounted for substantial portions of variance. This pattern of results converges with findings reported by other investigators using other measures of personality. It was recommended that the global trait of self-control or conscientiousness be systematically assessed and used in college admissions decisions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WOLFE1995,
      author = {WOLFE, RN and JOHNSON, SD},
      title = {PERSONALITY AS A PREDICTOR OF COLLEGE PERFORMANCE},
      journal = {EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT},
      publisher = {EDUC PSYCHOL MEASUREMENT},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {55},
      number = {2},
      pages = {177-185}
    }
    
    Wood, A., Harrington, R. & Moore, A. Controlled trial of a brief cognitive-behavioural intervention in adolescent patients with depressive disorders {1996} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY
    Vol. {37}({6}), pp. {737-746} 
    article  
    Abstract: Fifty-three child and adolescent psychiatric patients with depressive disorders were randomly allocated to brief cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) or to a control treatment, relaxation training. Forty-eight patients completed the treatment phase of the trial, which comprised 5-8 treatment sessions. Post-treatment assessments showed a clear advantage of CBT over relaxation on measures of both depression and overall outcome. However, there were no significant differences between the treatments on comorbid anxiety and conduct symptoms. At follow-up, the differences between the groups were reduced, partly because of a high relapse rate in the DTP group and partly because subjects in the relaxation group continued to recover. Copyright (C) 1996 Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wood1996,
      author = {Wood, A and Harrington, R and Moore, A},
      title = {Controlled trial of a brief cognitive-behavioural intervention in adolescent patients with depressive disorders},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {37},
      number = {6},
      pages = {737-746}
    }
    
    Wood, J. What is social comparison and how should we study it? {1996} PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN
    Vol. {22}({5}), pp. {520-537} 
    article  
    Abstract: Despite renewed vigor in the social comparison literature, little attention has been paid to methods of studying social comparison. This article examines frequently used measures and procedures in social comparison research. The question of whether a method truly captures social comparison requires a clear understanding of what social comparison is; hence a definition of social comparison is proposed, multiple ancillary processes in social comparison are identified, and definitional controversies are addressed. Then, methods are examined for how strongly they imply social comparison and for whether they capture social comparisons as they would occur naturally. It is argued that some methods may not truly capture social comparison, that some methods may be too vulnerable to alternative interpretations to be useful, and that some methods may paint an inaccurate picture of social comparison.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Wood1996a,
      author = {Wood, JV},
      title = {What is social comparison and how should we study it?},
      journal = {PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN},
      publisher = {SAGE SCIENCE PRESS},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {22},
      number = {5},
      pages = {520-537}
    }
    
    Woodhouse, W., Bailey, A., Rutter, M., Bolton, P., Baird, G. & LeCouteur, A. Head circumference in autism and other pervasive developmental disorders {1996} JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES
    Vol. {37}({6}), pp. {665-671} 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent studies have found that an unexpectedly large proportion of autistic children have large heads. Anthropometric measures of consecutive clinic attenders with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), other psychiatric or language disorders were analysed. Similar data were obtained from two schools for language disordered children. These data, combined with those from previous studies, indicate that about one-third of children with PDD have macrocephaly based on current percentile charts; this rate was significantly higher than in children with language disorder alone. The finding was not a consequence of recognizable medical disorders and suggests that PDD is sometimes associated with abnormal physical development. Copyright (C) 1996 Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Woodhouse1996,
      author = {Woodhouse, W and Bailey, A and Rutter, M and Bolton, P and Baird, G and LeCouteur, A},
      title = {Head circumference in autism and other pervasive developmental disorders},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {37},
      number = {6},
      pages = {665-671}
    }
    
    Worthington, E. & Wade, N. The psychology of unforgiveness and forgiveness and implications for clinical practice {1999} JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {18}({4}), pp. {385-418} 
    article  
    Abstract: Unforgiveness and forgiveness are distinct. One cannot forgive unless unforgiveness has occurred, but one might reduce unforgiveness by many ways-only one of which is forgiveness. We present a model intended to further assist and guide subsequent empirical exploration. The model explains the personal, relationship, and environmental factors that lead people to either unforgiveness or forgiveness. Related areas are reviewed to stimulate as yet unexplored research and clinical efforts related to forgiveness. Clinical protocols for promoting forgiveness in enrichment, preventative, and therapeutic contexts are described.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Worthington1999,
      author = {Worthington, EL and Wade, NG},
      title = {The psychology of unforgiveness and forgiveness and implications for clinical practice},
      journal = {JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {GUILFORD PUBLICATIONS INC},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {18},
      number = {4},
      pages = {385-418}
    }
    
    YEE, A., FAIRCHILD, H., WEIZMANN, F. & WYATT, G. ADDRESSING PSYCHOLOGY PROBLEMS WITH RACE {1993} AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST
    Vol. {48}({11}), pp. {1132-1140} 
    article  
    Abstract: The biological concept of race has long been controversial in psychology. Although many psychologists have challenged the concept of race, others have espoused it as a deductive premise and applied it as an inferential and research factor and variable, especially regarding Black-White IQ differences. Although race and its use have been polemically disputed for decades, no disciplinewide, concerted action within psychology has been taken to ascertain the scientific meaning of race and to determine its proper application. Psychology's inaction contrasts with deliberate steps taken by other national and international scientific groups. This article examines a variety of problems concerning race in psychology: (a) definition, (b) application, (c) invoking authority and references for genetic knowledge, and (d) passive inaction by psychologists and professional associations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{YEE1993,
      author = {YEE, AH and FAIRCHILD, HH and WEIZMANN, F and WYATT, GE},
      title = {ADDRESSING PSYCHOLOGY PROBLEMS WITH RACE},
      journal = {AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST},
      publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {48},
      number = {11},
      pages = {1132-1140}
    }
    
    Young, K. Psychology of computer use .40. Addictive use of the Internet: A case that breaks the stereotype {1996} PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORTS
    Vol. {79}({3, Part 1}), pp. {899-902} 
    article  
    Abstract: This case involves a homemaker 43 years of age who is addicted to using the Internet. This case was selected as it demonstrates that a nontechnologically oriented woman with a reportedly content home life and no prior addiction or psychiatric history abused the Internet which resulted in significant impairment to her family life. This paper defines addictive use of the Internet, outlines the subject's progression of addictive on-line use, and discusses the implications of such addictive behavior on the new market of Internet consumers.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Young1996,
      author = {Young, KS},
      title = {Psychology of computer use .40. Addictive use of the Internet: A case that breaks the stereotype},
      journal = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORTS},
      publisher = {PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORTS},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {79},
      number = {3, Part 1},
      pages = {899-902}
    }
    
    Zadeh, L.A. Is there a need for fuzzy logic? {2008} INFORMATION SCIENCES
    Vol. {178}({13}), pp. {2751-2779} 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: ``Is there a need for fuzzy logic?'' is an issue which is associated with a long history of spirited discussions and debate. There are many misconceptions about fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic is not fuzzy. Basically, fuzzy logic is a precise logic of imprecision and approximate reasoning. More specifically, fuzzy logic may be viewed as an attempt at formalization/mechanization of two remarkable human capabilities. First, the capability to converse, reason and make rational decisions in an environment of imprecision, uncertainty, incompleteness of information, conflicting information, partiality of truth and partiality of possibility - in short, in an environment of imperfect information. And second, the capability to perform a wide variety of physical and mental tasks without any measurements and any computations [L.A. Zadeh, From computing with numbers to computing with words - from manipulation of measurements to manipulation of perceptions, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems 45 (1999) 105-119; L.A. Zadeh, A new direction in AI - toward a computational theory of perceptions, AI Magazine 22 (1) (2001) 73-84]. In fact, one of the principal contributions of fuzzy logic - a contribution which is widely unrecognized - is its high power of precisiation. Fuzzy logic is much more than a logical system. It has many facets. The principal facets are: logical, fuzzy-set-theoretic, epistemic and relational. Most of the practical applications of fuzzy logic are associated with its relational facet. In this paper, fuzzy logic is viewed in a nonstandard perspective. In this perspective, the cornerstones of fuzzy logic and its principal distinguishing features - are: graduation, granulation, precisiation and the concept of a generalized constraint. A concept which has a position of centrality in the nontraditional view of fuzzy logic is that of precisiation. Informally, precisiation is an operation which transforms an object, p, into an object, p*, which in some specified sense is defined more precisely than p. The object of precisiation and the result of precisiation are referred to as precisiend and precisiand, respectively. In fuzzy logic, a differentiation is made between two meanings of precision - precision of value, v-precision, and precision of meaning, m-precision. Furthermore, in the case of m-precisiation a differentiation is made between mh-precisiation, which is human-oriented (nonmathematical), and mm-precisiation, which is machine-oriented (mathematical). A dictionary definition is a form of mh-precisiation, with the definiens and definiendum playing the roles of precisiend and precisiand, respectively. Cointension is a qualitative measure of the proximity of meanings of the precisiend and precisiand. A precisiand is cointensive if its meaning is close to the meaning of the precisiend. A concept which plays a key role in the nontraditional view of fuzzy logic is that of a generalized constraint. If X is a variable then a generalized constraint on X, GC(X), is expressed as X isr R, where R is the constraining relation and r is an indexical variable which defines the modality of the constraint, that is, its semantics. The primary constraints are: possibilistic, (r = blank), probabilistic (r = p) and veristic (r = v). The standard constraints are: bivalent possibilistic, probabilistic and bivalent veristic. In large measure, science is based on standard constraints. Generalized constraints may be combined, qualified, projected, propagated and counterpropagated. The set of all generalized constraints, together with the rules which govern generation of generalized constraints, is referred to as the generalized constraint language, GCL. The standard constraint language, SCL, is a subset of GCL. In fuzzy logic, propositions, predicates and other semantic entities are precisiated through translation into GCL. Equivalently, a semantic entity, p, may be precisiated by representing its meaning as a generalized constraint. By construction, fuzzy logic has a much higher level of generality than bivalent logic. It is the generality of fuzzy logic that underlies much of what fuzzy logic has to offer. Among the important contributions of fuzzy logic are the following: 1. FL-generalization. Any bivalent-logic-based theory, T, may be FL-generalized, and hence upgraded, through addition to T of concepts and techniques drawn from fuzzy logic. Examples: fuzzy control, fuzzy linear programming, fuzzy probability theory and fuzzy topology. 2. Linguistic variables and fuzzy if-then rules. The formalism of linguistic variables and fuzzy if-then rules is, in effect, a powerful modeling language which is widely used in applications of fuzzy logic. Basically, the formalism serves as a means of summarization and information compression through the use of granulation. 3. Cointensive precisiation. Fuzzy logic has a high power of cointensive precisiation. This power is needed for a formulation of cointensive definitions of scientific concepts and cointensive formalization of human-centric fields such as economics, linguistics, law, conflict resolution, psychology and medicine. 4. NL-Computation (computing with words). Fuzzy logic serves as a basis for NL-Computation, that is, computation with information described in natural language. NL-Computation is of direct relevance to mechanization of natural language understanding and computation with imprecise probabilities. More generally, NL-Computation is needed for dealing with second-order uncertainty, that is, uncertainty about uncertainty, or uncertainty(2) for short. In summary, progression from bivalent logic to fuzzy logic is a significant positive step in the evolution of science. In large measure, the real-world is a fuzzy world. To deal with fuzzy reality what is needed is fuzzy logic. In coming years, fuzzy logic is likely to grow in visibility, importance and acceptance. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zadeh2008,
      author = {Zadeh, Lotfi A.},
      title = {Is there a need for fuzzy logic?},
      journal = {INFORMATION SCIENCES},
      publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {178},
      number = {13},
      pages = {2751-2779},
      doi = {{10.1016/j.ins.2008.02.012}}
    }
    
    Zakay, D. & Block, R. Temporal cognition {1997} CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    Vol. {6}({1}), pp. {12-16} 
    article  
    Abstract: Timing is essential to the functioning of organisms. Perhaps because the time dimension plays such an important role in human life, the psychology of time was an important topic of early psychological research and theorizing. An examination of the role that time plays in people's lives can focus on various aspects of temporal experience. For example, a researcher can study what makes people judge events to be simultaneous, or judge one event as preceding or following another event. In this article, we focus on the processes that subserve experiences of short duration (ranging from seconds to minutes). Duration timing is essential for representing the immediate external environment. For example, driving or crossing a busy street requires the continual estimation of speed and duration. As people wait in a queue while shopping or receiving a service, feelings of lengthened duration may determine whether they complete the transaction or abandon it. A person using computer software assesses the time required to complete an operation; if this duration seems excessive, the attitude regarding the software will be negative. Because many everyday situations involve duration estimation, it is important to understand the underlying processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zakay1997,
      author = {Zakay, D and Block, RA},
      title = {Temporal cognition},
      journal = {CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE},
      publisher = {CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {12-16}
    }
    
    Zakzanis, K. Statistics to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth: formulae, illustrative numerical examples, and heuristic interpretation of effect size analyses for neuropsychological researchers {2001} ARCHIVES OF CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {16}({7}), pp. {653-667} 
    article  
    Abstract: If, as neuropsychologists, we think of the relationship between brain and behavior as the same as that between truth and reality, we must be equipped with statistical procedures that are coherent in terms of what we measure and what it represents. I believe that this necessary statistical procedure is effect size analysis, and without it, I believe that we fail to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth when describing our neuropsychological research. Accordingly, I review here the standard calculations of commonly employed effect sizes in two group designs and show how to adjust some familiar (and perhaps not so familiar) formulae using illustrative numerical examples. I also put forth an argument to adopt Cohen's measure as an expression of effect size based on its apropos to neuropsychological research. It is also argued that the interpretation of the magnitude of an effect size should depend on context, and not on pre-established heuristic benchmarks. It is noted, however, that effect sizes greater than 3.0 (OL% < 5) might seem particularly appropriate when evaluating the sensitivity of neuropsychological tasks and in establishing test markers in neuropsychological disorders. (C) 2001 National Academy of Neuropsychology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zakzanis2001,
      author = {Zakzanis, KK},
      title = {Statistics to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth: formulae, illustrative numerical examples, and heuristic interpretation of effect size analyses for neuropsychological researchers},
      journal = {ARCHIVES OF CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {16},
      number = {7},
      pages = {653-667}
    }
    
    ZIKA, S. & CHAMBERLAIN, K. ON THE RELATION BETWEEN MEANING IN LIFE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING {1992} BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY
    Vol. {83}({Part 1}), pp. {133-145} 
    article  
    Abstract: Meaning in life is an important construct in psychology, but one which has been the focus of limited research. Most research has concentrated on the relation between meaning and psychopathology, and has been conducted with the Purpose in Life Test. This paper examines the relation between meaning in life and psychological well-being using several meaning measures and both positive and negative well-being dimensions. A strong association is found between meaning in life and well-being, which is replicated in two different samples. Meaning in life is found to have a stronger association with positive than with negative well-being dimensions, suggesting the value of taking a salutogenic approach to mental health research. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ZIKA1992,
      author = {ZIKA, S and CHAMBERLAIN, K},
      title = {ON THE RELATION BETWEEN MEANING IN LIFE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING},
      journal = {BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY},
      publisher = {BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOC},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {83},
      number = {Part 1},
      pages = {133-145}
    }
    

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